Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: tectonics

36 Tectonics Theory and an Example of Its Application in Sustainable Contemporary Architecture

Authors: Mafalda Fabiene Ferreira Pantoja, Luciana Lins Do Amaral Sobreira

Abstract:

The present work seeks to exemplify the precepts of the sustainable tectonics, through a built work. This is the architectural group ‘Chácara dos Professores’ in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. Such an architectural ensemble allows elucidating vernacular constructive techniques that can still be used in contemporary times, on the way to more sustainable constructions. It seeks to show the principles of sustainable tectonics as a design tool, seeking an architecture that can give answers to contemporary issues and that concern caring for the planet. Firstly, a brief investigation will be made about sustainable tectonics, its application in architecture, and later, to correlate such precepts as a tool for reflections and sustainable projects in the contemporary world. For this, will be exemplified, by means of a visit in loco, the construction methods used in the ‘Chácara dos Professores’ project and its results in the constructed work. The goal is to draw a theoretical reflection on the precepts of tectonics, and to show if such precepts are able to enhance contemporary architecture and help it move towards sustainability, seeking projects increasingly consistent with the reality of today.

Keywords: contemporary architecture, constructive techniques, sustainability, tectonics

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35 Tectonics in Sustainable Contemporary Architecture: An Approach to the Intersection between Design and Construction in the Work of Norman Foster

Authors: Mafalda Fabiene Ferreira Pantoja, Joao Da Costa Pantoja, Rui Humberto Costa De Fernandes Povoas

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The present paper seeks to present a theoretical and practical reflection about examples of contemporary architecture in the world context where concerns about the planet become prominent and increasingly necessary. Firstly, a brief introduction will be made on the conceptual principles of tectonics in architecture in order to apply such concepts in a perspective of analysis of the intersection between design and construction in contemporary examples of Norman Foster’s architecture, once his work has demonstrated attitudes of composition that concerns about the place, technology, materials, and building life. Foster's compositions are usually focused on the role of technology in the process of architectural design, making his works a mixture of place, program, construction, and formal structures. The main purpose of the present paper is the reflection on the tools of theoretical and practical analysis about tectonics, optimizing the resources that allow cultural anchoring and creation of identity. Also establishing relation between resources, building life cycle and employment of correct materials, in order to find out how the tectonic concept can elevate the status of contemporary architecture, making it qualitative in a more sustainable context and adapted to current needs.

Keywords: contemporary architecture, norman foster, tectonic, sustainable architecture

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34 Biomimetic Paradigms in Architectural Conceptualization: Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics in Higher Education

Authors: Maryam Kalkatechi

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The application of algorithms in architecture has been realized as geometric forms which are increasingly being used by architecture firms. The abstraction of ideas in a formulated algorithm is not possible. There is still a gap between design innovation and final built in prescribed formulas, even the most aesthetical realizations. This paper presents the application of erudite design process to conceptualize biomimetic paradigms in architecture. The process is customized to material and tectonics. The first part of the paper outlines the design process elements within four biomimetic pre-concepts. The pre-concepts are chosen from plants family. These include the pine leaf, the dandelion flower; the cactus flower and the sun flower. The choice of these are related to material qualities and natural pattern of the tectonics of these plants. It then focuses on four versions of tectonic comprehension of one of the biomimetic pre-concepts. The next part of the paper discusses the implementation of STEAM in higher education in architecture. This is shown by the relations within the design process and the manifestation of the thinking processes. The A in the SETAM, in this case, is only achieved by the design process, an engaging event as a performing arts, in which the conceptualization and development is realized in final built.

Keywords: biomimetic paradigm, erudite design process, tectonic, STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, Mathematic)

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33 Determination of Safe Ore Extraction Methodology beneath Permanent Extraction in a Lead Zinc Mine with the Help of FLAC3D Numerical Model

Authors: Ayan Giri, Lukaranjan Phukan, Shantanu Karmakar

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Structure and tectonics play a vital role in ore genesis and deposition. The existence of a swelling structure below the current level of a mine leads to the discovery of ores below some permeant developments of the mine. The discovery and the extraction of the ore body are very critical to sustain the business requirement of the mine. The challenge was to extract the ore without hampering the global stability of the mine. In order to do so, different mining options were considered and analysed by numerical modelling in FLAC3d software. The constitutive model prepared for this simulation is the improved unified constitutive model, which can better and more accurately predict the stress-strain relationships in a continuum model. The IUCM employs the Hoek-Brown criterion to determine the instantaneous Mohr-Coulomb parameters cohesion (c) and friction (ɸ) at each level of confining stress. The extra swelled part can be dimensioned as north-south strike width 50m, east-west strike width 50m. On the north side, already a stope (P1) is excavated of the dimension of 25m NS width. The different options considered were (a) Open stoping of extraction of southern part (P0) of 50m to the full extent, (b) Extraction of the southern part of 25m, then filling of both the primaries and extraction of secondary (S0) 25m in between. (c) Extraction of the southern part (P0) completely, preceded by backfill and modify the design of the secondary (S0) for the overall stability of the permanent excavation above the stoping.

Keywords: extraction, IUCM, FLAC 3D, stoping, tectonics

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32 Dem Based Surface Deformation in Jhelum Valley: Insights from River Profile Analysis

Authors: Syed Amer Mahmood, Rao Mansor Ali Khan

Abstract:

This study deals with the remote sensing analysis of tectonic deformation and its implications to understand the regional uplift conditions in the lower Jhelum and eastern Potwar. Identification and mapping of active structures is an important issue in order to assess seismic hazards and to understand the Quaternary deformation of the region. Digital elevation models (DEMs) provide an opportunity to quantify land surface geometry in terms of elevation and its derivatives. Tectonic movement along the faults is often reflected by characteristic geomorphological features such as elevation, stream offsets, slope breaks and the contributing drainage area. The river profile analysis in this region using SRTM digital elevation model gives information about the tectonic influence on the local drainage network. The steepness and concavity indices have been calculated by power law of scaling relations under steady state conditions. An uplift rate map is prepared after carefully analysing the local drainage network showing uplift rates in mm/year. The active faults in the region control local drainages and the deflection of stream channels is a further evidence of the recent fault activity. The results show variable relative uplift conditions along MBT and Riasi and represent a wonderful example of the recency of uplift, as well as the influence of active tectonics on the evolution of young orogens.

