Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Shantanu Bhattacharya

65 Semiconducting Nanostructures Based Organic Pollutant Degradation Using Natural Sunlight for Water Remediation

Authors: Ankur Gupta, Jayant Raj Saurav, Shantanu Bhattacharya

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In this work we report an effective water filtration system based on the photo catalytic performance of semiconducting dense nano-brushes under natural sunlight. During thin-film photocatalysis usually performed by a deposited layer of photocatalyst, a stagnant boundary layer is created near the catalyst which adversely affects the rate of adsorption because of diffusional restrictions. One strategy that may be used is to disrupt this laminar boundary layer by creating a super dense nanostructure near the surface of the catalyst. Further it is adequate to fabricate a structured filter element for a through pass of the water with as grown nanostructures coming out of the surface of such an element. So, the dye remediation is performed through solar means. This remediation was initially limited to lower efficiency because of diffusional restrictions but has now turned around as a fast process owing to the development of the filter materials with standing out dense nanostructures. The effect of increased surface area due to microholes on fraction adsorbed is also investigated and found that there is an optimum value of hole diameter for maximum adsorption.

Keywords: nano materials, photocatalysis, waste water treatment, water remediation

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64 3-D Modeling of Particle Size Reduction from Micro to Nano Scale Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: Himanshu Singh, Rishi Kant, Shantanu Bhattacharya

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This paper adopts a top-down approach for mathematical modeling to predict the size reduction from micro to nano-scale through persistent etching. The process is simulated using a finite difference approach. Previously, various researchers have simulated the etching process for 1-D and 2-D substrates. It consists of two processes: 1) Convection-Diffusion in the etchant domain; 2) Chemical reaction at the surface of the particle. Since the process requires analysis along moving boundary, partial differential equations involved cannot be solved using conventional methods. In 1-D, this problem is very similar to Stefan's problem of moving ice-water boundary. A fixed grid method using finite volume method is very popular for modelling of etching on a one and two dimensional substrate. Other popular approaches include moving grid method and level set method. In this method, finite difference method was used to discretize the spherical diffusion equation. Due to symmetrical distribution of etchant, the angular terms in the equation can be neglected. Concentration is assumed to be constant at the outer boundary. At the particle boundary, the concentration of the etchant is assumed to be zero since the rate of reaction is much faster than rate of diffusion. The rate of reaction is proportional to the velocity of the moving boundary of the particle. Modelling of the above reaction was carried out using Matlab. The initial particle size was taken to be 50 microns. The density, molecular weight and diffusion coefficient of the substrate were taken as 2.1 gm/cm3, 60 and 10-5 cm2/s respectively. The etch-rate was found to decline initially and it gradually became constant at 0.02µ/s (1.2µ/min). The concentration profile was plotted along with space at different time intervals. Initially, a sudden drop is observed at the particle boundary due to high-etch rate. This change becomes more gradual with time due to declination of etch rate.

Keywords: particle size reduction, micromixer, FDM modelling, wet etching

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63 The Subcellular Localisation of EhRRP6 and Its Involvement in Pre-Ribosomal RNA Processing in Growth-Stressed Entamoeba histolytica

Authors: S. S. Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Bhattacharya

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The eukaryotic exosome complex plays a pivotal role in RNA biogenesis, maturation, surveillance and differential expression of various RNAs in response to varying environmental signals. The exosome is composed of evolutionary conserved nine core subunits and the associated exonucleases Rrp6 and Rrp44. Rrp6p is crucial for the processing of rRNAs, other non-coding RNAs, regulation of polyA tail length and termination of transcription. Rrp6p, a 3’-5’ exonuclease is required for degradation of 5’-external transcribed spacer (ETS) released from the rRNA precursors during the early steps of pre-rRNA processing. In the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica in response to growth stress, there occurs the accumulation of unprocessed pre-rRNA and 5’ ETS sub fragment. To understand the processes leading to this accumulation, we looked for Rrp6 and the exosome subunits in E. histolytica, by in silico approaches. Of the nine core exosomal subunits, seven had high percentage of sequence similarity with the yeast and human. The EhRrp6 homolog contained exoribonuclease and HRDC domains like yeast but its N- terminus lacked the PMC2NT domain. EhRrp6 complemented the temperature sensitive phenotype of yeast rrp6Δ cells suggesting conservation of biological activity. We showed 3’-5’ exoribonuclease activity of EhRrp6p with in vitro-synthesized appropriate RNAs substrates. Like the yeast enzyme, EhRrp6p degraded unstructured RNA, but could degrade the stem-loops slowly. Furthermore, immunolocalization revealed that EhRrp6 was nuclear-localized in normal cells but was diminished from nucleus during serum starvation, which could explain the accumulation of 5’ETS during stress. Our study shows functional conservation of EhRrp6p in E.histolytica, an early-branching eukaryote, and will help to understand the evolution of exosomal components and their regulatory function.

