Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 122

Search results for: Musa Sekamatte

122 Multi-Sectoral Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in Uganda, 2017: The Perspective of One Health Experts

Authors: Musa Sekamatte

Abstract:

Background: Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden in countries around the world. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a zoonotic disease prioritization workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of concern to multiple Ugandan ministries. Materials and Methods: The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), was used for prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Uganda. Workshop participants included voting members representing human, animal, and environmental health ministries as well as key partners who observed the workshop. Over 100 articles describing characteristics of these zoonotic diseases were reviewed for the workshop. During the workshop, criteria for prioritization were selected, and questions and weights relevant to each criterion were determined. Next steps for multi-sectoral engagement for the prioritized zoonoses were then discussed. Results: 48 zoonotic diseases were considered during the workshop. Criteria selected to prioritize zoonotic diseases in order of importance were (1) severity of disease in humans in Uganda, (2) availability of effective control strategies, (3) potential to cause an epidemic or pandemic in humans or animals, (4) social and economic impacts, and (5) bioterrorism potential. Seven zoonotic diseases were identified as priorities for Uganda: anthrax, zoonotic influenza viruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, brucellosis, African trypanosomiasis, plague, and rabies. Discussion: One Health approaches and multi-sectoral collaborations are crucial in the surveillance, prevention, and control strategies for zoonotic diseases. Uganda used such an approach to identify zoonotic diseases of national concern. Identifying these priority diseases enables the National One Health Platform and the Zoonotic Disease Coordinating Office to address the diseases in the future.

Keywords: national one health platform, zoonotic diseases, multi-sectoral, severity

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121 Ex Situ Conservation of Neutraceutical Banana-Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan

Authors: V. Krishna, Shashikumar

Abstract:

Edible Bananas (Musa spp.) are the major staple food for rural and urban consumers in India and an important source of rural income. The cultivar Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan is an endemic cultivar of Malnad region of Karnataka and used as a glomolueroprotective neutraceutical to solve kidney problems. The protocol for mass multiplication of plantlets for this indigenous banana cultivar Karibale Monthan has not yet been standardized so far. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop high frequency in vitro regeneration protocol and evaluation of morphoagronomic characteristics in the farmyard. The high frequency shoot initiation (93.33 %) was recorded at the synergetic effect of BAP (2 to 8mg/L), TDZ (0.1 to 1.2mg/L) and coconut water (0.1 to 1.2ml/L). It was optimized at the concentration 5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.5 ml/l coconut water with 15.90 ± 1.66 frequency of shoots per propagule. Supplementation of 1.0 mg/l IBA induces 5.33 ± 1.21 numbers of roots with a mean root length of 7.50 ± 1.87 roots. 99% of plantlets with distinct roots and shoots were successfully acclimatized in the green house and transferred to the field to evaluate the agro-morphological variations. The micropropagated plants showed significantly higher morphometric values for height of the plant (16.80±2.17), number of leaves (12.40±1.14), length of the bunch (56.20±2.17), weight of the bunch (13.60±1.14), number of hands in a bunch (11.40±1.14) and girth of the pseudostem (49.80±1.48) when compared with in vivo plants.

Keywords: banana cv. Karibale Monthan, neutraceutical, high-frequency regeneration, morphometric evaluation

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120 Impact of Different Ripening Accelerators on the Microbial Load and Proximate Composition of Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Banana (Musa sapientum), during the Ripening Process, and the Nutrition Implication for Food Security

Authors: Wisdom Robert Duruji, Oluwasegun Christopher Akinleye

Abstract:

This study reports on the impact of different ripening accelerators on the microbial load and proximate composition of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Banana (Musa sapientum) during the ripening process, and the nutrition implication for food security. The study comprised of four treatments, namely: Calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis fruits, Newbouldia laevis leaves and a control, where no ripening accelerator was applied to the fingers of plantain and banana. The unripe and ripened plantain and banana were subjected to microbial analysis by isolating and enumerating their micro flora using pour plate method; and also, their proximate composition was determined using standard methods. The result indicated that the bacteria count of plantain increased from 3.25 ± 0.33 for unripe to 5.31 ± 0.30 log cfu/g for (treated) ripened, and that of banana increased from 3.69 ± 0.11 for unripe to 5.26 ± 0.21 log cfu/g for ripened. Also, the fungal count of plantain increased from 3.20 ± 0.16 for unripe to 4.88 ± 0.22 log sfu/g for ripened; and that of banana increased from 3.61 ± 0.19 for unripe to 5.43 ± 0.26 for ripened. Ripened plantain fingers without any ripening accelerator (control) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher values of crude protein 3.56 ± 0.06%, crude fat 0.42 ± 0.04%, total ash 2.74 ± 0.15 and carbohydrate 31.10 ± 0.20; but with significantly lower value of moisture 62.14 ± 0.07% when compared with treated plantain. The proximate composition trend of treated and banana fingers control is similar to that of treated and plantain control, except that higher moisture content of 75.11 ± 0.07% and lesser protein, crude fat, total ash and carbohydrate were obtained from treated and ripened banana control when the treatments were compared with that of plantain. The study concluded that plantain is more nutritious (mealy) than a banana; also, the ripening accelerators increased the microbial load and reduced the nutritional status of plantain and banana.

