Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 212

Search results for: folk theatre

212 Not so Street Theatre: Politics in Theatre of Roots

Authors: Dani Karmakar

Abstract:

In India, the journey of street theatre was started with Indian peoples Theatre Association (IPTA) as a tool for anti-establishment that was categorized as by the people and for the people. It has expressed common people’s feelings, problems, day to day life. It has brought a social change that is downtrodden. By its nature, it is based on communist ideology. Street theatre is a theatre of protest. In India, many folk theatres translate directly ‘Street Theatre’, those are Veedhi Natakam in Andhra Pradesh and Therukoothu in Tamil Nadu. But they do not covey to common definition of street theatre. There are different folk theatres of different regions in India. All folk theatres have individual characteristic, criteria, taste and flavor that can render distinctive each others. In festivals or special occasions, whole communities come together to enjoy collectively and express their feelings. The Veedhi Natakam means 'street theatre'. Theru koothu is a traditional street theatre in the northern districts of Tamilnadu. Folk theatre has potential to deliver strong messages. It has a socially significant role. At Veedhi Natakam, Vidhushaka takes part for social criticism. Gambhira is also a socio-political folk drama presentation in West Bengal.

Keywords: folk theatre, Gambhira, politics, street theatre

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211 Musicals in Film Adaptation in Bollywood with Special Reference to Basu Bhattacharya's Film Teesari Kasam

Authors: Gokul G. Kshirsagar

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Native folk theatre and folk songs have a significant influence on the origin and development of Indian cinema. Therefore, the presence of songs and music has been an integral part and special characteristics of Indian cinema which is popularly known as Bollywood. An Indian cinema without songs, either in Hindi or other regional languages, is simply unimaginable. The present paper, in the first part, attempts to explain the use and need of musical songs and also the psychology of Indian audience in this respect with reference to some of the films which give primary importance to songs. In the second part, the paper tries to situate the present study in the context by referring to the Hindi language drama film Teesari Kasam directed by Basu Bhattacharys. The film is based on the Hindi novelist Phanishwarnath Renu’s short story Teesari Kasam (Mare Gaye Gulfam) in this adapted film, the director has made use of eight songs, but these songs are the extensive versions of the songs as used in the original story. Thus, the main aim of the paper is to underscore the fact that through artistic use of the musical, the director has succeeded in transforming the central feelings conveyed in the original story. Eventually, through the present study of the film adaptation, the relevance of songs in films will be illustrated and understood.

Keywords: Bollywood, folk theatre, folk songs, film adaptation

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210 Bringing Thai Folk Song "Laos Duang Duen" to Teaching in Western Music

Authors: Wongwarit Nipitwittaya

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The objectives of this research is bringing folk song with the teaching of Western music were to examine to investigate, to compare, develop the skill, technique, knowledge of Thai folk song and to preserve folk song of Thailand to be known more widely also learn Thai culture from Thai folk song. Study by bringing Thailand folk song is widely known for learning with Western music in course brass performance. Bringing the melody of Thai folk music and changing patterns to western music notes for appropriate on brass performance. A sample was selected from brass students, using research by assessment of knowledge from test after used Thai folk song lesson. The lesson focus for scales and key signature in western music by divided into two groups, the one study by used research tools and another one used simple lesson and a collection of research until testing. The results of the study were as follows: 1. There are good development skill form research method 2. Sound recognition can be even better. The study was a qualitative research and data collection by observation.

Keywords: Thai folk song, brass instrument, key signature, western music

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
209 Performing a Chamber Theatre Adaptation of Nick Joaquin's 'the Summer Solstice'

Authors: Allen B. Baylosis

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Chamber Theatre has been one of the least articulated staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies. This creative exploratory-descriptive study responds to this gap by employing the staging technique in a Chamber Theatre production based on Nick Joaquin’s The Summer Solstice. Specifically, this study opts to understand three processes involved in the Chamber Theatre creative thesis production of The Summer Solstice as performance: performance of the theatre-maker, performance of the spect-actors, and performance of the spectators. For this purpose, the theatre-maker describes the creative process of transforming The Summer Solstice text to a Chamber Theatre production—from text to staging. The theatre-maker also analyzes the performers’ experiences and the spectators’ responses as they participate in a Chamber Theatre performance. In doing so, the theatre-maker collects qualitative data from seventeen (17) performers and qualitative feedback from twenty (20) spectators. For the mode of data analysis, this study employed Ranciere’s concept on the Emancipated Spectator (2008) and Schechner’s Performance Theory (1988). The study’s findings examine how the theatre-maker, the performers, and the spectators become distant viewers of their respective restored behavior performances. Through these viewed performances, this study implies that it is possible to ascertain a reasonable definition of purpose for Chamber Theatre. Hence, despite the existence of other modern staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies, this study concludes that Chamber Theatre remains to be a relevant staging technique.

