Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3257

Search results for: genetic variation

3257 Genetic Variation of Shvicezebuvides Cattle in Tajikistan Based on Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Norezzine Abdelaziz, Rebouh Nazih Yacer, Kezimana Parfait, Parpura D. I., Gadzhikurbanov A., Anastasios Dranidis


The genetic variation of Shvicezebuvides cattle from three different farms in the Tajikistan Republic was studied using 10 microsatellite markers (SSR). The trials were laid out using a multi- locus analysis system for the analysis of cattle microsatellite locus. An estimated genetic variability of the examined livestock is given in the article. The results of our SSR analysis as well as the numbers and frequencies of common alleles in studied samples, we established a high genetic similarity of studied samples. These results can also be furthermore useful in the decision making for preservation and rational genetic resources usage of the Tajik Shvicezebuvides cattle.

Keywords: genetic characteristic, frequencies of the occurrence alleles, microsatellite markers, Swiss cattle

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3256 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity Through RAPD Markers Among Melia azedarach L (Chinabery)

Authors: Nadir Ali Rind, Özlem Aksoy, Muhammad Umar Dahot, Salih Dikilitaş, Muhammad Rafiq, Burçak Tütünoğlu


Melia azedarach L. is freshly fruited small to medium sized tree native to China and North western India. It is growing in Pakistan and Turkey in various areas facing great environmental changes to maintain its survival. The species is valued for its high quality wood, medicinal, ornamental and shade purposes. The present work was aimed to estimate the genetic variation among the populations of Melia azedarach L. leaf samples that were collected from five different locations of Turkey and three different areas of Pakistan. These populations were chosen on the random bases by applying RAPD primers in order to construct a dendogram using UPGMA method to show genetic diversity. After that appropriate conservation strategies were suggested. 14 primers producing polymorphic and monomorphic bands were analyzed. Genetic distances were calculated for all the species studied by RAPD-PCR methods. According to the results the lowest genetic identity values and the highest genetic polymorphic values were determined. It is observed that there was a clear split among populations from different areas in Turkey and Pakistan. These differences may be due to eco-geographical association with genetic variation and should be conserved to retain the genetic variation of the species.

Keywords: melia azedarach L., genetic diversity, conservation, RAPD-PCR, medicinal plant

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3255 Genetic Variation of Autosomal STR Loci from Unrelated Individual in Iraq

Authors: H. Imad, Q. Cheah, J. Mohammad, O. Aamera


The aim of this study is twofold. One is to determine the genetic structure of Iraq population and the second objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of these loci for forensic genetic purposes. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. Twenty STR loci and Amelogenin including D3S1358, D13S317, PentaE, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, THO1, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, TPOX, D8S1179, FGA, D2S1338, D5S818, D6S1043, D12S391, D19S433, and Amelogenin amplified by using power plex21® kit. PCR products detected by genetic analyzer 3730xL then data analyzed by PowerStatsV1.2. Based on the allelic frequencies, several statistical parameters of genetic and forensic efficiency have been estimated. This includes the homozygosity and heterozygosity, effective number of alleles (n), the polymorphism information content (PIC), the power of discrimination (DP), and the power of exclusion (PE). The power of discrimination values for all tested loci was from 75% to 96% therefore, those loci can be safely used to establish a DNA-based database for Iraq population.

Keywords: autosomal STR, genetic variation, Middle and South of Iraq, statistical parameters

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3254 Investigation of Genetic Variation for Agronomic Traits among the Recombinant Inbred Lines of Wheat from the Norstar × Zagross Cross under Water Stress Condition

Authors: Mohammad Reza Farzami Pour


Determination of genetic variation is useful for plant breeding and hence production of more efficient plant species under different conditions, like drought stress. In this study, a sample of 28 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat developed from the cross of Norstar and Zagross varieties, together with their parents, were evaluated for two years (2010-2012) under normal and water stress conditions using split plot design with three replications. Main plots included two irrigation treatments of 70 and 140 mm evaporation from Class A pan and sub-plots consisted of 30 genotypes. The effect of genotypes and interaction of genotypes with years and water regimes were significant for all characters. Significant genotypic effect implies the existence of genetic variation among the lines under study. Heritability estimates were high for 1000 grain weight (0.87). Biomass and grain yield showed the lowest heritability values (0.42 and 0.50, respectively). Highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation (GCV and PCV) belonged to harvest index. Moderate genetic advance for most of the traits suggested the feasibility of selection among the RILs under investigation. Some RILs were higher yielding than either parent at both environments.