Keywords: quaternary deformation, SRTM DEM, geomorphometric indices, active tectonics and MBT

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31 Clastic Sequence Stratigraphy of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Formations of Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan

Authors: Himanshu Kumar Gupta

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The Jaisalmer Basin is one of the parts of the Rajasthan basin in northwestern India. The presence of five major unconformities/hiatuses of varying span i.e. at the top of Archean basement, Cambrian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene have created the foundation for constructing a sequence stratigraphic framework. Based on basin formative tectonic events and their impact on sedimentation processes three first-order sequences have been identified in Rajasthan Basin. These are Proterozoic-Early Cambrian rift sequence, Permian to Middle-Late Eocene shelf sequence and Pleistocene - Recent sequence related to Himalayan Orogeny. The Permian to Middle Eocene I order sequence is further subdivided into three-second order sequences i.e. Permian to Late Jurassic II order sequence, Early to Late Cretaceous II order sequence and Paleocene to Middle-Late Eocene II order sequence. In this study, Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sequence was identified and log-based interpretation of smaller order T-R cycles have been carried out. A log profile from eastern margin to western margin (up to Shahgarh depression) has been taken. The depositional environment penetrated by the wells interpreted from log signatures gave three major facies association. The blocky and coarsening upward (funnel shape), the blocky and fining upward (bell shape) and the erratic (zig-zag) facies representing distributary mouth bar, distributary channel and marine mud facies respectively. Late Jurassic Formation (Baisakhi-Bhadasar) and Early Cretaceous Formation (Pariwar) shows a lesser number of T-R cycles in shallower and higher number of T-R cycles in deeper bathymetry. Shallowest well has 3 T-R cycles in Baisakhi-Bhadasar and 2 T-R cycles in Pariwar, whereas deeper well has 4 T-R cycles in Baisakhi-Bhadasar and 8 T-R cycles in Pariwar Formation. The Maximum Flooding surfaces observed from the stratigraphy analysis indicate major shale break (high shale content). The study area is dominated by the alternation of shale and sand lithologies, which occurs in an approximate ratio of 70:30. A seismo-geological cross section has been prepared to understand the stratigraphic thickness variation and structural disposition of the strata. The formations are quite thick to the west, the thickness of which reduces as we traverse towards the east. The folded and the faulted strata indicated the compressional tectonics followed by the extensional tectonics. Our interpretation is supported with seismic up to second order sequence indicates - Late Jurassic sequence is a Highstand Systems Tract (Baisakhi - Bhadasar formations), and the Early Cretaceous sequence is Regressive to Lowstand System Tract (Pariwar Formation).

Keywords: Jaisalmer Basin, sequence stratigraphy, system tract, T-R cycle

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30 Morphotectonic Analysis of Burkh Anticline, North of Bastak, Zagros

Authors: A. Afroogh, R. Ramazani omali, N. Hafezi Moghaddas, A. Nohegar

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The Burkh anticline with a length of 50 km and a width of 9 km is located 40 km to the north of Bastak in internal Fars zone in folded-trusted belt of Zagros. In order to assess the active tectonics in the area of study, morphometrical indexes such as V indexes (V), ratio of valley floor to valley width (Vf), the stream length-gradient ratio (Sl), channel sinuosity indexes (S), mountain front faceting indexes (F%) and mountain front sinuosity(Smf) have been studied. These investigations show that the activity is not equal in various sections of the length of Burkh anticline. The central part of this anticline is the most active one.

Keywords: anticline, internal fars zone, tectonic, morohometrical indexes, folded-trusted belt

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29 Climate Change as Wicked Problems towards Sustainable Development

Authors: Amin Padash, Mehran Khodaparast, Saadat Khodaparast

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Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions. Certain human activities have also been identified as significant causes of recent climate change, often referred to as “Global Warming”. The ultimate goal of this paper is to determine how climate change affects the style of life and all of our activities. The paper focuses on what the effects of humans are on climate change and how communities can achieve sustainable development and use resources in a way that is good for the ecosystem and public. We opine Climate Change is a vital issue that can be called “Wicked Problem”. This paper attempts to address this wicked problem by COMPRAM Methodology as one of the possible solutions.

Keywords: climate change, COMPRAM, human influences, sustainable development, wicked problems

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28 Earth Tremors in Nigeria: A Precursor to Major Disaster?

Authors: Oluseyi Adunola Bamisaiye

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The frequency of occurrence of earth tremor in Nigeria has increased tremendously in recent years. Slow earthquakes/ tremor have preceded some large earthquakes in some other regions of the world and the Nigerian case may not be an exception. Timely and careful investigation of these tremors may reveal their relation to large earthquakes and provides important clues to constrain the slip rates on tectonic faults. Thus making it imperative to keep under watch and also study carefully the tectonically active terrains within the country, in order to adequately forecast, prescribe mitigation measures and in order to avoid a major disaster. This report provides new evidence of a slow slip transient in a strongly locked seismogenic zone of the Okemesi fold belt. The aim of this research is to investigate the different methods of earth tremor monitoring using fault slip analysis and mapping of Okemesi hills, which has been the most recent epicenter to most of the recent tremors.

Keywords: earth tremor, fault slip, intraplate activities, plate tectonics

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27 Use of Landsat OLI Images in the Mapping of Landslides: Case of the Taounate Province in Northern Morocco

Authors: S. Benchelha, H. Chennaoui, M. Hakdaoui, L. Baidder, H. Mansouri, H. Ejjaaouani, T. Benchelha

Abstract:

Northern Morocco is characterized by relatively young mountains experiencing a very important dynamic compared to other areas of Morocco. The dynamics associated with the formation of the Rif chain (Alpine tectonics), is accompanied by instabilities essentially related to tectonic movements. The realization of important infrastructures (Roads, Highways,...) represents a triggering factor and favoring landslides. This paper is part of the establishment of landslides susceptibility map and concerns the mapping of unstable areas in the province of Taounate. The landslide was identified using the components of the false color (FCC) of images Landsat OLI: i) the first independent component (IC1), ii) The main component (PC), iii) Normalized difference index (NDI). This mapping for landslides class is validated by in-situ surveys.