Keywords: entamoeba histolytica, exosome complex, rRNA processing, Rrp6

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
62 A System to Detect Inappropriate Messages in Online Social Networks

Authors: Shivani Singh, Shantanu Nakhare, Kalyani Nair, Rohan Shetty

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As social networking is growing at a rapid pace today it is vital that we work on improving its management. Research has shown that the content present in online social networks may have significant influence on impressionable minds. If such platforms are misused, it will lead to negative consequences. Detecting insults or inappropriate messages continues to be one of the most challenging aspects of Online Social Networks (OSNs) today. We address this problem through a Machine Learning Based Soft Text Classifier approach using Support Vector Machine algorithm. The proposed system acts as a screening mechanism the alerts the user about such messages. The messages are classified according to their subject matter and each comment is labeled for the presence of profanity and insults.

Keywords: machine learning, online social networks, soft text classifier, support vector machine

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61 Potential Role of IL-1β in Synovial Fluid in Modulating Multiple Joint Tissue Pathologies Leading to Inflammation and Accelerating Cartilage Degeneration

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Datta Shinde, Shantanu Deshpande, Narendrakumar Wagh, Abhay Harsulkar

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with multiple and overlapping aetiologies. IL-1β is produced by stressed tissue and known to aggravate disease pathologies. We selected 10 patients with elevated IL-1β in their synovial fluids (SF). We hypothesized IL-1β as nodal-point connecting different pathologies. IL-1β was higher in all meniscal tear (MT) patients perhaps as the earliest response to injury. Since MT above age of 30 leads to OA in less than 5 years, it is attributed that IL-1β modulates OA pathology. Among all bilateral OA patients, an interesting case operated for Total-Knee-Replacement revealed differential cartilage degeneration demonstrating strong association with higher IL-1β. Symptoms like acute-pain, effusion and redness were correlated with higher IL-1β and NO (Nitric-oxide). However, higher IL-1β was also found without typical-inflammation characterized by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Cultured synoviocytes responded to IL-1β by releasing NO. In conclusion, IL-1β in SF acquires central position influencing different OA pathologies and aetiologies.

Keywords: IL-1β, meniscal tear, osteoarthritis, synovial fluid

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60 A Terahertz Sensor and Dynamic Switch Based on a Bilayer Toroidal Metamaterial

Authors: Angana Bhattacharya, Rakesh Sarkar, Gagan Kumar

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Toroidal resonances, a new class of electromagnetic excitations, demonstrate exceptional properties as compared to electric and magnetic dipolar resonances. The advantage of narrow linewidth in toroidal resonance is utilized in this proposed work, where a bilayer metamaterial (MM) sensor has been designed in the terahertz frequency regime (THz). A toroidal MM geometry in a single layer is first studied. A second identical MM geometry placed on top of the first layer results in the coupling of toroidal excitations, leading to an increase in the quality factor (Q) of the resonance. The sensing capability of the resonance is studied. Further, the dynamic switching from an 'off' stage to an 'on' stage in the bilayer configuration is explored. The ardent study of such toroidal bilayer MMs could provide significant potential in the development of bio-molecular and chemical sensors, switches, and modulators.

Keywords: toroidal resonance, bilayer, metamaterial, terahertz, sensing, switching

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59 MWCNT/CuFe10Al2O19/Polyanilie Nanocomposite for Microwave Absorbing Applications

Authors: Pallab Bhattacharya, C. K. Das

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Development of microwave absorbing material is a growing field of research in both the commercial and defense sector, and also to enrich the field of stealth technology. The recent work is attentive to the preparation of nanocomposite based on acid modified MWCNT, hexagonal shaped magnetic M-type hexaferrite (CuFe10Al2O19) and polyaniline. CuFe10Al2O19 was prepared by a facile chemical co-precipitation method. An in-situ approach was employed for the coating of polyaniline on MWCNT/CuFe10Al2O19 nanocomposite. The final fabrication of this nanocomposite for microwave measurements was done suitably in the matrix of thermoplastic polyurethane with 10% filler content. The nanocomposites showed the maximum reflection loss of -60.2 dB (in X-band) at the thickness of 2.5 mm with a broad absorption range in contrast to the pristine MWCNT and CuFe10Al2O19. Addition of PANI improves the microwave absorption property of the nanocomposites. The thermal stability of the prepared nanocomposites is also very high.

Keywords: magnetic materials, microwave absorption, MWCNT, nanocomposites

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58 Technology Computer Aided Design Simulation of Space Charge Limited Conduction in Polycrystalline Thin Films

Authors: Kunj Parikh, S. Bhattacharya, V. Natarajan

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TCAD numerical simulation is one of the most tried and tested powerful tools for designing devices in semiconductor foundries worldwide. It has also been used to explain conduction in organic thin films where the processing temperature is often enough to make homogeneous samples (often imperfect, but homogeneously imperfect). In this report, we have presented the results of TCAD simulation in multi-grain thin films. The work has addressed the inhomogeneity in one dimension, but can easily be extended to two and three dimensions. The effect of grain boundaries has mainly been approximated as barriers located at the junction between two adjacent grains. The effect of the value of grain boundary barrier, the bulk traps, and the measurement temperature have been investigated.