Keywords: adaptation of text, chamber theatre, experimental theater, oral interpretation

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208 From Colonial Outpost to Cultural India: Folk Epics of India

Authors: Jyoti Brahma

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Folk epics of India are found in various Indian languages. The study of folk epics and its importance in folkloristic study in India came into prominence only during the nineteenth century. The British administrators and missionaries collected and documented folk epics from various parts of the country. The paper is an attempt to investigate how colonial outpost appears to penetrate the interiors of Indian land and society and triggered off the Indian Renaissance. It takes into account the compositions of the epics of India and the attention it received during the nineteenth century, which in turn gave, rise to the national consciousness shaping the culture of India. Composed as oral traditions these folk epics are now seen as repositories of historical consciousness whereas in earlier times societies without literacy were said to be without history. So, there is an urgent need to re-examine the British impact on Indian literary traditions. The Bhakti poets through their nuanced responses in their efforts to change the behavior of Indian society gives us the perfect example of deferment in the clear cut distinction between the folk and the classical in the context of India. It evades a pure categorization and classification of the classical and constitutes part of the folk traditions of the cultural heritage of India. Therefore, the ethical question of what is ontologically known as ordinary discourse in the case of the “folk” forms metaphors and folk language gains importance once more. The paper also thus seeks simultaneously to outline the significant factors responsible for shaping the destiny of folklore in South India particularly the four political states of the Indian Union: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, what could be termed as South Indian “cultural zones”.

Keywords: colonial, folk, folklore, tradition

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207 King versus God: An Introduction to Dhanujatra of Odisha

Authors: Kailash Pattanaik, Giribala Mohanty

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Dhanujatra is a folk performance of ODISHA, India, that transports the participants, on lookers and all alike into a mythical atmosphere for eleven days and nights as well. In this performance the whole town becomes stage. The uniqueness of the festival lies in the fact that all the episodes of this Jatra enacted in different parts of the town making it the largest open air theatre in the world. The paper would emphasize on the uniqueness and the impact of this performance.Different episodes are enacted at different places in the regime. So, Dhanujatra does not confine itself to a fixed static or dead stage, as in case of other Jatra’s; it rather becomes the stage for the world at large. For that, it is said that, Worlds biggest open air theatre held in the tiny town called Bargarh in the western part of Orissa. The play moves sequentially day after day and the audience moves from locale to locale. Here it is analogues to the Ramleela of Ramnagar of Benars. Parallal enactment is a significant feature of this Jatra. From the second day, parallal performances take place in both Bargarh town and Ambapalli epitomising ‘Mathura’ and ‘Gokul’ respectively. Krishna is born in the prison on the second day of the jatra. Basudeb exchanges the child with the Nanda’s newborn baby in Gokul. In this way, parallal performances go on both in Mathura and Gokul. The ordinary persons who act as the mythological characters, or become historical heroes or the legendary Saints or Bhaktas in a Jatra in the evening, lead the lives of ordinary persons during day time. The dramatic personas of those individuals are shed with the end of the Jatra. On the contrary, the persons who act as the main characters of Dhanujatra are exceptions in this regard. They are identified as the characters they enact for the whole period of performance, both in the evenings and during daytime. It is worth mentioning that generally in the folk performances there is an ample scope to touch upon or interpret or comment or satirize the issues of contemporary relevance with the sole purpose to convey some specific message. Dhanujatra is no exception to that.

Keywords: folk performance, Jatra, parallel enactment, open-air stage, Odisha

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206 Trauma Informed Applied Theatre: The Use of Performance to Connect With Mental Dysfunction Using Physical Embodiment

Authors: Stephanie Elizabeth Talder

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Applied theatre programs provide a unique opportunity to engage with people using theatre with the intention of helping them with a variety of other ailments. Applied theatre within a medical setting allows for there to be other arts focused interventions that would allow for a creative and enjoyable way to connect with those who experience the same impairments as you. These programs have the potential to aid in health benefits as well as engage with theatre. This study will focus on those who have cognitive dysfunction and mental health advocacy. Due to the severe need for mental health initiatives, providing a community of those who are experiencing similar symptoms and connecting with playwrights such as Shakespeare will be meaningful. This study will partner with mental health and wellness professionals within the medical field to work with memory retention and increase mental wellness.