Keywords: wheat, genetic gain, heritability, recombinant inbred lines

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3253 Lycopene and β-Carotene Variation among Genetically Diverse Momordica cochinchinensis

Authors: Dilani Wimalasiri, Robert Brkljaca, Sylvia Urban, Terrence Piva, Tien Huynh


Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) is used as food and traditional medicine in South East Asia and is commonly known as Red Gac. The fruit aril consists 70 times higher lycopene and 10 times higher β-carotene than all known fruits and vegetables. Despite its nutritional value there is little information available on its genetic variation and its influence on nutritional value. In this study; genetic and nutritional variation (lycopene and β-carotene) was investigated among 47 M. cochinchinensis samples collected from Australia, Thailand and Vietnam using molecular markers (RAPD and ISSR) and HPLC, respectively. UPGMA based cluster analysis of genetic data grouped Northern and Central Vietnam samples together but were separated from Australia, Thailand and Southern Vietnam samples. The concentration of lycopene was significantly higher among the samples collected from Central Vietnam (p<0.05) and the concentration of β-carotene was significantly higher among the samples collected from Northern Vietnam (p<0.05) indicating the existence of best varieties. This study provides vital information in genetic diversity and facilitates the selection and breeding for nutritious M. cochinchinensis varieties.

Keywords: momordica cochinchinensis, lycopene, beta carotene, genetic diversity

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3252 Milk Protein Genetic Variation and Haplotype Structure in Sudanse Indigenous Dairy Zebu Cattle

Authors: Ammar Said Ahmed, M. Reissmann, R. Bortfeldt, G. A. Brockmann


Milk protein genetic variants are of interest for characterizing domesticated mammalian species and breeds, and for studying associations with economic traits. The aim of this work was to analyze milk protein genetic variation in the Sudanese native cattle breeds, which have been gradually declining in numbers over the last years due to the breed substitution, and indiscriminate crossbreeding. The genetic variation at three milk protein genes αS1-casein (CSN1S1), αS2-casein (CSN1S2) and ƙ-casein (CSN3) was investigated in 250 animals belonging to five Bos indicus cattle breeds of Sudan (Butana, Kenana, White-nile, Erashy and Elgash). Allele specific primers were designed for five SNPs determine the CSN1S1 variants B and C, the CSN1S2 variants A and B, the CSN3 variants A, B and H. Allele, haplotype frequencies and genetic distances (D) were calculated and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. All breeds were found to be polymorphic for the studied genes. The CSN1S1*C variant was found very frequently (>0.63) in all analyzed breeds with highest frequency (0.82) in White-nile cattle. The CSN1S2*A variant (0.77) and CSN3*A variant (0.79) had highest frequency in Kenana cattle. Eleven haplotypes in casein gene cluster were inferred. Six of all haplotypes occurred in all breeds with remarkably deferent frequencies. The estimated D ranged from 0.004 to 0.049. The most distant breeds were White-nile and Kenana (D 0.0479). The results presented contribute to the genetic knowledge of indigenous cattle and can be used for proper definition and classification of the Sudanese cattle breeds as well as breeding, utilization, and potential development of conservation strategies for local breeds.

Keywords: milk protein, genetic variation, casein haplotype, Bos indicus

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3251 Genetic Structure of Four Bovine Populations in the Philippines Using Microsatellites

Authors: Peter James C. Icalia, Agapita J. Salces, Loida Valenzuela, Kangseok Seo, Geronima Ludan


This study evaluated polymorphism of 11 microsatellite markers in four local genetic groups of cattle. Batanes cattle which has never been studied using microsatellites is evaluated for its genetic distance from the Ilocos cattle while Brahman and Holstein-Sahiwal are also included as there were insemination programs by the government using these two breeds. PCR products that were genotyped for each marker were analyzed using POPGENEv32. Results showed that 55% (Fst=0.5501) of the genetic variation is due to the differences between populations while the remaining 45% is due to individual variation. The Fst value also indicates that there were very great differences from population to population using the range proposed by Sewall and Wright. The constructed phylogenetic tree based on Nei’s genetic distance using the modified neighboor joining procedure of PHYLIPv3.5 showed the admixture of Brahman and Holstein-Sahiwal having them grouped in the same clade. Batanes and Ilocos cattle were grouped in a different cluster showing that they have descended from a single parental population. This would presumably address the claim that Batanes and Ilocos cattle are genetically distant from other groups and still exist despite the artificial insemination program of the government using Brahman and other imported breeds. The knowledge about the genetic structure of this population supports the development of conservation programs for the smallholder farmers.

Keywords: microsatellites, cattle, Philippines, populations, genetic structure

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3250 Genetic Variation among the Wild and Hatchery Raised Populations of Labeo rohita Revealed by RAPD Markers

Authors: Fayyaz Rasool, Shakeela Parveen


The studies on genetic diversity of Labeo rohita by using molecular markers were carried out to investigate the genetic structure by RAPAD marker and the levels of polymorphism and similarity amongst the different groups of five populations of wild and farmed types. The samples were collected from different five locations as representatives of wild and hatchery raised populations. RAPAD data for Jaccard’s coefficient by following the un-weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) for Hierarchical Clustering of the similar groups on the basis of similarity amongst the genotypes and the dendrogram generated divided the randomly selected individuals of the five populations into three classes/clusters. The variance decomposition for the optimal classification values remained as 52.11% for within class variation, while 47.89% for the between class differences. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for grouping of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by Spearman Varimax rotation method for bi-plot generation of the co-occurrence of the same genotypes with similar genetic properties and specificity of different primers indicated clearly that the increase in the number of factors or components was correlated with the decrease in eigenvalues. The Kaiser Criterion based upon the eigenvalues greater than one, first two main factors accounted for 58.177% of cumulative variability.

