Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9852

Search results for: forced expiratory flow rate

9852 Reduced Lung Volume: A Possible Cause of Stuttering

Authors: Shantanu Arya, Sachin Sakhuja, Gunjan Mehta, Sanjay Munjal


Stuttering may be defined as a speech disorder affecting the fluency domain of speech and characterized by covert features like word substitution, omittance and circumlocution and overt features like prolongation of sound, syllables and blocks etc. Many etiologies have been postulated to explain stuttering based on various experiments and research. Moreover, Breathlessness has also been reported by many individuals with stuttering for which breathing exercises are generally advised. However, no studies reporting objective evaluation of the pulmonary capacity and further objective assessment of the efficacy of breathing exercises have been conducted. Pulmonary Function Test which evaluates parameters like Forced Vital Capacity, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate, Forced expiratory flow Rate can be used to study the pulmonary behavior of individuals with stuttering. The study aimed: a) To identify speech motor & physiologic behaviours associated with stuttering by administering PFT. b) To recognize possible reasons for an association between speech motor behaviour & stuttering severity. In this regard, PFT tests were administered on individuals who reported signs and symptoms of stuttering and showed abnormal scores on Stuttering Severity Index. Parameters like Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (L/min), Forced Expiratory Flow Rate (L/min) were evaluated and correlated with scores of Stuttering Severity Index. Results showed significant decrease in the parameters (lower than normal scores) in individuals with established stuttering. Strong correlation was also found between degree of stuttering and the degree of decrease in the pulmonary volumes. Thus, it is evident that fluent speech requires strong support of lung pressure and requisite volumes. Further research in demonstrating the efficacy of abdominal breathing exercises in this regard is needed.

Keywords: forced expiratory flow rate, forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate, stuttering

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9851 Changes in Pulmonary Functions in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Authors: N. Anand, P. S. Nayyer, V. Rana, S. Verma


Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Among the lesser known complications is the involvement of respiratory system. Changes in pulmonary volume, diffusion and elastic properties of lungs as well as the performance of the respiratory muscles lead to a restrictive pattern in lung functions. The present study was aimed to determine the changes in various parameters of pulmonary function tests amongst patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and also try to study the effect of duration of Diabetes Mellitus on pulmonary function tests. Methods: It was a cross sectional study performed at Dr Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital and Medical College in, Delhi, A Tertiary care referral centre which included 200 patients divided into 2 groups. The first group included diagnosed patients with diabetes and the second group included controls. Cases and controls symptomatic for any acute or chronic Respiratory or Cardiovascular illness or a history of smoking were excluded. Both the groups were subjected to spirometry to evaluate for the pulmonary function tests. Result: The mean Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEFR) was found to be significantly decreased ((P < 0.001) as compared to controls while the mean ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in First second to Forced Vital Capacity was not significantly decreased( p>0.005). There was no correlation seen with duration of the disease. Conclusion: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEFR) were found to be significantly decreased in patients of Diabetes mellitus while ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in First second to Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) was not significantly decreased. The duration of Diabetes mellitus was not found to have any statistically significant effect on Pulmonary function tests (p > 0.005).

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, pulmonary function tests, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in first second

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9850 Experimental on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube

Authors: F. Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, B. Sajadi


In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer oil, mixed convection, inclined tube, laminar flow

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9849 Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector

Authors: Salma Parvin, M. A. Alim


The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.

Keywords: DASC, forced convection, mass flow rate, nanofluid

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9848 Breastfeeding in Childhood Asthma: A Boon or a Bane

Authors: Harish Peri, Amit Devgan


The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on asthma and lung function in childhood asthma. A case-control study comprising 80 cases (children with asthma) and 80 controls(children without asthma) in the age group 6-12 years were included. A diagnosis was made by the treating pediatrician. A parental questionnaire was given and data regarding the name, age, sex of the child, duration of asthma, whether breastfed or not, duration, exclusiveness of breastfeeding and maternal asthmatic status were collected. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate was measured for every child using a Peak Expiratory Flow Meter. Results showed Exclusively Breastfed children were found to better protected against asthma and have improved lung function as compared to Non-exclusively Breastfeed children, irrespective of the mother’s asthmatic status. This study demonstrated that exclusive breastfeeding has a protective action against childhood asthma.

