Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: HbA1c

71 Correlation of Depression and Anxiety with Glycemic Control in Children with Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Sujata Sethi, Pawan Kumar, Sameer Aggarwal

Abstract:

Depression and anxiety are of significant concern in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and these are correlated with glycemic control in multiple ways. The extent of depression and anxiety in children with T1DM remains poorly studied in India. The index study aimed to find the prevalence of depression and anxiety and their correlation with HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) levels in children with T1DM. Material and methods: This study was a cross-sectional study carried out on a purposive sample of 45 children with T1DM. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of all the participants were recorded. Results: 43 out of 45 children were analyzed as HbA1c status for two was not known. 48.8% were females. Mean age was 12.95+2.04. The average duration of diabetes was 3.63+1.82. Mean CDRS-R score was 41.6+12.25 and mean SCAS score was 33.07+12.29. Mean recording of HbA1c level was 7.90+1.51. 27 (62.8%) out of 43 participants had abnormal scores on CDRS-R and 24 (55.8%) out of 43 had abnormal scores on SCAS. The correlation coefficient between HbA1c levels and the CDRS-R score came out to be 0.57 and between HbA1c and SCAS, it was 0.53. Both correlations were significant with the p-value of < 0.02. Conclusion: Children with T1DM have high co-morbidity of depression and anxiety which is significantly correlated with the HbA1c levels. Thus, it becomes important to screen the patients for depression and anxiety for better outcomes.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, HbA1c, T1DM

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70 Efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the Reduction of HbA1c in Overweight Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Rohit Sane, Pravin Ghadigaonkar, Purvi Ahuja, Suvarna Tirmare, Archana Kelhe, Kranti Shinde, Rahul Mandole

Abstract:

To evaluate the efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the reduction of HbA1c in overweight Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients retrospectively. Methods: Retrospective study was carried out on 34 overweight type II diabetic patients (Mean Age = 54.58 ±11.38 yrs). A total of 34 patients were enrolled after screening of 68 patients (HbA1c 7-10%). The patients were on concomitant drugs namely insulin (11.76%), DPP-4 inhibitor (17.64%), Biguanide (55.88%), Sulfonylurea (52.94%), thiazolidinedione (11.76%), other medications (20.58%) and no allopathic medications (14.70%). The patients were given Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program consisting of panchkarma procedures namely snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy) and basti (enema), which was completed in 15 sittings. During the therapy and next 90 days, the patients followed low carbohydrate and moderate protein & fat diet. The primary endpoint of this study was the evaluation of reduction in HbA1c at the end of the follow-up after 90 days. Results: Thirty-four overweight type II diabetic patients (mean age: 54.58[±11.38], HbA1c[7-10%], 67.64% male and 32.35% female) were enrolled in the study. A significant reduction was observed in HbA1c levels (14.30%, p<0.05) at the end of the 90 days follow-up as compared to baseline. Also, BMI was reduced by 5.87%. There was reduction in the usage of the concomitant drugs namely insulin (2.94%), DPP-4 inhibitor (2.94%), Biguanide (32.35%), Sulfonylurea (35.29%), thiazolidinedione (5.88%), other medications(17.64%) and no allopathic medications (32.35%). Conclusion: The results of the study highlight not only in the reduction of HbA1c, but also in BMI and drug tapering of the CDC program in the overweight type II diabetic patients with HbA1c (7-10%).

Keywords: HbA1c, low carb diet, Panchakarma therapy, Type II Diabetes

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69 Correlation between Diabetic Cataract, HBA1C and Gurakhu, a Clinical Study in Chhattisgarh State

Authors: A. Bhattacharya, Sanjay Gupta, S. H. Bodakhe

Abstract:

HbA1c is form of the haemoglobin that is used to measure the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Guraku’s basic components are nicotine and jaggery, jaggery is made up of sugarcane so can have a diabetogenic potential which is exacerbated in presence of nicotine. This work had done with the aim to find correlation between Diabetic cataract, HbA1c and Guraku. Subjects were enrolled according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In this study total 75 subjects were included. In the study it was found that people consuming Guraku had a high level of HbA1c thus are more prone to the development of diabetic cataract. Male subjects are the more than female subjects. Most of the subjects belong to the lower socioeconomical class and not very educated. It could be concluded that this type of study could be useful in indentifying number of subjects suffering from diabetic cataract whose condition get worse by use of nicotine product like Guraku and preventive measure to be taken in prevention of this type of diabetic complication.

Keywords: diabetic cataract, HbA1c, Guraku, diabetogenic potential

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68 Relation of Urinary Microalbumin with Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Selected Male and Female Patients

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Howarh Humaira Ali, Ishrat Sultana

Abstract:

Long term irregularity in the glycemic state, especially in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c, is noted to be correlated with the development of microalbuminuria. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association of urinary microalbumin with HbA1c and with duration of diabetes mellitus in selected male and female T2DM patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a total of 70 patients, thirty-five each male and females with diagnosed T2DM, within the age group of 35-60 years. Biochemical parameters of urea, creatinine, urinary microalbumin, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and post- parendial blood glucose were determined by standard methods. Data was statistically examined by student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation. Results showed that comparison of healthy control subjects with both male and female T2DM patients depicted significantly elevated levels of all parameters in (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Comparison of duration of T2DM with the existence of urinary microalbumin was moderately significant (P < 0.05) when duration was less than 4 years, significant (P < 0.01) with duration of 4-6 years and markedly significant (P < 0.001) with duration of more than 6 years. It is concluded that in male and female T2DM patients, duration of DM as well as poor glycemic control, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c is significantly correlated with elevated levels of urinary microalbumin.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary microalbumin, T2DM, HbA1c

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67 Assessment of Physical Activity and Sun Exposure of Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ramadan and Non-Ramadan Periods

Authors: Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Khaled Alghamdi, Richard O. Jenkins, Parvez I. Haris

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Background: Physical activity is an important factor in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Reduction in HbA1c level, an important diabetes biomarker, was reported in patients who increased their daily physical activity. Although the ambient temperature was reported to be positively correlated to a negative impact on health and increase the incidences of diabetes, the exposure to bright sunlight was recently found to be associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved beta-cell function. How Ramadan alters physical activity, and especially sunlight exposure, has not been adequately investigated. Aim: This study aimed to assess the physical activity and sun exposure of Saudis with T2DM over different periods (before, during, and after Ramadan) and related this to HbA1c levels. Methods: This study recruited 82 Saudis with T2DM, who chose to fast during Ramadan, from the Endocrine and Diabetic Centre of Al Iman General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ethical approvals for this study were obtained from De Montfort University and Saudi Ministry of Health. Physical activity and sun exposure were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), while the sun exposure was assessed by asking the patients about their hours per week of direct exposure to the sun, and daily hours spent outdoors. Blood samples were collected in each period for measuring HbA1c. Results: Low physical activity was observed in more than 60% of the patients, with no significant changes between periods. There were no significant variances between periods in the daily hours spent outdoors and the total number of weekly hours of direct exposure to the sun. The majority of patients reported only few hours of exposure to the sun (1h or less per week) and time spent outdoors (1h or less per day). The mean HbA1c significantly changed between periods (P = 0.001), with lowest level during Ramadan. There were significant differences in the mean HbA1c between the groups for the level of physical activity (P < 0.001), with significant lower mean HbA1c in the higher-level group. There were no significant variances in the mean of HbA1c between the groups for the daily hours spent outdoors. The mean HbA1c of the patients, who reported never in their total weekly hours of exposure to the sun, was significantly lower than the mean HbA1c of those who reported 1 hour or less (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Physical inactivity was prevalent among the study population with very little exposure to the sun or time spent outdoors. Higher level of physical activity was associated with lower mean HbA1c levels. Encouraging T2DM patients to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity may help them to obtain greater benefits of Ramadan fasting, such as reducing their HbA1c levels. The impact of low direct exposure to the sun and the time spent outdoors needs to be further investigated in both healthy and diabetic patients.