Keywords: applied theatre, trauma-informed, mental wellness advocacy, cognitive dysfunction

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205 From Indigeneity to Urbanity: A Performative Study of Indian Saang (Folk Play) Tradition

Authors: Shiv Kumar

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In the shifting scenario of postmodern age that foregrounds the multiplicity of meanings and discourses, the present research article seeks to investigate various paradigm shift of contemporary performances concerning Haryanvi Saangs, so-called folk plays, which are being performed widely in the regional territory of Haryana, a northern state of India. Folk arts cannot be studied efficiently by using the tools of literary criticism because it differs from the literature in many aspects. One of the most essential differences is that literary works invariably have an author. Folk works, on the contrary, never have an author. The situation is quite clear: either we acknowledge the presence of folk art as a phenomenon in the social and cultural history of people, or we do not acknowledge it and argue it is a poetical or art of fiction. This paper is an effort to understand the performative tradition of Saang which is traditionally known as Saang, Swang or Svang became a popular source for instruction and entertainment in the region and neighbouring states. Scholars and critics have long been debating about the origin of the word swang/svang/saang and their relationship to the Sanskrit word –Sangit, which means singing and music. But in the cultural context of Haryana, the word Saang means ‘to impersonate’ or ‘to imitate’ or ‘to copy someone or something’. The stories they portray are derived for the most part from the same myths, tales, epics and from the lives of Indian religious and folk heroes. Literally, the use of poetic sense, the implication of prose style and elaborate figurative technique are worthwhile to compile the productivity of a performance. All use music and song as an integral part of the performance so that it is also appropriate to call them folk opera. These folk plays are performed strictly by aboriginal people in the state. These people, sometimes denominated as Saangi, possess a culture distinct from the rest of Indian folk performances. The concerned form is also known with various other names like Manch, Khayal, Opera, Nautanki. The group of such folk plays can be seen as a dynamic activity and performed in the open space of the theatre. Nowadays, producers contributed greatly in order to create a rapidly growing musical outlet for budding new style of folk presentation and give rise to the electronic focus genre utilizing many musicians and performers who had to become precursors of the folk tradition in the region. Moreover, the paper proposes to examine available sources relative to this article, and it is believed to draw some different conclusions. For instance, to be a spectator of ongoing performances will contribute to providing enough guidance to move forward on this root. In this connection, the paper focuses critically upon the major performative aspects of Haryanvi Saang in relation to several inquiries such as the study of these plays in the context of Indian literary scenario, gender visualization and their dramatic representation, a song-music tradition in folk creativity and development of Haryanvi dramatic art in the contemporary socio-political background.

Keywords: folk play, indigenous, performance, Saang, tradition

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204 The Stage as Pulpit; Contemporary Practice of Theatre for Religion in Kenya

Authors: Shikuku Emmanuel Tsikhungu

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Theatre and religion have enjoyed a symbiotic relationship from time immemorial, each transforming in different epochs and into different forms of practice but gaining from each other’s growth. Despite the fact that religion has more or less looked at the theatre and its dramatic rituals with distaste, the two human engagements have had dynamic and reciprocal relationships. In Kenya, there is an emerging innovation and transformation of theatre for religion in which churches and sects are consciously developing a youth wing that is vibrant in theatre practice. The imagination that youth and children derive pleasure and vibrancy in theatre has led to a lively competition among churches that is now creating a new form of theatre in Kenya. This has given rise to a practice in which art engages the religious not at the spiritual level but at the social-cultural level. Thus theatre is finding itself in sanctums that it had been banished; not for its own sake but as a tool for keeping the youth nearer the church if not the church This article analyses findings of a study carried out in December of 2017 among theatre festivals for the Catholic Church held in Kitui School, KituiCounty, and the Methodist Church of Kenya festival held in Ntemwene Church, Nkubu, Meru County, Kenya. One of the findings of interest was that while they were not theatres of religion nor religious theatres since they did not fuse the religious rituals with the dramatic rituals, the festivals never the less qualify as theatres for religion for they link the former to the latter. Secondly, while they claimed to be youth or children theatre festivals, they lacked youth-centredness nor child-centredness associated with such. Thirdly and most importantly the style of dramatic execution ranged from bibliodramatic to secular drama with Christian messages. Fourthly, by this stroke of acceptance in formerly forbidden sanctums, theatre is re-inventing itself back to its ‘old’ nature and function. It may be argued conclusively that this sprouting movement of theatre for religion may be comparable to the Jesuit Theatre fronted by Ignatius Loyola but clothed in modern African theatre practice.

Keywords: theatre, religion, theatre for religion, social constructs, socio-cultural

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203 Crossing Boundaries: Emerging Identities from Folk Theatre

Authors: Sonia Wahengbam, Natasha Elangbam

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Female impersonation has existed through the length of human civilization and the breadth of its cultures. Transvestism and drag queen cultures have created multi-sited spaces where in the shadow of art, one can cross the gender barrier and express one’s hidden identity. This paper will explore a dynamic cultural space that exists in Manipur, a state in the northeastern region of India, where the female impersonators (nupi shabis) of a folk theater (Shumang Leela) are using this traditional and popular art form to claim social acceptance of their homosexual identities through the medium of entertainment. It will highlight how by crossing the gender boundary, this third gender group has carved out a unique socio-economic niche where they have exploited their sexual identities to their advantage. The paper will trace the expanding cultural ‘’borderland’’ of Manipur where there is an increasing sense of ‘becoming’, belonging and sharing” of identities through the interweaving of old and new media. The research will be based on interviews with the nupi shabis, cultural critics and other experts.