Keywords: polycrystalline thin films, space charge limited conduction, Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulation, traps

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57 Modeling and Optimal Control of Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Wind Disturbance

Authors: Sunsoo Kim, Niladri Das, Raktim Bhattacharya

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This paper addresses modeling and control of a six-degree-of-freedom unmanned aerial vehicle capable of vertical take-off and landing in the presence of wind disturbances. We design a hybrid vehicle that combines the benefits of both the fixed-wing and the rotary-wing UAVs. A non-linear model for the hybrid vehicle is rapidly built, combining rigid body dynamics, aerodynamics of wing, and dynamics of the motor and propeller. Further, we design a H₂ optimal controller to make the UAV robust to wind disturbances. We compare its results against that of proportional-integral-derivative and linear-quadratic regulator based control. Our proposed controller results in better performance in terms of root mean squared errors and time responses during two scenarios: hover and level- flight.

Keywords: hybrid UAVs, VTOL, aircraft modeling, H2 optimal control, wind disturbances

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56 Synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Chitosan Nanocomposite for Methylene Blue Adsorption

Authors: S. Melvin Samuel, Jayanta Bhattacharya

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In the present study, a graphene oxide/chitosan (GO-CS) composite material was prepared and used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The synthesized GO-CS adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of MB was conducted in batch mode. The effect of parameters influencing the adsorption of MB such as pH of the solution, initial MB concentration, shaking speed, contact time and adsorbent dosage were studied. The results showed that the GO-CS composite material has high adsorption capacity of 196 mg/g of MB solution at pH 9.0. Further, the adsorption of MB on GO-CS followed pseudo second order kinetics and equilibrium adsorption data well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The study suggests that the GO-CS is a favorable adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Methylene blue, Graphene oxide-chitosan, Isotherms, Kinetics.

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55 Determination of Safe Ore Extraction Methodology beneath Permanent Extraction in a Lead Zinc Mine with the Help of FLAC3D Numerical Model

Authors: Ayan Giri, Lukaranjan Phukan, Shantanu Karmakar

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Structure and tectonics play a vital role in ore genesis and deposition. The existence of a swelling structure below the current level of a mine leads to the discovery of ores below some permeant developments of the mine. The discovery and the extraction of the ore body are very critical to sustain the business requirement of the mine. The challenge was to extract the ore without hampering the global stability of the mine. In order to do so, different mining options were considered and analysed by numerical modelling in FLAC3d software. The constitutive model prepared for this simulation is the improved unified constitutive model, which can better and more accurately predict the stress-strain relationships in a continuum model. The IUCM employs the Hoek-Brown criterion to determine the instantaneous Mohr-Coulomb parameters cohesion (c) and friction (ɸ) at each level of confining stress. The extra swelled part can be dimensioned as north-south strike width 50m, east-west strike width 50m. On the north side, already a stope (P1) is excavated of the dimension of 25m NS width. The different options considered were (a) Open stoping of extraction of southern part (P0) of 50m to the full extent, (b) Extraction of the southern part of 25m, then filling of both the primaries and extraction of secondary (S0) 25m in between. (c) Extraction of the southern part (P0) completely, preceded by backfill and modify the design of the secondary (S0) for the overall stability of the permanent excavation above the stoping.

Keywords: extraction, IUCM, FLAC 3D, stoping, tectonics

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54 Surveillance of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Circulating in North India

Authors: Shantanu Prakash, Suruchi Shukla, Amita Jain

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Introduction: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. Injection drug use and individuals receiving blood and blood products are the primary modes of HCV transmission. Our study aims to establish the prevalent genotypes/ subtypes of HCV circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India, as reported from a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It is a retrospective observational analysis of consecutive 404 HCV RNA positive cases referred to our hospital during September 2014 to April 2017. The study was approved by an institutional ethics committee. Written informed consent was taken from each participant. Clinical and demographic details of these patients were recorded using predesigned questionnaires. All the laboratory testing was carried on stored serum sample of enrolled cases. Genotyping of all 404 strains was done by Sanger’s sequencing of the core region. The phylogenetic analysis of 179 HCV strains with high -quality sequencing data was performed. Results: The distribution of prevalent genotypes/ subtypes as noted in the present study was; Genotype (GT)1a [n-101(25%)], GT1b [n-12(2.9%)], GT1c [1(0.25%)], GT3a [275(68.07%)], GT3b [9(2.2%)], GT3g [2(0.49%)], GT3i [3(0.74%)], and GT4a [1(0.24%)]. HCV genotypes GT2, GT5 and GT6 were not detected from our region. Sequence analysis showed high genotypic variability in HCV GT3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HCV GT3 and GT1 circulating in our region were related to Indian strains reported earlier. Conclusions: HCV genotypes 3a and 1a are commonest circulating genotypes in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India.