Keywords: food nutrition, calcium carbide, rvingia gabonensis, newbouldia laevis, plantain, banana

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
119 Inhibition of the Activity of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme Present in Annona muricata and Musa acuminata by the Experimentally Identified Natural Anti-Browning Agents

Authors: Michelle Belinda S. Weerawardana, Gobika Thiripuranathar, Priyani A. Paranagama

Abstract:

Most of fresh vegetables and fruits available in the retail markets undergo a physiological disorder in its appearance and coloration, which indeed discourages consumer purchase. A loss of millions of dollars yearly to the food industry had been due to this pronounced color reaction called Enzymatic Browning which is driven due to the catalytic activity by an oxidoreductase enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The enzyme oxidizes the phenolic compounds which are abundantly available in fruits and vegetables as substrates into quinones, which could react with proteins in its surrounding to generate black pigments, called melanins, which are highly UV-active compounds. Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains) is a fruit and a vegetable consumed by Sri Lankans widely due to their high nutritional values, medicinal properties and economical importance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and determine the effective natural anti-browning inhibitors that could prevent PPO activity in the selected fruit and vegetable. Enzyme extracts from Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains), were prepared by homogenizing with analytical grade acetone, and pH of each enzyme extract was maintained at 7.0 using a phosphate buffer. The extracts of inhibitors were prepared using powdered ginger rhizomes and essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Water extracts of ginger were prepared and the essential oil from Ceylon cinnamon bark was extracted using steam distillation method. Since the essential oil is not soluble in water, 0.1µl of cinnamon bark oil was mixed with 0.1µl of Triton X-100 emulsifier and 5.00 ml of water. The effect of each inhibitor on the PPO activity was investigated using catechol (0.1 mol dm-3) as the substrate and two samples of enzyme extracts prepared. The dosages of the prepared Cinnamon bark oil, and ginger (2 samples) which were used to measure the activity were 0.0035 g/ml, 0.091 g/ml and 0.087 g/ml respectively. The measurements of the inhibitory activity were obtained at a wavelength of 525 nm using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results evaluated thus revealed that % inhibition observed with cinnamon bark oil, and ginger for Annona muricata was 51.97%, and 60.90% respectively. The effects of cinnamon bark oil, and ginger extract on PPO activity of Musa acuminata were 49.51%, and 48.10%. The experimental findings thus revealed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark oil was a more effective inhibitor for PPO enzyme present in Musa acuminata and ginger was effective for PPO enzyme present in Annona muricata. Overall both the inhibitors were proven to be more effective towards the activities of PPO enzyme present in both samples. These inhibitors can thus be corroborated as effective, natural, non-toxic, anti-browning extracts, which when added to the above fruit and vegetable will increase the shelf life and also the acceptance of the product by the consumers.

Keywords: anti-browning agent, enzymatic browning, inhibitory activity, polyphenol oxidase

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
118 Effect of Using Different Packaging Materials on Quality of Minimally Process (Fresh-Cut) Banana (Musa acuminata balbisiana) Cultivar 'Nipah'

Authors: Nur Allisha Othman, Rosnah Shamsudin, Zaulia Othman, Siti Hajar Othman

Abstract:

Mitigating short storage life of fruit like banana uses minimally process or known as fresh cut can contribute to the growing demand especially in South East Asian countries. The effect of different types of packaging material on fresh-cut Nipah (Musa acuminata balbisiana) were studied. Fresh cut banana cultivar (cv) Nipah are packed in polypropylene plastic (PP), low density polypropylene plastic (LDPE), polymer plastic film (shrink wrap) and polypropylene container as control for 12 days at low temperature (4ᵒC). Quality of physical and chemical evaluation such as colour, texture, pH, TA, TSS, and vitamin C were examined every 2 days interval for 12 days at 4ᵒC. Result shows that the PP is the most suitable packaging for banana cv Nipah because it can reduce respiration and physicochemical quality changes of banana cv Nipah. Different types of packaging significantly affected quality of fresh-cut banana cv Nipah. PP bag was the most suitable packaging to maintain quality and prolong storage life of fresh-cut banana cv Nipah for 12 days at 4ᵒC.