Keywords: transvestism, Manipur, female impersonators (nupi shabis), Shumang Leela, gender

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202 Research Analysis in Eclectic Theory (Kaboudan and Sfandiar)

Authors: Farideh Alizadeh, Mohd Nasir Hashi

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Present research investigates eclecticism in Iranian theatre on the basis of eclectic theory. Eclectic theatre is a new theory in postmodernism. The theory appeared during 60th – 70th century in some theatres such as “Conference of the Birds”. Special theatrical forms have been developed in many geographical- cultural areas of the world and are indigenous to that area. These forms, as compared with original forms, are considered to be traditional while being comprehensive, the form is considered to be national. Kaboudan and Sfandiar theatre has been influenced by elements of traditional form of Iran.

Keywords: eclectic theatre, theatrical forms, tradition, play

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201 Innovative Approaches to Integrating the Bulgarian Folklore

Authors: Violeta Kostadinova, Emilia Tsankova

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The purpose of this research is to explore and analyze the integration of the younger generation with Bulgarian folklore through various innovative forms, methods and approaches. A survey was conducted among students to evaluate its success. The results prove the relevance of the problem as well and the necessity of innovation to keep the national and promotion of Bulgarian folklore. Innovation in music education is a good way to create positive motivation and raise interest in folk art, which is especially pronounced when the folk songs have contemporary arrangement. Modern interpretation of Bulgarian folk music makes the music more approachable to young people and makes it more likely that folk music will become an integral part of our modern culture. The research would help the implementation of appropriate innovations for more effective training and upgrading for music students in all middle and high schools in the country.

Keywords: Bulgarian folklore, innovative forms, methods and approaches, motivation, music education

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200 The Development of Speaking Using Folk Tales Based on Performance Activities for Early-Childhood Students

Authors: Ms Yaowaluck Ruampol

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The research on the development of using folk tales based on performance activities aimed to (1) study the development of speaking skill for early-childhood students, (2) evaluate the development of speaking skill before and after speaking activities. Ten students of Kindergarten level 2, who have enrolled in the subject of the research for speaking development of semester 2 in 2013, were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for speaking activities and pre-posttest for speaking development that were approved for content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,0.967). The research found that the development of speaking skill of the research samples before using performance activities on folk tales in developing speaking skill was in the normal high level. Additionally, the results revealed that the preschoolers after applying speaking skill on performance activities also imaginatively created their speaking skill.

Keywords: speaking development, folk tales, performance activities, communication engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
199 The Development of Speaking Using Folk Tales Based on Performance Activities for Early Childhood Student

Authors: Yaowaluck Ruampol, Suthakorn Wasupokin

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The research on the development of speaking using folk tales based on performance activities aimed to (1) study the development of speaking skill for early- childhood students, and (2) evaluate the development of speaking skill before and after speaking activities. Ten students of Kindergarten level 2, who have enrolled in the subject of the research for speaking development of semester 2 in 2013 were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for speaking activities and pre-post test for speaking development that were approved as content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,α=0.967). The research found that the development of speaking skill of the research samples before using performance activities on folk tales in developing speaking skill was in the normal high level. Additionally, the results appeared that the preschoolers after applying speaking skill on performance activities also imaginatively created their speaking skill.

Keywords: speaking development, folk tales, performance activities, early-childhood students

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
198 Revitalization of Sign Language through Deaf Theatre: A Linguistic Analysis of an Art Form Which Combines Physical Theatre, Poetry, and Sign Language

Authors: Gal Belsitzman, Rose Stamp, Atay Citron, Wendy Sandler

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Sign languages are considered endangered. The vitality of sign languages is compromised by its unique sociolinguistic situation, in which hearing parents that give birth to deaf children usually decide to cochlear implant their child. Therefore, these children don’t acquire their natural language – Sign Language. Despite this, many sign languages, such as Israeli Sign Language (ISL) are thriving. The continued survival of similar languages under threat has been associated with the remarkable resilience of the language community. In particular, deaf literary traditions are central in reminding the community of the importance of the language. One example of a deaf literary tradition which has received increased popularity in recent years is deaf theatre. The Ebisu Sign Language Theatre Laboratory, developed as part of the multidisciplinary Grammar of the Body Research Project, is the first deaf theatre company in Israel. Ebisu Theatre combines physical theatre and sign language research, to allow for a natural laboratory to analyze the creative use of the body. In this presentation, we focus on the recent theatre production called ‘Their language’ which tells of the struggle faced by the deaf community to use their own natural language in the education system. A thorough analysis unravels how linguistic properties are integrated with the use of poetic devices and physical theatre techniques in this performance, enabling wider access by both deaf and hearing audiences, without interpretation. Interviews with the audience illustrate the significance of this art form which serves a dual purpose, both as empowering for the deaf community and educational for the hearing and deaf audiences, by raising awareness of community-related issues.