Keywords: diabetes, fasting, physical activity, sunlight, Ramadan

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66 Fabrication of a Potential Point-of-Care Device for Hemoglobin A1c: A Lateral Flow Immunosensor

Authors: Shu Hwang Ang, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Yean Yean Chan, Yatimah Binti Alias, And Sook Mei Khor

Abstract:

With the high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus across the world, the morbidities and mortalities associated with Type 2 diabetes have significant impact on the production line for a nation. With routine scheduled clinical visits to manage Type 2 diabetes, diabetic patients with hectic lifestyles can have low clinical compliance. Hence, it often decreases the effectiveness of diabetic management personalized for each diabetic patient. Here, we report a useful developed point-of-care (POC) device that detect glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, biomarker for long-term Type 2 diabetic management). In fact, the established POC devices certified to be used in clinical setting are not only expensive ($ 8 to $10 per test), they also require skillful practitioners to perform sampling and interpretation. As a paper-based biosensor, the developed HbA1c biosensor utilized lateral flow principle to offer an alternative for cost-effective (approximately $2 per test) and end-user friendly device for household testing. Requiring as little as 2 L of finger-picked blood, the test can be performed at the household with just simple dilution and washings. With visual interpretation of numbers of test lines shown on the developed biosensor, it can be interpreted as easy as a urine pregnancy test, aided with scale of intensity provided. In summary, the developed HbA1c immunosensor has been tested to have high selectivity towards HbA1c, and is stable with reasonably good performance in clinical testing. Therefore, our developed HbA1c immunosensor has high potential to be an effective diabetic management tool to increase patient compliance and thus contain the progression of the diabetes.

Keywords: blood, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lateral flow, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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65 Beneficial Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Glucose, HbA1C and Lipid Variables in Individuals with Newly Onset Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma

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Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It influences glucose metabolism by potentiating the action as taking part in insulin signal amplification mechanism. A placebo-controlled single blind, prospective study was carried out to investigate the effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile in newly onset patients with type-2 diabetes. Total 40 newly onset type-2 diabetics were selected and after one month stabilization further randomly divided into two groups viz. study group and placebo group. The study group received 9 gm brewer’s yeast (42 μ Cr) daily and the other placebo group received yeast devoid of chromium for 3 months. Subjects were instructed not to change their normal eating and living habits. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile were analyzed at beginning and completion of the study. Results revealed that fasting blood glucose level significantly reduced in the subjects consuming yeast supplemented with chromium (197.65±6.68 to 103.68±6.64 mg/dl; p<0.001). HbA1C values improved significantly from 9.51±0.26% to 6.86±0.28%; p<0.001 indicating better glycaemic control. In experimental group total cholesterol, TG and LDL levels were also significantly reduced from 199.66±3.11 to 189.26±3.01 mg/dl; p<0.02, 144.94±8.31 to 126.01±8.26; p<0.05 and 119.19±1.71 to 99.58±1.10; p<0.001 respectively. These data demonstrate beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid variables in subjects with newly onset type-2 diabetes.

Keywords: type-2 diabetes, chromium, glucose, HbA1C

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64 Trend Analysis of the Effectiveness of Diabetes Health Coaching in Taiwan

Authors: Ching-Ling Lin, Li-Chi Huang, Yao-Tsung Chang, Ruey-Yu Chen, Shwu-Huey Yang

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Introduction & Purpose: Diabetes and its related complications always been a major part of medical cost in Taiwan. To patient with diabetes, self-management blood sugar, improving a healthy lifestyle are the most important thing to avoid getting worse. The aim of this study was to explore the trend of the changing in blood glucose within intervention and followed-up periods of patients who participated in the health coaching program between 2017 and 2020. Design & Methods: The data was combined from two diabetes health coaching program. The intervention group had health coaching and usual care for 6 months, whereas the control had usual care only. The main outcome variables were HbA1c level at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Results: In total, the data were available for 99 patients in the coaching intervention group and for 88 patients in the control group, the dropout rate during the follow-up period is about 18%. Of 187 participants, 54% were female, mean age was 61.5 years (SD=10.19), only 32.1% had a bachelor’s degree or higher, and the mean duration of diabetes treatment at Cathay General Hospital was 9.9 years. Within 12 months, the intervention group had a significant decrease of 0.65% (SD=1.05) in HbA1c level, and a non-significant decrease of 0.13%(SD=0.96) was observed in the control group. The figure showed the effect was the most significant in the first three months of the intervention and can be maintained for up to six months after the intervention was over. The HbA1c values of the two groups at each follow-up point are significantly different. In addition, there were non-significant correlation between HbA1c and gender, age, and educational level. Conclusion: Health coaching might be an effective way to enhance self-management for patients with diabetes and improving their blood sugar control in Taiwan.

Keywords: diabetes, health coaching, HbA1c, self-management

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63 Influence of HbA1c on Nitric Oxide Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Dara Kutsyk, Olga Bondarenko, Mariya Sorochka

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In 21-century type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a global health and social problem in the whole world. The goal of treatment for patients with T2D is to prevent complications of diabetes - macrovascular diseases (heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) and microvascular diseases (retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy). Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Loss of NO function is one of the earliest indicators of disease and its progression especially in patients with T2D. Aim: To compare NO level between patients with well and bad controlled glycemia in T2D. Methods: The study included 32 patients with T2D. The diagnosis of T2D was confirmed due to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: with well controlled glycaemia (HbA1c < 7%) and bad controlled glycaemia (HbA1c > 7%). The control group consists of 15 healthy subjects. Results: NO level in patients with T2D is significantly higher (27,2 ±3,1 µmol), compared to controls (18,86±0,9 µmol; p < 0,001). A significant difference in NO level was found between patients with bad controlled glycaemia (25,9±2,2 µmol) and well controlled glycaemia (28,7 ± 3,0 µmol; p<0,01). The study showed a moderate negative correlation between NO level and HbA1c (-0,399; р< 0,05). Conclusions: Production of NO is impaired in patients with T2D, especially with badly controlled glycaemia. With the increase in HbAc serum NO decreases. This can be the main target for prevention vascular complication in T2D.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, nitric oxide, Diabetes mellitus

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62 Screening for Diabetes in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis: The Belfast Trust Experience

