Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Ayan Giri

27 Determination of Safe Ore Extraction Methodology beneath Permanent Extraction in a Lead Zinc Mine with the Help of FLAC3D Numerical Model

Authors: Ayan Giri, Lukaranjan Phukan, Shantanu Karmakar


Structure and tectonics play a vital role in ore genesis and deposition. The existence of a swelling structure below the current level of a mine leads to the discovery of ores below some permeant developments of the mine. The discovery and the extraction of the ore body are very critical to sustain the business requirement of the mine. The challenge was to extract the ore without hampering the global stability of the mine. In order to do so, different mining options were considered and analysed by numerical modelling in FLAC3d software. The constitutive model prepared for this simulation is the improved unified constitutive model, which can better and more accurately predict the stress-strain relationships in a continuum model. The IUCM employs the Hoek-Brown criterion to determine the instantaneous Mohr-Coulomb parameters cohesion (c) and friction (ɸ) at each level of confining stress. The extra swelled part can be dimensioned as north-south strike width 50m, east-west strike width 50m. On the north side, already a stope (P1) is excavated of the dimension of 25m NS width. The different options considered were (a) Open stoping of extraction of southern part (P0) of 50m to the full extent, (b) Extraction of the southern part of 25m, then filling of both the primaries and extraction of secondary (S0) 25m in between. (c) Extraction of the southern part (P0) completely, preceded by backfill and modify the design of the secondary (S0) for the overall stability of the permanent excavation above the stoping.

Keywords: extraction, IUCM, FLAC 3D, stoping, tectonics

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26 Need of Medicines Information OPD in Tertiary Health Care Settings: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Swanand Pathak, Kiran R. Giri, Reena R. Giri, Kamlesh Palandurkar, Sangita Totade, Rajesh Jha, S. S. Patel


Background: Population burden, illiteracy, availability of few doctors for larger group of population leads to many unanswered questions left in a patient’s mind. Incomplete information results into noncompliance, therapeutic failure, and adverse drug reactions (ADR). It is very important to establish a system which will provide noncommercial, independent, unbiased source of medicine information. Medicines Info OPD is a concept and step towards safe and appropriate use of medicines. Objective: (1) to assess the present status of knowledge about the medicines in the patients and its correlation with education; (2) to assess the medicine information dispensing modalities, their use and sufficiency from the patients view point; (3) to assess the overall need for Medicines Information OPD in present scenario. Materials and Methods: A pre-validated questionnaire based study was conducted amongst 500 patients of tertiary health care hospital. The questionnaire consisted of specific questions regarding understanding of prescription, knowledge about adverse drug reaction, view about self-medication and opinion regarding the need of Medicines Info OPD. Results: Significantly large proportion of patients opined that doctors do not have sufficient time in current Indian healthcare to explain the prescription and they are not aware of adverse drug reactions, expiry date or use the package inserts etc. Conclusion: Clinically relevant, up to date, user specific, independent, objective and unbiased Medicines Info OPD is essential for appropriate drug use and can help in a big way to common public to address many problems faced by them.

Keywords: information, prescription, unbiased, clinically relevant

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25 Evaluation of Mixtures of Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Aggregate in Road Subbases

Authors: Vahid Ayan, Joshua R Omer, Alireza Khavandi, Mukesh C Limbachiya


In Iran, utilization of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregate has become a common practice in pavement rehabilitation during the last ten years. Such developments in highway engineering have necessitated several studies to clarify the technical and environmental feasibility of other alternative materials in road rehabilitation and maintenance. The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in asphalt pavements is one of the major goals of municipality of Tehran. Nevertheless little research has been done to examine the potential benefits of local RCA. The objective of this study is laboratory investigation of incorporating RCA into RAP for use in unbound subbase application. Laboratory investigation showed that 50%RCA+50%RAP is both technically and economically appropriate for subbase use.

Keywords: Roads & highways, Sustainability, Recycling & reuse of materials

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24 Memristive Properties of Nanostructured Porous Silicon

Authors: Madina Alimova, Margulan Ibraimov, Ayan Tileu


The paper describes methods for obtaining porous structures with the properties of a silicon-based memristor and explains the electrical properties of porous silicon films. Based on the results, there is a positive shift in the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) after each measurement, i.e., electrical properties depend not only on the applied voltage but also on the previous state. After 3 minutes of rest, the film returns to its original state (reset). The method for obtaining a porous silicon nanofilm with the properties of a memristor is simple and does not require additional effort. Based on the measurement results, the typical memristive behavior of the porous silicon nanofilm is analyzed.