Keywords: Hepatitis C virus, genetic variation, bioinformatics, genotype, HCV

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53 Clinical, Demographic and Molecular Characterization of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Viruses Causing Hemorrhagic Fever in North India

Authors: Suruchi Shukla, Shantanu Prakash, Amita Jain

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Introduction: Arboviral diseases are one of the most common causes of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). Of which, Dengue and Chikungunya pose a significant health problem in India. Arbovirus has a tendency to cross the territories and emerge in the new region. Considering the above issues, in the current study active surveillance was conducted among viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) cases reported from Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. We studied the arboviral etiology of VHF; mainly Dengue, Chikungunya, and ZIKA. Methods: Clinical samples of 465 suspected VHF cases referred to tertiary care referral center of UP, India were enrolled in the study during a period from 15th May 2016 to 9th March 2018. Serum specimens were collected and analyzed for the presence of Dengue, Chikungunya, and ZIKA either by serology and/or by molecular assays. Results: Of all tested, 165 (35.4%) cases were positive for either Dengue or Chikungunya. Dengue (21.2%) was found to be the most prevalent, followed by Chikungunya, (6.6%). None of the cases tested positive for ZIKA virus. Serum samples of 35 (7.5%) cases were positive for both Dengue and Chikungunya. DEN-2 serotype was the most predominant serotype. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of DEN-2 strains showed 100% clustering with the Cosmopolitan genotype strain. Bleeding from several sites, jaundice, abdominal pain, arthralgia, haemoconcentration, and thrombocytopenia were significantly higher in dengue hemorrhagic cases. However, the rash was significantly more common in Chikungunya patients. Most of the Dengue and Chikungunya positive cases (Age group 6-40 years) were seen in post monsoon season (September to November). Conclusion: Only one-third of total VHF cases are positive for either Dengue/Chikungunya or both. This necessitates the screening of other etiologies capable of causing hemorrhagic manifestations.

Keywords: viral hemorrhagic fever, dengue, chikungunya, zika, India

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52 Orientia Tsutsugamushi an Emerging Etiology of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in Northern Part of India

Authors: Amita Jain, Shantanu Prakash, Suruchi Shukla

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Introduction: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a complex multi etiology syndrome posing a great public health problem in the northern part of India. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is an established etiology of AES in this region. Recently, Scrub typhus (ST) is being recognized as an emerging aetiology of AES in JE endemic belt. This study was conducted to establish the direct evidence of Central nervous system invasion by Orientia tsutsugamushi leading to AES. Methodology: A total of 849 cases with clinical diagnosis of AES were enrolled from six districts (Deoria and its adjoining area) of the traditional north Indian Japanese encephalitis (JE) belt. Serum and Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and tested for major agent causing acute encephalitis. AES cases either positive for anti-ST IgM antibodies or negative for all tested etiologies were investigated for ST-DNA by real-time PCR. Results: Of these 505 cases, 250 patients were laboratory confirmed for O. tsutsugamushi infection either by anti-ST IgM antibodies positivity (n=206) on serum sample or by ST-DNA detection by real-time PCR assay on CSF sample (n=2) or by both (n=42).Total 29 isolate could be sequenced for 56KDa gene. Conclusion: All the strains were found to cluster with Gilliam strains. The majority of the isolates showed a 97–99% sequence similarity with Thailand and Cambodian strains. Gilliam strain of O.tsusugamushi is an emerging as one of the major aetiologies leading to AES in northern part of India.

Keywords: acute encephalitis syndrome, O. tsutsugamushi, Gilliam strain, North India, cerebrospinal fluid

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51 The Number of Corona Virus Infections in 2020

Authors: Yasaswi Vengalasetti, Jacob Eisenach, Jay Bhattacharya

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Seroprevalence studies can provide an estimation of the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR), the probability of death given infection. Measuring the seroprevalence and reported deaths of an area within a given time frame an IFR can be estimated. With this IFR calculation, we can then observe COVID-19 death figures in different countries around the world and estimate the number of cases since the onset of the pandemic. There is a large range for estimated COVID-19 infections across different countries. This ranged from 0.659 million infections in Hong Kong to 277 million infections in India. The largest estimated share of the population infected is 63% in Peru and the lowest is 3% in Norway. For younger populations, COVID-19 is most fatal in South America; for older populations, it is most fatal in North America. The Asian regions stand out with significantly lower IFRs in older populations: at 80 years old, COVID-19 is about three times as fatal than in South Asia and about twelve times as fatal than in East Asia. The weighted average for the share of the population infected, the sum of infections divided by the sum of populations across all countries, is 23%.

Keywords: epidemiology, seroprevalence, covid-19, infection fatality rate

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50 Production of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC) from Rice Husk Biomass by Chemical Extraction Process

Authors: Md. Sakinul Islam, Nhol Kao, Sati Bhattacharya, Rahul Gupta

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The objective of the study is to produce naocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from rice husk by chemical extraction process. The chemical extraction processes of this production are delignification, bleaching and hydrolysis. In order to produce NCC, raw rice husk (RRH) was grinded and converted to powder form. Powder rice husk was obtained by sieving and the particles in the 75-710 μm size range was used for experimental work. The production of NCC was conducted into the jacketed glass reactor at 80 ˚C temperature under predetermined experimental conditions. In this work NaOH (4M) solution was used for delignification process. After certain experimental time delignified powder RH was collected from the reactor then washed, bleached and finally hydrolyzed in order to degrade cellulose to nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). For bleaching and hydrolysis processes NaOCl (20%) and H2SO4 (4M) solutions were used, respectively. The resultant products from hydrolysis was neutralized by buffer solution and analyzed by FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TEM. From the analysis, NCC has been identified successfully and the particle dimension has been confirmed to be in the range of 20-50 nm. From XRD results, the crystallinity of NCC was found to be approximately 45%.

Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose, NCC, rice husk, biomass, chemical extraction

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49 From Sympathizers to Perpetrators: Examining the Involvement of Rural Women in Bangladesh in Violent Extremism

Authors: Shantanu Majumder

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This paper attempts to explain the factors contribute in attracting and engaging rural women in Bangladesh toward political Islam that in many cases manifests itself in the form of violent extremism (VE). Bangladesh, the fourth largest Muslim majority country in the world, has been confronting the problem of VE in the name of Islam since a long. The political Islamists, explaining the events like military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, anti-Muslim politics in neighboring India and Myanmar, Islamophobia in the West, and several other issues in their own way, have become to a vast extent successful in creating a high level of emotion, anger and a feeling of being oppressed worldwide among the ordinary Muslims masses. Half-hearted role of public intellectuals and political expediency of liberal political forces in explaining these events in a secular democratic way also facilitate the extremists to earn political dividend. VE was perceived as an all-male activism of the political Islamists’ in the past in Bangladesh. However, evidence in the recent times shows that there are sympathizers, recruiters, and perpetrators as well among the womenfolk in favor of VE-based political Islam. The first section in this paper sheds light on the way the political Islamists build rapport with and win over the heart of target women in countryside under the camouflage of preaching authentic Islam. This section also describes the role of family in involvement of women in VE. The second section discusses wide-ranging use of websites, facebook, laptop, mobile phones and several other means in the way to motivate and radicalize women. How the involvement with political Islamists brings changes in thinking process, lifestyle and family life of motivated women has been focused in the third section. The final section deals briefly with the way out relying on the argument that law and order forces alone cannot tackle this problem.

Keywords: Bangladesh, political Islam, violent extremism, women

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48 Infrastructural Investment and Economic Growth in Indian States: A Panel Data Analysis

Authors: Jonardan Koner, Basabi Bhattacharya, Avinash Purandare

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The study is focused to find out the impact of infrastructural investment on economic development in Indian states. The study uses panel data analysis to measure the impact of infrastructural investment on Real Gross Domestic Product in Indian States. Panel data analysis incorporates Unit Root Test, Cointegration Teat, Pooled Ordinary Least Squares, Fixed Effect Approach, Random Effect Approach, Hausman Test. The study analyzes panel data (annual in frequency) ranging from 1991 to 2012 and concludes that infrastructural investment has a desirable impact on economic development in Indian. Finally, the study reveals that the infrastructural investment significantly explains the variation of economic indicator.

Keywords: infrastructural investment, real GDP, unit root test, cointegration teat, pooled ordinary least squares, fixed effect approach, random effect approach, Hausman test

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47 Other-Generated Disclosure: A Challenge to Privacy on Social Network Sites

Authors: Tharntip Tawnie Chutikulrungsee, Oliver Kisalay Burmeister, Maumita Bhattacharya, Dragana Calic

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Sharing on social network sites (SNSs) has rapidly emerged as a new social norm and has become a global phenomenon. Billions of users reveal not only their own information (self disclosure) but also information about others (other-generated disclosure), resulting in a risk and a serious threat to either personal or informational privacy. Self-disclosure (SD) has been extensively researched in the literature, particularly regarding control of individual and existing privacy management. However, far too little attention has been paid to other-generated disclosure (OGD), especially by insiders. OGD has a strong influence on self-presentation, self-image, and electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Moreover, OGD is more credible and less likely manipulated than SD, but lacks privacy control and legal protection to some extent. This article examines OGD in depth, ranging from motivation to both online and offline impacts, based upon lived experiences from both ‘the disclosed’ and ‘the discloser’. Using purposive sampling, this phenomenological study involves an online survey and in-depth interviews. The findings report the influence of peer disclosure as well as users’ strategies to mitigate privacy issues. This article also calls attention to the challenge of OGD privacy and inadequacies in the law related to privacy protection in the digital domain.

Keywords: facebook, online privacy, other-generated disclosure, social networks sites (SNSs)

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46 Correlation between Diabetic Cataract, HBA1C and Gurakhu, a Clinical Study in Chhattisgarh State

Authors: A. Bhattacharya, Sanjay Gupta, S. H. Bodakhe

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HbA1c is form of the haemoglobin that is used to measure the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Guraku’s basic components are nicotine and jaggery, jaggery is made up of sugarcane so can have a diabetogenic potential which is exacerbated in presence of nicotine. This work had done with the aim to find correlation between Diabetic cataract, HbA1c and Guraku. Subjects were enrolled according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In this study total 75 subjects were included. In the study it was found that people consuming Guraku had a high level of HbA1c thus are more prone to the development of diabetic cataract. Male subjects are the more than female subjects. Most of the subjects belong to the lower socioeconomical class and not very educated. It could be concluded that this type of study could be useful in indentifying number of subjects suffering from diabetic cataract whose condition get worse by use of nicotine product like Guraku and preventive measure to be taken in prevention of this type of diabetic complication.