Keywords: asthmatic mothers, childhood asthma, exclusive breastfeeding, non-asthmatic mothers

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9847 Impact of the Dog-Technic for D1-D4 and Longitudinal Stroke Technique for Diaphragm on Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) in Asthmatic Patients

Authors: Victoria Eugenia Garnacho-Garnacho, Elena Sonsoles Rodriguez-Lopez, Raquel Delgado-Delgado, Alvaro Otero-Campos, Jesus Guodemar-Perez, Angelo Michelle Vagali, Juan Pablo Hervas-Perez


Asthma is a heterogeneous disease which has always had a drug treatment. Osteopathic treatment that we propose is aimed, seen through a dorsal manipulation (Dog Technic D1-D4) and a technique for diaphragm (Longitudinal Stroke) forced expiratory flow in spirometry changes there are in particular that there is an increase in the volumes of the Peak Flow and Post intervention and effort and that the application of these two techniques together is more powerful if we applied only a Longitudinal (Stroke). Also rating if this type of treatment will have repercussions on breathlessness, a very common symptom in asthma. And finally to investigate if provided vertebra pain decreased after a manipulation. Methods—Participants were recruited between students and professors of the University, aged 18-65, patients (n = 18) were assigned randomly to one of the two groups, group 1 (longitudinal Stroke and manipulation dorsal Dog Technic) and group 2 (diaphragmatic technique, Longitudinal Stroke). The statistical analysis is characterized by the comparison of the main indicator of obstruction of via area PEF (peak expiratory flow) in various situations through the peak flow meter Datospir Peak-10. The measurements were carried out in four phases: at rest, after the stress test, after the treatment, after treatment and the stress test. After each stress test was evaluated, through the Borg scale, the level of Dyspnea on each patient, regardless of the group. In Group 1 in addition to these parameters was calculated using an algometer spinous pain before and after the manipulation. All data were taken at the minute. Results—12 Group 1 (Dog Technic and Longitudinal Stroke) patients responded positively to treatment, there was an increase of 5.1% and 6.1% of the post-treatment PEF and post-treatment, and effort. The results of the scale of Borg by which we measure the level of Dyspnea were positive, a 54.95%, patients noted an improvement in breathing. In addition was confirmed through the means of both groups group 1 in which two techniques were applied was 34.05% more effective than group 2 in which applied only a. After handling pain fell by 38% of the cases. Conclusions—The impact of the technique of Dog-Technic for D1-D4 and the Longitudinal Stroke technique for diaphragm in the volumes of peak expiratory flow (PEF) in asthmatic patients were positive, there was a change of the PEF Post intervention and post-treatment, and effort and showed the most effective group in which only a technique was applied. Furthermore this type of treatment decreased facilitated vertebrae pain and was efficient in the improvement of Dyspnea and the general well-being of the patient.

Keywords: ANS, asthma, manipulation, manual therapy, osteopathic

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9846 Spirometric Reference Values in 236,606 Healthy, Non-Smoking Chinese Aged 4–90 Years

Authors: Jiashu Shen


Objectives: Spirometry is a basic reference for health evaluation which is widely used in clinical. Previous reference of spirometry is not applicable because of drastic changes of social and natural circumstance in China. A new reference values for the spirometry of the Chinese population is extremely needed. Method: Spirometric reference value was established using the statistical modeling method Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF). Results: Data from 236,606 healthy non-smokers aged 4–90 years was collected from the MJ Health Check database. Spirometry equations for FEV1, FVC, MMEF, and FEV1/FVC were established, including the predicted values and lower limits of normal (LLNs) by sex. The predictive equations that were developed for the spirometric results elaborated the relationship between spirometry and age, and they eliminated the effects of height as a variable. Most previous predictive equations for Chinese spirometry were significantly overestimated (to be exact, with mean differences of 22.21% in FEV1 and 31.39% in FVC for males, along with differences of 26.93% in FEV1 and 35.76% in FVC for females) or underestimated (with mean differences of -5.81% in MMEF and -14.56% in FEV1/FVC for males, along with a difference of -14.54% in FEV1/FVC for females) the results of lung function measurements as found in this study. Through cross-validation, our equations were established as having good fit, and the means of the measured value and the estimated value were compared, with good results. Conclusions: Our study updates the spirometric reference equations for Chinese people of all ages and provides comprehensive values for both physical examination and clinical diagnosis.