Keywords: deaf theatre, empowerment, language revitalization, sign language

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197 The Application of Local Wisdom in Health Care of Early Childhood at Ban Nam Chieo Community, Laem Ngop, Trat Province

Authors: Supalak Fakkhum, Wannita Pochanakul

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This research is qualitative research that aims to study the application of local wisdom in health care of early childhood at Ban Nam Chieo Community, Laem Ngop, Trat Province. The target is one folk medicine healer and 45 parents who have children or grandchildren aged between 0-5 years. The folk medicine healer was interviewed and observed during early childhood health care practice. Parents were interviewed. The results showed that local wisdom in health care of early childhood are as follows: 1. Local wisdom about early childhood diseases: It is believed that the disease was determined while the child was still in the womb, in the third month of pregnancy. When a child is born, they will have La, La-ong and Saang diseases, which are URI (upper respiratory infection) and DI (diarrhea) diseases. Supernatural aspect is also considered. 2. The treatment is chosen to match the symptoms of the disease. Caring for early childhood includes psychological therapy by rituals and spells. 3. For local wisdom concerning prevention and health promotion, parents normally bring their child to folk medicine healers for “throat paint” as an act of protection and health promotion. Folk healers often prescribe food according to belief and local wisdom.

Keywords: local wisdom, early childhood, folk medicine, healer

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196 'Utopian Performatives' for Peace: A Radical Approach to Evaluating the Value of Documentary Theatre in Northern Ireland

Authors: Harry Mccallum

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In the last decade, there has been an upsurge in documentary theatre projects that seek to address issues arising from ‘the Troubles’ by theatre and community organisations such as The Playhouse, Kabosh, and The Verbal Arts Centre. This movement has been supported by a variety of funding agencies who have identified the importance of the instrumental use of theatre for generating societal development. However, with this upsurge in interest comes complications surrounding the subjectivity of evaluations and an understanding of their empirical impact on society. This largely theoretical led-discussion promotes the engagement of Jill Dolan’s ‘utopian performatives’ (2005) within the remit of documentary theatre for peacebuilding practices in Northern Ireland.‘Utopian Performatives’ are described as being profound moments in a theatre production that transforms audience members into a state of ‘hopeful feeling’.As a concept, they are situated within the discourse surrounding audience reception and the ‘affective turn’ (Brennan, 2004; Clough and Halley, 2007; Ahmed, 2014), which indicates its persistence on a short-term ephemeral outlook. It is therefore important to understand how this short-term ‘affect’ can expand into a longer-term ‘effect.’ Through this interdisciplinary study between ‘peace’ and ‘theatre’ studies, I am proposinga theoretical framework that examines how these individual ‘utopian performatives’ at the personal level can lead to a change at the societal level. The framework understands that ‘utopian performatives’ have the capacity to generate discussion and empower audience members to actively strive for a ‘positive peace’; something which is evidently absent in a contemporary Northern Ireland.

Keywords: theatre, peacebuilding, conflict transformation, northern Ireland

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195 Planning and Strategies for Risks Prevention, Mitigating, and Recovery of Ancient Theatres Heritage: Investigation and Recommendations

Authors: Naif A. Haddad

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Greek, Hellenistic and Roman theatre heritage are exposed to multiple risks at varied times or simultaneously. There is no single reason why a theatre building becomes ‘at risk’, as each case has different circumstances which have led to the theatre building decay. There are complicated processes of destruction and distress that show divergence in theatre building materials' decay. Theatre modern use for cultural performances causes much of the risks concerning the physical structure and authenticity of theatre sites. In addition, there are some deterioration and deformations due to previous poor quality restorations and interventions through related excavation and conservation programmes as also risks to authenticity due to new additions. For preventive conservation, theatre natural and anthropogenic risks management can provide a framework for decision making. These risks to ancient theatre heritage may stem from exposure to one or more risk or synergy of many factors. We, therefore, need to link the theatre natural risks to the risks that come from anthropogenic factors associated with social and economic development. However, this requires a holistic approach, and systematic methodology for understanding these risks from various sources while incorporating specific actions, planning and strategies for each specific risk. Elaborating on recent relevant studies, and ERATO and ATHENA EU projects for ancient theaters and odea and general surveys, this paper attempts to discuss the main aspects of the ancient Greek, Hellenistic and Roman theatres risk related issues. Relevant case studies shall also be discussed and investigated to examine frameworks for risk mitigation, and related guidelines and recommendations that provide a systematic approach for sustainable management and planning in relation mainly to ‘compatible use’ of theatre sites.