Keywords: diabetic cataract, HbA1c, Guraku, diabetogenic potential

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45 Reduced Lung Volume: A Possible Cause of Stuttering

Authors: Shantanu Arya, Sachin Sakhuja, Gunjan Mehta, Sanjay Munjal

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Stuttering may be defined as a speech disorder affecting the fluency domain of speech and characterized by covert features like word substitution, omittance and circumlocution and overt features like prolongation of sound, syllables and blocks etc. Many etiologies have been postulated to explain stuttering based on various experiments and research. Moreover, Breathlessness has also been reported by many individuals with stuttering for which breathing exercises are generally advised. However, no studies reporting objective evaluation of the pulmonary capacity and further objective assessment of the efficacy of breathing exercises have been conducted. Pulmonary Function Test which evaluates parameters like Forced Vital Capacity, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate, Forced expiratory flow Rate can be used to study the pulmonary behavior of individuals with stuttering. The study aimed: a) To identify speech motor & physiologic behaviours associated with stuttering by administering PFT. b) To recognize possible reasons for an association between speech motor behaviour & stuttering severity. In this regard, PFT tests were administered on individuals who reported signs and symptoms of stuttering and showed abnormal scores on Stuttering Severity Index. Parameters like Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (L/min), Forced Expiratory Flow Rate (L/min) were evaluated and correlated with scores of Stuttering Severity Index. Results showed significant decrease in the parameters (lower than normal scores) in individuals with established stuttering. Strong correlation was also found between degree of stuttering and the degree of decrease in the pulmonary volumes. Thus, it is evident that fluent speech requires strong support of lung pressure and requisite volumes. Further research in demonstrating the efficacy of abdominal breathing exercises in this regard is needed.

Keywords: forced expiratory flow rate, forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate, stuttering

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44 Re-Conceptualizing the Indigenous Learning Space for Children in Bangladesh Placing Built Environment as Third Teacher

Authors: Md. Mahamud Hassan, Shantanu Biswas Linkon, Nur Mohammad Khan

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Over the last three decades, the primary education system in Bangladesh has experienced significant improvement, but it has failed to cope with different social and cultural aspects, which present many challenges for children, families, and the public school system. Neglecting our own contextual learning environment, it is a matter of sorrow that much attention has been paid to the more physical outcome-focused model, which is nothing but mere infrastructural development, and less subtle to the environment that suits the child's psychology and improves their social, emotional, physical, and moral competency. In South Asia, the symbol of education was never the little red house of colonial architecture but “A Guru sitting under a tree", whereas a responsive and inclusive design approach could help to create more innovative learning environments. Such an approach incorporates how the built, natural, and cultural environment shapes the learner; in turn, learners shape the learning. This research will be conducted to, i) identify the major issues and drawbacks of government policy for primary education development programs; ii) explore and evaluate the morphology of the conventional model of school, and iii) propose an alternative model in a collaborative design process with the stakeholders for maximizing the relationship between the physical learning environments and learners by treating “the built environment” as “the third teacher.” Based on observation, this research will try to find out to what extent built, and natural environments can be utilized as a teaching tool for a more optimal learning environment. It should also be evident that there is a significant gap in the state policy, predetermined educational specifications, and implementation process in response to stakeholders’ involvement. The outcome of this research will contribute to a people-place sensitive design approach through a more thoughtful and responsive architectural process.

Keywords: built environment, conventional planning, indigenous learning space, responsive design

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43 Metallurgical Analysis of Surface Defect in Telescopic Front Fork

Authors: Souvik Das, Janak Lal, Arthita Dey, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Bhattacharya

Abstract:

Telescopic Front Fork (TFF) used in two wheelers, mainly motorcycle, is made from high strength steel, and is manufactured by high frequency induction welding process wherein hot rolled and pickled coils are used as input raw material for rolling of hollow tubes followed by heat treatment, surface treatment, cold drawing, tempering, etc. The final application demands superior quality TFF tubes w.r.t. surface finish and dimensional tolerances. This paper presents the investigation of two different types of failure of fork during operation. The investigation consists of visual inspection, chemical analysis, characterization of microstructure, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In this paper, comprehensive investigations of two failed tube samples were investigated. In case of Sample #1, the result revealed that there was a pre-existing crack, known as hook crack, which leads to the cracking of the tube. Metallographic examination exhibited that during field operation the pre-existing hook crack was surfaced out leading to crack in the pipe. In case of Sample #2, presence of internal oxidation with decarburised grains inside the material indicates origin of the defect from slab stage.