Keywords: physicochemical, PP, LDPE, shrink wrap, browning, respiration

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117 Budget and the Performance of Public Enterprises: A Study of Selected Public Enterprises in Nasarawa State Nigeria (2009-2013)

Authors: Dalhatu, Musa Yusha’u, Shuaibu Sidi Safiyanu, Haliru Musa Hussaini

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This study examined budget and performance of public enterprises in Nasarawa State, Nigeria in a period of 2009-2013. The study utilized secondary sources of data obtained from four selected parastatals’ budget allocation and revenue generation for the period under review. The simple correlation coefficient was used to analyze the extent of the relationship between budget allocation and revenue generation of the parastatals. Findings revealed varying results. There was positive (0.21) and weak correlation between expenditure and revenue of Nasarawa Investment and Property Development Company (NIPDC). However, the study further revealed that there was strong and weak negative relationship in the revenue and expenditure of the following parastatals over the period under review. Viz: Nasarawa State Water Board, -0.27 (weak), Nasarawa State Broadcasting Service, -0.52 (Strong) and Nasarawa State College of Agriculture, -0.36 (weak). The study therefore, recommends that government should increase its investments in NIPDC to enhance efficiency and profitability. It also recommends that government should strengthen its fiscal responsibility, accountability and transparency in public parastatals.

Keywords: budget, public enterprises, revenue, enterprise

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116 Hedonic Price Analysis of Consumer Preference for Musa spp in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Yakubu Suleiman, S. A. Musa

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The research was conducted to determine the physical characteristics of banana fruits that influenced consumer preferences for the fruit in Northern Nigeria. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were also identified. Simple descriptive statistics and Hedonic prices model were used to analyze the data collected for socio-economic and consumer preference respectively with the aid of 1000 structured questionnaires. The result revealed the value of R2 to be 0.633, meaning that, 63.3% of the variation in the banana price was brought about by the explanatory variables included in the model and the variables are: colour, size, degree of ripeness, softness, surface blemish, cleanliness of the fruits, weight, length, and cluster size of fruits. However, the remaining 36.7% could be attributed to the error term or random disturbance in the model. It could also be seen from the calculated result that the intercept was 1886.5 and was statistically significant (P < 0.01), meaning that about N1886.5 worth of banana fruits could be bought by consumers without considering the variables of banana included in the model. Moreover, consumers showed that they have significant preference for colours, size, degree of ripeness, softness, weight, length and cluster size of banana fruits and they were tested to be significant at either P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.1 . Moreover, the result also shows that consumers did not show significance preferences to surface blemish, cleanliness and variety of the banana fruit as all of them showed non-significance level with negative signs. Based on the findings of the research, it is hereby recommended that plant breeders and research institutes should concentrate on the production of banana fruits that have those physical characteristics that were found to be statistically significance like cluster size, degree of ripeness,’ softness, length, size, and skin colour.

Keywords: analysis, consumers, preference, variables

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115 Influence of Different Ripening Agents on the Shelf-Life and Microbial Load of Organic and Inorganic Musaceae, during the Ripening Process, and the Health Implication for Food Security

Authors: Wisdom Robert Duruji

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Local farmers and fruit processors in developing countries of West Africa use different ripening agents to accelerate the ripening process of plantain and banana. This study reports on the influence of different ripening agents on the shelf-life and microbial load of organic and inorganic plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening process and the health implication for food security in Nigeria. The experiment consisted of four treatments, namely: Calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis fruits, Newbouldia laevis leaves and a control, where no ripening agent was applied to the fingers of plantain and banana. The unripe and ripened plantain and banana were subjected to microbial analysis by isolating their micro flora (Bacteria, Yeast and Mould) using pour plate method. Microbes present in the samples were enumerated, characterized and classified to genera and species. The result indicated that the microbial load of inorganic plantain from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife increased from 8.00 for unripe to 12.11 cfu/g for ripened; and the microbial load of organic plantain from Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching and Research Farm (OAUTRF) increased from 6.00 for unripe to 11.60 cfu/g for ripened. Also, the microbial load of inorganic banana from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife increased from 8.00 for unripe to 11.50 cfu/g for ripened; while the microbial load of organic banana from OAUTRF increased from 6.50 for unripe to 9.40 cfu/g for ripened. The microbial effects of the ripening agents increased from 10.00 for control to 16.00 cfu/g for treated (ripened) organic and inorganic plantain; while that of organic and inorganic banana increased from 7.50 for control to 14.50 cfu/g for ripened. Visual observation for the presence of fungal colonies and deterioration rates were monitored till seven days after the plantain and banana fingers have fully ripened. Inorganic plantain and banana from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife are more contaminated than organic plantain and banana fingers from OAUTRF. The ripening accelerators reduced the shelf life, increased senescence, and microbial load of plantain and banana. This study concluded that organic Agriculture is better and microbial friendlier than inorganic farming.