Keywords: landslides, False Color Composite (FCC), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Normalized Difference Index (NDI), Normalized Difference Mid Red Index (NDMIDR)

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26 Study of Hydraulic and Tectonic Fracturation within Zemlet El Beidha Area (North Chott Range)

Authors: Nabil Abaab, Dhaou Akrout, Riadh Ahmadi, Mabrouk Montacer

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The study of fluid pressure and its evolution have a critical importance as they lead to understanding the tectonic history of the region. Therefore, the present work focuses on a microtectonic study of tectonic and hydraulic fracture at the anticline structure of Zemlet El Beidha (North Chott range). The study and the analysis of several stations of tectonic and hydraulic fracture allow revealing the witnesses of a paléosurpression in the deposits of Lower Cretaceous (Bouhedma Formation). In fact, we noticed that the overpressure is directly involved in the creation of various types of fractures as evidenced by the different measures and the stereographic projections. Thus, the orientations of fibers of mineralization that fills the Beefs type fracture have the same direction as the main constraint. Furthermore, we discussed the different overpressure build-up mechanisms. The results showed that tectonics is likely, responsible for this anomaly. This is confirmed by the description of the fibers and the projection of the different measurements of Beefs. The mineralization transformation from gypsum to anhydrite is heavily involved in this stress regime especially in the presence of all necessary conditions of dehydration of gypsum.

Keywords: Zemlet El Beidha, overpressure, tectonic fracture, hydraulic fracture, gypsum beefs

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25 Geodynamics Behaviour of Greater Cairo as Deduced from 4D Gravity and Seismic Activities

Authors: Elsayed A. Issawy, Anwar H. Radwan

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Recent crustal deformations studies in Egypt are applied on the most active areas with relation to seismic activity. Temporal gravity variations in parallel with the geodetic technique (GPS) were used to monitor recent crustal movements in Egypt since 1997. The non-tidal gravity changes were constrained by the vertical component of surface movements derived from the GPS observations. The gravity changes were used to understand the surface tectonics and geodynamic modelling of the Greater Cairo region after the occurrence of an earthquake of 1992. It was found that there is a certain relation showed by increasing of gravity values before the main seismic activity. As example, relative considerable increase of gravity values was noticed for the network between the epochs of 2000 and 2004. Otherwise, the temporal gravity variations were reported a considerable decrease in gravity values between the two campaigns of 2004 and 2007 for the same stations. This behaviour could explain by compressive deformation and strain build-up stage before the South western Cairo earthquake (July 31, 2005 with magnitude of 4.3) and the stress release stage occurred after the main event. The geodetic measurements showed that, the estimated horizontal velocities for almost of points are 5.5 mm/year in approximately NW direction.

Keywords: temporal gravity variations, geodynamics, greater Cairo, recent crustal movements, earthquakes

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24 Assessment of the Tectonic Effects on Soil Radon Activity along the Margin of the Arabian Plate Boundary in Northwestern Syria

Authors: Mohamed Al-Hilal

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The main purpose of the present study is to assess the role of active tectonics in influencing the emanation level of soil radon across two tectonically active structures of the Northern Dead Sea Fault (NDSF) in northwestern Syria: namely, the Qastoon and Al-Harif fault segments. The radon measurements were basically directed by the results drawn from earlier studies of archaeoseismic and paleoseismic investigation in Al-Harif, besides integrated geophysical and morphotectonic survey at the Qastoon site. In view of that, a total of 80 soil gas radon points were measured in this work with a sampling depth of 75 cm, using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000Pro radon detector. The background range of normal radon emission from local soil was determined in area located away from the influence of the tectonic disturbances. The obtained radon data were statistically analyzed, and the mean values have been standardized in terms of probability of magnitude, which enhances the comparison process and so facilitating the separation of normal radon variations from other anomalous or geotectonic related values. The overall results revealed remarkable occurrences of fault-associated radon anomalies with maximum peak values of ~6 to 7 times above the background, trending in accordance with the predicted traces of the fault ruptures at the Qastoon and Al-Harif, respectively.

Keywords: soil gas radon, active tectonic structure, northern dead sea fault, western Syria

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23 Geomorphological Features and their Significance Along Dhauli Ganga River Valley in North-Eastern Kumaun Himalaya in Pithauragah District, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Puran Chandra Joshi

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The Himalaya is the newest mountain system on this earth. This highest as well as fragile mountain system is still rising up. The tectonic activities have been experienced by this entire area, so the geomorphology of the region is affected by it. As we know, geomorphology is the study of landforms and their processes on the earth surface. These landforms are very important for human beings and other creatures on this planet. Present paper traces out the geomorphological features and their significance along Dhauli Ganga river valley in the Himalaya. Study area falls in higher Himalaya, which has experienced glacial and fluvial processes. Dhauli Ganga river is a considerable tributary of river kali, which is the part of huge Gangetic system. Dhauli originates in the form of two tributaries from valley glaciers of the southern slopes of Kumaun-Tibbet water divide. The upper catchment of this river has been carved by the glacial activity. The area of investigation is a remote regionin, Kumaun Himalaya. The native people do seasonal migration due to harsh winters. In summers, they return back with their cattle. In this season, they also grow potatoes and pulses, especiallybeanson river terraces. This study is important for making policies in the entire area. Area has witnessed big landslide in the recent past. So, the present study becomes more important.