Keywords: variation, clustering, PCA, wild, hatchery, RAPAD, Labeo rohita

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3249 Development of Microsatellite Markers for Genetic Variation Analysis in House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

Authors: Yash M. Gupta, Kittisak Buddhachat, Surin Peyachoknagul, Somjit Homchan


The house cricket, Acheta domesticus is one of the commonly found species of field crickets. Although it is very commonly used as food and feed, the genomic information of house cricket is still missing for genetic investigation. DNA sequencing technology has evolved over the decades, and it has also revolutionized the molecular marker development for genetic analysis. In the present study, we have sequenced the whole genome of A. domesticus using illumina platform based HiSeq X Ten sequencing technology for searching simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in DNA to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers for population genetic analysis. A total of 112,157 SSRs with primer pairs were identified, 91 randomly selected SSRs used to check DNA amplification, of which nine primers were polymorphic. These microsatellite markers have shown cross-amplification with other three species of crickets which are Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus testaceus and Brachytrupes portentosus. These nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to check genetic variation for forty-five individuals of A. domesticus, Phitsanulok population, Thailand. For nine loci, the number of alleles was ranging from 5 to 15. The observed heterozygosity was ranged from 0.4091 to 0.7556. These microsatellite markers will facilitate population genetic analysis for future studies of A. domesticus populations. Moreover, the transferability of these SSR makers would also enable researchers to conduct genetic studies for other closely related species.

Keywords: cross-amplification, microsatellite markers, observed heterozygosity, population genetic, simple sequence repeats

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3248 Genetic Identification of Crop Cultivars Using Barcode System

Authors: Kesavan Markkandan, Ha Young Park, Seung-Il Yoo, Sin-Gi Park, Junhyung Park


For genetic identification of crop cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, PCR based, co-dominant and relatively abundant. However, new InDels need to be developed for genetic studies of new varieties due to the difference of allele frequencies in InDels among the population groups. These new varieties are evolved with low levels of genetic diversity in specific genome loci with high recombination rate. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a variation block (VB), where the genomes split by all assumed recombination sites. Firstly, VBs in crop cultivars were mined for transferability to VB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, putative InDels in the VB regions were identified for the development of barcode system by analyzing particular cultivar’s whole genome data. Thirdly, common VB-specific InDels from all cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the selected markers was assessed with other cultivars, and the barcode system that allows a clear distinction among those cultivars is described. The same approach can be applicable for other commercial crops. Hence, VB-based genetic identification not only minimize the molecular markers but also useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in other crop species.

Keywords: variation block, polymorphism, InDel marker, genetic identification

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3247 Improvement of the Melon (Cucumis melo L.) through Genetic Gain and Discriminant Function

Authors: M. R. Naroui Rad, H. Fanaei, A. Ghalandarzehi


To find out the yield of melon, the traits are vital. This research was performed with the objective to assess the impact of nine different morphological traits on the production of 20 melon landraces in the sistan weather region. For all the traits genetic variation was noted. Minimum genetical variance (9.66) along with high genetic interaction with the environment led to low heritability (0.24) of the yield. The broad sense heritability of the traits that were included into the differentiating model was more than it was in the production. In this study, the five selected traits, number of fruit, fruit weight, fruit width, flesh diameter and plant yield can differentiate the genotypes with high or low production. This demonstrated the significance of these 5 traits in plant breeding programs. Discriminant function of these 5 traits, particularly, the weight of the fruit, in case of the current outputs was employed as an all-inclusive parameter for pointing out landraces with the highest yield. 75% of variation in yield can be explained with this index, and the weight of fruit also has substantial relation with the total production (r=0.72**). This factor can be highly beneficial in case of future breeding program selections.

Keywords: melon, discriminant analysis, genetic components, yield, selection

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3246 Assessing Genetic Variation of Dog Rose (Rosa Canina L.) in Caspian Climate

Authors: Aptin Rahnavard, Ghavamaldin Asadian, Khalil Pourshamsian, Mariamalsadat Taghavi


Dog rose is one of the important rose species in Iran that the distant past had been considered due to nutritional value and medicinal. Despite its long history of use, due to poor information on the genetic modification of plants has been done resources inheritance. In this study was to assess the genetic diversity. Total of 30 genotypes Dog rose from areas of northern Iran in the Caspian region (provinces of Guilan and Mazandaran) were evaluated using 25 RAPD primers. The number of bands produced total of 202 and for each primer were measured in a bands with an average 8-band .The number of polymorphic bands per primer ranged from 1 to 13 and the bands were in the range of 300 to 3000 bp. Based on the results OPA-04 primer with 13 bands and PRA-1, E-09 and A-04 with 5-band were created maximum and minimum number of amplified fragments. Molecular marker genotypes showed a high degree of polymorphism. Studied genotypes based on RAPD results were divided into 2 groups and 2 subgroups. Most similar in subgroups A2 and B group was the lowest.