Keywords: porous silicon, current-voltage characteristics, memristor, nanofilms

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23 Identification of Nonlinear Systems Structured by Hammerstein-Wiener Model

Authors: A. Brouri, F. Giri, A. Mkhida, A. Elkarkri, M. L. Chhibat


Standard Hammerstein-Wiener models consist of a linear subsystem sandwiched by two memoryless nonlinearities. Presently, the linear subsystem is allowed to be parametric or not, continuous- or discrete-time. The input and output nonlinearities are polynomial and may be noninvertible. A two-stage identification method is developed such the parameters of all nonlinear elements are estimated first using the Kozen-Landau polynomial decomposition algorithm. The obtained estimates are then based upon in the identification of the linear subsystem, making use of suitable pre-ad post-compensators.

Keywords: nonlinear system identification, Hammerstein-Wiener systems, frequency identification, polynomial decomposition

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22 Frequency Identification of Wiener-Hammerstein Systems

Authors: Brouri Adil, Giri Fouad


The problem of identifying Wiener-Hammerstein systems is addressed in the presence of two linear subsystems of structure totally unknown. Presently, the nonlinear element is allowed to be noninvertible. The system identification problem is dealt by developing a two-stage frequency identification method such a set of points of the nonlinearity are estimated first. Then, the frequency gains of the two linear subsystems are determined at a number of frequencies. The method involves Fourier series decomposition and only requires periodic excitation signals. All involved estimators are shown to be consistent.

Keywords: Wiener-Hammerstein systems, Fourier series expansions, frequency identification, automation science

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21 Modified Active (MA) Algorithm to Generate Semantic Web Related Clustered Hierarchy for Keyword Search

Authors: G. Leena Giri, Archana Mathur, S. H. Manjula, K. R. Venugopal, L. M. Patnaik


Keyword search in XML documents is based on the notion of lowest common ancestors in the labelled trees model of XML documents and has recently gained a lot of research interest in the database community. In this paper, we propose the Modified Active (MA) algorithm which is an improvement over the active clustering algorithm by taking into consideration the entity aspect of the nodes to find the level of the node pertaining to a particular keyword input by the user. A portion of the bibliography database is used to experimentally evaluate the modified active algorithm and results show that it performs better than the active algorithm. Our modification improves the response time of the system and thereby increases the efficiency of the system.

Keywords: keyword matching patterns, MA algorithm, semantic search, knowledge management

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20 Existence and Concentration of Solutions for a Class of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations Involving p-Biharmonic Operator

Authors: Debajyoti Choudhuri, Ratan Kumar Giri, Shesadev Pradhan


The perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger equation involving the p-biharmonic and the p-Laplacian operators involving a real valued parameter and a continuous real valued potential function defined over the N- dimensional Euclidean space has been considered. By the variational technique, an existence result pertaining to a nontrivial solution to this non-linear partial differential equation has been proposed. Further, by the Concentration lemma, the concentration of solutions to the same problem defined on the set consisting of those elements where the potential function vanishes as the real parameter approaches to infinity has been addressed.

Keywords: p-Laplacian, p-biharmonic, elliptic PDEs, Concentration lemma, Sobolev space

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19 B Spline Finite Element Method for Drifted Space Fractional Tempered Diffusion Equation

Authors: Ayan Chakraborty, BV. Rathish Kumar


Off-late many models in viscoelasticity, signal processing or anomalous diffusion equations are formulated in fractional calculus. Tempered fractional calculus is the generalization of fractional calculus and in the last few years several important partial differential equations occurring in the different field of science have been reconsidered in this term like diffusion wave equations, Schr$\ddot{o}$dinger equation and so on. In the present paper, a time-dependent tempered fractional diffusion equation of order $\gamma \in (0,1)$ with forcing function is considered. Existence, uniqueness, stability, and regularity of the solution has been proved. Crank-Nicolson discretization is used in the time direction. B spline finite element approximation is implemented. Generally, B-splines basis are useful for representing the geometry of a finite element model, interfacing a finite element analysis program. By utilizing this technique a priori space-time estimate in finite element analysis has been derived and we proved that the convergent order is $\mathcal{O}(h²+T²)$ where $h$ is the space step size and $T$ is the time. A couple of numerical examples have been presented to confirm the accuracy of theoretical results. Finally, we conclude that the studied method is useful for solving tempered fractional diffusion equations.