Keywords: organic agriculture, food security, Musaceae, calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis, Newbouldia laevis

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114 Comparative Studies on Thin Film of ZnO Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis and Sputtering Technique

Authors: Musa Momoh, A. U. Moreh, A. M. Bayawa, Sanusi Abdullahi, I. Atiku

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In this study, thin films of ZnO were synthesized by two techniques namely RF sputtering and spray pyrolysis. The films were deposited on corning glass. The primary materials used are 99.99% pure. The optical and structural properties of the samples were studied. It has been noted that the samples deposited by Spray pyrolysis have and average transmittance, refractive index and extinction coefficient as 80-90%, 1.33-1.44 and 13.11-27.52 respectively. Those deposited by sputtering method are 34-80%, 1.51-1.52 and 3.15-3.28. The XRD patterns of the samples show that they are polycrystalline.

Keywords: zinc oxide, spray pyrolysis, rf sputtering, optical properties, electrical properties

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113 Socio-Religious Mythology of the Igala of Central Nigeria Area

Authors: Abdullahi Musa Yusuf

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Culture and traditions are an embodiment of every society. In Africa, people are socialized into believing that the world is full of mysteries. Mysteries that can only be explain through the interpretation of some forces which are ordinarily beyond the comprehension of Man. These forces have the power and capability of influencing the lives of the living either benevolently or malevolently. To decipher these mysteries various religious and cultural practices were evolved. This paper is therefore an attempt to explain the traditional religious belief system and the relationship existing between the forces of the living and dead among the Igala people of the Central Nigeria Region.

Keywords: culture, tradition, mythology, Nigeria

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112 Abuse of Secretarial Profession by Employers of Labour

Authors: Musa Shu'aibu

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This paper centered on the abuse of secretarial profession by employers of labour. The paper further explains vividly the meaning of secretarial profession and that of a secretary. The paper also makes an attempt to explain the training of a secretary, duties and business attributes of a secretary. It further highlighted the personal attributes of a secretary, prospects of secretaries/secretarial profession and some abuses of the secretarial profession were discussed. It concluded that the rapid advancement in technology has changed today's offices which resulted in changing in the requirement of today's secretarial posts. Finally, recommendations were provided.

Keywords: abuse, employers, labour, profession

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
111 Morphological Parameters and Selection of Turkish Edible Seed Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) Germplasm

Authors: Onder Turkmen, Musa Seymen, Sali Fidan, Mustafa Paksoy

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There is a requirement for registered edible seed pumpkin suitable for eating in Turkey. A total of 81 genotypes collected from the researchers in 2005 originated from Eskisehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Tekirdag, Sakarya, Kayseri and Kirsehir provinces were utilized. The used genetic materials were brought to S5 generation by the research groups among 2006 and 2010 years. In this research, S5 stage reached in the genotype given some of the morphological features, and selection of promising genotypes generated scale were made. Results showed that the A-1 (420), A-7 (410), A-8 (420), A-32 (420), B-17 (410), B-24 (410), B-25 (420), B-33 (400), C-24 (420), C-25 (410), C-26 (410) and C-30 (420) genotypes are expected to be promising varieties.

Keywords: candidate cultivar, edible seed pumpkin, morphologic parameters, selection

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110 An intelligent Troubleshooting System and Performance Evaluator for Computer Network

Authors: Iliya Musa Adamu

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This paper seeks to develop an expert system that would troubleshoot computer network and evaluate the network system performance so as to reduce the workload on technicians and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of solutions proffered to computer network problems. The platform of the system was developed using ASP.NET, whereas the codes are implemented in Visual Basic and integrated with SQL Server 2005. The knowledge base was represented using production rule, whereas the searching method that was used in developing the network troubleshooting expert system is the forward-chaining-rule-based-system. This software tool offers the advantage of providing an immediate solution to most computer network problems encountered by computer users.