Keywords: Chinese, GAMLSS model, reference values, spirometry

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9845 The Droplet Generation and Flow in the T-Shape Microchannel with the Side Wall Fluctuation

Authors: Yan Pang, Xiang Wang, Zhaomiao Liu


Droplet microfluidics, in which nanoliter to picoliter droplets acted as individual compartments, are common to a diverse array of applications such as analytical chemistry, tissue engineering, microbiology and drug discovery. The droplet generation in a simplified two dimension T-shape microchannel with the main channel width of 50 μm and the side channel width of 25 μm, is simulated to investigate effects of the forced fluctuation of the side wall on the droplet generation and flow. The periodic fluctuations are applied on a length of the side wall in the main channel of the T-junction with the deformation shape of the double-clamped beam acted by the uniform force, which varies with the flow time and fluctuation periods, forms and positions. The fluctuations under most of the conditions expand the distribution range of the droplet size but have a little effect on the average size, while the shape of the fixed side wall changes the average droplet size chiefly. Droplet sizes show a periodic pattern along the relative time when the fluctuation is forced on the side wall near the T-junction. The droplet emerging frequency is not varied by the fluctuation of the side wall under the same flow rate and geometry conditions. When the fluctuation period is similar with the droplet emerging period, the droplet size shows a nice stability as the no fluctuation case.

Keywords: droplet generation, droplet size, flow flied, forced fluctuation

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9844 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar


The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: bubble column reactor, gas holdup, hydrodynamics, sparger

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9843 Short-Term Association of In-vehicle Ultrafine Particles and Black Carbon Concentrations with Respiratory Health in Parisian Taxi Drivers

Authors: Melissa Hachem, Maxime Loizeau, Nadine Saleh, Isabelle Momas, Lynda Bensefa-Colas


Professional drivers are exposed inside their vehicles to high levels of air pollutants due to the considerable time they spend close to motor vehicle emissions. Little is known about ultrafine particles (UFP) or black carbon (BC) adverse respiratory health effects compared to the regulated pollutants. We aimed to study the short-term associations between UFP and BC concentrations inside vehicles and (1) the onset of mucosal irritation and (2) the acute changes in lung function of Parisian taxi drivers during a working day. An epidemiological study was carried out on 50 taxi drivers in Paris. UFP and BC were measured inside their vehicles with DiSCmini® and microAeth®, respectively. On the same day, the frequency and the severity of nose, eye, and throat irritations were self-reported by each participant and a spirometry test was performed before and after the work shift. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the associations between in-taxis UFP and BC concentrations and mucosal irritation and lung function, after adjustment for potential confounders. In-taxis UFP concentrations ranged from 17.9 to 37.9 × 103 particles/cm³ and BC concentrations from 2.2 to 3.9 μg/m³, during a mean of 9 ± 2 working hours. Significant dose-response relationships were observed between in-taxis UFP concentrations and both nasal irritation and lung function. The increase of in-taxis UFP (for an interquartile range of 20 × 103 particles/cm3) was associated to an increase in nasal irritation (adjusted OR = 6.27 [95% CI: 1.02 to 38.62]) and to a reduction in forced expiratory flow at 25–75% by −7.44% [95% CI: −12.63 to −2.24], forced expiratory volume in one second by −4.46% [95% CI: −6.99 to −1.93] and forced vital capacity by −3.31% [95% CI: −5.82 to −0.80]. Such associations were not found with BC. Incident throat and eye irritations were not related to in-vehicle particles exposure; however, they were associated with outdoor air quality (estimated by the Atmo index) and in-vehicle humidity, respectively. This study is the first to show a significant association, within a short-period of time, between in-vehicle UFP exposure and acute respiratory effects in professional drivers.

Keywords: black carbon, lung function, mucosal irritation, taxi drivers, ultrafine particles

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9842 Upward Spread Forced Smoldering Phenomenon: Effects and Applications