Keywords: telescopic front fork, induction welding, hook crack, internal oxidation

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42 Speed Breaker/Pothole Detection Using Hidden Markov Models: A Deep Learning Approach

Authors: Surajit Chakrabarty, Piyush Chauhan, Subhasis Panda, Sujoy Bhattacharya

Abstract:

A large proportion of roads in India are not well maintained as per the laid down public safety guidelines leading to loss of direction control and fatal accidents. We propose a technique to detect speed breakers and potholes using mobile sensor data captured from multiple vehicles and provide a profile of the road. This would, in turn, help in monitoring roads and revolutionize digital maps. Incorporating randomness in the model formulation for detection of speed breakers and potholes is crucial due to substantial heterogeneity observed in data obtained using a mobile application from multiple vehicles driven by different drivers. This is accomplished with Hidden Markov Models, whose hidden state sequence is found for each time step given the observables sequence, and are then fed as input to LSTM network with peephole connections. A precision score of 0.96 and 0.63 is obtained for classifying bumps and potholes, respectively, a significant improvement from the machine learning based models. Further visualization of bumps/potholes is done by converting time series to images using Markov Transition Fields where a significant demarcation among bump/potholes is observed.

Keywords: deep learning, hidden Markov model, pothole, speed breaker

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41 Musicals in Film Adaptation in Bollywood with Special Reference to Basu Bhattacharya's Film Teesari Kasam

Authors: Gokul G. Kshirsagar

Abstract:

Native folk theatre and folk songs have a significant influence on the origin and development of Indian cinema. Therefore, the presence of songs and music has been an integral part and special characteristics of Indian cinema which is popularly known as Bollywood. An Indian cinema without songs, either in Hindi or other regional languages, is simply unimaginable. The present paper, in the first part, attempts to explain the use and need of musical songs and also the psychology of Indian audience in this respect with reference to some of the films which give primary importance to songs. In the second part, the paper tries to situate the present study in the context by referring to the Hindi language drama film Teesari Kasam directed by Basu Bhattacharys. The film is based on the Hindi novelist Phanishwarnath Renu’s short story Teesari Kasam (Mare Gaye Gulfam) in this adapted film, the director has made use of eight songs, but these songs are the extensive versions of the songs as used in the original story. Thus, the main aim of the paper is to underscore the fact that through artistic use of the musical, the director has succeeded in transforming the central feelings conveyed in the original story. Eventually, through the present study of the film adaptation, the relevance of songs in films will be illustrated and understood.

Keywords: Bollywood, folk theatre, folk songs, film adaptation

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40 Influence of Auditory Visual Information in Speech Perception in Children with Normal Hearing and Cochlear Implant

Authors: Sachin, Shantanu Arya, Gunjan Mehta, Md. Shamim Ansari

Abstract:

The cross-modal influence of visual information on speech perception can be illustrated by the McGurk effect which is an illusion of hearing of syllable /ta/ when a listener listens one syllable, e.g.: /pa/ while watching a synchronized video recording of syllable, /ka/. The McGurk effect is an excellent tool to investigate multisensory integration in speech perception in both normal hearing and hearing impaired populations. As the visual cue is unaffected by noise, individuals with hearing impairment rely more than normal listeners on the visual cues.However, when non congruent visual and auditory cues are processed together, audiovisual interaction seems to occur differently in normal and persons with hearing impairment. Therefore, this study aims to observe the audiovisual interaction in speech perception in Cochlear Implant users compares the same with normal hearing children. Auditory stimuli was routed through calibrated Clinical audiometer in sound field condition, and visual stimuli were presented on laptop screen placed at a distance of 1m at 0 degree azimuth. Out of 4 presentations, if 3 responses were a fusion, then McGurk effect was considered to be present. The congruent audiovisual stimuli /pa/ /pa/ and /ka/ /ka/ were perceived correctly as ‘‘pa’’ and ‘‘ka,’’ respectively by both the groups. For the non- congruent stimuli /da/ /pa/, 23 children out of 35 with normal hearing and 9 children out of 35 with cochlear implant had a fusion of sounds i.e. McGurk effect was present. For the non-congruent stimulus /pa/ /ka/, 25 children out of 35 with normal hearing and 8 children out of 35 with cochlear implant had fusion of sounds.The children who used cochlear implants for less than three years did not exhibit fusion of sound i.e. McGurk effect was absent in this group of children. To conclude, the results demonstrate that consistent fusion of visual with auditory information for speech perception is shaped by experience with bimodal spoken language during early life. When auditory experience with speech is mediated by cochlear implant, the likelihood of acquiring bimodal fusion is increased and it greatly depends on the age of implantation. All the above results strongly support the need for screening children for hearing capabilities and providing cochlear implants and aural rehabilitation as early as possible.