Keywords: rosa canina spp., RAPD marker, genetic variation, caspian climate

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3245 Investigation of Genetic Variation among Anemone narcissiflora L. Population Using PCR-RAPD Molecular Marker

Authors: Somayeh Akrami, Habib Onsori, Elham Tahmassebian


Species of Anemone narcissiflora is belonged to Anemone genus of Ranunculaceae family. This species has two subspecies named narcissiflora and willdenowii which the latest is recorded in Iran in 2010. Some samples of A. narcissiflora is gathered from kuhkamar-zonouz region of East -Azerbaijan province, Iran to study the genetic diversity of the species by using RAPD molecular markers, and estimation of genetic diversity were evaluated with the using 10mer RAPD primers by PCR-RAPD method. 39 polymorphic bands were produced from the six primers used in this technique that the maximum band is related to the RP1 primer, the lowest band is related to the RP7 and the average band for all primers were 6.5 polymorphic bands. Cluster analysis of samples in done by UPGMA method in NTSYSpc 2.02 software. Dendrogram resulting from migrating bands showed that the studied samples can be divided into two groups. The first group includes samples with 1-2 flowers and the second group consists of two sub-groups which the first subgroup consists of samples with 3-5 flowers, and the second subgroup consists of samples with 6-7 flowers. The results of the comparison and analysis of the data obtained from RAPD technique and similarity matrix represents the genetic variation between collected samples. This study shows that RAPD markers can determine the polymorphisms between different genotypes of A. narcissiflora and their hybrids. So RAPD technique can serve as a suitable molecular method to determine the genetic diversity of samples.

Keywords: Anemone narcissiflora, genetic diversity, RAPD-PCR

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3244 Variability Parameters for Growth and Yield Characters in Fenugreek, Trigonella spp. Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav


India is a leading producer and consumer of fenugreek for its culinary uses and medicinal application. In India, most of the people are of vegetarian class. In such a situation, a leafy vegetable, such as fenugreek is of chief concern due to its high nutritional property, medicinal values and industrial uses. One of the most important factors restricting their large scale production and development of superior varieties is that very scanty knowledge about their genetic diversity, inter and intraspecific variability and genetic relationship among the species. Improvement of the crop depends upon the magnitude of genetic variability for economic characters. Therefore, the present research work was carried out to analyse the variability parameters for growth and yield character in twenty-eight fenugreek genotypes along with two standard checks Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replication during rabi season 2015-2016 at Pantnagar Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among all the genotypes for all traits. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient variation were observed for characters, namely the number of primary branches per plant, number of leaves at 30, 45 and 60 DAS, green leaf yield per plant, green leaf yield q/ha . The genetic advance recorded highest in green leaf yield q/ha (33.93) followed by green leaf yield per plant (21.20g). Highest percent of heritability were shown by 1000 seed weight (99.12%) followed by the number of primary branches per plant (97.18%). Green leaf yield q/ha showed high heritability and high genetic advance. These superior genotypes can be further used in crop improvement programs of fenugreek.

Keywords: genetic advance, genotypic coefficient variation, heritability, phenotypic coefficient variation

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3243 Genetic Differentiation between Members of a Species Complex (Retropinna spp.)

Authors: Md. Rakeb-Ul Islam, Daniel J. Schmidt, Jane M. Hughes


Population connectivity plays an important role in the conservation and recovery of declining species. It affects genetic diversity, adaptive potential and resilience of species in nature. Loss of genetic variation can affect populations by limiting their ability to persist in stressful environmental conditions. Generally, freshwater fishes show higher levels of genetic structuring and subdivision among populations than those inhabiting estuarine or marine environments due to the presence of artificial (e.g. dams) and natural (e.g. mountain ranges) barriers to dispersal in freshwater ecosystems. The Australian smelt (Retropinnidae: Retropinna spp.) is a common freshwater fish species which is widely distributed throughout coastal and inland drainages in South - eastern Australia. These fish are found in a number of habitats from headwaters to lowland sites. They form large shoals in the mid to upper water column and inhabit deep slow – flowing pools as well as shallow fast flowing riffle-runs. Previously, Australian smelt consisted of two described taxa (Retropinna semoni and Retropinna tasmanica), but recently a complex of five or more species has been recognized based on an analysis of allozyme variation. In many area, they spend their entire life cycle within freshwater. Although most populations of the species are thought to be non-diadromous, it is still unclear whether individuals within coastal populations of Australian Retropinna exhibit diadromous migrations or whether fish collected from marine/estuarine environments are vagrants that have strayed out of the freshwater reaches. In this current study, the population structure and genetic differentiation of Australian smelt fish were investigated among eight rivers of South-East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. 11 microsatellite loci were used to examine genetic variation within and among populations. Genetic diversity was very high. Number of alleles ranged from three to twenty. Expected heterozygosity averaged across loci ranged from 0.572 to 0.852. There was a high degree of genetic differentiation among rivers (FST = 0.23), although low levels of genetic differentiation among populations within rivers. These extremely high levels of genetic differentiation suggest that the all smelt in SEQ complete their life history within freshwater, or, if they go to the estuary, they do not migrate to sea. This hypothesis is being tested further with a micro-chemical analysis of their otoliths.

