Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 132

Search results for: humanitarian law

132 Appraisal of Humanitarian Supply Chain Risks Using Best-Worst Method

Authors: Ali Mohaghar, Iman Ghasemian Sahebi, Alireza Arab

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In the last decades, increasing in human and natural disaster occurrence had very irreparable effects on human life. Hence, one of the important issues in humanitarian supply chain management is identifying and prioritizing the different risks and finding suitable solutions for encountering them at the time of disaster occurrence. This study is an attempt to provide a comprehensive review of humanitarian supply chain risks in a case study of Tehran Red Crescent Societies. For this purpose, Best-Worst method (BWM) has been used for analyzing the risks of the humanitarian supply chain. 22 risks of the humanitarian supply chain were identified based on the literature and interviews with four experts. According to BWM method, the importance of each risk was calculated. The findings showed that culture contexts, little awareness of people, and poor education system are the most important humanitarian supply chain risks. This research provides a useful guideline for managers so that they can benefit from the results to prioritize their solutions.

Keywords: Best-Worst Method, humanitarian logistics, humanitarian supply chain, risk management

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
131 Cybersecurity and Governance for Humanitarian Work: An Approach for Addressing Security Risks

Authors: Rossouw De Bruin, Sebastiaan H. Von Solms

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The state of national security is an evolving concern. Companies, organizations, governments, states and individuals are aware of the security of their information and their assets however, they may not always be aware of the risks present. These risks are not only limited to non-existence of security procedures. Existing security can be severely flawed, especially if there is non-conformance towards policies, practices and procedures. When looking at humanitarian actions, we can easily identify these flaws. Unfortunately, humanitarian aid has to compete with factors from within the states, countries and continents they are working in. Furthermore, as technology improves, so does our connectivity to the internet and the way in which we use the internet. However, there are times when security is overlooked and humanitarian agencies are some of the agencies that do not always take security into consideration. The purpose of this paper will be to introduce the importance of cybersecurity and cybersecurity governance with respect to humanitarian work. We will also introduce and briefly discuss a model that can be used by humanitarian agencies to assess, manage and maintain their cybersecurity efforts.

Keywords: humanities, cybersecurity, cybersecurity governance, maturity, cybersecurity maturity, maturity model

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
130 Humanitarian Supply Chain Management: Extended Literature Review

Authors: Busra Gulnihan Dascıoglu, Ozalp Vayvay, Zeynep Tugce Kalender

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Humanitarian supply chain management has gain popularity in recent years in research fields. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on humanitarian operations and crisis/disaster management from 2010 to latest researches in order to identify the current research and to provide direction for future research in this growing field. Researches are classified considering the research publication year, research fields. Articles from humanitarian supply chain management were reviewed, keywords were identified within a disaster management lifecycle framework. Research gaps are identified for future research areas.

Keywords: crisis, disaster, humanitarian supply chain management, relief operations

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
129 The Doctrine of Military Necessity under Customary International Law: A Breach of International Humanitarian Law

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

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This paper examines an essential and complex part of International humanitarian law standards of military necessity. Military necessity is an unpredictable phenomenon. The unpredictability of this regulation likewise originates from the fact that is one of the most fundamental, yet most misjudged and distorted standards of international law of armed conflict. This rule has been censured as essentially wrong in light of its non-compliance with the principles of international humanitarian law in recent past. The author noted in this study that military necessity runs counter to humanitarian exigencies. These have generated debate among researchers for them to propose that for international law to be considered more important, it is indispensable that the procedures and substance of custom be illuminated and made accessible to every one of the individuals who may utilize it or be influenced by it. However, a significant number of analysts have attributed particular weaknesses to this doctrine. This study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Significantly, the recommendation made in this paper, if completely adopted, shall go a long way in guaranteeing a better application of the principles of international humanitarian law.

Keywords: military necessity, international law, international humanitarian law, customary law

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
128 Global Health, Humanitarian Medical Aid, and the Ethics of Rationing

Authors: N. W. Paul, S. Michl

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In our globalized world we need to appreciate the fact that questions of health and justice need to be addressed on a global scale, too. The way in which diverse governmental and non-governmental initiatives are trying to answer the need for humanitarian medical aid has long since been a visible result of globalized responsibility. While the intention of humanitarian medical aids seems to be evident, the allocation of resources has become more and more an ethical and societal challenge. With a rising number and growing dimension of humanitarian catastrophes around the globe the search for ethically justifiable ways to decide who might benefit from limited resources has become a pressing question. Rooted in theories of justice (Rawls) and concepts of social welfare (Sen) we developed and implemented a model for an ethically sound distribution of a limited annual budget for humanitarian care in one of the largest medical universities of Germany. Based on our long lasting experience with civil casualties of war (Afghanistan) and civil war (Libya) as well as with under- and uninsured and/or stateless patients we are now facing the on-going refugee crisis as our most recent challenge in terms of global health and justice. Against this background, the paper strives to a) explain key issues of humanitarian medical aid in the 21st century, b) explore the problem of rationing from an ethical point of view, c) suggest a tool for the rational allocation of scarce resources in humanitarian medical aid, d) present actual cases of humanitarian care that have been managed with our toolbox, and e) discuss the international applicability of our model beyond local contexts.