Keywords: himalaya, geomorphology, glacial, tectonics

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22 Re-Inhabiting the Roof: Han Slawick Covered Roof Terrace, Amsterdam

Authors: Simone Medio

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If we observe many modern cities from above, we are typically confronted with a sea of asphalt-clad flat rooftops. In contrast to the modernist expectation of a populated flat roof, flat rooftops in modern multi-story buildings are rarely used. On the contrary, they typify a desolate and abandoned landscape encouraging mechanical system allocation. Flat roof technology continues to be seen as a state-of-fact in most multi-storey building designs and its greening its prevalent environmental justification. This paper aims to seek a change in the approach to flat roofing. It makes a case for the opportunity at hand for architectonically resolute, sheltered, livable spaces that make a better use of the environment at rooftop level. The researcher is looking for the triggers that allow for that change to happen in the design process of case study buildings. The paper begins by exploring Han Slawick covered roof terrace in Amsterdam as a simple and essential example of transforming the flat roof in a usable, inhabitable space. It investigates the design challenges and the logistic, financial and legislative hurdles faced by the architect, and the outcomes in terms of building performance and occupant use and satisfaction. The researcher uses a grounded research methodology with direct interview process to the architect in charge of the building and the building user. Energy simulation tools and calculation of running costs are also used as further means of validating change.

Keywords: environmental design, flat rooftop persistence, roof re-habitation, tectonics

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21 The Evaluation of Gravity Anomalies Based on Global Models by Land Gravity Data

Authors: M. Yilmaz, I. Yilmaz, M. Uysal

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The Earth system generates different phenomena that are observable at the surface of the Earth such as mass deformations and displacements leading to plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanism. The dynamic processes associated with the interior, surface, and atmosphere of the Earth affect the three pillars of geodesy: shape of the Earth, its gravity field, and its rotation. Geodesy establishes a characteristic structure in order to define, monitor, and predict of the whole Earth system. The traditional and new instruments, observables, and techniques in geodesy are related to the gravity field. Therefore, the geodesy monitors the gravity field and its temporal variability in order to transform the geodetic observations made on the physical surface of the Earth into the geometrical surface in which positions are mathematically defined. In this paper, the main components of the gravity field modeling, (Free-air and Bouguer) gravity anomalies are calculated via recent global models (EGM2008, EIGEN6C4, and GECO) over a selected study area. The model-based gravity anomalies are compared with the corresponding terrestrial gravity data in terms of standard deviation (SD) and root mean square error (RMSE) for determining the best fit global model in the study area at a regional scale in Turkey. The least SD (13.63 mGal) and RMSE (15.71 mGal) were obtained by EGM2008 for the Free-air gravity anomaly residuals. For the Bouguer gravity anomaly residuals, EIGEN6C4 provides the least SD (8.05 mGal) and RMSE (8.12 mGal). The results indicated that EIGEN6C4 can be a useful tool for modeling the gravity field of the Earth over the study area.

Keywords: free-air gravity anomaly, Bouguer gravity anomaly, global model, land gravity

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20 Role of Inherited Structures during Inversion Tectonics: An Example from Tunisia, North Africa

Authors: Aymen Arfaoui, Abdelkader Soumaya, Ali Kadri, Noureddine Ben Ayed

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The Tunisian dorsal backland is located on the Eastern Atlas side of the Maghrebides (North Africa). The analysis of collected field data in the Rouas and Ruissate mountains area allowed us to develop new interpretations for its structural framework. Our kinematic analysis of fault-slip data reveals the presence of an extensional tectonic regime with NE-SW Shmin, characterizing the Mesozoic times. In addition, geophysical data shows that the synsedimentary normal faulting is accompanied by thickness variations of sedimentary sequences and Triassic salt movements. Then, after the Eurasia-Africa plate’s convergence during the Eocene, compressive tectonic deformations affected and reactivated the inherited NW-SE and N-S trending normal faults as dextral strike-slip and reverse faults, respectively. This tectonic inversion, with compression to the transpressional tectonic regime and NW-SE SHmax, continued during the successive shortening phases of the upper Miocene and Quaternary. The geometry of the Rouas and Ruissate belt is expressed as a fault propagation fold, affecting Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits. The Triassic evaporates constitute the decollement levels, facilitating the detachment and deformation of the sedimentary cover. The backland of this thrust belt is defined by NNE-SSW trending imbrication features that are controlled by a basement N-S fault.

Keywords: Tunisian dorsal backland, fault slip data; synsedimentary faults, tectonic inversion, decollement level, fault propagation fold

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19 Seismic Reflection Highlights of New Miocene Deep Aquifers in Eastern Tunisia Basin (North Africa)

Authors: Mourad Bédir, Sami Khomsi, Hakim Gabtni, Hajer Azaiez, Ramzi Gharsalli, Riadh Chebbi

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Eastern Tunisia is a semi-arid area; located in the northern Africa plate; southern Mediterranean side. It is facing water scarcity, overexploitation, and decreasing of water quality of phreatic water table. Water supply and storage will not respond to the demographic and economic growth and demand. In addition, only 5 109 m3 of rainwater from 35 109 m3 per year renewable rain water supply can be retained and remobilized. To remediate this water deficiency, researches had been focused to near new subsurface deep aquifers resources. Among them, Upper Miocene sandstone deposits of Béglia, Saouaf, and Somaa Formations. These sandstones are known for their proven Hydrogeologic and hydrocarbon reservoir characteristics in the Tunisian margin. They represent semi-confined to confined aquifers. This work is based on new integrated approaches of seismic stratigraphy, seismic tectonics, and hydrogeology, to highlight and characterize these reservoirs levels for aquifer exploitation in semi-arid area. As a result, five to six third order sequence deposits had been highlighted. They are composed of multi-layered extended sandstones reservoirs; separated by shales packages. These reservoir deposits represent lowstand and highstand system tracts of these sequences, which represent lowstand and highstand system tracts of these sequences. They constitute important strategic water resources volumes for the region.