Keywords: diadromous, genetic diversity, microsatellite, otolith

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3242 Agro-Morphological Traits Based Genetic Diversity Analysis of ‘Ethiopian Dinich’ Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew Populations Collected from Diverse Agro-Ecologies in Ethiopia

Authors: Fekadu Gadissa, Kassahun Tesfaye, Kifle Dagne, Mulatu Geleta


‘Ethiopian dinich’ also called ‘Ethiopian potato’ is one of the economically important ‘orphan’ edible tuber crops indigenous to Ethiopia. We evaluated the morphological and agronomic traits performances of 174 samples from Ethiopia at multiple locations using 12 qualitative and 16 quantitative traits, recorded at the correct growth stages. We observed several morphotypes and phenotypic variations for qualitative traits along with a wide range of mean performance values for all quantitative traits. Analysis of variance for each quantitative trait showed a highly significant (p<0.001) variation among the collections with eventually non-significant variation for environment-traits interaction for all but flower length. A comparatively high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was observed for plant height, days to flower initiation, days to 50% flowering and tuber number per hill. Moreover, the variability and coefficients of variation due to genotype-environment interaction was nearly zero for all the traits except flower length. High genotypic coefficients of variation coupled with a high estimate of broad sense heritability and high genetic advance as a percent of collection mean were obtained for tuber weight per hill, number of primary branches per plant, tuber number per hill and number of plants per hill. Association of tuber yield per hectare of land showed a large magnitude of positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with those traits. Principal components analysis revealed 76% of the total variation for the first six principal axes with high factor loadings again from tuber number per hill, number of primary branches per plant and tuber weight. The collections were grouped into four clusters with the weak region (zone) of origin based pattern. In general, there is high genetic-based variability for ‘Ethiopian dinich’ improvement and conservation. DNA based markers are recommended for further genetic diversity estimation for use in breeding and conservation.

Keywords: agro-morphological traits, Ethiopian dinich, genetic diversity, variance components

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3241 A Survey of Grammar-Based Genetic Programming and Applications

Authors: Matthew T. Wilson


This paper covers a selection of research utilizing grammar-based genetic programming, and illustrates how context-free grammar can be used to constrain genetic programming. It focuses heavily on grammatical evolution, one of the most popular variants of grammar-based genetic programming, and the way its operators and terminals are specialized and modified from those in genetic programming. A variety of implementations of grammatical evolution for general use are covered, as well as research each focused on using grammatical evolution or grammar-based genetic programming on a single application, or to solve a specific problem, including some of the classically considered genetic programming problems, such as the Santa Fe Trail.

Keywords: context-free grammar, genetic algorithms, genetic programming, grammatical evolution

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3240 Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Malaysian Palm Oil Board-Senegal Oil Palm Germplasm Using Multivariate Tools

Authors: Khin Aye Myint, Mohd Rafii Yusop, Mohd Yusoff Abd Samad, Shairul Izan Ramlee, Mohd Din Amiruddin, Zulkifli Yaakub


The narrow base of genetic is the main obstacle of breeding and genetic improvement in oil palm industry. In order to broaden the genetic bases, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board has been extensively collected wild germplasm from its original area of 11 African countries which are Nigeria, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Cameroon, Zaire, Angola, Madagascar, and Tanzania. The germplasm collections were established and maintained as a field gene bank in Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Research Station in Kluang, Johor, Malaysia to conserve a wide range of oil palm genetic resources for genetic improvement of Malaysian oil palm industry. Therefore, assessing the performance and genetic diversity of the wild materials is very important for understanding the genetic structure of natural oil palm population and to explore genetic resources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Cluster analysis are very efficient multivariate tools in the evaluation of genetic variation of germplasm and have been applied in many crops. In this study, eight populations of MPOB-Senegal oil palm germplasm were studied to explore the genetic variation pattern using PCA and cluster analysis. A total of 20 yield and yield component traits were used to analyze PCA and Ward’s clustering using SAS 9.4 version software. The first four principal components which have eigenvalue >1 accounted for 93% of total variation with the value of 44%, 19%, 18% and 12% respectively for each principal component. PC1 showed highest positive correlation with fresh fruit bunch (0.315), bunch number (0.321), oil yield (0.317), kernel yield (0.326), total economic product (0.324), and total oil (0.324) while PC 2 has the largest positive association with oil to wet mesocarp (0.397) and oil to fruit (0.458). The oil palm population were grouped into four distinct clusters based on 20 evaluated traits, this imply that high genetic variation existed in among the germplasm. Cluster 1 contains two populations which are SEN 12 and SEN 10, while cluster 2 has only one population of SEN 3. Cluster 3 consists of three populations which are SEN 4, SEN 6, and SEN 7 while SEN 2 and SEN 5 were grouped in cluster 4. Cluster 4 showed the highest mean value of fresh fruit bunch, bunch number, oil yield, kernel yield, total economic product, and total oil and Cluster 1 was characterized by high oil to wet mesocarp, and oil to fruit. The desired traits that have the largest positive correlation on extracted PCs could be utilized for the improvement of oil palm breeding program. The populations from different clusters with the highest cluster means could be used for hybridization. The information from this study can be utilized for effective conservation and selection of the MPOB-Senegal oil palm germplasm for the future breeding program.