Keywords: expert system, forward chaining rule based system, network, troubleshooting

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109 Validation of the Formal Model of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Service of Library Information System

Authors: Zainab Magaji Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily Aida Jusoh

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The web services applications for digital reference service (WSDRS) of LIS model is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ needs in the reference section of libraries. The formal WSDRS model consists of the Z specifications of all the informal specifications of the model. This paper discusses the formal validation of the Z specifications of WSDRS model. The authors formally verify and thus validate the properties of the model using Z/EVES theorem prover.

Keywords: validation, verification, formal, theorem prover

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
108 Calibration Methods of Direct and Indirect Reading Pressure Sensor and Uncertainty Determination

Authors: Sinem O. Aktan, Musa Y. Akkurt

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Experimental pressure calibration methods can be classified into three areas: (1) measurements in liquid or gas systems, (2) measurements in static-solid media systems, and (3) measurements in dynamic shock systems. Fluid (liquid and gas) systems high accuracies can be obtainable and commonly used for the calibration method of a pressure sensor. Pressure calibrations can be performed for metrological traceability in two ways, which are on-site (field) and in the laboratory. Laboratory and on-site calibration procedures and the requirements of the DKD-R-6-1 and Euramet cg-17 guidelines will also be addressed. In this study, calibration methods of direct and indirect reading pressure sensor and measurement uncertainty contributions will be explained.

Keywords: pressure metrology, pressure calibration, dead-weight tester, pressure uncertainty

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107 Design Channel Non Persistent CSMA MAC Protocol Model for Complex Wireless Systems Based on SoC

Authors: Ibrahim A. Aref, Tarek El-Mihoub, Khadiga Ben Musa

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This paper presents Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) communication model based on SoC design methodology. Such model can be used to support the modelling of the complex wireless communication systems, therefore use of such communication model is an important technique in the construction of high performance communication. SystemC has been chosen because it provides a homogeneous design flow for complex designs (i.e. SoC and IP based design). We use a swarm system to validate CSMA designed model and to show how advantages of incorporating communication early in the design process. The wireless communication created through the modeling of CSMA protocol that can be used to achieve communication between all the agents and to coordinate access to the shared medium (channel).

Keywords: systemC, modelling, simulation, CSMA

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106 Toxicological Analysis of Some Plant Combinations Used for the Treatment of Hypertension by Lay People in Northern Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Mmbulaheni Ramulondi, Sandy Van Vuuren, Helene De Wet

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The use of plant combinations to treat various medical conditions is not a new concept, and it is known that traditional people do not only rely on a single plant extract for efficacy but often combine various plant species for treatment. The knowledge of plant combinations is transferred from one generation to the other in the belief that combination therapy may enhance efficacy, reduce toxicity, decreases adverse effects, increase bioavailability and result in lower dosages. However, combination therapy may also be harmful when the interaction is antagonistic, since it may result in increasing toxicity. Although a fair amount of research has been done on the toxicity of medicinal plants, there is very little done on the toxicity of medicinal plants in combination. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity potential of 19 plant combinations which have been documented as treatments of hypertension in northern KwaZulu-Natal by lay people. The aqueous extracts were assessed using two assays; the Brine shrimp assay (Artemia franciscana) and the Ames test (Mutagenicity). Only one plant combination (Aloe marlothii with Hypoxis hemerocallidea) in the current study has been previously assessed for toxicity. With the Brine shrimp assay, the plant combinations were tested in two concentrations (2 and 4 mg/ml), while for mutagenicity tests, they were tested at 5 mg/ml. The results showed that in the Brine shrimp assay, six combinations were toxic at 4 mg/ml. The combinations were Albertisia delagoensis with Senecio serratuloides (57%), Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (98%), Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea (66%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (89%), Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (99%) and Aloe marlothii with Trichilia emetica and Hyphaene coriacea (50%). However when the concentration was reduced to 2 mg/ml, only three combinations were toxic which were Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (76%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (66%) and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (73%). For the mutagenicity assay, only the combinations between Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina were mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Most of the combinations which were toxic involve C. roseus which was also toxic when tested singularly. It is worth noting that C. roseus was one of the most frequently used plant species both to treat hypertension singularly and in combination and some of the individuals have been using this for the last 20 years. The mortality percentage of the Brine shrimp showed a significant correlation between dosage and toxicity thus toxicity was dosage dependant. A combination which is worth noting is the combination between A. delagoensis and S. serratuloides. Singularly these plants were non-toxic towards Brine shrimp, however their combination resulted in antagonism with the mortality rate of 57% at the total concentration of 4 mg/ml. Low toxicity was mostly observed, giving some validity to combined use, however the few combinations showing increased toxicity demonstrate the importance of analysing plant combinations.