Authors: Riyas Peringattuthodiyil, Mark Taylor, Ian Wallace, Ailish Nugent, Mike Mitchell, Judith Thompson, Allison McKee, Philip C. Johnston

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Aim of Study: The purpose of the study was to screen for diabetes through HbA1c in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) within the Belfast Trust. Background: Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at risk of developing diabetes, earlier diagnosis with subsequent multi-disciplinary input has the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of patients with chronic pancreatitis were obtained through the Northern Ireland Electronic Healthcare Record (NIECR), specialist hepatobiliary, and gastrointestinal clinics. Patients were invited to have a blood test for HbA1c. Newly diagnosed patients with diabetes were then invited to attend a dedicated Belfast City Hospital (BCH) specialist chronic pancreatitis and diabetes clinic for follow up. Results: A total of 89 chronic pancreatitis patients were identified; Male54; Female:35, mean age 52 years, range 12-90 years. Aetiology of CP included alcohol 52/89 (58%), gallstones 18/89 (20%), idiopathic 10/89 11%, 2 were genetic, 1: post ECRP, 1: IgG autoimmune, 1: medication induced, 1: lipoprotein lipase deficiency 1: mumps, 1: IVDU and 1: pancreatic divisum. No patients had pancreatic carcinoma. Mean duration of CP was nine years, range 3-30 years. 15/89 (16%) of patients underwent previous pancreatic surgery/resections. Recent mean BMI was 25.1 range 14-40 kg/m². 62/89 (70%) patients had HbA1c performed. Mean HbA1c was 42 mmol/mol, range 27-97mmol/mol, 42/62 (68%) had normal HbA1c (< 42 mmol/mol) 13/62 (21%) had pre-diabetes (42-47mmol/mol) and 7/62 (11%) had diabetes (≥ 48 mmol/mol). Conclusions: Of those that participated in the screening program around one-third of patients with CP had glycaemic control in the pre and diabetic range. Potential opportunities for improving screening rates for diabetes in this cohort could include regular yearly testing at gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary clinics.

Keywords: pancreatogenic diabetes, screening, chronic pancreatitis, trust experience

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61 Assessment of Dietary Patterns of Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ramadan and Non-Ramadan Periods

Authors: Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Khaled Alghamdi, Richard O. Jenkins, Parvez I. Haris

Abstract:

Background: Unhealthy diet is one of the modifiable risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Improvement in diet can be beneficial for countering diabetes. For example, HbA1c, an important biomarker for diabetes, can be reduced by 1.1% through only alteration in diet. Ramadan fasting has been reported to provide positive health benefits. However, optimal benefits are not achieved, often due to poor dietary habits and lifestyle. There is a need to better understand the dietary habits of people fasting during Ramadan, so that necessary improvements can be made to develop this form of fasting as a non-pharmacological strategy for management and prevention of T2DM. Aim: This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns of Saudi adult patients with T2DM over three different periods (before, during, and after Ramadan) and relate this to HbA1c levels. Methods: This study recruited 82 Saudi with T2DM, who chose to fast during Ramadan, from the Endocrine and Diabetic Centre of Al Iman General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ethical approvals for the study were obtained from De Montfort University and Saudi Ministry of Health. Dietary patterns were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire in each period. This assessment included the diet type and frequency. Blood samples were collected in each period for determination of HbA1c. Results: The number of meals per day for the participants significantly decreased during Ramadan (P < 0.001). The consumption of fruit and vegetables significantly increased during Ramadan (P = 0.017). However, the consumption of sugary drinks significantly increased during and after Ramadan (P = 0.005). Approximately 60% of the patients indicated that they ate sugary foods at least once per week. The consumption of bread and rice was reported to be at least two times per week. The consumption of rice significantly reduced during Ramadan (P = 0.002). The mean HbA1c significantly varied between periods (P = 0.001), with lowest level during Ramadan compared to before and after Ramadan. The increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables had a medium effect size on the reduction in HbA1c during Ramadan. There was a variance of 7.7% in the mean difference in HbA1c levels between groups (who changed their fruit and vegetable consumption) which can be accounted for by the increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Likewise, 9.3% of the variance in the mean HbA1c difference between the groups was accounted for by a decrease in the consumption of rice. Conclusion: The increase in the frequency of fruit and vegetables intake, and especially the reduction in the frequency of rice consumption, during Ramadan produce beneficial effects in reducing HbA1c level. Therefore, further improving the dietary habits of patients with T2DM, such as reducing their sugary drinks intake, may help them to obtain greater benefits from Ramadan fasting in the management of their diabetes. It is recommended that dietary guidance is provided to the public to maximise health benefits through Ramadan fasting.

Keywords: Diabetes, Diet, Fasting, HbA1c, Ramadan

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60 Role of Platelet Volume Indices in Diabetes Related Vascular Angiopathies

Authors: Mitakshara Sharma, S. K. Nema, Sanjeev Narang

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by metabolic abnormalities, chronic hyperglycaemia and long term macrovascular & microvascular complications. Vascular complications are due to platelet hyperactivity and dysfunction, increased inflammation, altered coagulation and endothelial dysfunction. Large proportion of patients with Type II DM suffers from preventable vascular angiopathies, and there is need to develop risk factor modifications and interventions to reduce impact of complications. These complications are attributed to platelet activation, recognised by increase in Platelet Volume Indices (PVI) including Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) and Platelet Distribution Width (PDW). The current study is prospective analytical study conducted over 2 years. Out of 1100 individuals, 930 individuals fulfilled inclusion criteria and were segregated into three groups on basis of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C): - (a) Diabetic, (b) Non-Diabetic and (c) Subjects with Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) with 300 individuals in IFG and non-diabetic groups & 330 individuals in diabetic group. Further, diabetic group was divided into two groups on the basis of presence or absence of known diabetes related vascular complications. Samples for HbA1c and PVI were collected using Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as anticoagulant and processed on SYSMEX-X-800i autoanalyser. The study revealed gradual increase in PVI from non-diabetics to IFG to diabetics. PVI were markedly increased in diabetic patients. MPV and PDW of diabetics, IFG and non diabetics were (17.60 ± 2.04)fl, (11.76 ± 0.73)fl, (9.93 ± 0.64)fl and (19.17 ± 1.48)fl, (15.49 ± 0.67)fl, (10.59 ± 0.67)fl respectively with a significant p value 0.00 and a significant positive correlation (MPV-HbA1c r = 0.951; PDW-HbA1c r = 0.875). MPV & PDW of subjects with diabetes related complications were higher as compared to those without them and were (17.51±0.39)fl & (15.14 ± 1.04)fl and (20.09 ± 0.98) fl & (18.96 ± 0.83)fl respectively with a significant p value 0.00. There was a significant positive correlation between PVI and duration of diabetes across the groups (MPV-HbA1c r = 0.951; PDW-HbA1c r = 0.875). However, a significant negative correlation was found between glycaemic levels and total platelet count (PC- HbA1c r =-0.164). This is multi-parameter and comprehensive study with an adequately powered study design. It can be concluded from our study that PVI are extremely useful and important indicators of impending vascular complications in all patients with deranged glycaemic control. Introduction of automated cell counters has facilitated the availability of PVI as routine parameters. PVI is a useful means for identifying larger & active platelets which play important role in development of micro and macro angiopathic complications of diabetes leading to mortality and morbidity. PVI can be used as cost effective markers to predict and prevent impending vascular events in patients with Diabetes mellitus especially in developing countries like India. PVI, if incorporated into protocols for management of diabetes, could revolutionize care and curtail the ever increasing cost of patient management.