Keywords: B-spline finite element, error estimates, Gronwall's lemma, stability, tempered fractional

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18 Occupational Health Hazards of Itinerant Waste Buyers (IWBs) in Kathmandu, Nepal

Authors: Ashish Khanal, Suja Giri


The scrap collection work is associated with multiple health hazards. Cut and scratches during collection and transportation of scraps are common. IWBs purchase the scraps mainly papers, cartoons, glass bottles and metals from the households. This study was conducted in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. The location was chosen because Kathmandu is the biggest city of Nepal with highest number of IWBs. The research used a case study strategy to examine the occupational health hazards of IWBs. The only mode of collecting and transporting of scraps in Kathmandu is the bicycle. They have to do this regular work even during the scorching sun and chilled winter. The musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal disorders are the common health problem shared by IWBs in Kathmandu, Nepal. Despite of these problems, IWBs don’t take it seriously and rarely goes for the health check-up. There is need of personal protective equipment and guidance for safety of IWBs. IWBs need to wear closed shoes and use gloves to avoid cuts during the collection and transportation of the recyclables.

Keywords: itinerant waste buyers, Kathmandu, occupational health, scrap

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17 Design of a Permanent Magnet Based Focusing Lens for a Miniature Klystron

Authors: Kumud Singh, Janvin Itteera, Priti Ukarde, Sanjay Malhotra, P. PMarathe, Ayan Bandyopadhay, Rakesh Meena, Vikram Rawat, L. M. Joshi


Application of Permanent magnet technology to high frequency miniature klystron tubes to be utilized for space applications improves the efficiency and operational reliability of these tubes. But nevertheless the task of generating magnetic focusing forces to eliminate beam divergence once the beam crosses the electrostatic focusing regime and enters the drift region in the RF section of the tube throws several challenges. Building a high quality magnet focusing lens to meet beam optics requirement in cathode gun and RF interaction region is considered to be one of the critical issues for these high frequency miniature tubes. In this paper, electromagnetic design and particle trajectory studies in combined electric and magnetic field for optimizing the magnetic circuit using 3D finite element method (FEM) analysis software is presented. A rectangular configuration of the magnet was constructed to accommodate apertures for input and output waveguide sections and facilitate coupling of electromagnetic fields into the input klystron cavity and out from output klystron cavity through coupling loops. Prototype lenses have been built and have been tested after integration with the klystron tube. We discuss the design requirements and challenges, and the results from beam transmission of the prototype lens.

Keywords: beam transmission, Brillouin, confined flow, miniature klystron

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16 Efficient Energy Management: A Novel Technique for Prolonged and Persistent Automotive Engine

Authors: Chakshu Baweja, Ishaan Prakash, Deepak Giri, Prithwish Mukherjee, Herambraj Ashok Nalawade


The need to prevent and control rampant and indiscriminate usage of energy in present-day realm on earth has motivated active research efforts aimed at understanding of controlling mechanisms leading to sustained energy. Although much has been done but complexity of the problem has prevented a complete understanding due to nonlinear interaction between flow, heat and mass transfer in terrestrial environment. Therefore, there is need for a systematic study to clearly understand mechanisms controlling energy-spreading phenomena to increase a system’s efficiency. The present work addresses the issue of sustaining energy and proposes a devoted technique of optimizing energy in the automotive domain. The proposed method focus on utilization of the mechanical and thermal energy of an automobile IC engine by converting and storing energy due to motion of a piston in form of electrical energy. The suggested technique utilizes piston motion of the engine to generate high potential difference capable of working as a secondary power source. This is achieved by the use of a gear mechanism and a flywheel.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, energy, electromagnetic induction, efficiency, gear ratio, hybrid vehicle, engine shaft

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15 Speed Control of DC Motor Using Optimization Techniques Based PID Controller

Authors: Santosh Kumar Suman, Vinod Kumar Giri


The goal of this paper is to outline a speed controller of a DC motor by choice of a PID parameters utilizing genetic algorithms (GAs), the DC motor is extensively utilized as a part of numerous applications such as steel plants, electric trains, cranes and a great deal more. DC motor could be represented by a nonlinear model when nonlinearities such as attractive dissemination are considered. To provide effective control, nonlinearities and uncertainties in the model must be taken into account in the control design. The DC motor is considered as third order system. Objective of this paper three type of tuning techniques for PID parameter. In this paper, an independently energized DC motor utilizing MATLAB displaying, has been outlined whose velocity might be examined utilizing the Proportional, Integral, Derivative (KP, KI , KD) addition of the PID controller. Since, established controllers PID are neglecting to control the drive when weight parameters be likewise changed. The principle point of this paper is to dissect the execution of optimization techniques viz. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) for improve PID controllers parameters for velocity control of DC motor and list their points of interest over the traditional tuning strategies. The outcomes got from GA calculations were contrasted and that got from traditional technique. It was found that the optimization techniques beat customary tuning practices of ordinary PID controllers.