Keywords: cultural heritage management, European ancient theatres projects, Anthropogenic risks mitigation, sustainable management and planning, preventive conservation, modern use, compatible use

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194 The Effectiveness of a Program Based on the Employment of the Proposed Folk Songs to Enrich the Visual Expressive Drawings with the Artistic Connotations for the Early Stage Childhood

Authors: Ahmed Mousa, Huda Mazeed

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The research aims to determine the appropriate songs and artistic indications for the kindergarten child. In addition, it aims to use the songs of folk to develop expressive visual drawings with artistic connotations for the kindergarten child. The current research used a one group semi-experimental approach to identify the impact of songs on expressive children's drawings. The research community is represented in the educational administration in Giza Governorate for the academic year (2018 - 2019). The sample was taken from the kindergarten of Gamal Abdel Nasser School of Dokki Educational Administration in Giza Governorate. The study was applied to the second level children sample (5-6 years), where they numbered 20 children, males and females. The research results show that there are statistically significant differences between the average scores of the children of the experimental group in the pre and post-measurements on the observation card for children after hearing the songs of social and national folk in favor of post measurement. Moreover, the results demonstrate that there are no statistically significant differences between the average scores of children in the experimental group in the measurements, the post and follow-up, on the observation card of children's drawings for social and national folk.

Keywords: folk songs, visual expressive, artistic connotations, early childhood

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193 An Ontological Approach to Existentialist Theatre and Theatre of the Absurd in the Works of Jean-Paul Sartre and Samuel Beckett

Authors: Gülten Silindir Keretli

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The aim of this study is to analyse the works of playwrights within the framework of existential philosophy. It is to observe the ontological existence in the plays of No Exit and Endgame. Literary works will be discussed separately in each section of this study. The despair of post-war generation of Europe problematized the ‘human condition’ in every field of literature which is the very product of social upheaval. With this concern in his mind, Sartre’s creative works portrayed man as a lonely being, burdened with terrifying freedom to choose and create his own meaning in an apparently meaningless world. The traces of the existential thought are to be found throughout the history of philosophy and literature. On the other hand, the theatre of the absurd is a form of drama showing the absurdity of the human condition and it is heavily influenced by the existential philosophy. Beckett is the most influential playwright of the theatre of the absurd. The themes and thoughts in his plays share many tenets of the existential philosophy. The existential philosophy posits the meaninglessness of existence and it regards man as being thrown into the universe and into desolate isolation. To overcome loneliness and isolation, the human ego needs recognition from the other people. Sartre calls this need of recognition as the need for ‘the Look’ (Le regard) from the Other. In this paper, existentialist philosophy and existentialist angst will be elaborated and then the works of existentialist theatre and theatre of absurd will be discussed within the framework of existential philosophy.

Keywords: consciousness, existentialism, the notion of the absurd, the other

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192 Analyzing Use of Figurativeness, Visual Elements, Allegory, Scenic Imagery as Support System in Punjabi Contemporary Theatre for Escaping Censorship

Authors: Shazia Anwer

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This paper has discussed the unusual form of resistance in theatre against censorship board in Pakistan. The atypical approach of dramaturgy created massive space for performers and audiences to integrate and communicate. The social and religious absolutes creates suffocation in Pakistani society, strict control over all Fine and Performing Art has made art political, contemporary dramatics has started an amalgamated theatre to avoid censorship. Contemporary Punjabi theatre techniques are directly dependent on human cognition. The idea of indirect thought processing is not unique but dependent on spectators. The paper has provided an account of these techniques and their specific use for conveying specific messages across the audiences. For the Dramaturge of today, theatre space is an expression representing a linguistic formulation that includes qualities of experimental and non-traditional use of classical theatrical space in the context of fulfilling the concept of open theatre. Paper has explained the transformation of the theatrical experience into an event where the actor and the audience are co-existing and co-experiencing the dramatical experience. The denial of the existence of the 4th -Wall made two-way communication possible. This paper has elaborated that the previously marginalized genres such as naach, jugat, miras, are extensively included to counter the censorship board. Figurativeness, visual elements, allegory, scenic imagery are basic support system for contemporary Punjabi theatre. The body of the actor is used as a source for non-verbal communication, and for an escape from traditional theatrical space which by every means has every element that could be controlled and reprimanded by the controlling authority.

Keywords: communication, Punjabi theatre, figurativeness, censorship

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191 The Folksongs of Jharkhand: An Intangible Cultural Heritage of Tribal India

Authors: Walter Beck

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Jharkhand is newly constituted 28th State in the eastern part of India which is known for the oldest settlement of the indigenous people. In the State of Jharkhand in which broadly three language family are found namely, Austric, Dravidian, and Indo-European. Ex-Mundari, kharia, Ho Santali come from the Austric Language family. Kurukh, Malto under Dravidian language family and Nagpuri Khorta etc. under Indo-European language family. There are 32 Indigenous Communities identified as Scheduled Tribe in the State of Jharkhand. Santhal, Munda, Kahria, Ho and Oraons are some of the major Tribe of the Jharkhand state. Jharkhand has a Rich Cultural heritage which includes Folk art, folklore, Folk Dance, Folk Music, Folk Songs for which diversity can been seen from place to place, season to season and all traditional Culture and practices. The languages as well as the songs are vulnerable to dominant culture and hence needed to be protected. The collection and documentation of these songs in their natural setting adds significant contribution to the conservation and propagation of the cultural elements. This paper reflects to bring out the Originality of the Collected Songs from remote areas of the plateau of Sothern Jharkhand as a rich intangible Cultural heritage of the Country. The research was done through participatory observation. In this research project more than 100 songs which were never documented before.