Keywords: diabetes, IFG, HbA1C, MPV, PDW, PVI

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59 Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Preventing the Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Yunzi Chen, James Laybourne, Sarah Steven, Peter Carey, David Steel, Maria Sandinha

Abstract:

Introduction: Bariatric surgery is popular with the rising incidence of obesity. Its well-known benefits include significant and rapid glycaemic control. However, cases of paradoxical worsening in diabetic retinopathy (DR) despite improved glycaemic control have been reported. Purpose: clarification on the evolution of diabetic retinopathy after bariatric surgery. Method: retrospective study of 40 patients with Type 2 diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery in a UK specialist bariatric unit between 2009 and 2011. Pre-operative and post-operative visual acuity (VA), weight, HbA1c and annual DRSS screening results were analysed. Median follow up was 50 months. Results: No significant change in VA was found during the post-operative period. 85% of patients improved HbA1c post-operatively of which 53% achieved non-diabetic HbA1c of <6.1% - despite this, 2 patients developed new DR. First post-operative screening showed 80% of patients experienced no change, 8% improved but 13% of patients developed new DR (1 case with sight-threatening maculopathy). 80% of these cases persisted up to 24 months. The proportion of patients developing new or worse DR fluctuated over time, peaking at the 3rd annual screening with 26% (15% regressed, 56% stable). The probability of developing new or worse DR postoperatively was significantly associated with a high pre-operative HbA1c (>8%) and male gender. Conclusions: bariatric surgery does not guarantee long-term improvement or prevention of DR. Asymptomatic changes in DR occurred up to 5 years postoperatively. We therefore consider it prudent to continue screening in this cohort of patients.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, diabetic retinopathy, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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58 Anagliptin: A Japanese Made Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor That Naturally Lowers LDL-Cholesterol in Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: C. Iitake, K. Iitake

Abstract:

Background and Aims: The number of diabetic patients based on obesity is increasing drastically in Asia. Since most patients have multiple complications, if one medicine can treat those at the same time, it would contribute to financial savings and patients’ compliance. A Japanese-made DPP-4 inhibitor, Anagliptin is only sold in Japan and South Korea. It is said to have its unique aspect of lowering LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels together with lowering blood glucose. We have assessed 63 patients in our faculty to investigate this fact clinically and statistically. Method: Patients with type 2 diabetes who has been treated with Anagliptin for the first time was investigated changes in HbA1c, fasting and random blood glucose and LDL-C levels from the baseline at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year. Results: 29 patients (46.1%) were given DPP-4 inhibitors for the first time (original group), and 34 patients (53.9%) were using other DPP-4 inhibitors before Anagliptin (exchanged group). The change in HbA1c and fasting glucose from the baseline were -2.0% (P < 0.001) and -38.3mg/dl (P < 0.01) respectively with original group, -0.5% (P < 0.01) and -29.4mg/dl (P < 0.01) respectively with exchanged group. 23 patients (36.5%) were using statins or fibrates and 28 patients (44.4%) were using none, and its LDL-C change were -8.1mg/dl (P = 0.2582) and -10.1mg/dl(P < 0.05) respectively. 16 patients(25%) with LDL-C level ≥ 140mg/dl, change were -21.7mg/dl(P < 0.05). LDL-C change did not have a correlation coefficient (=-0.03238) with change in HbA1c and was not affected by other diabetic drugs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Anagliptin is a potential treatment option for type 2 diabetes complicated by hyperlipidemia.

Keywords: DPP-4 inhibitors, anagliptin, LDL-cholesterol, type 2 diabetes

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57 Comparison of Statins Dose Intensity on HbA1c Control in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Ahmed A. Khamis, Abeer Kharshid, Nor Azizah Aziz

Abstract:

The effect of statins dose intensity (SDI) on glycemic control in patients with existing diabetes is unclear. Also, there are many contradictory findings were reported in the literature; thus, it is limiting the possibility to draw conclusions. This project was designed to compare the effect of SDI on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) control in outpatients with Type 2 diabetes in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, between July 2015 and August 2016. A prospective cohort study was conducted, where records of 345 patients with Type 2 diabetes (Moderate-SDI group 289 patients and high-SDI cohort 56 patients) were reviewed to identify demographics and laboratory tests. The target of glycemic control (HbA1c < 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated, and the results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 289 moderate-SDI cohorts with a mean age of 57.3 ± 12.4 years, only 86 (29.8%) cases were shown to have controlled glycemia, while there were 203 (70.2%) cases with uncontrolled glycemia with confidence interval (CI) of 95% (6.2–10.8). On the other hand, the high-SDI group of 56 patients with Type 2 diabetes with a mean age 57.7±12.4 years is distributed among 11 (19.6%) patients with controlled diabetes, and 45 (80.4%) of them had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (7.1–11.9). The study has demonstrated that the relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes that used high-SDI is 1.15, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) is 15%. The absolute risk (AR) is 10.2%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) is 10. Outpatients with Type 2 diabetes who use high-SDI of statin have a higher risk of uncontrolled glycemia than outpatients who had been treated with a moderate-SDI.

Keywords: cohort study, diabetes control, dose intensity, HbA1c, Malaysia, statin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled glycemia

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56 Platelet Volume Indices: Emerging Markers of Diabetic Thrombocytopathy