Keywords: DC motor, PID controller, optimization techniques, genetic algorithm (GA), objective function, IAE

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14 Optimization the Multiplicity of Infection for Large Produce of Lytic Bacteriophage pAh6-C

Authors: Sang Guen Kim, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Saekil Yun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jung Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park


Emerging of the super bacteria, bacteriophages are considered to be as an alternative to antibiotics. As the demand of phage increased, economical and large production of phage is becoming one of the critical points. For the therapeutic use, what is important is to eradicate the pathogenic bacteria as fast as possible, so higher concentration of phages is generally needed for effective therapeutic function. On the contrary, for the maximum production, bacteria work as a phage producing factory. As a microbial cell factory, bacteria is needed to last longer producing the phages without eradication. Consequently, killing the bacteria fast has a negative effect on large production. In this study, Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) was manipulated based on initial bacterial inoculation and used phage pAh-6C which has therapeutic effect against Aeromonas hydrophila. 1, 5 and 10 percent of overnight bacterial culture was inoculated and each bacterial culture was co-cultured with the phage of which MOI of 0.01, 0.0001, and 0.000001 respectively. Simply changing the initial MOI as well as bacterial inoculation concentration has regulated the production quantity of the phage without any other changes to culture conditions. It is anticipated that this result can be used as a foundational data for mass production of lytic bacteriophages which can be used as the therapeutic bio-control agent.

Keywords: bacteriophage, multiplicity of infection, optimization, Aeromonas hydrophila

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13 Purification and Pre-Crystallization of Recombinant PhoR Cytoplasmic Domain Protein from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis H37Rv

Authors: Oktira Roka Aji, Maelita R. Moeis, Ihsanawati, Ernawati A. Giri-Rachman


Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and extensively drug-resistant strains have become a major public concern. One of the potential candidates for drug target is the cytoplasmic domain of PhoR Histidine Kinase, a part of the Two Component System (TCS) PhoR-PhoP in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TCS PhoR-PhoP relay extracellular signal to control the expression of 114 virulent associated genes in Mtb. The 3D structure of PhoR cytoplasmic domain is needed to screen novel drugs using structure based drug discovery. The PhoR cytoplasmic domain from Mtb H37Rv was overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3), then purified using IMAC Ni-NTA Agarose his-tag affinity column and DEAE-ion exchange column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified protein was estimated to be 37 kDa after SDS-PAGE analysis. This sample was used for pre-crystallization screening by applying sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Natrix (HR2-116) 48 solutions crystal screen kit at 25ºC. Needle-like crystals were observed after the seventh day of incubation in test solution No.47 (0.1 M KCl, 0.01 M MgCl2.6H2O, 0.05 M Tris-Cl pH 8.5, 30% v/v PEG 4000). Further testing is required for confirming the crystal.

Keywords: tuberculosis, two component system, histidine kinase, needle-like crystals

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12 English and Information and Communication Technology: Zones of Exclusion in Education in Low-Income Countries

Authors: Ram A. Giri, Amna Bedri, Abdou Niane


Exclusion in education on the basis of language in multilingual contexts operates at multiple levels. Learners of diverse ethnolinguistic backgrounds are often expected to learn through English and are pushed further down the learning ladder if they also have to access education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The paper explores marginalized children’s lived experiences in accessing technology and English in four low-income countries in Africa and Asia. Based on the findings of the first phase of a multinational qualitative research study, we report on the factors or barriers that affect children’s access, opportunities and motivation for learning through technology and English. ICT and English - the language of ICT and education - can enhance learning and can even be essential. However, these two important keys to education can also function as barriers to accessing quality education, and therefore as zones of exclusion. This paper looks into how marginalized children (aged 13-15) engage in learning through ICT and English and to what extent the restrictive access and opportunities contribute to the widening of the already existing gap in education. By applying the conceptual frameworks of “access and accessibility of learning” and “zones of exclusion,” the paper elucidates how the barriers prevent children’s effective engagement with learning and addresses such questions as to how marginalized children access technology and English for learning; whether the children value English, and what their motivation and opportunity to learn it are. In addition, the paper will point out policy and pedagogic implications.