Keywords: humanitarian care, medical ethics, allocation, rationing

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
127 Politicization of Humanitarian NGOs: A Comparison Study of Oxfam and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)

Authors: Ratih Andaruni Widhiantari

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The combination of the expanding population of aid agencies and the act of politicization in humanitarian intervention blurred the distinction between what humanitarianism accept as universal human rights in theory and their practices in humanitarian intervention. Humanitarian organizations were now venturing into the formerly taboo territory of politics that place individuals at risk, for examples, cooperating and coordinating with the intervening states, considering moments of destruction as opportunities for political change and even taking on functions that had once been the exclusive preserve of government. Hence, aid agencies were becoming involved in matters of local or even international politics. This study focuses on the comparison between Oxfam and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) or Doctor without Borders different attitudes against political influences in humanitarian aid. It aims to untangle the bewilderment whether the contradictory approach to politics will becoming a barrier to performing their principles as humanitarian actors and also the consequences of taking that one particular position. The analysis of quantitative data and qualitative literature analysis are presented. The findings indicated Oxfam is actively engaged with politics. It welcomed government and private sector to shared cooperation to reach its goals to alleviate global inequalities. On the other hand, MSF has always taken a strong position to refuse any politics influence within their aid programmes. With no financial assistance from any government, MSF is free from any direct politics intervention. Hence, it can work efficiently with a clear objective to respond the demand side pressures from the people in needs. It is still publicly against politic involvement in the humanitarian activity, but practically, it has been moving forward to politicization in its own definition.

Keywords: humanitarian agencies, humanitarian intervention, humanitarian principles, politicization of humanitarianism

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
126 International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of New Technologies of Warfare

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

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Undoubtedly, despite all efforts made to achieve overall peace through the application of the principles of international humanitarian law, crimes against mankind which are of unprecedented concern to the whole world have remained unabated. The fall back on war as a technique for settling disputes between nations, individuals, countries and ethnic groups with accompanying toll of deaths and destruction of properties have remained a conspicuous component of human history. Indeed, to control this conduct of warfare and the dehumanization of individuals, a body of law aimed at regulating the impacts of conflicts and hostilities in the theater of war has become necessary. Thus, it is to examine the conditions in which international humanitarian law will apply and also to determine the extent of the challenges of new progressions of warfare that this study is undertaken. All through this examination, we grasped doctrinal approach wherein we used text books, journals, international materials and supposition of law specialists in the field of international humanitarian law. This paper shall examine the distinctive factors responsible for the rebelliousness to the rules of International Humanitarian Law and furthermore, shall proffer possible courses of action that will address the challenges of new technologies of warfare all over the world. Essentially, the basic proposals made in this paper if totally utilized may go far in ensuring a sufficient standard in the application of the rules of international humanitarian law as it relates to an increasingly frequent phenomenon of contemporary developments in technologies of warfare which has in recent past, made it more difficult for the most ideal application of the rules of international humanitarian law. This paper deduces that for a sustainable global peace to be achieved, the rules of International Humanitarian Law as it relates to the utilization of new technologies of warfare should be completely clung to and should be made a strict liability offense. Likewise, this paper further recommends the introduction of domestic criminal law punishment of serious contraventions of the rules of international humanitarian law.

Keywords: international, humanitarian law, new technologies, warfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
125 Protected Status: Violation of the Provisions of Protected Status under International Humanitarian Law during the Liberation War of Bangladesh

Authors: Sabera Sultana

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In today's war-torn world, it is crucial to identify, understand, and apply the laws aimed at minimizing civilian casualty during wartime. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the provisions of protected status under international humanitarian law and evaluate the historical facts and shreds of evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This legal research paper evaluates the international humanitarian laws and case laws regarding protected status of people during wartime and evaluates them against the historical facts and well-documented evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This paper will help to create a brief guideline on Protected Status under international humanitarian law, which will help to protect our civilians during wartime if ever required.

Keywords: civilian protection, international humanitarian laws, liberation war of Bangladesh, protected status

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
124 The Triple Nexus: Key Challenges in Shifting from Conceptualization to Operationalization of the Humanitarian-Development-Peacebuilding Nexus

Authors: Sarah M. Bolger

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There is a clear recognition that humanitarian and development workers are operating more and more frequently in situations of protracted crises, with conflict and violence undermining long-term development efforts. First coined at the World Humanitarian Summit in 2016, the humanitarian-development-peacebuilding nexus – or 'Triple Nexus' - seeks to promote greater cooperation and policy and program coherence amongst organizations working within and across the nexus. However, despite the clear need for such an approach, the Triple Nexus has failed to gain much traction. This is largely due to the lack of conceptual clarity for actors on the ground and the disconnect between the theory of the Triple Nexus and what that means in practice. This paper seeks to identify the key challenges in shifting from the conceptual definition of the Triple Nexus and what that can look like, particularly for multi-mandated organizations, to the operationalization of the Triple Nexus approach. It adopts a case study approach, examining a selection of organizations and programs and their approaches to the Triple Nexus in order to extract key challenges and lessons learned. Finally, key recommendations are provided on how these challenges can be overcome, allowing for the operationalization of the Triple Nexus and ultimately for a more integrated and sustainable approach to humanitarian, development, and peacebuilding work.