Authors: Akshita Swaminathan, Vinayak Malhotra


Smoldering is one of the most persistent types of combustion which can take place for very long periods (hours, days, months) if there is an abundance of fuel. It causes quite a notable number of accidents and is one of the prime suspects for fire and safety hazards. It can be ignited with weaker ignition and is more difficult to suppress than flaming combustion. Upward spread smoldering is the case in which the air flow is parallel to the direction of the smoldering front. This type of smoldering is quite uncontrollable, and hence, there is a need to study this phenomenon. As compared to flaming combustion, a smoldering phenomenon often goes unrecognised and hence is a cause for various fire accidents. A simplified experimental setup was raised to study the upward spread smoldering, its effects due to varying forced flow and its effects when it takes place in the presence of external heat sources and alternative energy sources such as acoustic energy. Linear configurations were studied depending on varying forced flow effects on upward spread smoldering. Effect of varying forced flow on upward spread smoldering was observed and studied: (i) in the presence of external heat source (ii) in the presence of external alternative energy sources (acoustic energy). The role of ash removal was observed and studied. Results indicate that upward spread forced smoldering was affected by various key controlling parameters such as the speed of the forced flow, surface orientation, interspace distance (distance between forced flow and the pilot fuel). When an external heat source was placed on either side of the pilot fuel, it was observed that the smoldering phenomenon was affected. The surface orientation and interspace distance between the external heat sources and the pilot fuel were found to play a huge role in altering the regression rate. Lastly, by impinging an alternative energy source in the form of acoustic energy on the smoldering front, it was observed that varying frequencies affected the smoldering phenomenon in different ways. The surface orientation also played an important role. This project highlights the importance of fire and safety hazard and means of better combustion for all kinds of scientific research and practical applications. The knowledge acquired from this work can be applied to various engineering systems ranging from aircrafts, spacecrafts and even to buildings fires, wildfires and help us in better understanding and hence avoiding such widespread fires. Various fire disasters have been recorded in aircrafts due to small electric short circuits which led to smoldering fires. These eventually caused the engine to catch fire that cost damage to life and property. Studying this phenomenon can help us to control, if not prevent, such disasters.

Keywords: alternative energy sources, flaming combustion, ignition, regression rate, smoldering

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9841 Unsteady Forced Convection Flow and Heat Transfer Past a Blunt Headed Semi-Circular Cylinder at Low Reynolds Numbers

Authors: Y. El Khchine, M. Sriti


In the present work, the forced convection heat transfer and fluid flow past an unconfined semi-circular cylinder is investigated. The two-dimensional simulation is employed for Reynolds numbers ranging from 10 ≤ Re ≤ 200, employing air (Pr = 0.71) as an operating fluid with Newtonian constant physics property. Continuity, momentum, and energy equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver Ansys Fluent. Various parameters flow such as lift, drag, pressure, skin friction coefficients, Nusselt number, Strouhal number, and vortex strength are calculated. The transition from steady to time-periodic flow occurs between Re=60 and 80. The effect of the Reynolds number on heat transfer is discussed. Finally, a developed correlation of Nusselt and Strouhal numbers is presented.

Keywords: forced convection, semi-circular cylinder, Nusselt number, Prandtl number

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9840 Effect of Flow Holes on Heat Release Performance of Extruded-Type Heat Sink

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee


In this study, the enhancement of the heat release performance of an extruded-type heat sink to prepare the large-capacity solar inverter thru the flow holes in the base plate near the heat sources was investigated. Optimal location and number of the holes in the baseplate were determined by using a commercial computation program. The heat release performance of the shape-modified heat sink was measured experimentally and compared with that of the simulation. The heat sink with 12 flow holes in the 18-mm-thick base plate has a 8.1% wider heat transfer area, a 2.5% more mass flow of air, and a 2.7% higher heat release rate than those of the original heat sink. Also, the surface temperature of the base plate was lowered 1.5°C by the holes.

Keywords: heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation, flow holes

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9839 Forced Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Casson Fluid over a Moving Permeable Flat Plate beneath a Uniform Free Stream

Authors: N. M. Arifin, S. P. M. Isa, R. Nazar, N. Bachok, F. M. Ali, I. Pop


In this paper, the steady forced convection boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past a moving permeable semi-infinite flat plate beneath a uniform free stream is investigated. The mathematical problem reduces to a pair of noncoupled ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which is then solved numerically using the shooting method. Both the cases when the plate moves into or out of the origin are considered. Effects of the non-Newtonian (Casson) parameter, moving parameter, suction or injection parameter and Eckert number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined. Dual solutions are found to exist for each value of the governing parameters.

Keywords: forced convection, Casson fluids, moving flat plate, boundary layer

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9838 Simulation of Internal Flow Field of Pitot-Tube Jet Pump

Authors: Iqra Noor, Ihtzaz Qamar


Pitot-tube Jet pump, single-stage pump with low flow rate and high head, consists of a radial impeller that feeds water to rotating cavity. Water then enters stationary pitot-tube collector (diffuser), which discharges to the outside. By means of ANSYS Fluent 15.0, the internal flow characteristics for Pitot-tube Jet pump with standard pitot and curved pitot are studied. Under design condition, realizable k-e turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm are used to calculate 3D flow field inside both pumps. The simulation results reveal that energy is imparted to the flow by impeller and inside the rotor, forced vortex type flow is observed. Total pressure decreases inside pitot-tube whereas static pressure increases. Changing pitot-tube from standard to curved shape results in minimum flow circulation inside pitot-tube and leads to a higher pump performance.