Keywords: exclusion, inclusion, inclusive education, marginalization

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11 Biodegradable Poly D,L-Lactide-Co-Glycolic Acid Microparticle Vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila Infection

Authors: Saekil Yun, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Guen Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jung Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park


In aquaculture, vaccination is important to control and prevent diseases. In the study, we utilized poly D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) for encapsulating formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila cells. To assess the innate and adaptive immune responses, carps and loaches were used for the experiments. Fish were divided into three groups (A, B, C). Total antigen of 0.1 ml vaccine was adjusted by 2 x 108 CFU and injected via intraperitoneal route. Group A was vaccinated with 0.1 ml of PLGA vaccine, group B was with 0.1 ml of FKC vaccine and group C was with 0.1 ml of sterile PBS. All three groups were challenged with A. hydrophila and challenge dose was lethal dose (LD50). Loaches and carp were then challenged with A. hydrophila at 12 and 20 weeks post vaccination (wpv), and 10 and 14 wpv, respectively, and relative survival rates were calculated. For both fish species, the curve of antibody titer over time was shallower in the PLGA group than the FKC group and the PLGA groups demonstrated higher survival rates at all time-points. In the groups of PLGA-MP, relative mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme C and IgM were significantly upregulated than FKC treated groups. Biodegradable PLGA microparticle vaccine could induce longer immune responses than original FKC vaccines to protect from A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: PLGA, microparticles, Aeromonas hydrophila, vaccine

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10 Time Series Forecasting (TSF) Using Various Deep Learning Models

Authors: Jimeng Shi, Mahek Jain, Giri Narasimhan


Time Series Forecasting (TSF) is used to predict the target variables at a future time point based on the learning from previous time points. To keep the problem tractable, learning methods use data from a fixed-length window in the past as an explicit input. In this paper, we study how the performance of predictive models changes as a function of different look-back window sizes and different amounts of time to predict the future. We also consider the performance of the recent attention-based Transformer models, which have had good success in the image processing and natural language processing domains. In all, we compare four different deep learning methods (RNN, LSTM, GRU, and Transformer) along with a baseline method. The dataset (hourly) we used is the Beijing Air Quality Dataset from the UCI website, which includes a multivariate time series of many factors measured on an hourly basis for a period of 5 years (2010-14). For each model, we also report on the relationship between the performance and the look-back window sizes and the number of predicted time points into the future. Our experiments suggest that Transformer models have the best performance with the lowest Mean Average Errors (MAE = 14.599, 23.273) and Root Mean Square Errors (RSME = 23.573, 38.131) for most of our single-step and multi-steps predictions. The best size for the look-back window to predict 1 hour into the future appears to be one day, while 2 or 4 days perform the best to predict 3 hours into the future.

Keywords: air quality prediction, deep learning algorithms, time series forecasting, look-back window

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9 CFD Simulation for Thermo-Hydraulic Performance V-Shaped Discrete Ribs on the Absorber Plate of Solar Air Heater

Authors: J. L. Bhagoria, Ajeet Kumar Giri


A computational investigation of various flow characteristics with artificial roughness in the form of V-types discrete ribs, heated wall of rectangular duct for turbulent flow with Reynolds number range (3800-15000) and p/e (5 to 12) has been carried out with k-e turbulence model is selected by comparing the predictions of different turbulence models with experimental results available in literature. The current study evaluates thermal performance behavior, heat transfer and fluid flow behavior in a v shaped duct with discrete roughened ribs mounted on one of the principal wall (solar plate) by computational fluid dynamics software (Fluent 6.3.26 Solver). In this study, CFD has been carried out through designing 3-demensional model of experimental solar air heater model analysis has been used to perform a numerical simulation to enhance turbulent heat transfer and Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes analysis is used as a numerical technique and the k-epsilon model with near-wall treatment as a turbulent model. The thermal efficiency enhancement because of selected roughness is found to be 16-24%. The result predicts a significant enhancement of heat transfer as compared to that of for a smooth surface with different P’ and various range of Reynolds number.