Authors: Mitakshara Sharma, S. K. Nema

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is metabolic disorder prevalent in pandemic proportions, incurring significant morbidity and mortality due to associated vascular angiopathies. Platelet related thrombogenesis plays key role in pathogenesis of these complications. Most patients with type II DM suffer from preventable vascular complications and early diagnosis can help manage these successfully. These complications are attributed to platelet activation which can be recognised by the increase in Platelet Volume Indices(PVI) viz. Mean Platelet Volume(MPV) and Platelet Distribution Width(PDW). This study was undertaken with the aim of finding a relationship between PVI and vascular complications of Diabetes mellitus, their importance as a causal factor in these complications and use as markers for early detection of impending vascular complications in patients with poor glycaemic status. This is a cross-sectional study conducted for 2 years with total 930 subjects. The subjects were segregated in 03 groups on basis of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) as: - (a) Diabetic, (b) Non-Diabetic and (c) Subjects with Impaired fasting glucose(IFG) with 300 individuals in IFG and non-diabetic group & 330 individuals in diabetic group. The diabetic group was further divided into two groups: - (a) Diabetic subjects with diabetes related vascular complications (b) Diabetic subjects without diabetes related vascular complications. Samples for HbA1C and platelet indices were collected using Ethylene diamine tetracetic acid(EDTA) as anticoagulant and processed on SYSMEX-XS-800i autoanalyser. The study revealed stepwise increase in PVI from non-diabetics to IFG to diabetics. MPV and PDW of diabetics, IFG and non diabetics were 17.60 ± 2.04, 11.76 ± 0.73, 9.93 ± 0.64 and 19.17 ± 1.48, 15.49 ± 0.67, 10.59 ± 0.67 respectively with a significant p value 0.00 and a significant positive correlation (MPV-HbA1c r = 0.951; PDW-HbA1c r = 0.875). However, significant negative correlation was found between glycaemic levels and total platelet count (PC- HbA1c r =-0.164). MPV & PDW of subjects with and without diabetes related complications were (15.14 ± 1.04) fl & (17.51±0.39) fl and (18.96 ± 0.83) fl & (20.09 ± 0.98) fl respectively with a significant p value 0.00.The current study demonstrates raised platelet indices & reduced platelet counts in association with rising glycaemic levels and diabetes related vascular complications across various study groups & showed that platelet morphology is altered with increasing glycaemic levels. These changes can be known by measurements of PVI which are important, simple, cost effective, effortless tool & indicators of impending vascular complications in patients with deranged glycaemic control. PVI should be researched and explored further as surrogate markers to develop a clinical tool for early recognition of vascular changes related to diabetes and thereby help prevent them. They can prove to be more useful in developing countries with limited resources. This study is multi-parameter, comprehensive with adequately powered study design and represents pioneering effort in India on account of the fact that both Platelet indices (MPV & PDW) along with platelet count have been evaluated together for the first time in Diabetics, non diabetics, patients with IFG and also in the diabetic patients with and without diabetes related vascular complications.

Keywords: diabetes, HbA1C, IFG, MPV, PDW, PVI

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
55 A Prospective Study on the Evaluation of Statins Usage on HbA1c Control among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in an Outpatients Setting

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Abeer Kharshid, Nor Azizah Aziz, Tarek M. Elsayed

Abstract:

Medication safety is always an issue. In 2015, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau released a statement requesting all statins manufacturers in Malaysia to include the risk of diabetes information in the drug information leaflet in response to United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) report. However, the data regarding this warning label in Malaysia is limited, so there is still some uncertainty whether such risk can also be observed in the Malaysian population or not. The study aims to determine the effect of statins on HbA1c% in type 2 diabetic outpatients in endocrine clinics at Hospital Pulau Pinang between June 2015 and May 2016 in Malaysia. In a prospective cohort study, records of 400 type 2 diabetic patients (control group 104 patients not using statin and treatment group 296 patients using statin) were reviewed to identify demographic criteria and lab tests. The prevalence of glycemic control (Glycated hemoglobin, HbA1C ≤ 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated, according to American Diabetes Association guidelines 2015. The results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 296 patients with Type 2 diabetes using statins cohort with a mean age of 57.52 ± 12.2 years, only 81 (27.4%) cases had controlled glycemia, and 215 (72.6%) had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (6.3–11.1). While the control group 104 diabetic patients had a mean age 46.1 ± 18 years and distributed among 59 (56.7%) patients with controlled diabetes and 45 (43.3%) cases, had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (5.2–10.3). The relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in diabetic patients used statins was 1.68, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) was 68%. The absolute risk (AR) was 29.3%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) was 4. Diabetic patients using statins have more risk of uncontrolled glycemia than the patients with Type 2 diabetes non-using statins.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, HbA1c, Malaysia, outpatients, statin, type 2, uncontrolled glycemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
54 A Study of the Effect of Early and Late Meal Time on Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Smriti Rastogi, Narsingh Verma

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Background: A vast body of research exists on the use of oral hypoglycaemic drugs, insulin injections and the like in managing diabetes but no such research exists that has taken into consideration the parameter of time restricted meal intake and its positive effects in managing diabetes. The utility of this project is immense as it offers a solution to the woes of diabetics based on circadian rhythm and normal physiology of the human body. Method: 80 Diabetics, enrolled from the Out Patient Department of Endocrinology, KGMU (King George's Medical University) were randomly divided based on consent to early dinner TRM(time restricted meal) group or not (control group). Follow up was done at six months and 12 months for anthropometric measurement, height, weight, waist-hip ratio, neck size, fasting, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1c, serum urea, serum creatinine, and lipid profile. The patient was given a clear understanding of chronomedicine and how it affects their health. A single intervention was done - the timing of dinner was at or around 7 pm for TRM group. Result: 65% of TRM group and 40 %(non- TRM) had normal HbA1c after 12 months. HbA1c in TRM Group (first visit to second follow up) had a significant p value=0.017. A p value of <0.0001 was observed on comparing the values of blood sugar (fasting) in TRM Group from the first visit and second follow up. The values of blood sugar (postprandial) in TRM Group (first visit and second follow up) showed a p-value <0.0001 (highly significant). Values of the three parameters were non- significant in the control group. Hip size(First Visit to Second Follow Up) TRM Group showed a p-value = 0.0344 (Significant) (Difference between means=2.762 ± 1.261)Detailed results of the above parameters and a few newer ones will be presented at the conference. Conclusion: Time restricted meal intake in diabetics shows promise and is worth exploring further. Time Restricted Meal intake in Type 2 diabetics has a significant effect in controlling and maintaining HbA1c as the reduction in HbA1c value was very significant in the TRM group vs. the control group. Similar highly significant results were obtained in the case of fasting and postprandial values of blood sugar in the TRM group when compared to the control group. The effects of time restricted meal intake in diabetics show promise and are worth exploring further. It is one of the first studies which have been undertaken in Indian diabetics, although the initial data obtained is encouraging yet further research and study are required to corroborate results.

Keywords: chronomedicine, diabetes, endocrinology, time restricted meal intake

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
53 Bone Mineral Density in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Postmenopausal Egyptian Female Patients: Correlation with Fetuin-A Level and Metabolic Parameters

Authors: Ahmed A. M. Shoaib, Heba A. Esaily, Mahmoud M. Emara, Eman A. E. Badr, Amany S. Khalifa, Mayada M. M., Abdel-Raizk

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Background: DM is associated with metabolic bone diseases, osteoporosis, low-impact fractures and falls in geriatrics. Fetuin-A, which is a serum protein produced by the liver and promotes bone mineralization, is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Aim: Evaluation of fetuin-A level and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Egyptian female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their correlation with each other & with other metabolic parameters. Patients and methods: Seventy postmenopausal female patients with type II diabetes and thirty postmenopausal female as control were included in this study. Measurement of Fetuin-A together with metabolic parameters and DXA in wrist, hip and spine, ALP, CBC, FBS, PP2H and HBA1c was done in all participants. Results: - Fetuin-A level was found to be highly significant (p< 0.001) between diabetic and nondiabetic groups and negatively correlated with BMD in spine. No difference in BMD was found between patients and control groups while significant negative correlation was found between FBS and hip BMD (<0.05) and between 2hpp and HBA1c with spine BMD in the diabetic group (<0.05). Osteoporosis represented 12.9% in spine area and 7.2% in hip and wrist areas in diabetic patients, while osteopenia were found in 58.5%, 57.1%, and 37.1% in diabetic patients in spine, wrist, and hip respectively. Conclusion: - type II diabetes cannot be considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis; while glycemic parameters (FBS, 2hpp & HBA1c) and serum Fetuin-A levels were correlated with BMD in diabetics. Good glycemic control can be protective against osteoporosis in diabetic elderly.