Keywords: development, humanitarian, peacebuilding, triple nexus

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
123 Conceptual Design of a Telecommunications Equipment Container for Humanitarian Logistics

Authors: S. Parisi, Ch. Achillas, D. Aidonis, D. Folinas, N. Moussiopoulos

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Preparedness addresses the strategy in disaster management that allows the implementation of successful operational response immediately after a disaster. With speed as the main driver, product design for humanitarian aid purposes is a key factor of success in situations of high uncertainty and urgency. Within this context, a telecommunications container (TC) has been designed that belongs to a group of containers that serve the purpose of immediate response to global disasters. The TC includes all the necessary equipment to establish a telecommunication center in the destroyed area within the first 72 hours of humanitarian operations. The design focuses on defining the topology of the various parts of equipment by taking into consideration factors of serviceability, functionality, human-product interaction, universal design language, energy consumption, sustainability and the interrelationship with the other containers. The concept parametric design has been implemented with SolidWorks® CAD system.

Keywords: telecommunications container, design, case study, humanitarian logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
122 An Analysis of the Affect of Climate Change on Humanitarian Law: The Way Forward

Authors: Anjali Kanagali, Astha Sinha

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Climate change is the greatest threat being faced by mankind in the 21st century. It no longer is merely an environmental, scientific or economic issue but is a humanitarian issue as well. Paris Agreement put great pressure on the businesses to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate the impact of climate change. However, the already increased climate variability and extreme weather are aggravating emergency humanitarian needs. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), if efficient policy changes are not made in time to combat the climate change issues, the situation will deteriorate with an estimated global temperature rise of 4 degrees. The existing international network of Humanitarian system is not adequately structured to handle the projected natural disasters and climate change crisis. The 2030 Agenda which embraces the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) discussed the relationship between the climate change and humanitarian assistance. The Humanitarian law aims to protect, amongst other things, ‘internally displaced persons’ which includes people displaced due to natural hazard related disasters engulfing the hazards of climate change. ‘Legal protection’ of displaced people to protect their rights is becoming a pressing need in such times. In this paper, attempts will be made to analyze the causes of the displacement, identify areas where the effect of the climate change is most likely to occur and to examine the character of forced displacement triggering population movement. We shall discuss the pressure on the Humanitarian system and assistance due to climate change issues and the need for vesting powers to the local communities or local government players to deal with the climate changes. We shall also discuss the possibility of setting up a new framework where non-state actors could be set up for climate change impact and its governance.

Keywords: humanitarian assistance to climate change, humanitarian crisis, internally displaced person, legal framework for climate migrants, non-state actors

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
121 Examining Individual and Organisational Legal Accountability for Sexual Exploitation Perpetrated by International Humanitarian Workers in Haiti

Authors: Elizabeth Carthy

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There is growing recognition that sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) perpetrated by humanitarian workers is widespread, most recently affirmed by allegations of high-ranking Oxfam officials paying women for sex in post-earthquake Haiti. SEA covers a range of gendered abuses, including rape, sexual assault, and ‘transactional’ or ‘survival’ sex. Holding individuals legally accountable for such behaviors is difficult in all contexts even more so in fragile and conflict-affected settings. Transactional sex, for the purposes of this paper, refers to situations where humanitarian workers exchange aid or assistance for sexual services. This paper explores existing organizational accountability measures relating to transactional sex engaged in by international humanitarian workers through a descriptive and interpretive case study approach-examining the situation in Haiti. It comparatively analyses steps the United Nations has taken to combat this problem. Then it examines the possibility of domestic legal accountability for such conduct in Haiti. Finally, the paper argues that international human rights law can fill in potential gaps in domestic legal frameworks to ensure states hold humanitarian workers and potentially organizations accountable for engaging in and/or perpetuating this gendered abuse of power.

Keywords: gender-based violence, humanitarian action, international human rights law, sexual exploitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
120 Use of a Relief Mobile Unit in the Humanitarian Cause

Authors: Stephani Ferreira da Silva Manso, Regina M. M. Dias Chiquetano

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This article aims to present a research on one of the main aspects of response in humanitarian causes: agility of operations. Brazil is among the 10 countries with the highest number of people affected by disasters.The main types of disasters in Brazil include floods and mass movements. Focusing on a nongovernmental organization that began in the conflicts of First and Second World Wars, arriving in Brazil in 1984. In 2017, the organization has activated their emergency response mobile unit to reach families following flooding that affected around 9,000 people. In partnership with Truckvan, the mobile unit, has 45 m² of floor space and is divided into three compartments each designed to meet the main needs of the population: the first will be used to prepare hot meals, the second to washing and drying of clothes, and the third for the accomplishment of psychological support. This option will be available for situations where there are more than one thousand victims who are sheltered, even temporarily, and demand immediate care, which will be identified through the National Emergency Plan. In this way, the actions that were already done as donation of blankets, clothes, hygiene kits, among others, will be enhanced. Studies show that one of the biggest difficulties in responding to the disaster is in the first few hours after the disaster. This study aimed to show the organization's innovative results and to propose improvement actions in transportation focused on humanitarian aid as the concepts developed in the manufacture and adaptation of the mobile unit to the rescue environment. Thus, the principles of this humanitarian aid bus are very effective.