Keywords: CFD, solar collector, airheater, thermal efficiency

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8 Ion Beam Induced 2D Mesophase Patterning of Nanocrystallites in Polymer

Authors: Srutirekha Giri, Manoranjan Sahoo, Anuradha Das, Pravanjan Mallick, Biswajit Mallick


Ion Beam (IB) technique is a very powerful experimental technique for both material synthesis and material modifications. In this work, 3MeV proton beam was generated using the 3MV Tandem machine of the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar and extracted into air for the irradiation-induced modification purpose[1]. The polymeric material can be modeled for a three-phase system viz. crystalline(I), amorphous(II) and mesomorphic(III). So far, our knowledge is concerned. There are only few techniques reported for the synthesis of this third-phase(III) of polymer. The IB induced technique is one of them and has been reported very recently [2-4]. It was observed that by irradiating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber at very low proton fluence, 10¹⁰ - 10¹² p/s, possess 2D mesophase structure. This was confirmed using X-ray diffraction technique. A low-intensity broad peak was observed at small angle of about 2θ =6º, when the fiber axis was mounted parallel to the X-ray direction. Such peak vanished in the diffraction spectrum when the fiber axis was mounted perpendicular to the beam direction. The appearance of this extra peak in a particular orientation confirms that the phase is 2-dimensionally oriented (mesophase). It is well known that the mesophase is a 2-dimensionally ordered structure but 3-dimensionally disordered. Again, the crystallite of the mesophase peak particle was measured about 3nm. The MeV proton-induced 2D mesophase patterning of nanocrystallites (3nm) of PET due to irradiation was observed within the above low fluence range and failed in high proton fluence. This is mainly due to the breaking of crystallites, radiation-induced thermal degradation, etc.

Keywords: Ion irradiation, mesophase, nanocrystallites, polymer

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7 Biomass Energy: "The Boon for the Would"

Authors: Shubham Giri Goswami, Yogesh Tiwari


In today’s developing world, India and other countries are developing different instruments and accessories for the better standard and life to be happy and prosper. But rather than this we human-beings have been using different energy sources accordingly, many persons such as scientist, researchers etc have developed many Energy sources like renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Like fossil fuel, coal, gas, petroleum products as non-renewable sources, and solar, wind energy as renewable energy source. Thus all non-renewable energy sources, these all Created pollution as in form of air, water etc. due to ultimate use of these sources by human the future became uncertain. Thus to minimize all this environmental affects and destroy the healthy environment we discovered a solution as renewable energy source. Renewable energy source in form of biomass energy, solar, wind etc. We found different techniques in biomass energy, that good energy source for people. The domestic waste, and is a good source of energy as daily extract from cow in form of dung and many other domestic products naturally can be used eco-friendly fertilizers. Moreover, as from my point of view the cow is able to extract 08-12 kg of dung which can be used to make wormy compost fertilizers. Furthermore, the calf urine as insecticides and use of such a compounds will lead to destroy insects and thus decrease communicable diseases. Therefore, can be used by every person and biomass energy can be in those areas such as rural areas where non-renewable energy sources cannot reach easily. Biomass can be used to develop fertilizers, cow-dung plants and other power generation techniques, and this energy is clean and pollution free and is available everywhere thus saves our beautiful planet or blue or life giving planet called as “EARTH”. We can use the biomass energy, which may be boon for the world in future.

Keywords: biomass, energy, environment, human, pollution, renewable, solar energy, sources, wind

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6 Impact of Drought in Farm Level Income in the United States

Authors: Anil Giri, Kyle Lovercamp, Sankalp Sharma


Farm level incomes fluctuate significantly due to extreme weather events such as drought. In the light of recent extreme weather events it is important to understand the implications of extreme weather events, flood and drought, on farm level incomes. This study examines the variation in farm level incomes for the United States in drought and no- drought years. Factoring heterogeneity in different enterprises (crop, livestock) and geography this paper analyzes the impact of drought in farm level incomes at state and national level. Livestock industry seems to be affected more by the lag in production of input feed for production, crops, as preliminary results show. Furthermore, preliminary results also show that while crop producers are not affected much due to drought, as price and quantity effect worked on opposite direction with same magnitude, that was not the case for livestock and horticulture enterprises. Results also showed that even when price effect was not as high the crop insurance component helped absorb much of shock for crop producers. Finally, the effect was heterogeneous for different states more on the coastal states compared Midwest region. This study should generate a lot of interest from policy makers across the world as some countries are actively seeking to increase subsidies in their agriculture sector. This study shows how subsidies absorb the shocks for one enterprise more than others. Finally, this paper should also be able to give an insight to economists to design/recommend policies such that it is optimal given the production level of different enterprises in different countries.