Keywords: fetuin-A, BMD, postmenopausal, DM type II

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
52 Assessment of Sleeping Patterns of Saudis with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ramadan and Non-Ramadan Periods Using a Wearable Device and a Questionnaire

Authors: Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Khaled Alghamdi, Richard O. Jenkins, Parvez I. Haris

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Background: Quantity and quality of sleep have been reported to be significant risk factors for obesity and development of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The relationship between diabetes and sleep quantity was reported to be U-shaped, which means increased or decreased sleeping hours can increase the risk of diabetes. The plasma glucagon levels were found to continuously decrease during night-time sleep in healthy individuals, independently of blood glucose and insulin levels. The disturbance of the circadian rhythm is also important and has been linked with an increased the chance of diabetes incidence. There is a lack of research on sleep patterns on Saudis with T2DM and how this is affected by Ramadan fasting. Aim: To assess the sleeping patterns of Saudis with T2DM (before, during, and after Ramadan), using two different techniques and relate this to their HbA1c levels. Method: This study recruited 82 Saudi with T2DM, who chose to fast during Ramadan, from the Endocrine and Diabetic Centre of Al Iman General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ethical approvals for the study were obtained from De Montfort University and Saudi Ministry of Health. Their sleeping patterns were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire (before, during, and after Ramadan). The assessment included the daily total sleeping hours (DTSH), and total night-time sleeping hours (TNTSH) of the participants. In addition, sleeping patterns of 36 patients, randomly selected from the 82 participants, were further tracked during and after Ramadan by using Fitbit Flex 2™ accelerometer. Blood samples were collected in each period for measuring HbA1c. Results: Questionnaire analysis revealed that the sleeping patterns significantly changed between the periods, with shorter hours during Ramadan (P < 0.001 for DTSH, and P < 0.001 for TNTSH). These findings were confirmed by the Fitbit data, which also indicated significant shorter sleeping hours for the DTSH, and the TNTSH during Ramadan (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Although there were no significant correlations between the questionnaire and Fitbit data, the TNTSH were shorter among the participants in all periods by both techniques. The mean HbA1c significantly varied between periods, with lowest level during Ramadan. Although the statistical tests did not show significant variances in the mean HbA1c between the groups of participants regarding their hours of sleeping, the lowest mean HbA1c was observed in the group of participants who slept for 6-8 hours and had longer night-time sleeping hours. Conclusion: A short sleep duration, and absence of night-time sleep were significantly observed among the majority of the study population during Ramadan, which could suppress the full benefits of Ramadan fasting for diabetic patients. This study showed that there is a good agreement between the findings of the questionnaire and the Fitbit device for evaluating sleeping patterns in a Saudi population. A larger study is needed in the future to investigate the impact of Ramadan fasting on sleep quality and quantity and its relationship with health and disease.

Keywords: Diabetes, Fasting, Fitbit, HbA1c, IPAQ, Ramadan, Sleep

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
51 Beneficial Effect of Biotin in Combination with Canagliflozin on High Fat Diet Induced Diabetes in Rats

Authors: Rayhana Begum, HongBin Wang, Nur Alam Siddiquee, Md.Yasin Ahmed

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Biotin treatment has significant effects on blood glucose, and pharmacological doses of biotin improve hyperglycemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of biotin in combination with canagliflozin in improving glycemic control on High Fat Diet-induced diabetes in Rats. Thirty male rats were divided into five groups (six rats /group): control, high fat diet (HFD), canagliflozin (CAG), biotin (BIO), and CAG + BIO. The treatments with CAG and /or BIO significantly reduced the body weight gain, blood glucose and HbA1c levels, whereas CAG in combination with BIO revealed greater glycemic improvement than CAG monotherapy. The treatment with CAG and /or BIO causes significant change in lipid profile and CK level while the treatment with CAG in combination with BIO showed better results as compared with CAG monotherapy. Furthermore, combination of biotin with CAG improved the pancreatic and cardiac damage when compared with other treated groups.

Keywords: canagliflozin, biotin, HbA1c, lipid profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
50 C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Athar Hussain Memon

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Objectives: We tried to determine the frequency of raised C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study of six months study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad from March 2013 to August 2013. All diabetic patients of ≥35 years age of either gender for >01 year duration visited at OPD were evaluated for C-reactive protein and their glycemic status by hemoglobin A1c. The data was analyzed in SPSS and the frequency and percentage were calculated. Results: During six month study period, total 100 diabetic patients were evaluated for C-reactive protein. The majority of patients were from urban areas 75/100 (75%). The mean ±SD for age of patients with diabetes mellitus was 51.63±7.82. The mean age ±SD of patient with raised CRP was 53±7.21. The mean ±SD for HbA1c in patients with raised CRP is 9.55±1.73. The mean random blood sugar level in patients with raised CRP was 247.42 ± 6.62. The majority of subjects were of 50-69 years of age group with female predominance (p=0.01) while the CRP was raised in 70 (70%) patients in relation to age (p=0.02) and gender (p=0.01), respectively. Both HbA1c and CRP were raised in 64.9% (p=0.04) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean ±SD of CRP was 5.8±1.21 while for male and female individuals with raised CRP was 3.52±1.22 and 5.7±1.63, respectively. Conclusions: The raised CRP was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes and metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
49 The Role of Serum Fructosamine as a Monitoring Tool in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Treatment in Vietnam