Keywords: disasters, humanitarian cause, relief, unit mobile

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
119 An Exact Algorithm for Location–Transportation Problems in Humanitarian Relief

Authors: Chansiri Singhtaun

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This paper proposes a mathematical model and examines the performance of an exact algorithm for a location–transportation problems in humanitarian relief. The model determines the number and location of distribution centers in a relief network, the amount of relief supplies to be stocked at each distribution center and the vehicles to take the supplies to meet the needs of disaster victims under capacity restriction, transportation and budgetary constraints. The computational experiments are conducted on the various sizes of problems that are generated. Branch and bound algorithm is applied for these problems. The results show that this algorithm can solve problem sizes of up to three candidate locations with five demand points and one candidate location with up to twenty demand points without premature termination.

Keywords: disaster response, facility location, humanitarian relief, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
118 Translation, War and Humanitarian Action: A Case Study of the Kindertransporte to Switzerland

Authors: Lisa Mockli, Chelsea Sambells

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By combining the methodologies of history and translation studies, this study will explore the interplay between humanitarian action, politics, and translation within the advertising for a lesser-known Swiss child evacuation project of some 60.000 Belgium and French children to Switzerland for three month periods from 1940 to 1945. Inspired by Descriptive-Explanatory Translation Studies, this project compares Swiss speeches published between May and September 1942 (the termination of the evacuations). Radio broadcasts, leaflets and newspapers will triangulate the data. First, linguistic and content-related differences will be identified and described. Second, based on findings from the Swiss Federal Archives, the evidence from the comparative textual analysis will then be evaluated in order to explore how the speeches were modified, for what purpose, and which key issues were raised during their modification. By exploring these questions, this paper provides new insights into (I) Switzerland’s understanding of Swiss neutrality and humanitarianism during the Second World War, (II) the role of children in war and (III) the role of translation in shaping political discourse and humanitarian action. Moreover, this interdisciplinary approach also demonstrates how scholarly collaboration may help to make some elements of humanitarian action more self-reflexive and effective.

Keywords: children, history, humanitarianism, politics, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
117 Review and Analysis of Sustainable-Based Risk Management in Humanitarian Supply Chains

Authors: Marinko Maslaric, Maja Jokic

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When searching for fast and long term responses, sustainable logistics and supply chain applications have developed irrefutable theories and hypotheses towards market requirements. Nevertheless, there are certain misunderstandings on how the implementation of sustainability principles (social, economical, and environmental) and concepts should work in practice, more specifically, within a humanitarian supply chain management context. This paper will focus on the review and analysis of risk management concepts in humanitarian supply chain in order to identify their compliance with sustainable principles. In this direction, the study will look for strategies that suggest: minimization of environmental impacts throughout the reduction of resources consumption, depreciation of logistics costs, including supply chain ones, minimization of transportation and service costs, elaboration of quality performance of supply chain and logistics, and reduction of supply chain delivery time. On the side of meeting all defense, trades and humanitarian logistics needs, the research will be aligned to UN Sustainable Development Goals, standards, and performances. It will start with relevant strategies for identification of risk indicators and it will end with suggestion of valuable strategic approaches for their minimization or total prevention. Finally, a content analysis will propose a suitable methodological structure for the creation of most sustainable strategy in risk management of humanitarian supply chain. Content analysis will accompany thorough, consistent and methodical approach of literature review for potential disaster risk management plan. Thereupon, the propositions of this research will look for contemporary literature gaps, with respect to operate the literature analysis and to suggest the appropriate sustained risk low master plan. The indicated is here to secure the high quality of logistics practices in hazardous events.

Keywords: humanitarian logistics, sustainability, supply chain risk, risk management plan

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
116 Military Use of Artificial Intelligence under International Humanitarian Law: Insights from Canada

Authors: Mahshid TalebianKiakalayeh

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As AI technologies can be used by both civilians and soldiers, it is vital to consider the consequences emanating from AI military as well as civilian use. Indeed, many of the same technologies can have a dual-use. This paper will explore the military uses of AI and assess its compliance with international legal norms. AI developments not only have changed the capacity of the military to conduct complex operations but have also increased legal concerns. The existence of a potential legal vacuum in legal principles on the military use of AI indicates the necessity of more study on compliance with International Humanitarian Law (IHL), the branch of international law which governs the conduct of hostilities. While capabilities of new means of military AI continue to advance at incredible rates, this body of law is seeking to limit the methods of warfare protecting civilian persons who are not participating in an armed conflict. Implementing AI in the military realm would result in potential issues, including ethical and legal challenges. For instance, when intelligence can perform any warfare task without any human involvement, a range of humanitarian debates will be raised as to whether this technology might distinguish between military and civilian targets or not. This is mainly because AI in fully military systems would not seem to carry legal and ethical judgment, which can interfere with IHL principles. The paper will take, as a case study, Canada’s compliance with IHL in the area of AI and the related legal issues that are likely to arise as this country continues to develop military uses of AI.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, military use, international humanitarian law, the Canadian perspective