Keywords: Tunisia, Hydrogeology, sandstones, basin, seismic, aquifers, modeling

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18 On the Qarat Kibrit Salt Dome Faulting System South of Adam, Oman: In Search of Uranium Anomalies

Authors: Alaeddin Ebrahimi, Narasimman Sundararajan, Bernhard Pracejus

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Development of salt domes, often a rising from depths of some 10 km or more, causes an intense faulting of the surrounding host rocks (salt tectonics). The fractured rocks then present ideal space for oil that can migrate and get trapped. If such moving of hydrocarbons passes uranium-carrying rock units (e.g., shales), uranium is collected and enriched by organic carbon compounds. Brines from the salt body are also ideal carriers for oxidized uranium species and will further dislocate uranium when in contact with uranium-enriched oils. Uranium then has the potential to mineralize in the vicinity of the dome (blue halite is evidence for radiation having affected salt deposits elsewhere in the world). Based on this knowledge, the Qarat Kibrit salt dome was investigated by a well-established geophysical method like very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) along five traverses approximately 250 m in length (10 m intervals) in order to identify subsurface fault systems. In-phase and quadrature components of the VLF-EM signal were recorded at two different transmitter frequencies (24.0 and 24.9 kHz). The images of Fraser filtered response of the in-phase components indicate a conductive zone (fault) in the southeast and southwest of the study area. The Karous-Hjelt current density pseudo section delineates subsurface faults at depths between 10 and 40 m. The stacked profiles of the Fraser filtered responses brought out two plausible trends/directions of faults. However, there seems to be no evidence for uranium enrichment has been recorded in this area.

Keywords: salt dome, uranium, fault, in-phase component, quadrature component, Fraser filter, Karous-Hjelt current density

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17 Predictive Spectral Lithological Mapping, Geomorphology and Geospatial Correlation of Structural Lineaments in Bornu Basin, Northeast Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Abdullahi Isyaku

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Semi-arid Bornu basin in northeast Nigeria is characterised with flat topography, thick cover sediments and lack of continuous bedrock outcrops discernible for field geology. This paper presents the methodology for the characterisation of neotectonic surface structures and surface lithology in the north-eastern Bornu basin in northeast Nigeria as an alternative approach to field geological mapping using free multispectral Landsat 7 ETM+, SRTM DEM and ASAR Earth Observation datasets. Spectral lithological mapping herein developed utilised spectral discrimination of the surface features identified on Landsat 7 ETM+ images to infer on the lithology using four steps including; computations of band combination images; band ratio images; supervised image classification and inferences of the lithological compositions. Two complementary approaches to lineament mapping are carried out in this study involving manual digitization and automatic lineament extraction to validate the structural lineaments extracted from the Landsat 7 ETM+ image mosaic covering the study. A comparison between the mapped surface lineaments and lineament zones show good geospatial correlation and identified the predominant NE-SW and NW-SE structural trends in the basin. Topographic profiles across different parts of the Bama Beach Ridge palaeoshorelines in the basin appear to show different elevations across the feature. It is determined that most of the drainage systems in the northeastern Bornu basin are structurally controlled with drainage lines terminating against the paleo-lake border and emptying into the Lake Chad mainly arising from the extensive topographic high-stand Bama Beach Ridge palaeoshoreline.

Keywords: Bornu Basin, lineaments, spectral lithology, tectonics

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16 Measurement of Intermediate Slip Rate of Sabzpushan Fault Zone in Southwestern Iran, Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Dating

Authors: Iman Nezamzadeh, Ali Faghih, Behnam Oveisi

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In order to reduce earthquake hazards in urban areas, it is necessary to perform comprehensive studies to understand the dynamics of the active faults and identify potentially high risk areas. The fault slip-rates in Late Quaternary sediment are critical indicators of seismic hazard and also provide valuable data to recognize young crustal deformations. To measure slip-rates accurately, is needed to displacement of geomorphic markers and ages of quaternary sediment samples of alluvial deposit that deformed by movements on fault. In this study we produced information about Intermediate term slip rate of Sabzpushan Fault Zone (SPF) within the central part of the Zagros Mountains of Iran using OSL dating technique to make better analysis of seismic hazard and seismic risk reduction for Shiraz city. For this purpose identifiable geomorphic fluvial surfaces help us to provide a reference frame to determine differential or absolute horizontal and vertical deformation. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is an alternative and independent method of determining the burial age of mineral grains in Quaternary sediments. Field observation and satellite imagery show geomorphic markers that deformed horizontally along the Sabzpoushan Fault. Here, drag folds is forming because of evaporites material of Miocen Formation. We estimate 2.8±0.5 mm/yr (mm/y) horizontal slip rate along the Sabzpushan fault zone, where ongoing deformation is involve with drug folding. The Soltan synclinal structure, close to the Sabzpushan fault, shows slight uplift rate due to active core-extrousion.

Keywords: slip rate, active tectonics, OSL, geomorphic markers, Sabzpushan Fault Zone, Zagros, Iran

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15 Aerial Photogrammetry-Based Techniques to Rebuild the 30-Years Landform Changes of a Landslide-Dominated Watershed in Taiwan

Authors: Yichin Chen

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Taiwan is an island characterized by an active tectonics and high erosion rates. Monitoring the dynamic landscape of Taiwan is an important issue for disaster mitigation, geomorphological research, and watershed management. Long-term and high spatiotemporal landform data is essential for quantifying and simulating the geomorphological processes and developing warning systems. Recently, the advances in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and computational photogrammetry technology have provided an effective way to rebuild and monitor the topography changes in high spatio-temporal resolutions. This study rebuilds the 30-years landform change in the Aiyuzi watershed in 1986-2017 by using the aerial photogrammetry-based techniques. The Aiyuzi watershed, located in central Taiwan and has an area of 3.99 Km², is famous for its frequent landslide and debris flow disasters. This study took the aerial photos by using UAV and collected multi-temporal historical, stereo photographs, taken by the Aerial Survey Office of Taiwan’s Forestry Bureau. To rebuild the orthoimages and digital surface models (DSMs), Pix4DMapper, a photogrammetry software, was used. Furthermore, to control model accuracy, a set of ground control points was surveyed by using eGPS. The results show that the generated DSMs have the ground sampling distance (GSD) of ~10 cm and ~0.3 cm from the UAV’s and historical photographs, respectively, and vertical error of ~1 m. By comparing the DSMs, there are many deep-seated landslides (with depth over 20 m) occurred on the upstream in the Aiyuzi watershed. Even though a large amount of sediment is delivered from the landslides, the steep main channel has sufficient capacity to transport sediment from the channel and to erode the river bed to ~20 m in depth. Most sediments are transported to the outlet of watershed and deposits on the downstream channel. This case study shows that UAV and photogrammetry technology are useful for topography change monitoring effectively.