Keywords: CFD, flow circulation, high pressure pump, impeller, internal flow, pickup tube pump, rectangle channels, rotating casing, turbulence

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9837 Forced Degradation Study of Rifaximin Formulated Tablets to Determine Stability Indicating Nature of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analytical Method

Authors: Abid Fida Masih


Forced degradation study of Rifaximin was conducted to determine the stability indicating potential of HPLC testing method for detection of Rifaximin in formulated tablets to be employed for quality control and stability testing. The questioned method applied with mobile phase methanol: water (70:30), 5µm, 250 x 4.6mm, C18 column, wavelength 293nm and flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Forced degradation study was performed under oxidative, acidic, basic, thermal and photolytic conditions. The applied method successfully determined the degradation products after acidic and basic degradation without interfering with Rifaximin detection. Therefore, the method was said to be stability indicating and can be applied for quality control and stability testing of Rifaxmin tablets during its shelf life.

Keywords: forced degradation, high-performance liquid chromatography, method validation, rifaximin, stability indicating method

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9836 Effect of Traffic Composition on Delay and Saturation Flow at Signal Controlled Intersections

Authors: Arpita Saha, Apoorv Jain, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh


Level of service at a signal controlled intersection is directly measured from the delay. Similarly, saturation flow rate is a fundamental parameter to measure the intersection capacity. The present study calculates vehicle arrival rate, departure rate, and queue length for every five seconds interval in each cycle. Based on the queue lengths, the total delay of the cycle has been calculated using Simpson’s 1/3rd rule. Saturation flow has been estimated in terms of veh/hr of green/lane for every five seconds interval of the green period until at least three vehicles are left to cross the stop line. Vehicle composition shows an immense effect on total delay and saturation flow rate. The increase in two-wheeler proportion increases the saturation flow rate and reduces the total delay per vehicle significantly. Additionally, an increase in the heavy vehicle proportion reduces the saturation flow rate and increases the total delay for each vehicle.

Keywords: delay, saturation flow, signalised intersection, vehicle composition

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9835 A Measurement Device of Condensing Flow Rate, an Order of MilliGrams per Second

Authors: Hee Joon Lee


There are many difficulties in measuring a small flow rate of an order of milli grams per minute (LPM) or less using a conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a flow meter with minimal loss and based on a new concept was designed as part of this paper. A chamber was manufactured with a level transmitter and an on-off control valve. When the level of the collected condensed water reaches the top of the chamber, the valve opens to allow the collected water to drain back into the tank. To allow the water to continue to drain when the signal is lost, the valve is held open for a few seconds by a time delay switch and then closed. After an examination, the condensing flow rate was successfully measured with the uncertainty of ±5.7% of the full scale for the chamber.

Keywords: chamber, condensation, flow meter, milli-grams

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9834 A Mathematical Model of Pulsatile Blood Flow through a Bifurcated Artery

Authors: D. Srinivasacharya, G. Madhava Rao


In this article, the pulsatile flow of blood flow in bifurcated artery with mild stenosis is investigated. Blood is treated to be a micropolar fluid with constant density. The arteries forming bifurcation are assumed to be symmetric about its axes and straight cylinders of restricted length. As the geometry of the stenosed bifurcated artery is irregular, it is changed to regular geometry utilizing the appropriate transformations. The numerical solutions, using the finite difference method, are computed for the flow rate, the shear stress, and the impedance. The influence of time, coupling number, half of the bifurcated angle and Womersley number on shear stress, flow rate and impedance (resistance to the flow) on both sides of the flow divider is shown graphically. It has been observed that the shear stress and flow rate are increasing with increase in the values of Womersley number and bifurcation angle on both sides of the apex. The shear stress is increasing along the inner wall and decreasing along the outer wall of the daughter artery with an increase in the value of coupling number. Further, it has been noticed that the shear stress, flow rate, and impedance are perturbed largely near to the apex in the parent artery due to the presence of backflow near the apex.