Keywords: cochlear implant, congruent stimuli, mcgurk effect, non-congruent stimuli

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39 Intra-miR-ExploreR, a Novel Bioinformatics Platform for Integrated Discovery of MiRNA:mRNA Gene Regulatory Networks

Authors: Surajit Bhattacharya, Daniel Veltri, Atit A. Patel, Daniel N. Cox

Abstract:

miRNAs have emerged as key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, however identification of biologically-relevant target genes for this epigenetic regulatory mechanism remains a significant challenge. To address this knowledge gap, we have developed a novel tool in R, Intra-miR-ExploreR, that facilitates integrated discovery of miRNA targets by incorporating target databases and novel target prediction algorithms, using statistical methods including Pearson and Distance Correlation on microarray data, to arrive at high confidence intragenic miRNA target predictions. We have explored the efficacy of this tool using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism for bioinformatics analyses and functional validation. A number of putative targets were obtained which were also validated using qRT-PCR analysis. Additional features of the tool include downloadable text files containing GO analysis from DAVID and Pubmed links of literature related to gene sets. Moreover, we are constructing interaction maps of intragenic miRNAs, using both micro array and RNA-seq data, focusing on neural tissues to uncover regulatory codes via which these molecules regulate gene expression to direct cellular development.

Keywords: miRNA, miRNA:mRNA target prediction, statistical methods, miRNA:mRNA interaction network

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38 Failure Analysis of Low Relaxation Prestressed High Carbon Steel Wire During Drawing Operation: A Metallurgical Investigation

Authors: Souvik Das, Sandip Bhattacharya, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Manashi Adhikary

Abstract:

Wires breakages during cold drawing are a complex phenomenon; wire breakages may be induced by improper wire-rod quality, inappropriate heat-treated microstructure, and/or lubrication breakdown on the wire surface. A comprehensive metallurgical investigation of failed/broken wire samples is therefore essential for understanding the origin of failure. Frequent breakage of wires during drawing is a matter of serious concern to the wire drawers as it erodes their already slim margins through reduced productivity and loss in yield. The present paper highlights the failure investigation of wires of Low Relaxation Prestressed High Carbon grade during cold drawing due to entrapment of hard constituents detached from the roller entry guide during rolling operations. The hardness measurement of this entrapped location indicates 54.9 Rockwell Hardness as against the rest portion 33.4 Rockwell Hardness. The microstructure chemical analysis and X-ray mapping analysis data of the entrapment location confirmed complex chromium carbide originated from D2-steel used in entry guide during the rolling process. Since the harder entrapped phase could not be deformed in the same manner as the parent phase, the failure of the wire rod occurs during hot rolling.

Keywords: LRPC, D2-steel, chromium carbide, roller guide

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37 Utility of Range of Motion Measurements on Classification of Athletes

Authors: Dhiraj Dolai, Rupayan Bhattacharya

Abstract:

In this study, a comparison of Range Of Motion (ROM) of middle and long-distance runners and swimmers has been made. The mobility of the various joints is essential for the quick movement of any sportsman. Knowledge of a ROM helps in preventing injuries, in repeating the movement, and in generating speed and power. ROM varies among individuals, and it is influenced by factors such as gender, age, and whether the motion is performed actively or passively. ROM for running and swimming, both performed with due consideration on speed, plays an important role. The time of generation of speed and mobility of the particular joints are very important for both kinds of athletes. The difficulties that happen during running and swimming in the direction of motion is changed. In this study, data were collected for a total of 102 subjects divided into three groups: control group (22), middle and long-distance runners (40), and swimmers (40), and their ages are between 12 to 18 years. The swimmers have higher ROM in shoulder joint flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movement. Middle and long-distance runners have significantly greater ROM from Control Group in the left shoulder joint flexion with a 5.82 mean difference. Swimmers have significantly higher ROM from the Control Group in the left shoulder joint flexion with 24.84 mean difference and swimmers have significantly higher ROM from the Middle and Long distance runners in left shoulder flexion with 19.02 mean difference. The picture will be clear after a more detailed investigation.

Keywords: range of motion, runners, swimmers, significance

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36 Improving Flash Flood Forecasting with a Bayesian Probabilistic Approach: A Case Study on the Posina Basin in Italy

Authors: Zviad Ghadua, Biswa Bhattacharya

Abstract:

The Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) provides the rainfall amount of a given duration necessary to cause flooding. The approach is based on the development of rainfall-runoff curves, which helps us to find out the rainfall amount that would cause flooding. An alternative approach, mostly experimented with Italian Alpine catchments, is based on determining threshold discharges from past events and on finding whether or not an oncoming flood has its magnitude more than some critical discharge thresholds found beforehand. Both approaches suffer from large uncertainties in forecasting flash floods as, due to the simplistic approach followed, the same rainfall amount may or may not cause flooding. This uncertainty leads to the question whether a probabilistic model is preferable over a deterministic one in forecasting flash floods. We propose the use of a Bayesian probabilistic approach in flash flood forecasting. A prior probability of flooding is derived based on historical data. Additional information, such as antecedent moisture condition (AMC) and rainfall amount over any rainfall thresholds are used in computing the likelihood of observing these conditions given a flash flood has occurred. Finally, the posterior probability of flooding is computed using the prior probability and the likelihood. The variation of the computed posterior probability with rainfall amount and AMC presents the suitability of the approach in decision making in an uncertain environment. The methodology has been applied to the Posina basin in Italy. From the promising results obtained, we can conclude that the Bayesian approach in flash flood forecasting provides more realistic forecasting over the FFG.

Keywords: flash flood, Bayesian, flash flood guidance, FFG, forecasting, Posina

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