Keywords: aerial photogrammetry, landslide, landform change, Taiwan

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14 Concentration Conditions of Industrially Valuable Accumulations of Gold Ore Mineralization of the Tulallar Ore-Bearing Structure

Authors: Narmina Ismayilova, Shamil Zabitov, Fuad Askerzadeh, Raqif Seyfullayev

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Tulallar volcano-tectonic structure is located in the conjugation zone of the Gekgel horst-uplift, Dashkesan, and Agzhakend synclinorium. Regionally, these geological structures are an integral part of the Lok-Karabakh island arc system. Tulallar field is represented by three areas (Central, East, West). The area of the ore field is located within a partially eroded oblong volcano-tectonic depression. In the central part, the core is divided by the deep Tulallar-Chiragdara-Toganalinsky fault with arcuate fragments of the ring structure into three blocks -East, Central, and West, within which the same areas of the Tulallar field are located. In general, for the deposit, the position of both ore-bearing vein zones and ore-bearing blocks is controlled by fractures of two systems - sub-latitudinal and near-meridional orientations. Mineralization of gold-sulfide ores is confined to these zones of disturbances. The zones have a northwestern and northeastern (near-meridian) strike with a steep dip (70-85◦) to the southwest and southeast. The average thickness of the zones is 35 m; they are traced for 2.5 km along the strike and 500 m along with the dip. In general, for the indicated thickness, the zones contain an average of 1.56 ppm Au; however, areas enriched in noble metal are distinguished within them. The zones are complicated by postore fault tectonics. Gold mineralization is localized in the Kimmeridgian volcanics of andesi-basalt-porphyritic composition and their vitrolithoclastic, agglomerate tuffs, and tuff breccias. For the central part of the Tulallar ore field, a map of geochemical anomalies was built on the basis of analysis data carried out in an international laboratory. The total gold content ranges from 0.1-5 g/t, and in some places, even more than 5 g/t. The highest gold content is observed in the monoquartz facies among the secondary quartzites with quartz veins. The smallest amount of gold content appeared in the quartz-kaolin facies. And also, anomalous values of gold content are located in the upper part of the quartz vein. As a result, an en-echelon arrangement of anomalous values of gold along the strike and dip was revealed.

Keywords: geochemical anomaly, gold deposit, mineralization, Tulallar

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13 Tectogenesis Around Kalaat Es Senan, Northwest of Tunisia: Structural, Geophysical and Gravimetric Study

Authors: Amira Rjiba, Mohamed Ghanmi, Tahar Aifa, Achref Boulares

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This study, involving the interpretation of geological outcrops data (structures, and lithostratigraphiec colones) and subsurface structures (seismic and gravimetric data) help us to identify and precise (i) the lithology of the sedimentary formations between the Aptian and the recent formations, (ii) to differentiate the sedimentary formations it from the salt-bearing Triassic (iii) and to specify the major structures though the tectonics effects having affected the region during its geological evolution. By placing our study area placed in the context of Tunisia, located on the southern margin of the Tethys show us through tectonic traces and structural analysis conducted, that this area was submitted during the Triassic perio at an active rifting triggered extensional tectonic events and extensive respectively in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Lithostratigraphic correlations between outcrops and seismic data sets on those of six oil wells conducted in the region have allowed us to better understand the structural complexity and the role of different tectonic faults having contributed to the current configuration, and marked by the current rifts. Indeed, three directions of NW-SE faults, NNW-SSE to NS and NE-SW to EW had a major role in the genesis of folds and open ditches collapse of NW-SE direction. These results were complemented by seismic reflection data to clarify the geometry of the southern and western areas of Kalaa Khasba ditch. The eight selected seismic lines for this study allowed to characterize the main structures, with isochronous maps, contour and isovitesse of Serdj horizon that presents the main reservoir in the region. The line L2, keyed by the well 6, helped highlight the NW-SE compression that has resulted in persistent discrepancies widely identifiable in its lithostratigraphic column. The gravity survey has confirmed the extension of most of the accidents deep subsurface whose activity seems to go far. Gravimetry also reinforced seismic interpretation confirming, at the L2 well, that both SW and NE flank of the moat are two opposite faults and trace the boundaries of NNW-SSE direction graben whose sedimentation of Mio-Pliocene age and Quaternary.

Keywords: graben, graben collapse, gravity, Kalat Es Senan, seismic, tectogenesis

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12 The Evolution of Deformation in the Southern-Central Tunisian Atlas: Parameters and Modelling

Authors: Mohamed Sadok Bensalem, Soulef Amamria, Khaled Lazzez, Mohamed Ghanmi

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The southern-central Tunisian Atlas presents a typical example of external zone. It occupies a particular position in the North African chains: firstly, it is the eastern limit of atlassicstructures; secondly, it is the edges between the belts structures to the north and the stable Saharan platform in the south. The evolution of deformation studyis based on several methods such as classical or numerical methods. The principals parameters controlling the genesis of folds in the southern central Tunisian Atlas are; the reactivation of pre-existing faults during later compressive phase, the evolution of decollement level, and the relation between thin and thick-skinned. One of the more principal characters of the southern-central Tunisian Atlas is the variation of belts structures directions determined by: NE-SW direction named the attlassic direction in Tunisia, the NW-SE direction carried along the Gafsa fault (the oriental limit of southern atlassic accident), and the E-W direction defined in the southern Tunisian Atlas. This variation of direction is the result of an important variation of deformation during different tectonics phases. A classical modeling of the Jebel ElKebar anticline, based on faults throw of the pre-existing faults and its reactivation during compressive phases, shows the importance of extensional deformation, particular during Aptian-Albian period, comparing with that of later compression (Alpine phases). A numerical modeling, based on the software Rampe E.M. 1.5.0, applied on the anticline of Jebel Orbata confirms the interpretation of “fault related fold” with decollement level within the Triassic successions. The other important parameter of evolution of deformation is the vertical migration of decollement level; indeed, more than the decollement level is in the recent series, most that the deformation is accentuated. The evolution of deformation is marked the development of duplex structure in Jebel AtTaghli (eastern limit of Jebel Orbata). Consequently, the evolution of deformation is proportional to the depth of the decollement level, the most important deformation is in the higher successions; thus is associated to the thin-skinned deformation; the decollement level permit the passive transfer of deformation in the cover.