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
115 Responsibility to Protect in Practice: Libya and Syria

Authors: Guram Esakia, Giorgi Goguadze

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The following paper is written due to overview the concept of R2P, this new dimension in International Relations field. Paper contains the general description of previously mentioned concept, its advantages and disadvantages. We also compare each other R2P and“humanitarian intervention“, trying to make clear division between these two approaches in conflict solution. There is also discussed R2P in real action, successful one in Libya and yet failed in Syria. Essay doesn’t claim to be the part of scientific chain and is based only on personal subjection as well on information gathered from various scholars and UN resolutions.

Keywords: the concept of R2P, humanitarian intervention, Libya, Syria

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
114 The Suffering Other and the Deserving Self; When Humanitarianism Intersects with Individualism and Neo-Liberalism

Authors: Irene Bruna Seu

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This paper draws on a three-year research project investigating everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in the humanitarian context. The analysis focuses on the principle of deservingness by which members of the public decide who and under which conditions to help and illustrates how the speakers engage in ideological dilemmas. The paper focuses on the theme ‘Something for nothing’ to examine how the position of ‘deserving’ and the speaker’s rights and duties in relation to victims of humanitarian crises are negotiated. Discursive analyses of this dilemmatic storyline of deservingness illuminate the cultural and ideological resources buttressing this construction. They also illustrate how humanitarianism intersects and clashes with other ideologies and value systems. The presentation will focus on the role of Individualism underpinned by Neo-liberalism ideology. The data propose that neo-liberal ideology, which endorses self-gratification, materialistic and individualistic ethics play an important role in decisions regarding humanitarian helping. The paper argues for the need for psychological research to engage more actively with the dilemmatic nature of moral reasoning in the humanitarian context, and to contextualize decisions about giving and helping within the socio-cultural and ideological landscape in which the helpers operate.

Keywords: humanitarianism, individualism, ideological dilemmas, discourse, neo-liberalism, prosocial behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
113 Enhancing Disaster Response Capabilities in Asia-Pacific: An Explorative Study Applied to Decision Support Tools for Logistics Network Design

Authors: Giuseppe Timperio, Robert de Souza

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Logistics operations in the context of disaster response are characterized by a high degree of complexity due to the combined effect of a large number of stakeholders involved, time pressure, uncertainties at various levels, massive deployment of goods and personnel, and gigantic financial flow to be managed. It also involves several autonomous parties such as government agencies, militaries, NGOs, UN agencies, private sector to name few, to have a highly collaborative approach especially in the critical phase of the immediate response. This is particularly true in the context of L3 emergencies that are the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. Decision-making processes in disaster management are thus extremely difficult due to the presence of multiple decision-makers involved, and the complexity of the tasks being tackled. Hence, in this paper, we look at applying ICT based solutions to enable a speedy and effective decision making in the golden window of humanitarian operations. A high-level view of ICT based solutions in the context of logistics operations for humanitarian response in Southeast Asia is presented, and their viability in a real-life case about logistics network design is explored.

Keywords: decision support, disaster preparedness, humanitarian logistics, network design

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
112 From Restraint to Obligation: The Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict

Authors: Aaron Walayat

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Protection of the environment in international law has been one of the most developed in the context of international humanitarian law. This paper examines the history of the protection of the environment in times of armed conflict, beginning with the traditional notion of restraint observed in antiquity towards the obligation to protect the environment, examining the treaties and agreements, both binding and non-binding which have contributed to environmental protection in war. The paper begins with a discussion of the ancient concept of restraint. This section examines the social norms in favor of protection of the environment as observed in the Bible, Greco-Roman mythology, and even more contemporary literature. The study of the traditional rejection of total war establishes the social foundation on which the current legal regime has stemmed. The paper then studies the principle of restraint as codified in international humanitarian law. It mainly examines Additional Protocol I of the Geneva Convention of 1949 and existing international law concerning civilian objects and the principles of international humanitarian law in the classification between civilian objects and military objectives. The paper then explores the environment’s classification as both a military objective and as a civilian object as well as explores arguments in favor of the classification of the whole environment as a civilian object. The paper will then discuss the current legal regime surrounding the protection of the environment, discussing some declarations and conventions including the 1868 Declaration of St. Petersburg, the 1907 Hague Convention No. IV, the Geneva Conventions, and the 1976 Environmental Modification Convention. The paper concludes with the outline noting the movement from codification of the principles of restraint into the various treaties, agreements, and declarations of the current regime of international humanitarian law. This paper provides an analysis of the history and significance of the relationship between international humanitarian law as a major contributor to the growing field of international environmental law.