Keywords: micropolar fluid, bifurcated artery, stenosis, back flow, secondary flow, pulsatile flow, Womersley number

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9833 Empirical Heat Transfer Correlations of Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers in Pulsatile Flow

Authors: Jason P. Michaud, Connor P. Speer, David A. Miller, David S. Nobes


An experimental study on finned-tube radiators has been conducted. Three radiators found in desktop computers sized for 120 mm fans were tested in steady and pulsatile flows of ambient air over a Reynolds number range of  50 < Re < 900. Water at 60 °C was circulated through the radiators to maintain a constant fin temperature during the tests. For steady flow, it was found that the heat transfer rate increased linearly with the mass flow rate of air. The pulsatile flow experiments showed that frequency of pulsation had a negligible effect on the heat transfer rate for the range of frequencies tested (0.5 Hz – 2.5 Hz). For all three radiators, the heat transfer rate was decreased in the case of pulsatile flow. Linear heat transfer correlations for steady and pulsatile flow were calculated in terms of Reynolds number and Nusselt number.

Keywords: finned-tube heat exchangers, heat transfer correlations, pulsatile flow, computer radiators

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9832 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Protruded Rectangular Fin

Authors: Tarique Jamil Khan, Swapnil Pande


The investigation deals with the study of heat transfer enhancement using protruded square fin. This study is enough to determine whether protrusion in forced convection is enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. It includes the results after performing experiments by using a plane rectangular fin of aluminum material and the same dimension rectangular fin of the same material but having protruded circular shape extended normally. The fins made by a sand casting method. The results clearly mentioned that the protruded surface is effective enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. This research investigates a modern fin topologies heat transfer characteristics that will clearly outdated the conventional fin to increase the rate of heat transfer. Protruded fins improve the rate of heat transfer compared to solid fin by varying shape of the protrusion in diameter and height.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, forced convection, protruted fin, rectangular fin

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9831 Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate in Acute Moderate to Severe Asthma in Pediatric Patients

Authors: Lubna M. Zakaryia Mahmoud, Mohammed A. Dawood, Doaa A. Heiba


A prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial carried out on 60 children known to be asthmatic who presented to the emergency department at Alexandria University of Children’s Hospital at El-Shatby with acute asthma exacerbations to assess the efficacy of adding inhaled magnesium sulfate to β-agonist, compared with β-agonist in saline, in the management of acute asthma exacerbations in children. The participants in the study were divided in two groups; Group A (study group) received inhaled salbutamol solution (0.15 ml/kg) plus isotonic magnesium sulfate 2 ml in a nebulizer chamber. Group B (control group): received nebulized salbutamol solution (0.15 ml/kg) diluted with placebo (2 ml normal saline). Both groups received inhaled solution every 20 minutes that was repeated for three doses. They were evaluated using the Pediatric Asthma Severity Score (PASS), oxygen saturation using portable pulse oximetry and peak expiratory flow rate using a portable peak expiratory flow meter at initially recorded as zero-minute assessment and every 20 minutes from the end of each nebulization (nebulization lasts 5-10 minutes) recorded as 20, 40 and 60-minute assessments. Regarding PASS, comparison showed non-significant difference with p-value 0.463, 0.472, 0.0766 at 20, 40 and 60 minutes. Regarding oxygen saturation, improvement was more significant towards group A starting from 40 min with significant p-value=0.000. At 60 min p-value=0.000. Although mean PEFR significantly improved from zero-min in both groups; however, improvement was more significant in group A with significant p-value = 0.015, 0.001, 0.001 at 20 min, 40 min and 60 min, respectively. The conclusion this study suggests is that inhaled magnesium sulfate is an efficient add on drug to standard β- agonist inhalation used in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma exacerbations.

Keywords: nebulized, magnesium sulfate, acute asthma , pediatric

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9830 Analysis of Force Convection in Bandung Triga Reactor Core Plate Types Fueled Using Coolod-N2