Keywords: evolution of deformation, pre-existing faults, decollement level, thin-skinned

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11 An Investigation into the Use of an Atomistic, Hermeneutic, Holistic Approach in Education Relating to the Architectural Design Process

Authors: N. Pritchard

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Within architectural education, students arrive fore-armed with; their life-experience; knowledge gained from subject-based learning; their brains and more specifically their imaginations. The learning-by-doing that they embark on in studio-based/project-based learning calls for supervision that allows the student to proactively undertake research and experimentation with design solution possibilities. The degree to which this supervision includes direction is subject to debate and differing opinion. It can be argued that if the student is to learn-by-doing, then design decision making within the design process needs to be instigated and owned by the student so that they have the ability to personally reflect on and evaluate those decisions. Within this premise lies the problem that the student's endeavours can become unstructured and unfocused as they work their way into a new and complex activity. A resultant weakness can be that the design activity is compartmented and not holistic or comprehensive, and therefore, the student's reflections are consequently impoverished in terms of providing a positive, informative feedback loop. The construct proffered in this paper is that a supportive 'armature' or 'Heuristic-Framework' can be developed that facilitates a holistic approach and reflective learning. The normal explorations of architectural design comprise: Analysing the site and context, reviewing building precedents, assimilating the briefing information. However, the student can still be compromised by 'not knowing what they need to know'. The long-serving triad 'Firmness, Commodity and Delight' provides a broad-brush framework of considerations to explore and integrate into good design. If this were further atomised in subdivision formed from the disparate aspects of architectural design that need to be considered within the design process, then the student could sieve through the facts more methodically and reflectively in terms of considering their interrelationship conflict and alliances. The words facts and sieve hold the acronym of the aspects that form the Heuristic-Framework: Function, Aesthetics, Context, Tectonics, Spatial, Servicing, Infrastructure, Environmental, Value and Ecological issues. The Heuristic could be used as a Hermeneutic Model with each aspect of design being focused on and considered in abstraction and then considered in its relation to other aspect and the design proposal as a whole. Importantly, the heuristic could be used as a method for gathering information and enhancing the design brief. The more poetic, mysterious, intuitive, unconscious processes should still be able to occur for the student. The Heuristic-Framework should not be seen as comprehensive prescriptive formulaic or inhibiting to the wide exploration of possibilities and solutions within the architectural design process.

Keywords: atomistic, hermeneutic, holistic, approach architectural design studio education

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10 Structural-Lithological Conditions of Formation of Epithermal Gold Sulphide Satellite Deposits in the North Part of Chovdar Ore Area

Authors: Nabat Gojaeva, Mikayil Naghiyev, Sultan Jafarov, Gular Mikayilova

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Chovdar ore area is located in the contact of Dashkesan caldera and Shamkir horst-graben uplift, which comprises the central part of Lok-Karabakh Island arcs of South Caucasus metallogenic province in terms of regional tectonics. One of the main structural features of formation of the Mereh and Aghyokhush group of low sulfidation epithermal gold deposits, locating in the north peripheric part of the ore area, is involving the crossing areas of ore-hosting and ore-forming Pan-Caucasian-direction structurally-compound faults with the meridional, rhombically shaped faults. In addition, another significant feature is the temporally two- or three-stage ore formation. In the first stage -an early phase of Upper Bathonian age, sulfides are the dominant minerals, in the second stage- late ‘productive’ phase of Upper Bathonian age, mainly gold mineralization is formed. Also, in the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous ages, rarely-encountered Cu-polymetallic ore formations are documented. Finally, in the last stage, the re-dislocation of ore-formation is foreseen in the previously-formed mineralization areas. The faults in the strike and dip directions formed shearing, brecciation, sulfide mineralization aureoles, and hydrothermal alteration zones in the wall rocks along with the local depression blocks. The geological-structural analysis of the area shows that multiple and various morphogenetic volcano-tectonically fault systems have developed in the area. These fault systems have played a trap role for ore-formation in the intersected parts of faults mentioned above. Thus, in the referred parts, mostly predominance of felsic volcanism and metasomatic alteration (silicification, argillitic, etc.) of wall rocks, as well as the products of this volcanism, account for the inclusion of hydrothermal ore-forming fluids along these faults. It is possible to determine temporally and lithological-structural connection between the ore-formation along with local depression blocks and faults as borders for products of felsic volcanism of Upper Cretaceous-Lesser Jurassic ages, in the results of the replacement of hydrothermal alteration zones with relatively low-temperature metasomatic alterations while moving from the felsic parts to the margins, and due to being non-ore bearing intermediate and intermediate-felsic magmatic facies.

Keywords: Aghyokhush, fault, gold deposit, Mereh

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9 Reflections of Narrative Architecture in Transformational Representations on the Architectural Design Studio