Keywords: farm level income, United States, crop, livestock

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5 The Perspective of Waria Transgenders in Singaraja on Their Reproduction Health

Authors: Made Kurnia Widiastuti Giri, Nyoman Kanca, Arie Swastini, Bambang Purwanto


Aim: Waria transgenders are a phenomenon whose existence is undeniable. The sexual behaviours of waria transgenders belong to the groups of high-risk STDs infections, especially HIV/AIDS. The present study was aimed at finding out the general idea of the existence of waria transgenders in Singaraja, their sexual transactions, their sexual behaviours, and at exploring the factors affecting their sexual behaviours along with their participation in regular reproduction health control. Methods: The subjects of the present research were male-to-female transgenders living in the town of Singaraja. The research applied a qualitative approach. Data collection in this research was conducted through in-depth interview and observation. Results: The results of the study exposed 1) the existence of waria transgender community in Singaraja observed from their active participation in social events such as taking the roles of counsellors in the campaign of prevention and control of HIV/AIDS with the Local Commission of AIDS Control and other foundations; 2) the sexual services provided by waria transgenders which were performed in squeeze method, oral and anal sex which could be categorized as HIV/AIDS high-risk sexual behaviours, while the consistency in doing safe sex among the trangenders in Singaraja showed that most of the waria transgenders (80%) were aware of the urgency of using condoms during sexual intercourse; and 3) the low participation of the waria transgenders in Singaraja in regular reproduction health check up at the local Centre of Public Health Service was caused by their negative perception about being examined by female doctors. Conclucions: Waria in singaraja categorized as HIV/AIDS high-risk sexual behaviours but they do have consistency in doing safe sex by using condoms. They have a negative psychological perception about being examined by female doctors.

Keywords: waria transgenders, sexual behaviours, reproduction health, hiv/aids

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4 Preventive Effect of Three Kinds of Bacteriophages to Control Vibrio coralliilyticus Infection in Oyster Larvae

Authors: Hyoun Joong Kim, Jin Woo Jun, Sib Sankar Giri, Cheng Chi, Saekil Yun, Sang Guen Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jeong Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park


Vibrio corallilyticus is a well-known pathogen of coral. It is also infectious to a variety of shellfish species, including Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae. V. corallilyticus is remained to be a major constraint in marine bivalve aquaculture practice, especially in artificial seed production facility. Owing to the high mortality and contagious nature of the pathogen, large amount of antibiotics has been used for disease prevention and control. However, indiscriminate use of antibiotics may result in food and environmental pollution, and development of antibiotic resistant strains. Therefore, eco-friendly disease preventative measures are imperative for sustainable bivalve culture. The present investigation proposes the application of bacteriophage (phage) as an effective alternative method for controlling V. corallilyticus infection in marine bivalve hatcheries. Isolation of phages from sea water sample was carried out using drop or double layer agar methods. The host range, stability and morphology of the phage isolates were studied. In vivo phage efficacy to prevent V. corallilyticus infection in oyster larvae was also performed. The isolated phages, named pVco-5 and pVco-7 was classified as a podoviridae and pVco-14, was classified as a siphoviridae. Each phages were infective to four strains of seven V. corallilyticus strains tested. When oyster larvae were pre-treated with the phage before bacterial challenge, mortality of the treated oyster larvae was lower than that in the untreated control. This result suggests that each phages have the potential to be used as therapeutic agent for controlling V. corallilyticus infection in marine bivalve hatchery.

Keywords: bacteriophage, Vibrio coralliilyticus, Oyster larvae, mortality

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3 Design of Low-Cost Water Purification System Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Nayan Kishore Giri, Ramakar Jha


Water is a major element for the life of all the mankind in the earth. India’s surface water flows through fourteen major streams. Indian rivers are the main source of potable water in India. In the eastern part of India many toxic hazardous metals discharged into the river from mining industries, which leads many deadly diseases to human being. So the potable water quality is very significant and vital concern at present as it is related with the present and future health perspective of the human race. Consciousness of health risks linked with unsafe water is still very low among the many rural and urban areas in India. Only about 7% of total Indian people using water purifier. This unhealthy situation of water is not only present in India but also present in many underdeveloped countries. The major reason behind this is the high cost of water purifier. This current study geared towards development of economical and efficient technology for the removal of maximum possible toxic metals and pathogen bacteria. The work involves the design of portable purification system and purifying material. In this design Coconut shell granular activated carbon(GAC) and polypropylene filter cloths were used in this system. The activated carbon is impregnated with Iron(Fe). Iron is used because it enhances the adsorption capacity of activated carbon. The thorough analysis of iron impregnated activated carbon(Fe-AC) is done by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) , BET surface area test were done. Then 10 ppm of each toxic metal were infiltrated through the designed purification system and they were analysed in Atomic absorption spectrum (AAS). The results are very promising and it is low cost. This work will help many people who are in need of potable water. They can be benefited for its affordability. It could be helpful in industries and other domestic usage.