Keywords: cluster analysis, genetic variability, germplasm, oil palm, principal component analysis

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3239 Studies on Phylogeny of Helicoverpa armigera Populations from North Western Himalaya Region with Help of Cytochromeoxidase I Sequence

Authors: R. M. Srivastava, Subbanna A.R.N.S, Md Abbas Ahmad, S. P.More, Shivashankar, B. Kalyanbabu


The similar morphology associated with high genetic variability poses problems in phylogenetic studies of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). To identify genetic variation of North Western Himalayan population’s, partial (Mid to terminal region) cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene was amplified and sequenced for three populations collected from Pantnagar, Almora, and Chinyalisaur. The alignment of sequences with other two populations, Nagpur representing central India population and Anhui, China representing complete COX-1 sequence revealed unanimity in middle region with eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Nagpur populations. However, the consensus is missing when approaching towards terminal region, which is associated with 15 each SNPs and pair base substitutions in Chinyalisaur populations. In minimum evolution tree, all the five populations were majorly separated into two clades, one comprising of only Nagpur population and the other with rest. Amongst, North Western populations, Chinyalisaur one is promising by farming a separate clade. The pairwise genetic distance ranges from 0.025 to 0.192 with the maximum between H. armigera populations of Nagpur and Chinyalisaur. This genetic isolation of populations can be attributed to a key role of topological barriers of weather and mountain ranges and temporal barriers due to cropping patterns.

Keywords: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, northwestern Himalayan population, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), phylogenetic relationship, genetic variation

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3238 Study of the Influence of Non Genetic Factors Affecting over Nutrition Students in Ayutthaya Province, Thailand

Authors: Thananyada Buapian


Overnutrition is emerging as a morbid disease in developing and Westernized countries. Because of its comorbidity diseases, it is cost-effective to prevent and manage this disease earlier. In Thailand, this alarming disease has long been studied, but the prevalence is still higher than that in the past. Physicians should recognize it well and have a definite direction to face and combat this dangerous disease. Rapid changes in the tremendous figure of overnutrition students indicate that genetic factors are not the primary determinants since human genes have remained unchanged for a century. This study aims to assess the prevalence of overnutrition students and to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting over nutrition students. A cross-sectional school-based survey was conducted. A two-stage sampling was adopted. Respondents included 1,850 students in grades 4 to 6 in Ayutthaya Province. An anthropometric measurement and questionnaire were developed. Childhood over nutrition was defined as a weight-for-height Z-score above +2SD of NCHS/WHO references. About thirty three percent of the children were over nutrition in Ayutthaya province. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed that 8 statistically significant non genetic factors explain the variation of childhood over nutrition by 18 percent. Sex is the prime factor to explain the variation of childhood over nutrition, followed by duration of light physical activities, duration of moderate physical activities, having been breastfed, the presence of a healthy role model of the caregiver, number of siblings, birth order, and occupation of the caregiver, respectively. Non genetic factors, especially the subjects’ demographic and physical activities, as well as the caregivers’ background and family environment, should be considered in viable approach to remedy this health imbalance in children.

Keywords: non genetic factors, non-genetic, over nutrition, over nutrition students

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3237 Screening of Wheat Wild Relatives as a Gene Pool for Improved Photosynthesis in Wheat Breeding

Authors: Amanda J. Burridge, Keith J. Edwards, Paul A. Wilkinson, Tom Batstone, Erik H. Murchie, Lorna McAusland, Ana Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Ivan Jauregui, Tracy Lawson, Silvere R. M. Vialet-Chabrand