Authors: M. Mortas, H. Asar, P. Dursun Cebi

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The visionary works of architectural representation in the 21st century's present situation, are practiced through the methodologies which try to expose the intellectual and theoretical essences of futurologist positions that are revealed with this era's interactions. Expansions of conceptual and contextual inputs related to one architectural design representation, depend on its deepness of critical attitudes, its interactions with the concepts such as experience, meaning, affection, psychology, perception and aura, as well as its communication with spatial, cultural and environmental factors. The purpose of this research study is to be able to offer methodological application areas for the design dimensions of experiential practices into architectural design studios, by focusing on the architectural representative narrations of 'transformation,' 'metamorphosis,' 'morphogenesis,' 'in-betweenness', 'superposition' and 'intertwine’ in which they affect and are affected by the today’s spatiotemporal hybridizations of architecture. The narrative representations and the visual theory paradigms of the designers are chosen under the main title of 'transformation' for the investigation of these visionary and critical representations' dismantlings and decodings. Case studies of this research area are chosen from Neil Spiller, Bryan Cantley, Perry Kulper and Dan Slavinsky’s transformative, morphogenetic representations. The theoretical dismantlings and decodings which are obtained from these artists’ contemporary architectural representations are tried to utilize and practice in the structural design studios as alternative methodologies when to approach architectural design processes, for enriching, differentiating, diversifying and 'transforming' the applications of so far used design process precedents. The research aims to indicate architectural students about how they can reproduce, rethink and reimagine their own representative lexicons and so languages of their architectural imaginations, regarding the newly perceived tectonics of prosthetic, biotechnology, synchronicity, nanotechnology or machinery into various experiential design workshops. The methodology of this work can be thought as revealing the technical and theoretical tools, lexicons and meanings of contemporary-visionary architectural representations of our decade, with the essential contents and components of hermeneutics, etymology, existentialism, post-humanism, phenomenology and avant-gardism disciplines to re-give meanings the architectural visual theorists’ transformative representations of our decade. The value of this study may be to emerge the superposed and overlapped atmospheres of futurologist architectural representations for the students who need to rethink on the transcultural, deterritorialized and post-humanist critical theories to create and use the representative visual lexicons of themselves for their architectural soft machines and beings by criticizing the now, to be imaginative for the future of architecture.

Keywords: architectural design studio, visionary lexicon, narrative architecture, transformative representation

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8 Seismic Data Analysis of Intensity, Orientation and Distribution of Fractures in Basement Rocks for Reservoir Characterization

Authors: Mohit Kumar

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Natural fractures are classified in two broad categories of joints and faults on the basis of shear movement in the deposited strata. Natural fracture always has high structural relationship with extensional or non-extensional tectonics and sometimes the result is seen in the form of micro cracks. Geological evidences suggest that both large and small-scale fractures help in to analyze the seismic anisotropy which essentially contribute into characterization of petro physical properties behavior associated with directional migration of fluid. We generally question why basement study is much needed as historically it is being treated as non-productive and geoscientist had no interest in exploration of these basement rocks. Basement rock goes under high pressure and temperature, and seems to be highly fractured because of the tectonic stresses that are applied to the formation along with the other geological factors such as depositional trend, internal stress of the rock body, rock rheology, pore fluid and capillary pressure. Sometimes carbonate rocks also plays the role of basement and igneous body e.g basalt deposited over the carbonate rocks and fluid migrate from carbonate to igneous rock due to buoyancy force and adequate permeability generated by fracturing. So in order to analyze the complete petroleum system, FMC (Fluid Migration Characterization) is necessary through fractured media including fracture intensity, orientation and distribution both in basement rock and county rock. Thus good understanding of fractures can lead to project the correct wellbore trajectory or path which passes through potential permeable zone generated through intensified P-T and tectonic stress condition. This paper deals with the analysis of these fracture property such as intensity, orientation and distribution in basement rock as large scale fracture can be interpreted on seismic section, however, small scale fractures show ambiguity in interpretation because fracture in basement rock lies below the seismic wavelength and hence shows erroneous result in identification. Seismic attribute technique also helps us to delineate the seismic fracture and subtle changes in fracture zone and these can be inferred from azimuthal anisotropy in velocity and amplitude and spectral decomposition. Seismic azimuthal anisotropy derives fracture intensity and orientation from compressional wave and converted wave data and based on variation of amplitude or velocity with azimuth. Still detailed analysis of fractured basement required full isotropic and anisotropic analysis of fracture matrix and surrounding rock matrix in order to characterize the spatial variability of basement fracture which support the migration of fluid from basement to overlying rock.

Keywords: basement rock, natural fracture, reservoir characterization, seismic attribute

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7 Urban Open Source: Synthesis of a Citizen-Centric Framework to Design Densifying Cities

Authors: Shaurya Chauhan, Sagar Gupta

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Prominent urbanizing centres across the globe like Delhi, Dhaka, or Manila have exhibited that development often faces a challenge in bridging the gap among the top-down collective requirements of the city and the bottom-up individual aspirations of the ever-diversifying population. When this exclusion is intertwined with rapid urbanization and diversifying urban demography: unplanned sprawl, poor planning, and low-density development emerge as automated responses. In parallel, new ideas and methods of densification and public participation are being widely adopted as sustainable alternatives for the future of urban development. This research advocates a collaborative design method for future development: one that allows rapid application with its prototypical nature and an inclusive approach with mediation between the 'user' and the 'urban', purely with the use of empirical tools. Building upon the concepts and principles of 'open-sourcing' in design, the research establishes a design framework that serves the current user requirements while allowing for future citizen-driven modifications. This is synthesized as a 3-tiered model: user needs – design ideology – adaptive details. The research culminates into a context-responsive 'open source project development framework' (hereinafter, referred to as OSPDF) that can be used for on-ground field applications. To bring forward specifics, the research looks at a 300-acre redevelopment in the core of a rapidly urbanizing city as a case encompassing extreme physical, demographic, and economic diversity. The suggestive measures also integrate the region’s cultural identity and social character with the diverse citizen aspirations, using architecture and urban design tools, and references from recognized literature. This framework, based on a vision – feedback – execution loop, is used for hypothetical development at the five prevalent scales in design: master planning, urban design, architecture, tectonics, and modularity, in a chronological manner. At each of these scales, the possible approaches and avenues for open- sourcing are identified and validated, through hit-and-trial, and subsequently recorded. The research attempts to re-calibrate the architectural design process and make it more responsive and people-centric. Analytical tools such as Space, Event, and Movement by Bernard Tschumi and Five-Point Mental Map by Kevin Lynch, among others, are deep rooted in the research process. Over the five-part OSPDF, a two-part subsidiary process is also suggested after each cycle of application, for a continued appraisal and refinement of the framework and urban fabric with time. The research is an exploration – of the possibilities for an architect – to adopt the new role of a 'mediator' in development of the contemporary urbanity.

Keywords: open source, public participation, urbanization, urban development

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