Keywords: dosage, hypertension, plant combinations, toxicity

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105 Preservation of Historical Zelkova carpinifolia Wooden Structure in Humid Weather

Authors: A. Mahshid Kakouei, B. Kumaran Suberamanin, C. Sabzali Musa Kahn, D. Mina Kakouei

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This study aims to identify suitable conservative product for the conservation and restoration of historical Zelkova Carpinifolia wood located in humid weather. The superficial properties and hardness of 14 compounds treated with several consolidants were compared. The consolidants have been applied alone, with synthetic resin or with protein glues and natural resins by the brushing method. Colorimetric measurements, observation methods and hardness tests were conducted before and after aging to verify the possible changes of the treated wood and the consolidating resistance. The compound 1:2 of Butvar B98 and sandarac in 5% ethanol was found to be more effective, providing a suitable compound compared to the other consolidants tested.

Keywords: Zelkova carpinifolia, consolidation, synthetic resin, penetration depth, hardness

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104 Improvement of Deficient Soils in Nigeria Using Bagasse Ash - A Review

Authors: Musa Alhassan, Alhaji Mohammed Mustapha

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Review of studies carried out on the use of bagasse ash in the improvement of deficient soils in Nigeria, with emphasis on lateritic and black cotton soils is presented. Although, the bagasse ash is mostly used as additive to the conventional soil stabilizer (cement and lime), the studies generally showed improvement of geotechnical properties of the soils either modified or stabilized with the ash. This showed the potentials of using this agricultural waste (bagasse ash) in the improvement of geotechnical properties of deficient soils. Thus suggesting that using this material at large scale level, in geotechnical engineering practice could help in the provision of stable and durable structures, reduce cost of soil improvement and also reduces environmental nuisance caused by the unused waste in Nigeria

Keywords: bagasse ash, black cotton soil, deficient soil, laterite, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
103 Effects of Drying and Extraction Techniques on the Profile of Volatile Compounds in Banana Pseudostem

Authors: Pantea Salehizadeh, Martin P. Bucknall, Robert Driscoll, Jayashree Arcot, George Srzednicki

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Banana is one of the most important crops produced in large quantities in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Of the total plant material grown, approximately 40% is considered waste and left in the field to decay. This practice allows fungal diseases such as Sigatoka Leaf Spot to develop, limiting plant growth and spreading spores in the air that can cause respiratory problems in the surrounding population. The pseudostem is considered a waste residue of production (60 to 80 tonnes/ha/year), although it is a good source of dietary fiber and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). Strategies to process banana pseudostem into palatable, nutritious and marketable food materials could provide significant social and economic benefits. Extraction of VOC’s with desirable odor from dried and fresh pseudostem could improve the smell of products from the confectionary and bakery industries. Incorporation of banana pseudostem flour into bakery products could provide cost savings and improve nutritional value. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of drying methods and different banana species on the profile of volatile aroma compounds in dried banana pseudostem. The banana species analyzed were Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Fresh banana pseudostem samples were processed by either freeze-drying (FD) or heat pump drying (HPD). The extraction of VOC’s was performed at ambient temperature using vacuum distillation and the resulting, mostly aqueous, distillates were analyzed using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Optimal SPME adsorption conditions were 50 °C for 60 min using a Supelco 65 μm PDMS/DVB Stableflex fiber1. Compounds were identified by comparison of their electron impact mass spectra with those from the Wiley 9 / NIST 2011 combined mass spectral library. The results showed that the two species have notably different VOC profiles. Both species contained VOC’s that have been established in literature to have pleasant appetizing aromas. These included l-Menthone, D-Limonene, trans-linlool oxide, 1-Nonanol, CIS 6 Nonen-1ol, 2,6 Nonadien-1-ol, Benzenemethanol, 4-methyl, 1-Butanol, 3-methyl, hexanal, 1-Propanol, 2-methyl- acid، 2-Methyl-2-butanol. Results show banana pseudostem VOC’s are better preserved by FD than by HPD. This study is still in progress and should lead to the optimization of processing techniques that would promote the utilization of banana pseudostem in the food industry.