Authors: K. A. Sudjatmi, Endiah Puji Hastuti, Surip Widodo, Reinaldy Nazar


Any pretensions to stop the production of TRIGA fuel elements by TRIGA reactor fuel elements manufacturer should be anticipated by the operating agency of TRIGA reactor to replace the cylinder type fuel element with plate type fuel element, that available on the market. This away was performed the calculation on U3Si2Al fuel with uranium enrichment of 19.75% and a load level of 2.96 gU/cm3. Maximum power that can be operated on free convection cooling mode at the BANDUNG TRIGA reactor fuel plate was 600 kW. This study has been conducted thermalhydraulic characteristic calculation model of the reactor core power 2MW. BANDUNG TRIGA reactor core fueled plate type is composed of 16 fuel elements, 4 control elements and one irradiation facility which is located right in the middle of the core. The reactor core is cooled using a pump which is already available with flow rate 900 gpm. Analysis on forced convection cooling mode with flow from the top down from 10%, 20%, 30% and so on up to a 100% rate of coolant flow. performed using the COOLOD-N2 code. The calculations result showed that the 2 MW power with inlet coolant temperature at 37 °C and cooling rate percentage of 50%, then the coolant temperature, maximum cladding and meat respectively 64.96 oC, 124.81 oC, and 125.08 oC, DNBR (departure from nucleate boiling ratio)=1.23 and OFIR (onset of flow instability ratio)=1:00. The results are expected to be used as a reference for determining the power and cooling rate level of the BANDUNG TRIGA reactor core plate types fueled.

Keywords: TRIGA, COOLOD-N2, plate type fuel element, force convection, thermal hydraulic characteristic

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9829 Effect of Velocity Slip on Two Phase Flow in an Eccentric Annular Region

Authors: Umadevi B., Dinesh P. A., Indira. R., Vinay C. V.


A mathematical model is developed to study the simultaneous effects of particle drag and slip parameter on the velocity as well as rate of flow in an annular cross sectional region bounded by two eccentric cylinders. In physiological flows this phenomena can be observed in an eccentric catheterized artery with inner cylinder wall is impermeable and outer cylinder wall is permeable. Blood is a heterogeneous fluid having liquid phase consisting of plasma in which a solid phase of suspended cells and proteins. Arterial wall gets damaged due to aging and lipid molecules get deposited between damaged tissue cells. Blood flow increases towards the damaged tissues in the artery. In this investigation blood is modeled as two phase fluid as one is a fluid phase and the other is particulate phase. The velocity of the fluid phase and rate of flow are obtained by transforming eccentric annulus to concentric annulus with the conformal mapping. The formulated governing equations are analytically solved for the velocity and rate of flow. The numerical investigations are carried out by varying eccentricity parameter, slip parameter and drag parameter. Enhancement of slip parameter signifies loss of fluid then the velocity and rate of flow will be decreased. As particulate drag parameter increases then the velocity as well as rate flow decreases. Eccentricity facilitates transport of more fluid then the velocity and rate of flow increases.

Keywords: catheter, slip parameter, drag parameter, eccentricity

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9828 Drying of Agro-Industrial Wastes Using an Indirect Solar Dryer

Authors: N. Metidji, N. Kasbadji Merzouk, O. Badaoui, R. Sellami, A. Djebli


The Agro-industry is considered as one of the most waste producing industrial fields as a result of food processing. Upgrading and reuse of these wastes as animal or poultry food seems to be a promising alternative. Combined with the use of clean energy resources, the recovery process would contribute more to the environment protection. It is in this framework that a new solar dryer has been designed in the Unit of Solar Equipments Development. Indirect solar drying has, also, many advantages compared to natural sun drying. In fact, the first does not cause product degradation as it is protected by the drying chamber from direct sun, insects and exterior environment. The aim of this work is to study the drying kinetics of waste, generated during the processing of orange to make fruit juice, by using an indirect forced convection solar dryer at 50 °C and 60 °C, the rate of moisture removal from the product to be dried has been found to be directly related to temperature, humidity and flow rate. The characterization of these parameters has allowed the determination of the appropriate drying time for this product namely orange waste.

Keywords: solar energy, solar dryer, energy conversion, orange drying, forced convection solar dryer

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9827 Numerical Investigation and Optimization of the Effect of Number of Blade and Blade Type on the Suction Pressure and Outlet Mass Flow Rate of a Centrifugal Fan

Authors: Ogan Karabas, Suleyman Yigit


Number of blade and blade type of centrifugal fans are the most decisive factor on the field of application, noise level, suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate. Nowadays, in order to determine these effects on centrifugal fans, numerical studies are carried out in addition to experimental studies. In this study, it is aimed to numerically investigate the changes of suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate values of a centrifugal fan according to the number of blade and blade type. Centrifugal fans of the same size with forward, backward and straight blade type were analyzed by using a simulation program and compared with each other. This analysis was carried out under steady state condition by selecting k-Ɛ turbulence model and air is assumed incompressible. Then, 16, 32 and 48 blade centrifugal fans were again analyzed by using same simulation program, and the optimum number of blades was determined for the suction pressure and the outlet mass flow rate. According to the results of the analysis, it was obtained that the suction pressure in the 32 blade fan was twice the value obtained in the 16 blade fan. In addition, the outlet mass flow rate increased by 45% with the increase in the number of blade from 16 to 32. There is no significant change observed on the suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate when the number of blades increased from 32 to 48. In the light of the analysis results, the optimum blade number was determined as 32.