Authors: Truong H. Le, Ngoc M. To, Quang N. Tran, Luu T. Cao, Chi V. Le

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Introduction: In Vietnam, the current monitoring and treatment for ordinary diabetic patient mostly based on glucose monitoring with HbA1c test for every three months (recommended goal is HbA1c < 6.5%~7%). For diabetes in pregnant women or Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), glycemic control until the time of delivery is extremly important because it could reduce significantly medical implications for both the mother and the child. Besides, GDM requires continuos glucose monitoring at least every two weeks and therefore an alternative marker of glycemia for short-term control is considering a potential tool for the healthcare providers. There are published studies have indicated that the glycosylated serum protein is a better indicator than glycosylated hemoglobin in GDM monitoring. Based on the actual practice in Vietnam, this study was designed to evaluate the role of serum fructosamine as a monitoring tool in GDM treament and its correlations with fasting blood glucose (G0), 2-hour postprandial glucose (G2) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Methods: A cohort study on pregnant women diagnosed with GDM by the 75-gram oralglucose tolerance test was conducted at Endocrinology Department, Cho Ray hospital, Vietnam from June 2014 to March 2015. Cho Ray hospital is the final destination for GDM patient in the southern of Vietnam, the study population has many sources from other pronvinces and therefore researchers belive that this demographic characteristic can help to provide the study result as a reflection for the whole area. In this study, diabetic patients received a continuos glucose monitoring method which consists of bi-weekly on-site visit every 2 weeks with glycosylated serum protein test, fasting blood glucose test and 2-hour postprandial glucose test; HbA1c test for every 3 months; and nutritious consultance for daily diet program. The subjects still received routine treatment at the hospital, with tight follow-up from their healthcare providers. Researchers recorded bi-weekly health conditions, serum fructosamine level and delivery outcome from the pregnant women, using Stata 13 programme for the analysis. Results: A total of 500 pregnant women was enrolled and follow-up in this study. Serum fructosamine level was found to have a light correlation with G0 ( r=0.3458, p < 0.001) and HbA1c ( r=0.3544, p < 0.001), and moderately correlated with G2 ( r=0.4379, p < 0.001). During study timeline, the delivery outcome of 287 women were recorded with the average age of 38.5 ± 1.5 weeks, 9% of them have macrosomia, 2.8% have premature birth before week 35th and 9.8% have premature birth before week 37th; 64.8% of cesarean section and none of them have perinatal or neonatal mortality. The study provides a reference interval of serum fructosamine for GDM patient was 112.9 ± 20.7 μmol/dL. Conclusion: The present results suggests that serum fructosamine is as effective as HbA1c as a reflection of blood glucose control in GDM patient, with a positive result in delivery outcome (0% perinatal or neonatal mortality). The reference value of serum fructosamine measurement provided a potential monitoring utility in GDM treatment for hospitals in Vietnam. Healthcare providers in Cho Ray hospital is considering to conduct more studies to test this reference as a target value in their GDM treatment and monitoring.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, monitoring tool, serum fructosamine, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
48 [Keynote Talk]: Treatment Satisfaction and Safety of Sitagliptin versus Pioglitazone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled on Metformin Monotherapy

Authors: Shahnaz Haque, Anand Shukla, Sunita Singh, Anil Kem

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Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease affecting millions worldwide. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first line oral hypoglycemic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but due to progressive worsening of blood glucose control during the natural history of type 2 diabetes, combination therapy usually becomes necessary. Objective: This study was designed to assess the treatment satisfaction between Sitagliptin versus Pioglitazone added to Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We conducted a prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study in SIMS, Hapur, U.P. Eligible patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups having 25 patients in each group using tab Sitagliptin 100mg, tab Pioglitazone 30mg added to ongoing tab Metformin (500mg) therapy for 16 weeks. The follow-up visits were on weeks 4,12 and 16. Result: 16 weeks later, addition of Sitagliptin 100mg compared to that of Pioglitazone 30 mg to ongoing Metformin therapy provided similar glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) lowering efficacy in patients with T2DM with inadequate glycemic control on metformin monotherapy. Change in HbA1c in group1 was -0.656±0.21%(p<0.0001) whereas in group2 was -0.748±0.35%(p<0.0001). Hence decrease in HbA1c from baseline was more in group2. Both treatments were well tolerated with negligible risk of hypoglycaemia. Weight loss was observed with Sitagliptin in contrast to weight gain seen in Pioglitazone. Conclusion: In this study, Sitagliptin 100 mg along with metformin therapy in comparison to pioglitazone 30 mg plus metformin therapy was both effective, well-tolerated and improved glycemic control in both the groups. Addition of pioglitazone had cause oedema and weight gain to the patients whereas sitagliptin caused weight loss in its patients.

Keywords: sitagliptin, pioglitazone, metformin, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
47 Efficacy of Insulin Pump Therapy on Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction and Glycemic Control among Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: A Prospective Study

Authors: Ayman A. Al Hayek, Asirvatham A. Robert, Mohamed A. Al Dawish, Rim B. Braham, Hanouf S. Goudeh, Fahad S. Al Sabaan

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Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of insulin pump therapy on diabetes treatment satisfaction and glycemic control among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A 6-month, prospective study was conducted among 47 patients (aged17–24 years) with T1DM who attended the Insulin Pump Clinic at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2014 and November 2014. The respondents were purposively and conveniently selected and were interviewed using the Arabic version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Demographics and clinical variables including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were also collected. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age of the study cohort was 19.1 ± 1.93 years. Seventeen patients were male (36.2%) and 30 were female (63.8%). Compared to baseline, significant positive differences were found in treatment satisfaction among female patients and patients with long-standing T1DM at 6 months. Frequency of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia declined significantly in female patient’s at 6 months and in patients who had a shorter duration of T1DM. Furthermore, significant positive differences were found in HbA1c levels among female patients and among those who had a shorter duration of T1DM compared to baseline. Both female and male patients and those with a shorter duration of T1DM showed significant decline in insulin necessity at6months when compared to baseline. Conclusion: Although multiple daily injections is a feasible preference for insulin supply, insulin pumps should also be considered for patients with T1DM as it appears to increase patients’ treatment satisfaction, decrease the frequency of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and reduce HbA1c levels.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, insulin pump, Saudi Arabia, T1DM

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
46 Total Plaque Area in Chronic Renal Failure

Authors: Hernán A. Perez, Luis J. Armando, Néstor H. García

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Background and aims Cardiovascular disease rates are very high in patients with renal failure (CRF), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not explain the increased risk, and observational studies have observed paradoxical or absent associations between classical risk factors and mortality in dialysis patients. A large randomized controlled trial, the 4D Study, the AURORA and the ALERT study found that statin therapy in CRF do not reduce cardiovascular events. These results may be the results of ‘accelerated atherosclerosis’ observed on these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate if carotid total plaque area (TPA), a measure of carotid plaque burden growth is increased at progressively lower creatinine clearance in patients with CRF. We studied a cohort of patients with CRF not on dialysis, reasoning that risk factor associations might be more easily discerned before end stage renal disease. Methods: The Blossom DMO Argentina ethics committee approved the study and informed consent from each participant was obtained. We performed a cohort study in 412 patients with Stage 1, 2 and 3 CRF. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained. TPA was determined using bilateral carotid ultrasonography. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimation formula was used to determine renal function. ANOVA was used when appropriate. Results: Stage 1 CRF group (n= 16, 43±2yo) had a blood pressure of 123±2/78±2 mmHg, BMI 30±1, LDL col 145±10 mg/dl, HbA1c 5.8±0.4% and had the lowest TPA 25.8±6.9 mm2. Stage 2 CRF (n=231, 50±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 132±1/81±1 mmHg, LDL col 125±2 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 48±10mm2 ( p< 0.05 vs CRF stage 1) while Stage 3 CRF (n=165, 59±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 134±1/81±1, LDL col 125±3 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 71±6mm2 (p < 0.05 vs CRF stage 1 and 2). Conclusion: Our data indicate that TPA increases along the renal function deterioration, and it is not related with the LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels. We suggest that mechanisms other than the classics are responsible for the observed excess of cardiovascular disease in CKD patients and finally, determination of total plaque area should be used to measure effects of antiatherosclerotic therapy.