Keywords: cultural heritage, India, indigenous people, songs, languages

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190 Management of Theatre with Social and Culture

Authors: Chitsuphang Ungsvanonda

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Objective of this research is to study the government’s theater management system regarding planning and operation. Also studying how the management associate with the change of an environment. This is to gather an appropriate model to develop a theater management system especially regarding all show performance. The research will be done by a Qualitative Research with an interview of 35 person by specify and unexpectedly group.

Keywords: management, theatre, social, culture

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189 High Culture or Low Culture: The Propagation and Popularization of the Classic of Poetry in Modern China

Authors: Fang Tang

Abstract:

A major Confucian masterpiece and the earliest-known poetry anthology (composed approximately 1046-771 BCE), The Classic of Poetry, reflects different cultures in ancient China. It is regarded as a Chinese classic and one of the world’s most significant written works, an essential part of our global cultural heritage. This paper explores how the ancient Chinese classic became transformed into part of popular culture, found in folk songs circulated in Fangxian county, a mountainous location in Hubei province in central mainland China. It is the hometown of one of the most well-known authors of The Classic of Poetry, whose name is Yin Jifu. Local villagers process, refine, and recreate these poems into popular folk songs, which have been handed down from generation to generation. The folk songs based on The Classic of Poetry vividly reflect local customs, life styles, and various cultural activities. After thousands of years of singing these traditional songs, the region has become an important area to maintain part of Chinese cultural heritages; here, the original high culture is converted into a popular culture that is absorbed into people’s daily life. Based on a year’s field research and many interviews with local singers, this paper explores the ways in which locals have transformed the contents of The Classic of Poetry. It examines how today these popular folk songs become part of much-treasured culture heritage, illustrating the transformation of traditional high culture into popular culture. The paper argues that the modern adaptations of the traditional poems of The Classic of Poetry combine both oral and written cultural heritage and reflects the interaction between ancient Chinese official literature and folk literature. The paper also explores the reasons why the folk songs of The Classic of Poetry are so popular in the area, including the influences of its author Yin Jifu, the impact of ancient diasporic culture from the political centre to remote rural areas, and the interactions of local cultures (famous as Chu culture) and Chinese mainstream cultural policies.

Keywords: high/low culture, The Classic of Poetry, the functions of media, cultural policy

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188 Educational Theatre Making Project: Prior Conditions

Authors: Larisa Akhmylovskaia, Andriana Barysh

Abstract:

The present paper is introducing the translation score developing methodology and methods in the cross-cultural communication. The ideas and examples presented by the authors illustrate the universal character of translation score developing methods under analysis. Personal experience in the international theatre-making projects, opera laboratories, cross-cultural master-classes give more opportunities to single out the conditions, forms, means and principles of translation score developing as well as the translator/interpreter’s functions as cultural liaison for multiethnic collaboration.

Keywords: methodology of translation score developing, pre-production, analysis, production, post-production, ethnic scene theory, theatre anthropology, laboratory, master-class, educational project, academic project, participant observation, super-objective

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187 The Fashion Fiesta: An Approach for Creating an Environment of Celebration by Uniting Two Art Forms; Fashion and Dance

Authors: Iqra Khan, Ghousia Saeed, Salman Jamil

Abstract:

Fashion is the soul of styles. People of all times want to look trendy, eye catching and unique among all. For this reason, people always adopt different flairs in their outfits including their clothes, shoes, bags and other accessories. However, unfortunately, there is lack of opportunity for accommodating the fashion exposure activities expressed with the folk dances of different regions so as to exhibit the fashion of Pakistan to the world. The paper focuses on the vibrant setting of the whole building according to the social patterns, folk and local trends and existing environment of Lahore. This is done by studying each of the aspect obtained from objectives through research questions evolved from the objectives. The answers to these questions are found through case studies and the existing theories in the world in relevance to the topic. The paper finds out how the geometry of dance works with design principles to create transparent geometry of fashion building. This all creates the fiesta environment taken from the locality of the region from the local and cultural lifestyles of the locals and then assembling it together to create a full festivity experience throughout the building.