Keywords: blade type, centrifugal fan, cfd, outlet mass flow rate, suction pressure

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9826 An Improvement of Flow Forming Process for Pressure Vessels by Four Rollers Machine

Authors: P. Sawitri, S. Cdr. Sittha, T. Kritsana


Flow forming is widely used in many industries, especially in defence technology industries. Pressure vessels requirements are high precision, light weight, seamless and optimum strength. For large pressure vessels, flow forming by 3 rollers machine were used. In case of long range rocket motor case flow forming and welding of pressure vessels have been used for manufacturing. Due to complication of welding process, researchers had developed 4 meters length pressure vessels without weldment by 4 rollers flow forming machine. Design and preparation of preform work pieces are performed. The optimization of flow forming parameter such as feed rate, spindle speed and depth of cut will be discussed. The experimental result shown relation of flow forming parameters to quality of flow formed tube and prototype pressure vessels have been made.

Keywords: flow forming, pressure vessel, four rollers, feed rate, spindle speed, cold work

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9825 Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Flow Control by Suction and Injection on a Subsonic NACA23012 Airfoil by Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis and Perturbed Reynolds Averaged Navier‐Stokes Equations

Authors: Azam Zare


Separation flow control for performance enhancement over airfoils at high incidence angle has become an increasingly important topic. This work details the characteristics of an efficient feedback control of the turbulent subsonic flow over NACA23012 airfoil using forced reduced‐order model based on the proper orthogonal decomposition/Galerkin projection and perturbation method on the compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier‐Stokes equations. The forced reduced‐order model is used in the optimal control of the turbulent separated flow over a NACA23012 airfoil at Mach number of 0.2, Reynolds number of 5×106, and high incidence angle of 24° using blowing/suction controlling jets. The Spallart-Almaras turbulence model is implemented for high Reynolds number calculations. The main shortcoming of the POD/Galerkin projection on flow equations for controlling purposes is that the blowing/suction controlling jet velocity does not show up explicitly in the resulting reduced order model. Combining perturbation method and POD/Galerkin projection on flow equations introduce a forced reduced‐order model that can predict the time-varying influence of the blowing/suction controlling jet velocity. An optimal control theory based on forced reduced‐order system is used to design a control law for a nonlinear reduced‐order model, which attempts to minimize the vorticity content in the turbulent flow field over NACA23012 airfoil. Numerical simulations were performed to help understand the behavior of the controlled suction jet at 12% to 18% chord from leading edge and a pair of blowing/suction jets at 15% to 18% and 24% to 30% chord from leading edge, respectively. Analysis of streamline profiles indicates that the blowing/suction jets are efficient in removing separation bubbles and increasing the lift coefficient up to 22%, while the perturbation method can predict the flow field in an accurate Manner.

Keywords: flow control, POD, Galerkin projection, separation

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9824 Numerical Investigation of AL₂O₃ Nanoparticle Effect on a Boiling Forced Swirl Flow Field

Authors: Ataollah Rabiee1, Amir Hossein Kamalinia, Alireza Atf


One of the most important issues in the design of nuclear fusion power plants is the heat removal from the hottest region at the diverter. Various methods could be employed in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency, such as generating turbulent flow and injection of nanoparticles in the host fluid. In the current study, Water/AL₂O₃ nanofluid forced swirl flow boiling has been investigated by using a homogeneous thermophysical model within the Eulerian-Eulerian framework through a twisted tape tube, and the boiling phenomenon was modeled using the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) approach. In addition to comparing the results with the experimental data and their reasonable agreement, it was evidenced that higher flow mixing results in more uniform bulk temperature and lower wall temperature along the twisted tape tube. The presence of AL₂O₃ nanoparticles in the boiling flow field showed that increasing the nanoparticle concentration leads to a reduced vapor volume fraction and wall temperature. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results show that the average heat transfer coefficient in the tube increases both by increasing the nanoparticle concentration and the insertion of twisted tape, which significantly affects the thermal field of the boiling flow.

Keywords: nanoparticle, boiling, CFD, two phase flow, alumina, ITER

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9823 Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Hamid K. Arzani, S.N. Kazi, A. Badarudin


Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.

Keywords: laminar forced convection, curve pipe, return bend, nanufluid, CFD

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