Keywords: armed conflict, environment, legal regime, restraint

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
111 Prioritizing Temporary Shelter Areas for Disaster Affected People Using Hybrid Decision Support Model

Authors: Ashish Trivedi, Amol Singh

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In the recent years, the magnitude and frequency of disasters have increased at an alarming rate. Every year, more than 400 natural disasters affect global population. A large-scale disaster leads to destruction or damage to houses, thereby rendering a notable number of residents homeless. Since humanitarian response and recovery process takes considerable time, temporary establishments are arranged in order to provide shelter to affected population. These shelter areas are vital for an effective humanitarian relief; therefore, they must be strategically planned. Choosing the locations of temporary shelter areas for accommodating homeless people is critical to the quality of humanitarian assistance provided after a large-scale emergency. There has been extensive research on the facility location problem both in theory and in application. In order to deliver sufficient relief aid within a relatively short timeframe, humanitarian relief organisations pre-position warehouses at strategic locations. However, such approaches have received limited attention from the perspective of providing shelters to disaster-affected people. In present research work, this aspect of humanitarian logistics is considered. The present work proposes a hybrid decision support model to determine relative preference of potential shelter locations by assessing them based on key subjective criteria. Initially, the factors that are kept in mind while locating potential areas for establishing temporary shelters are identified by reviewing extant literature and through consultation from a panel of disaster management experts. In order to determine relative importance of individual criteria by taking into account subjectivity of judgements, a hybrid approach of fuzzy sets and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted. Further, Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) was applied on an illustrative data set to evaluate potential locations for establishing temporary shelter areas for homeless people in a disaster scenario. The contribution of this work is to propose a range of possible shelter locations for a humanitarian relief organization, using a robust multi criteria decision support framework.

Keywords: AHP, disaster preparedness, fuzzy set theory, humanitarian logistics, TOPSIS, temporary shelters

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
110 Legal Contestation of Non-Legal Norms: The Case of Humanitarian Intervention Norm between 1999 and 2018

Authors: Nazli Ustunes Demirhan

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Norms of any nature are subject to pressures of change throughout their lifespans, as they are interpreted and re-interpreted every time they are used rhetorically or practically by international actors. The inevitable contestation of different interpretations may lead to an erosion of the norm, as well as to its strengthening. This paper aims to question the role of formal legality on the change of norm strength, using a norm contestation framework and a multidimensional norm strength conceptualization. It argues that the role of legality is not necessarily linked to the formal legal characteristics of a norm, but is about the legality of the contestation processes. In order to demonstrate this argument, the paper examines the evolutionary path of the humanitarian intervention norm as a case study. Humanitarian intervention, as a norm of very low formal legal characteristics, has been subject to numerous cycles of contestation, demonstrating a fluctuating pattern of norm strength. With the purpose of examining the existence and role of legality in the selected contestation periods from 1999 to 2017, this paper uses process tracing method with a detailed document analysis on the Security Council documents; including decisions, resolutions, meeting minutes, press releases as well as individual country statements. Through the empirical analysis, it is demonstrated that the legality of the contestation processes has a positive effect at least on the authoritativeness dimension of norm strength. This study tries to contribute to the developing dialogue between international relations (IR) and internal law (IL) disciplines with its better-tuned understanding of legality. It connects to further questions in IR/IL nexus, relating to the value added of norm legality, and politics of legalization as well as better international policies for norm reinforcement.

Keywords: humanitarian intervention, legality, norm contestation, norm dynamics, responsibility to protect

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
109 Rethink Urban Resilience: An Introductory Study Towards Resilient Spatial Structure of Refugees Neighborhoods

Authors: Salwa Mohammad Alawneh

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The ongoing humanitarian crises spur rapid and unpredicted refugee influxes resulting in demographic changes in cities. Regarding different urban systems are vulnerable in refugee neighborhoods. With the consequent social, economic, and spatial challenges, cities must respond with a more durable and sustainable approach based on urban resilience. The paper systematically approaches urban resilience to contribute to refugee spaces by reflecting on the overall urban systems of their neighborhoods. The research will review the urban resilience literature to develop an evaluation framework. The developed framework applies urban resilience more holistically in refugee neighborhoods and expands to the urban systems of social, economic, and spatial. However, the main highlight of this paper is the resilient spatial structure in refugee neighborhoods to face the internal and complex stress of refugee waves and their demographic changes. Finding a set of resilient spatial measurements and focusing on urban forms at a neighborhood scale provide vulnerability reduction and enhance adaptation capacity. As a model example, the paper applies these measurements and facilitates geospatial technologies to one of the refugee neighborhoods in Amman, Jordan, namely Al-Jubilee. The application in Al-Jubilee helps to demonstrate a road map towards a developmental pattern in design and planning by different decision-makers of inter-governmental and humanitarian organizations. In this regard, urban resilience improves the humanitarian assistantship of refugee settings beyond providing the essential needs. In conclusion, urban resilience responds to the different challenges of refugee neighborhoods by supporting urban stability, improving livability, and maintaining both urban functions and security.