Keywords: heat pump drying, freeze drying, SPME, vacuum distillation, VOC analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
102 Umm Arrazam, Libyan Driling Fluid Resistivity Evaluation

Authors: Omar Hussein El Ayadi, Ali Mustafa Alkekly, Nader Ahmad Musa

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Search and evaluate locale source of raw material which can be used as drilling fluid is one of most important economical target. Hopefully, to use Libyan clay that cost less than importing it from outside. Resistivity measurement and control is of primary concern in connection with electrical logging. The influences of resistivity utilizing Umm Arrazam clay were laboratory investigated at ambient condition (room temperature, atmospheric pressure) to fulfill the aim of the study. Several tests were carried-out on three sets of mud mixture with different densities (8.7, 9.0, and 9.3 ppg) as base mud. The resistivity of mud, mud filtrate, and mud cake were measured using resistivity- meter. Mud water losses were also measured. Several results obtained to describe the relationship between the resistivity ratios of mud filtrate to the mud, and the mud cake to mud. The summary of conclusion is that there are no great differences were obtained during comparison of resistivity and water loss of Umm Arrazam and Wyoming Clay.

Keywords: petroleum, drilling, mug, geological engineering

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101 River's Bed Level Changing Pattern Due to Sedimentation, Case Study: Gash River, Kassala, Sudan

Authors: Faisal Ali, Hasssan Saad Mohammed Hilmi, Mustafa Mohamed, Shamseddin Musa

Abstract:

The Gash rivers an ephemeral river, it usually flows from July to September, it has a braided pattern with high sediment content, of 15200 ppm in suspension, and 360 kg/sec as bed load. The Gash river bed has an average slope of 1.3 m/Km. The objectives of this study were: assessing the Gash River bed level patterns; quantifying the annual variations in Gash bed level; and recommending a suitable method to reduce the sediment accumulation on the Gash River bed. The study covered temporally the period 1905-2013 using datasets included the Gash river flows, and the cross sections. The results showed that there is an increasing trend in the river bed of 5 cm3 per year. This is resulted in changing the behavior of the flood routing and consequently the flood hazard is tremendously increased in Kassala city.

Keywords: bed level, cross section, gash river, sedimentation

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100 The Impact of Foliar Application of the Calcium-Containing Compounds in Increasing Resistance to Blue Mold on Apples

Authors: Masoud Baghalian, Musa Arshad

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effect of foliar application of calcium chloride on the resistance of fruits such as Red and Golden Lebanese apple varieties to blue mold, a split plot experiment in time and space, based on accidental blocks, with three replications under foliar application were done (Control, one in a thousand, two in thousands) and the results of the variance analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the levels of foliar and variety at 5% level and between time, there is significant difference in interaction of variety × time and three way interaction of foliar×variety×time, at 1% level. The highest resistance to the blue mold disease in foliar application was observed at two in thousands calcium (calcium chloride) level.

Keywords: apple, blue mold, foliar calcium, resistance

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99 Design and Characterization of a CMOS Process Sensor Utilizing Vth Extractor Circuit

Authors: Rohana Musa, Yuzman Yusoff, Chia Chieu Yin, Hanif Che Lah

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of a low power Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process sensor. The design is targeted for implementation using Silterra’s 180 nm CMOS process technology. The proposed process sensor employs a voltage threshold (Vth) extractor architecture for detection of variations in the fabrication process. The process sensor generates output voltages in the range of 401 mV (fast-fast corner) to 443 mV (slow-slow corner) at nominal condition. The power dissipation for this process sensor is 6.3 µW with a supply voltage of 1.8V with a silicon area of 190 µm X 60 µm. The preliminary result of this process sensor that was fabricated indicates a close resemblance between test and simulated results.

Keywords: CMOS process sensor, PVT sensor, threshold extractor circuit, Vth extractor circuit

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98 A Hybrid MAC Protocol for Delay Constrained Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Hanefi Cinar, Musa Cibuk, Ismail Erturk, Fikri Aggun, Munip Geylani

Abstract:

Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs) carry heterogeneous data traffic with different urgency and quality of service (QoS) requirements. There are a lot of studies made on energy efficiency, bandwidth, and communication methods in literature. But delay, high throughput, utility parameters are not well considered. Increasing demand for real-time data transfer makes these parameters more important. In this paper we design new MAC protocol which is delay constrained and targets for improving delay, utility, and throughput performance of the network and finding solutions on collision and interference problems. Protocol improving QoS requirements by using TDMA, FDM, and OFDMA hybrid communication methods with multi-channel communication.