Keywords: fashion, folk dance, geometry, local trends, social patterns, transparent

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186 The Use of Technology in Theatrical Performances as a Tool of Audience’S Engagement

Authors: Chrysoula Bousiouta

Abstract:

Throughout the history of theatre, technology has played an important role both in influencing the relationship between performance and audience and offering different kinds of experiences. The use of technology dates back in ancient times, when the introduction of artifacts, such as “Deus ex machine” in ancient Greek theatre, started. Taking into account the key techniques and experiences used throughout history, this paper investigates how technology, through new media, influences contemporary theatre. In the context of this research, technology is defined as projections, audio environments, video-projections, sensors, tele-connections, all alongside with the performance, challenging audience’s participation. The theoretical framework of the research covers, except for the history of theatre, the theory of “experience economy” that took over the service and goods economy. The research is based on the qualitative and comparative analysis of two case studies, Contact Theatre in Manchester (United Kingdom) and Bios in Athens (Greece). The data selection includes desk research and is complemented with semi structured interviews. Building on the results of the research one could claim that the intended experience of modern/contemporary theatre is that of engagement. In this context, technology -as defined above- plays a leading role in creating it. This experience passes through and exists in the middle of the realms of entertainment, education, estheticism and escapism. Furthermore, it is observed that nowadays, theatre is not only about acting but also about performing; it is that one where the performances are unfinished without the participation of the audience. Both case studies try to achieve the experience of engagement through practices that promote the attraction of attention, the increase of imagination, the interaction, the intimacy and the true activity. These practices are achieved through the script, the scenery, the language and the environment of a performance. Contact and Bios consider technology as an intimate tool in order to accomplish the above, and they make an extended use of it. The research completes a notable record of technological techniques that modern theatres use. The use of technology, inside or outside the limits of film technique’s, helps to rivet the attention of the audience, to make performances enjoyable, to give the sense of the “unfinished” or to be used for things that take place around the spectators and force them to take action, being spect-actors. The advantage of technology is that it can be used as a hook for interaction in all stages of a performance. Further research on the field could involve exploring alternative ways of binding technology and theatre or analyzing how the performance is perceived through the use of technological artifacts.

Keywords: experience of engagement, interactive theatre, modern theatre, performance, technology

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185 The Play Translator’s Score Developing: Methodology for Intercultural Communication

Authors: Akhmylovskaia Larisa, Barysh Andriana

Abstract:

The present paper is introducing the translation score developing methodology and methods in the cross-cultural communication. The ideas and examples presented by the authors illustrate the universal character of translation score developing methods under analysis. Personal experience in the international theatre-making projects, opera laboratories, cross-cultural master-classes, movie and theatre festivals give more opportunities to single out the conditions, forms, means and principles of translation score developing as well as the translator/interpreter’s functions as cultural liaison for multiethnic collaboration.

Keywords: methodology of translation score developing, pre-production, analysis, production, post-production, ethnic scene theory, theatre anthropology, laboratory, master-class, educational project, academic project, Stanislavski terminology meta-language, super-objective, participant observation

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
184 A Survey and Theory of the Effects of Various Hamlet Videos on Viewers’ Brains

Authors: Mark Pizzato

Abstract:

How do ideas, images, and emotions in stage-plays and videos affect us? Do they evoke a greater awareness (or cognitive reappraisal of emotions) through possible shifts between left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical networks? To address these questions, this presentation summarizes the research of various neuroscientists, especially Bernard Baars and others involved in Global Workspace Theory, Matthew Lieberman in social neuroscience, Iain McGilchrist on left and right cortical functions, and Jaak Panksepp on the subcortical circuits of primal emotions. Through such research, this presentation offers an ‘inner theatre’ model of the brain, regarding major hubs of neural networks and our animal ancestry. It also considers recent experiments, by Mario Beauregard, on the cognitive reappraisal of sad, erotic, and aversive film clips. Finally, it applies the inner-theatre model and related research to survey results of theatre students who read and then watched the ‘To be or not to be’ speech in 8 different video versions (from stage and screen productions) of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Findings show that students become aware of left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical brain functions—and shifts between them—through staging and movie-making choices in each of the different videos.

Keywords: cognitive reappraisal, Hamlet, neuroscience, Shakespeare, theatre

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183 Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Folk Medicine in Libya

Authors: Salmin Alshalmani, Ghazall M Benhusein, Ebtisam Alhadi Absomaha, Marwa I. Meshri, Hamdoon A. Mohammed, Jamal Mezogi

Abstract:

Eight wild medicinal plants used by Libyan and growing in Al-Jebel Al-Akhdar, Libya were suspected to estimate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl stable free radical (DPPH). Incidences of purple colour reduction of the DPPH by testing extracts in addition to quercetin and vitamin C as positive controls reflect its ability to scavenge free radicals. All testing plants extract showed noticeable strength as antioxidant regarding its abilities to scavenge DPPH with an especial regards to Sarcopoterium spinosum.

Keywords: antioxidant, scavenging activity, folk medicine, methanol extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 486