Keywords: urban resilience of refugee, resilient urban form, refugee neighborhoods, humanitarian assistantship, refugee in Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
108 A Taxonomy of Professional Engineering Attributes for Tackling Global Humanitarian Challenges

Authors: Georgia Kremmyda, Angelos Georgoulas, Yiannis Koumpouros, James T. Mottram

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There is a growing interest in enhancing the creativity and problem-solving ability of engineering students by expanding their engagement to complex, interdisciplinary problems such as environmental issues, resilience to man-made and natural disasters, global health matters, water needs, increased energy demands, and other global humanitarian challenges. Tackling societal challenges requires knowledgeable and erudite engineers who can handle, combine, transform and create innovative, affordable and sustainable solutions. This view simultaneously complements and challenges current conceptions of an emerging educational movement that, almost without exception, are underpinned by calls for competitive economic growth and technological development. This article reveals a taxonomy of humanitarian attributes to be enabled to professional engineers, through reformed curricula and innovative pedagogies, which once implemented and integrated efficiently in higher engineering education, they will provide students and educators with opportunities to explore interdependencies and connections between resources, sustainable design, societal needs, and the natural environment and to critically engage with implicit and explicit facets of disciplinary identity. The research involves carrying out a study on (a) current practices, best practices and barriers in knowledge organisation, content, and hierarchy in graduate engineering programmes, (b) best practices associated with teaching and research in engineering education around the world, (c) opportunities inherent in general reforms of graduate engineering education and inherent in integrating the humanitarian context throughout engineering education programmes, and, (d) an overarching taxonomy of professional attributes for tackling humanitarian challenges. Research methods involve state-of-the-art literature review on engineering education and pedagogy to resource thematic findings on current status in engineering education worldwide, and qualitative research through three practice dialogue workshops, run in Asia (Vietnam, Indonesia and Bangladesh) involving a variety of national, international and local stakeholders (industries; NGOs, governmental organisations). Findings from this study provide evidence on: (a) what are the professional engineering attributes (skills, experience, knowledge) needed for tackling humanitarian challenges; (b) how we can integrate other disciplines and professions to engineering while defining the professional attributes of engineers who are capable of tackling humanitarian challenges. The attributes will be linked to those discipline(s) and profession(s) that are more likely to enforce the attributes (removing the assumption that engineering education as it stands at the moment can provide all attributes), and; (c) how these attributes shall be supplied; what kind of pedagogies or training shall take place beyond current practices. Acknowledgment: The study is currently in progress and is being undertaken in the framework of the project ENHANCE - ENabling Humanitarian Attributes for Nurturing Community-based Engineering (project No: 598502-EEP-1-2018-1-UK-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP (2018-2582/001-001), funded by the Erasmus + KA2 Cooperation for innovation and the exchange of good practices – Capacity building in the field of Higher Education.

Keywords: professional engineering attributes, engineering education, taxonomy, humanitarian challenges, humanitarian engineering

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107 Decision Tree Modeling in Emergency Logistics Planning

Authors: Yousef Abu Nahleh, Arun Kumar, Fugen Daver, Reham Al-Hindawi

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Despite the availability of natural disaster related time series data for last 110 years, there is no forecasting tool available to humanitarian relief organizations to determine forecasts for emergency logistics planning. This study develops a forecasting tool based on identifying probability of disaster for each country in the world by using decision tree modeling. Further, the determination of aggregate forecasts leads to efficient pre-disaster planning. Based on the research findings, the relief agencies can optimize the various resources allocation in emergency logistics planning.

Keywords: decision tree modeling, forecasting, humanitarian relief, emergency supply chain

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106 Responsibility to Protect: The Continuing Post-Colonial Western Hegemony

Authors: Helyeh Doutaghi

Abstract:

In 2005, the doctrine of Responsibility to Protect (R2P) was created by the UN Member States agreeing to not only to have the primary responsibility to protect their civilians from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing, but also to be responsible towards those civilians whose State was found manifestly failing in that regard. This paper will assess the doctrine of R2P and will argue that R2P too, just like humanitarian intervention, suffers from a lack of legal basis and political will to implement it. Or better said, it is being selectively used by the hegemon’s power to achieve its political will. In doing so, the origin and development shall be explained. Furthermore, it will be submitted that R2P has failed to achieve its purpose due to the unresolved Security Council’s deadlock. Lastly, the concept of legal morality entailed in R2P and its use in real life cases since 2005 will be examined.