Keywords: MWSN, delay, hybrid MAC, TDMA, FDM, OFDMA

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97 Communicative Roles of English Discourse Markers on Facebook among Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University Members of Academic Staff

Authors: Ibrahim Sani

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of English discourse markers with the aim of investigating their communicative functions on Facebook as used by UMYUK members of academic staff. The paper uses the qualitative approach and relevance theory by Sperber and Wilson (1995) to highlight and examine DMs in different communicative contexts. In the course of data collection, five (5) academic staff from the five faculties of the university who are already Facebook friends of the researcher are used as the participants with their consent. The paper examines the communicative functions of English DMs among UMYUK academic staff on Facebook and reveals a number of communicative functions used in different contexts. One of the major findings indicates that 'contrastive markers' such as 'but', 'however', 'although' etc. are the dominant communicative functions employed by UMYUK academic staff on Facebook with 42% occurrence; it also shows that a single DM can function differently in the same linguistic environment.

Keywords: role, communicative, discourse markers, facebook, academic staff

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96 Challenges of Teaching and Learning English Speech Sounds in Five Selected Secondary Schools in Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Mairo Musa Galadima, Phoebe Mshelia

Abstract:

In Nigeria, the national policy of education stipulates that the kindergarten primary schools and the legislature are to use the three popular Nigerian Languages namely: Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. However, the English language seems to be preferred and this calls for this paper. Attempts were made to draw out the challenges faced by learners in understanding English speech sounds and using them to communicate effectively in English; using 5(five) selected secondary school in Bauchi. It was discover that challenges abound in the wrong use of stress and intonation, transfer of phonetic features from their first language. Others are inadequate qualified teachers and relevant materials including text-books. It is recommended that teachers of English should lay more emphasis on the teaching of supra-segmental features and should be encouraged to go for further studies, seminars and refresher courses.

Keywords: kindergarten, stress, phonetic and intonation, Nigeria

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95 Seismic Inversion to Improve the Reservoir Characterization: Case Study in Central Blue Nile Basin, Sudan

Authors: Safwat E. Musa, Nuha E. Mohamed, Nuha A. Bagi

Abstract:

In this study, several crossplots of the P-impedance with the lithology logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, deep resistivity, water saturation and Vp/Vs curves) were made in three available wells, which were drilled in central part of the Blue Nile basin in depths varies from 1460 m to 1600 m. These crossplots were successful to discriminate between sand and shale when using P-Impedance values, and between the wet sand and the pay sand when using both P-impedance and Vp/Vs together. Also, some impedance sections were converted to porosity sections using linear formula to characterize the reservoir in terms of porosity. The used crossplots were created on log resolution, while the seismic resolution can identify only the reservoir, unless a 3D seismic angle stacks were available; then it would be easier to identify the pay sand with great confidence; through high resolution seismic inversion and geostatistical approach when using P-impedance and Vp/Vs volumes.

Keywords: basin, Blue Nile, inversion, seismic

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
94 Challenges of Teaching and Learning English Speech Sounds in Five Selected Secondary Schools in Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Mairo Musa Galadima, Phoebe Mshelia

Abstract:

In Nigeria, the national policy of education stipulates that the kindergarten-primary schools and the legislature are to use the three popular Nigerian Languages namely: Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba. However, the English language seems to be preferred and this calls for this paper. Attempts were made to draw out the challenges faced by learners in understanding English speech sounds and using them to communicate effectively in English; using 5 (five) selected secondary school in Bauchi. It was discovered that challenges abound in the wrong use of stress and intonation, transfer of phonetic features from their first language. Others are inadequately qualified teachers and relevant materials including textbooks. It is recommended that teachers of English should lay more emphasis on the teaching of supra-segmental features and should be encouraged to go for further studies, seminars and refresher courses.

Keywords: stress and intonation, phonetic and challenges, teaching and learning English, secondary schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
93 Effect of Chemical Treatment on Mechanical Properties of KENAF Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

Authors: S. S. Abdullahi, H. Musa, A. A. Salisu, A. Ismaila, A. H. Birniwa

Abstract:

In this study the treated and untreated kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester conventional composites were prepared. Hand lay-up technique was used with dump-bell shaped mold. The kenaf bast fiber was retted enzymatically, washed, dried and combed with a nylon brush. A portion of the kenaf fiber was mercerized and treated with benzoylchloride prior to composite fabrication. Untreated kenaf fiber was also used to prepare the composites to serve as control. The cured composites were subjected to various mechanical testes, such as hardness test, impact test and tensile strength test. The results obtained indicated an increase in all the parameters tested with the fiber treatment. This is because the lignin, hemi-celluloses, pectin and other impurities were removed during alkaline treatment (i.e mercerization). This shows that, the durability of the natural cellulosic fibers to different composite applications can be achieved via fiber treatments.

Keywords: composite, kenaf fibre, reinforce, retted

Procedia PDF Downloads 372