Keywords: potable water, coconut shell GAC, polypropylene filter cloths, SEM, XRD, BET, AAS

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2 Enhancement of Aircraft Longitudinal Stability Using Tubercles

Authors: Muhammad Umer, Aishwariya Giri, Umaiyma Rakha


Mimicked from the humpback whale flippers, the application of tubercle technology is seen to be particularly advantageous at high angles of attack. This particular advantage is of paramount importance when it comes to structures producing lift at high angles of attack. This characteristic of the technology makes it ideal for horizontal stabilizers and selecting the same as the subject of study to identify and exploit the advantage highlighted by researchers on airfoils, this project aims in establishing a foundation for the application of the bio-mimicked technology on an existing aircraft. Using a baseline and 2 tubercle configuration integrated models, the project targets to achieve the twin aim of highlighting the possibility and merits over the base model and also choosing the right configuration in providing the best characteristic suitable for high angles of attack. To facilitate this study, the required models are generated using Solidworks followed by trials in a virtual aerodynamic environment using Fluent in Ansys for resolving the project objectives. Following a structured plan, the aim is to initially identify the advantages mathematically and then selecting the optimal configuration, simulate the end configuration at angles mimicking the actual operation envelope for the particular structure. Upon simulating the baseline configuration at various angles of attack, the stall angle was determined to be 22 degrees. Thus, the tubercle configurations will be simulated and compared at 4 different angles of attacks: 0, 10, 20, and 24. Further, after providing the optimum configuration of horizontal stabilizers, this study aims at the integration of aircraft structure so that the results better imply the end deliverables of real life application. This draws the project scope closer at this point into longitudinal static stability considerations and improvements in the manoeuvrability characteristics. The objective of the study is to achieve a complete overview ready for real life application with marked benefits obtainable from bio morphing of the tubercle technology.

Keywords: flow simulation, horizontal stabilizer, stability enhancement, tubercle

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1 Effect of Media Osmolarity on Vi Biosynthesis on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Strain C6524 Cultured on Batch System

Authors: Dwi Arisandi Wijaya, Ernawati Arifin Giri-Rachman, Neni Nurainy


Typhoid fever disease can be prevented by using a polysaccharide-based vaccine Vi which is a virulence factor of S.typhi. To produce high yield Vi polysaccharide from bacteria, it is important to know the biosynthesis of Vi polysaccharide and the regulators involved. In the In vivo condition, S. typhi faces different osmolarity, and the bacterial two-component system OmpR-EnvZ, regulate by up and down Capsular Vi polysaccharide biosynthesis. A high yielded Vi Polysaccharide strain, S. typhi strain C6524 used to study the effect of media osmolarity on Vi polysaccharide biosynthesis and the osmoregulation pattern of S. typhi strain C6524. The methods were performed by grown S. typhi strain C6524 grown on medium with 50 mM, 100 mM, and 150 mM osmolarity with the batch system. Vi polysaccharide concentration was measured by ELISA method. For further investigation of the osmoregulation pattern of strain C6524, the osmoregulator gene, OmpR, has been isolated and sequenced using the specific primer of the OmpR gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis is done with BLAST and Lallign. Amino Acid sequence analysis is done with Prosite and Multiple Sequence Alignment. The results of cultivation showed the average content of polysaccharide Vi for 50 mM, 100 mM, and 150 mM osmolarities 11.49 μg/mL, 12.06 μg/mL, and 14.53 μg/mL respectively. Analysis using Anova stated that the osmolarity treatment of 150 mM significantly affects Vi content. Analysis of nucleotide sequences shows 100% identity between S. typhi strain C6524 and Ty2. Analysis of amino acid sequences shows that the OmpR response regulator protein of the C6524 strain also has a α4-β5-α5 motif which is important for the regulatory activation system when phosphorylation occurs by domain kinase. This indicates that the regulator osmolarity response of S. typhi strain C6524 has no difference with the response regulator owned by S. typhi strain Ty2. A high Vi response rate in the 150 mM osmolarity treatment requires further research for RcsB-RcsC, another two-component system involved in Vi Biosynthesis.

Keywords: osmoregulator, OmpR, Salmonella, Vi polysaccharide

Procedia PDF Downloads 108