Keywords: hypertension, chronic renal failure, atherosclerosis, cholesterol

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
45 Effect of Nigella Sativa Seeds and Ajwa Date on Blood Glucose Level in Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Reham Algheshairy, Khaled Tayeb, Christopher Smith, Rebecca Gregg, Haruna Musa

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Background: Diabetes is a medical condition that refers to the pancreas’ inability to secrete sufficient insulin levels, a hormone responsible for controlling glucose levels in the body. Any surplus glucose in the blood stream is excreted through the urinary system. Insulin resistance in blood cells can also cause this condition despite the fact that the pancreas is producing the required amount of insulin A number of researchers claim that the prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia has reached epidemic proportions, although one study did observe one positive in the rise in the awareness of diabetes, possibly indicative of Saudi Arabia’s improving healthcare system. While a number of factors can cause diabetes, the ever-increasing incidence of the disease in Saudi Arabia has been blamed primarily on low levels of physical activity and high levels of obesity. Objectives: The project has two aims. The first aim of the project is to investigate the regulatory effects of consumption of Nigella seeds and Ajwah dates on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes. The second aim of the project is to investigate whether these dietary factors may have potentially beneficial effects in controlling the complications that associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This use a random-cross intervention trail of 75 Saudi male and female with type 2 diabetes in Al-Noor hospital in Makkah ( KSA) aged between 18 and 70 years were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 will consume 2g of Nigella Sativa seeds daily along with a modified diet for 12 weeks, group 2 will be given Ajwah dates daily with a modified diet for 12 weeks and group 3 will follow a modified diet for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, along with bloods for HbA1c, fasting blood sugar and at the end of 12 weeks. Results: This study found significant decrease in blood level (FBG & 2PPBG) and HbA1c in the groups with diet and Nigella seeds) compared to Ajwa date. However, there is no significant change were found in HbA1c, FBG and 2hrpp regarding Ajwa group. Conclusion: This study illustrated a significant improvement in some markers of glycaemia following 2 g of Ns and diet for 12 weeks. The dose of 2g/day of consumed Nigella seeds was found to be more effective in controlling BGL and HbA1c than control and Ajwa groups. This suggests that Nigella seeds and following a diet may have a potential effect (a role in controlling outcomes for type 2 diabetes and controlling the disease). Further research is needed on a large scale to determine the optimum dose and duration of Nigella and Ajwa in order to achieve the desired results.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Nigella seeds, Ajwa dates, fasting blood glucose, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
44 Effect of Scaling and Root Planing on Improvement of Glycemic Control in Periodontitis Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Shivalal Sharma, Sanjib K. Sharma, Madhab Lamsal

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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory changes three months after full-mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) in periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Forty-seven type 2 DM subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (TG), 25 subjects, received full-mouth scaling and root planning; control group (CG), 22 subjects, received no treatment. At baseline and at the end of three months, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values, fasting glucose, and clinical parameters like plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded in all the patients. Following SRP, the patients were enrolled in a monthly interval maintenance program for 3 months. Results: A statistically significant effect could be demonstrated for PI, GI, PPD, and CAL for the treatment group. HbA1c levels in the treatment group decreased significantly whereas the control group showed a slight but insignificant increase for these parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that non-surgical periodontal treatment (SRP) is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 DM patients and could be undertaken along with the standard measures for the diabetic patient care.

Keywords: periodontitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-surgical periodontal therapy, SRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
43 The Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Metabolic Control in Children

Authors: Areej Al-Khabbaz, Swapna Goerge, Majedah Abdul-Rasoul

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Introduction: The most prevalent periodontal disease among children is gingivitis, and it usually becomes more severe in adolescence. A number of intervention studies suggested that resolution of periodontal inflammation can improve metabolic control in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Aim: to assess the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on glycemic control of children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Method: Twenty-eight children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were recruited with established diagnosis diabetes for at least 1 year. Informed consent and child assent form were obtained from children and parents prior to enrolment. The dental examination for the participants was performed on the same week directly following their annual medical assessment. All patients had their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) test one week prior to their annual medical and dental visit and 3 months following non-surgical periodontal therapy. All patients received a comprehensive periodontal examination The periodontal assessment included clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, plaque score, plaque index and gingival index. All patients were referred for non-surgical periodontal therapy, which included oral hygiene instruction and motivation followed by supra-gingival and subg-ingival scaling using ultrasonic and hand instruments. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science software (SPSS, Chicago, USA), version 18. Statistical analysis of clinical findings was performed to detect differences between the two groups in term of periodontal findings and HbA1c%. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed in order to examine which factors were significant in multivariate analysis after adjusting for confounding between effects. The regression model used the dependent variable ‘Improved glycemic control’, and the independent variables entered in the model were plaque index, gingival index, bleeding %, plaque Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Result: A total of 28 children. The mean age of the participants was 13.3±1.92 years. The study participants were divided into two groups; Compliant group (received dental scaling) and non-complaints group (received oral hygiene instructions only). No statistical difference was found between compliant and non-compliant group in age, gender distribution, oral hygiene practice and the level of diabetes control. There was a significant difference between compliant and non-compliant group in term of improvement of HBa1c before and after periodontal therapy. Mean gingival index was the only significant variable associated with improved glycemic control level. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that non-surgical mechanical periodontal therapy can improve HbA1c% control. The result of this study confirmed that children with diabetes mellitus who are compliant to dental care and have routine professional scaling may have better metabolic control compared to diabetic children who are erratic with dental care.

Keywords: children, diabetes, metabolic control, periodontal therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
42 Spectrum and Prevalence of Candida Infection in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Authors: Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Lotfollah Davoodi, Zahra Kashi, Azam Moslemi, Mahdi Abastabar, Iman Haghani, Sabah Mayahi, Asoudeh A.

Abstract:

Introduction: In diabetic foot ulcers, if fungal agents such as Candida species penetrate into the cutaneous or depth of ulcer, can increase the degree of the wound and cause Candia infection and make it more difficult to heal. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 100 diabetic foot ulcer patients in 2020 in Sari, Iran. patient's data and wound grade were recorded in a questionnaire. Candida infection was diagnosed with direct microscopic examination and culture of samples. Colony-PCR molecular method was used for ITS region of DNA and then PCR-RFLP with Msp1 enzyme and using HWP1 specific gene to determine species of Candida agent. Results: Of 100 patients, the mean age 62.1 ± 10.8 years, 95% type 2 diabetes, 83%>10 years duration diabetes, 59% male, 66%> poor education level, 99% married, 52% rural, 95% neuropathic symptoms, 88% using antibiotics, 69%HbA1C >9%, and mean ulcer degree 2.6±1.05 were. Candida infection was seen in 13% of the deep tissue of the wound and 7% cutaneous around the wound. The predominant Candida isolated was C. parapsilosis (71.5%), C .albicans (14.3%). Fungal infections caused by mold fungi were not detected. There was a statistically significant relationship between yeast infection and gender, rural, HbA1C and ulcer degree. Conclusion: Mycological evaluations often are ignored. Candida parapsilosis is the most common infectious agent in these patients and may require specific treatment. Therefore, more attention of physicians to Candida infections particularly, early diagnosis and effective treatment can help faster recovery and prevent amputation.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, candida infection, risk factors, c. parapsilosis

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