The rate of genetic progress in wheat production must be improved to meet global food security targets. However, past selection for domestication traits has reduced the genetic variation in modern wheat cultivars, a fact that could severely limit the future rate of genetic gain. The genetic variation in agronomically important traits for the wild relatives and progenitors of wheat is far greater than that of the current domesticated cultivars, but transferring these traits into modern cultivars is not straightforward. Between the elite cultivars of wheat, photosynthetic capacity is a key trait for which there is limited variation. Early screening of wheat wild relative and progenitors has shown differences in photosynthetic capacity and efficiency not only between wild relative species but marked differences between the accessions of each species. By identifying wild relative accessions with improved photosynthetic traits and characterising the genetic variation responsible, it is possible to incorporate these traits into advanced breeding programmes by wide crossing and introgression programmes. To identify the potential variety of photosynthetic capacity and efficiency available in the secondary and tertiary genepool, a wide scale survey was carried out for over 600 accessions from 80 species including those from the genus Aegilops, Triticum, Thinopyrum, Elymus, and Secale. Genotype data were generated for each accession using a ‘Wheat Wild Relative’ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array composed of 35,000 SNP markers polymorphic between wild relatives and elite hexaploid wheat. This genotype data was combined with phenotypic measurements such as gas exchange (CO₂, H₂O), chlorophyll fluorescence, growth, morphology, and RuBisCO activity to identify potential breeding material with enhanced photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. The data and associated analysis tools presented here will prove useful to anyone interested in increasing the genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat or the application of complex genotyping data to plant breeding.

Keywords: wheat, wild relatives, pre-breeding, genomics, photosynthesis

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3236 Level of Awareness of Genetic Counselling in Benue State Nigeria: Its Advocacy on the Inheritance of Sickle Cell Disease

Authors: Agi Sunday


A descriptive analysis of reported cases of sickle cell disease and the level of awareness about genetic counselling in 30 hospitals were carried out. Additionally, 150 individuals between ages 16-45 were randomly selected for evaluation of genetic counselling awareness. The main tools for this study were questionnaires which were taken to hospitals, and individuals completed the others. The numbers of reported cases of sickle cell disease recorded in private, public and teaching hospitals were 14 and 57; 143 and 89; 272 and 57 for the periods of 1995-2000 and 2001-2005, respectively. A general informal genetic counselling took place mostly in the hospitals visited. 122 (86%) individuals had the knowledge of genetic disease and only 43 (30.3%) individuals have been exposed to genetic counselling. 64% of individuals agreed that genetic counselling would help in the prevention of genetic disease.

Keywords: sickle disease, genetic counseling, genetic testing, advocacy

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3235 Genetic Diversity of Wild Population of Heterobranchus Spp. Based on Mitochondria DNA Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I Gene Analysis

Authors: M. Y. Abubakar, Ipinjolu J. K., Yuzine B. Esa, Magawata I., Hassan W. A., Turaki A. A.


Catfish (Heterobranchus spp.) is a major freshwater fish that are widely distributed in Nigeria waters and are gaining rapid aquaculture expansion. However, indiscriminate artificial crossbreeding of the species with others poses a threat to their biodiversity. There is a paucity of information about the genetic variability, hence this insight on the genetic variability is badly needed, not only for the species conservation but for aquaculture expansion. In this study, we tested the level of Genetic diversity, population differentiation and phylogenetic relationship analysis on 35 individuals of two populations of Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 29 individuals of three populations of Heterobranchus longifilis using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtDNA COI) gene sequence. Nucleotide sequences of 650 bp fragment of the COI gene of the two species were compared. In the whole 4 and 5 haplotypes were distinguished in the populations of H. bidorsalis & H. longifilis with accession numbers (MG334168 - MG334171 & MG334172 to MG334176) respectively. Haplotypes diversity indices revealed a range of 0.59 ± 0.08 to 0.57 ± 0.09 in H. bidorsalis and 0.000 to 0.001051 ± 0.000945 in H. longifilis population, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed no significant variation among H. bidorsalis population of the Niger & Benue Rivers, detected significant genetic variation was between the Rivers of Niger, Kaduna and Benue population of H. longifilis. Two main clades were recovered, showing a clear separation between H. bidorsalis and H. longifilis in the phylogenetic tree. The mtDNA COI genes studied revealed high gene flow between populations with no distinct genetic differentiation between the populations as measured by the fixation index (FST) statistic. However, a proportion of population-specific haplotypes was observed in the two species studied, suggesting a substantial degree of genetic distinctiveness for each of the population investigated. These findings present the description of the species character and accessions of the fish’s genetic resources, through gene sequence submitted in Genetic database. The data will help to protect their valuable wild resource and contribute to their recovery and selective breeding in Nigeria.

Keywords: AMOVA, genetic diversity, Heterobranchus spp., mtDNA COI, phylogenetic tree

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3234 In Vitro Propagation of Aloe vera and Aloe littoralis Plants: Gamma Radiation, Biochemical and Genetic Changes