Keywords: responsibility to protect, humanitarian intervention, United Nations, legitimacy, legality

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105 Humanitarian Emergency of the Refugee Condition for Central American Immigrants in Irregular Situation

Authors: María de los Ángeles Cerda González, Itzel Arriaga Hurtado, Pascacio José Martínez Pichardo

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In México, the recognition of refugee condition is a fundamental right which, as host State, has the obligation of respect, protect, and fulfill to the foreigners – where we can find the figure of immigrants in irregular situation-, that cannot return to their country of origin for humanitarian reasons. The recognition of the refugee condition as a fundamental right in the Mexican law system proceeds under these situations: 1. The immigrant applies for the refugee condition, even without the necessary proving elements to accredit the humanitarian character of his departure from his country of origin. 2. The immigrant does not apply for the recognition of refugee because he does not know he has the right to, even if he has the profile to apply for. 3. The immigrant who applies fulfills the requirements of the administrative procedure and has access to the refugee recognition. Of the three situations above, only the last one is contemplated for the national indexes of the status refugee; and the first two prove the inefficiency of the governmental system viewed from its lack of sensibility consequence of the no education in human rights matter and which results in the legal vulnerability of the immigrants in irregular situation because they do not have access to the procuration and administration of justice. In the aim of determining the causes and consequences of the no recognition of the refugee status, this investigation was structured from a systemic analysis which objective is to show the advances in Central American humanitarian emergency investigation, the Mexican States actions to protect, respect and fulfil the fundamental right of refugee of immigrants in irregular situation and the social and legal vulnerabilities suffered by Central Americans in Mexico. Therefore, to achieve the deduction of the legal nature of the humanitarian emergency from the Human Rights as a branch of the International Public Law, a conceptual framework is structured using the inductive deductive method. The problem statement is made from a legal framework to approach a theoretical scheme under the theory of social systems, from the analysis of the lack of communication of the governmental and normative subsystems of the Mexican legal system relative to the process undertaken by the Central American immigrants to achieve the recognition of the refugee status as a human right. Accordingly, is determined that fulfilling the obligations of the State referent to grant the right of the recognition of the refugee condition, would mean a guideline for a new stage in Mexican Law, because it would enlarge the constitutional benefits to everyone whose right to the recognition of refugee has been denied an as consequence, a great advance in human rights matter would be achieved.

Keywords: central American immigrants in irregular situation, humanitarian emergency, human rights, refugee

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104 The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Promoting Humanitarian Development: A Case Study in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Muamar Salameh, Rania Sinno

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Non-governmental organizations in Saudi Arabia play a vital role in promoting humanitarian development. Though this paper will emphasize this role and will provide a specific case study on the role of Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd Foundation for Humanitarian Development, yet many organizations do not provide transparent information for the accomplishments of the NGOs. This study will provide answers to the main research question regarding this role that NGOs play in promoting humanitarian development. The recent law regulating associations and foundations in Saudi Arabia was issued in December 2015 and went into effect March 2016. Any new association or foundation will need to follow these regulations. Though the registration, implementation, and workflow of the organizations still need major improvement and development, yet, the currently-registered organizations have several notable achievements. Most of these organizations adopt a centralized administration approach which in many cases still hinders progress and may be an obstacle in achieving and reaching a larger population of beneficiaries. A large portion of the existing organizations are charities, some of which have some sort of government affiliation. The laws and regulations limit registration of new organizations. Any violations to Islamic Sharia, contradictions to public order, breach to national unity, foreign and foreign-affiliation organizations prohibits any organization from registration. The lack of transparency in the operations and inner-working of NGOs in Saudi Arabia is apparent for the public. However, the regulations invoke full transparency with the governing ministry. This transparency should be available to the public and in specific to the target population that are eligible to benefit from the NGOs services. In this study, we will provide an extensive review of all related laws, regulations, policies and procedures related to all NGOs in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. This review will include some examples of current NGOs, services and target population. The study will determine the main accomplishments of reputable NGOs that have impacted positively the Saudi communities. The results will highlight and concentrate on actions, services and accomplishments that achieve sustainable assistance in promoting humanitarian development and advance living conditions of target populations of the Saudi community. In particular, we will concentrate on a case study related to PMFHD; one of the largest foundations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The authors have access to the data related to this foundation and have access to the foundation administration to gather, analyze and conclude the findings of this group. The study will also analyze whether the practices, budgets, services and annual accomplishments of the foundation have fulfilled the humanitarian role of the foundation while meeting the governmental requirements, with an analysis in the light of the new laws. The findings of the study show that great accomplishments for advancing and promoting humanitarian development in Saudi community and international communities have been achieved. Several examples will be included from several NGOs, with specific examples from PMFHD.

Keywords: development, foundation, humanitarian, non-governmental organization, Saudi Arabia

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103 Decision Location and Resource Requirement for Relief Goods Assembly

Authors: Glenda B. Minguito, Jenith L. Banluta

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One of the critical aspects of humanitarian operations is the distribution of relief goods to the affected community. The common assumption is that relief goods are prepositioned during disasters which are not applicable in developing countries like the Philippines. During disasters, the on-the-ground government agencies and responders have to procure, sort, weigh and pack the relief goods. There is a need to review the relief goods preparation as it seriously affects the delivery of necessary aid for human survival. This study also identifies the ideal location of the assembly hub to minimize the distance to the affected community. This paper reveals that location and resources are dependent on the type of disasters encountered at the local level. The Center-of-Gravity method and Multiple Activity Chart were applied in the analysis.

Keywords: humanitarian supply chain, location decision, resource allocation, local level

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