Authors: Z. Nourmohammadi, F. Farahani, M. Shaker


Aloe is an important commercial crop available in a wide range of species and varieties in international markets. The applications of this plant have been recorded in the ancient cultures of India, Egypt, Greece, Rome and China. Aloe has been used for centuries and is currently being actively studied for medicinal purposes. Aloe is propagated through lateral buds, which is slow, very expensive and low income practice. Nowadays, it has been cultured by in vitro propagation for rapid multiplication of plants, genetic improvement of crops, obtaining disease-free clones and for progressive valuable germplasm. The present study focused on the influence of different phytohormones on rapid in vitro propagation of Aloe plants. We also investigated the effect of gamma radiation on biochemical characters as well as genetic changes. Shoot tip of 2-3 cm were collected from offshoot of Aloe barbadensis and Aloe littoralis, and were inoculated with MS medium containing various concentrations of BA (0.5, 1, 2 mg/l), IAA (0.5, 1 mg/l). The best treatment for a highest shoot number and bud proliferation was MS medium containing 2 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l IAA in A. barbadensis and A. littoralis. Maximum percentage of proliferated shoot buds (90% and 95%) from a single explant were obtained in MS medium after 4-5 weeks of the second and the first subcultures, respectively. Different genome sizes were also indicated among treatments and subcultures. The mixoploids identified in flow cytometery histograms in different treatments. The effect of gamma radiation on A. littoralis showed that by increasing the dose of gamma radiation, amounts of chlorophyll A, B, carotenoids, total protein content and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased compared to control plants. Genetic variation analysis also revealed significant genetic differences between control and gamma radiation treated regenerated plants by AMOVA test. Higher genetic heterozygocity was observed in radiation treated plants. Our findings may provide useful method for improving of Aloe plant proliferation with increasing of useful material such as antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: aloe, antioxidant enzyme, micropropagation, gamma radiation, genetic variation

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3233 On Kantorovich-Stancu Type Operators with the Variation Detracting Property

Authors: Özlem Öksüzer


In this paper, we introduce variation detracting property of Kantorovich-Stancu type operators in the space of functions of bounded variation. These problems are studied with respect to the variation seminorm.

Keywords: Kantorovich-Stancu type operators, variation seminorm, variation detracting property, absolutely continuous function

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3232 Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Using a Stochastic Multi-Objective Programming Model and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Rouhallah Bagheri, Morteza Mahmoudi, Hadi Moheb-Alizadeh


In this paper, we develop a supplier selection and order allocation multi-objective model in stochastic environment in which purchasing cost, percentage of delivered items with delay and percentage of rejected items provided by each supplier are supposed to be stochastic parameters following any arbitrary probability distribution. To do so, we use dependent chance programming (DCP) that maximizes probability of the event that total purchasing cost, total delivered items with delay and total rejected items are less than or equal to pre-determined values given by decision maker. After transforming the above mentioned stochastic multi-objective programming problem into a stochastic single objective problem using minimum deviation method, we apply a genetic algorithm to get the later single objective problem solved. The employed genetic algorithm performs a simulation process in order to calculate the stochastic objective function as its fitness function. At the end, we explore the impact of stochastic parameters on the given solution via a sensitivity analysis exploiting coefficient of variation. The results show that as stochastic parameters have greater coefficients of variation, the value of objective function in the stochastic single objective programming problem is worsened.

Keywords: dependent chance programming, genetic algorithm, minimum deviation method, order allocation, supplier selection

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3231 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity for Salt Stress in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Seedling Stage

Authors: Abdu Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat


Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germ plasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: salinity, hybrids, maize, variation

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3230 Influence of ABCB1 2677G > T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism on Warfarin Maintenance Therapy among Patients with Prosthetic Heart Valve

Authors: M. G. Gopisankar, A. Surendiran, M. Hemachandren


The dose requirement of warfarin to achieve target INR range varies in patients with prosthetic heart valve. This variation in is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Earlier studies have identified role of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirement. Warfarin being a substrate for drug transporter, P-glycoprotein coded by ABCB1 gene, may also be influenced by its genetic polymorphisms. This study was aimed to study the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), ABCB1 2677G > T on warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients with steady-state International Normalized Ratio (INR). The median dose requirement was significantly different between the genotype groups GG vs. GT (35 ± 20; 42.5 ± 18, p < 0.05), GG vs. TT (35 ± 20; 41.25 ± 25, p<0.05). There was no significant difference between GT vs. TT. In conclusion, patients with variant allele require a higher weekly maintenance dose of warfarin compared to patients without variant allele.

Keywords: warfarin pharamcogenetics, pharmacogenomics of warfarin, ABCB1 and warfarin, pglycoprotein and warfarin

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3229 A Review Paper on Data Mining and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Sikander Singh Cheema, Jasmeen Kaur


In this paper, the concept of data mining is summarized and its one of the important process i.e KDD is summarized. The data mining based on Genetic Algorithm is researched in and ways to achieve the data mining Genetic Algorithm are surveyed. This paper also conducts a formal review on the area of data mining tasks and genetic algorithm in various fields.

Keywords: data mining, KDD, genetic algorithm, descriptive mining, predictive mining

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3228 Deleterious SNP’s Detection Using Machine Learning

Authors: Hamza Zidoum


This paper investigates the impact of human genetic variation on the function of human proteins using machine-learning algorithms. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism represents the most common form of human genome variation. We focus on the single amino-acid polymorphism located in the coding region as they can affect the protein function leading to pathologic phenotypic change. We use several supervised Machine Learning methods to identify structural properties correlated with increased risk of the missense mutation being damaging. SVM associated with Principal Component Analysis give the best performance.

Keywords: single-nucleotide polymorphism, machine learning, feature selection, SVM

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