Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: VTOL

13 Design of Electromagnetic Field of PMSG for VTOL Series-Hybrid UAV

Authors: Sooyoung Cho, In-Gun Kim, Hyun-Seok Hong, Dong-Woo Kang, Ju Lee


Series hybrid UAV(Unmanned aerial vehicle) that is proposed in this paper performs VTOL(Vertical take-off and landing) using the battery and generator, and it applies the series hybrid system with combination of the small engine and generator when cruising flight. This system can be described as the next-generation system that can dramatically increase the UAV flight times. Also, UAV systems require a large energy at the time of VTOL to be conducted for a short time. Therefore, this paper designs PMSG(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator) having a high specific power considering VTOL through the FEA.

Keywords: PMSG, VTOL, UAV, high specific power density

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12 VTOL-Fw Mode-Transitioning UAV Design and Analysis

Authors: Feri̇t Çakici, M. Kemal Leblebi̇ci̇oğlu


In this study, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with level flight, vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) and mode-transitioning capability is designed and analyzed. The platform design combines both multirotor and fixed-wing (FW) conventional airplane structures and control surfaces; therefore named as VTOL-FW. The aircraft is modeled using aerodynamical principles and linear models are constructed utilizing small perturbation theory for trim conditions. The proposed method of control includes implementation of multirotor and airplane mode controllers and design of an algorithm to transition between modes in achieving smooth switching maneuvers between VTOL and FW flight. Thus, VTOL-FW UAV’s flight characteristics are expected to be improved by enlarging operational flight envelope through enabling mode-transitioning, agile maneuvers and increasing survivability. Experiments conducted in simulation and real world environments shows that VTOL-FW UAV has both multirotor and airplane characteristics with extra benefits in an enlarged flight envelope.

Keywords: aircraft design, linear analysis, mode transitioning control, UAV

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11 Aerodynamic Design and Optimization of Vertical Take-Off and Landing Type Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Enes Gunaltili, Burak Dam


The airplane history started with the Wright brothers' aircraft and improved day by day. With the help of this advancements, big aircrafts replace with small and unmanned air vehicles, so in this study we design this type of air vehicles. First of all, aircrafts mainly divided into two main parts in our day as a rotary and fixed wing aircrafts. The fixed wing aircraft generally use for transport, cargo, military and etc. The rotary wing aircrafts use for same area but there are some superiorities from each other. The rotary wing aircraft can take off vertically from the ground, and it can use restricted area. On the other hand, rotary wing aircrafts generally can fly lower range than fixed wing aircraft. There are one kind of aircraft consist of this two types specifications. It is named as VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) type aircraft. VTOLs are able to takeoff and land vertically and fly horizontally. The VTOL aircrafts generally can fly higher range from the rotary wings but can fly lower range from the fixed wing aircraft but it gives beneficial range between them. There are many other advantages of VTOL aircraft from the rotary and fixed wing aircraft. Because of that, VTOLs began to use for generally military, cargo, search, rescue and mapping areas. Within this framework, this study answers the question that how can we design VTOL as a small unmanned aircraft systems for search and rescue application for benefiting the advantages of fixed wing and rotary wing aircrafts by eliminating the disadvantages of them. To answer that question and design VTOL aircraft, multidisciplinary design optimizations (MDO), some theoretical terminologies, formulations, simulations and modelling systems based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is used in same time as design methodology to determine design parameters and steps. As a conclusion, based on tests and simulations depend on design steps, suggestions on how the VTOL aircraft designed and advantages, disadvantages, and observations for design parameters are listed, then VTOL is designed and presented with the design parameters, advantages, and usage areas.

Keywords: airplane, rotary, fixed, VTOL, CFD

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10 Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Vertical Take-Off and Landing Mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Configuration

Authors: Amir Abdelqodus, Mario Shehata


The purpose of the paper is to model and evaluate the aerodynamic coefficients and stability derivatives of a Vertical, Take-off and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle configuration (VTOL UAV), which is a fixed wing UAV and a quad-copter hybrid capable of both vertical and conventional take-off and/or landing. The aerodynamic analysis of this configuration was carried out using CFD commercial package Ansys Fluent. Also, the aerodynamic coefficients for the case of the UAV without the quad-copter is carried out analytically using MATLAB programmed codes, and the resulting data is verified using Lifting Line Theory and potential method programs. The two results are then compared to understand the effect of adding the quad-copter on the aerodynamic performance of the UAV.

Keywords: aerodynamics, CFD, potential flow, UAV, VTOL

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9 Geographical Information System-Based Approach for Vertical Takeoff and Landing Takeoff and Landing Site Selection

Authors: Chamnan Kumsap, Somsarit Sinnung, Suriyawate Boonthalarath, Teeranai Srithamarong


This research paper addresses the GIS analysis approach to the investigation of suitable sites for a vertical takeoff and landing drone. The study manipulated GIS and terrain layers into a proper input before the spatial analysis that included slope, reclassify, classify, and buffer was applied to the individual layers. The output layers were weighted, and multi-criteria analyzed before those patches failing to comply with filtering out criteria were discarded. Field survey for each suitable candidate site was conducted to cross-check the proposed approach with the real world. Conclusion was extracted for the VTOL takeoff and landing sites, and discussion was provided with further study being suggested on the mission simulation of selected takeoff and landing sites.

Keywords: GIS approach, site selection, VTOL, takeoff and landing

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8 Structural and Modal Analyses of an s1223 High-Lift Airfoil Wing for Drone Design

Authors: Johnson Okoduwa Imumbhon, Mohammad Didarul Alam, Yiding Cao


Structural analyses are commonly employed to test the integrity of aircraft component systems in the design stage to demonstrate the capability of the structural components to withstand what it was designed for, as well as to predict potential failure of the components. The analyses are also essential for weight minimization and selecting the most resilient materials that will provide optimal outcomes. This research focuses on testing the structural nature of a high-lift low Reynolds number airfoil profile design, the Selig S1223, under certain loading conditions for a drone model application. The wing (ribs, spars, and skin) of the drone model was made of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer and designed in SolidWorks, while the finite element analysis was carried out in ANSYS mechanical in conjunction with the lift and drag forces that were derived from the aerodynamic airfoil analysis. Additionally, modal analysis was performed to calculate the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the wing structure. The structural strain and stress determined the minimal deformations under the wing loading conditions, and the modal analysis showed the prominent modes that were excited by the given forces. The research findings from the structural analysis of the S1223 high-lift airfoil indicated that it is applicable for use in an unmanned aerial vehicle as well as a novel reciprocating-airfoil-driven vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) drone model.

Keywords: CFRP, finite element analysis, high-lift, S1223, strain, stress, VTOL

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7 PID Control of Quad-Rotor Unnamed Vehicle Based on Lagrange Approach Modelling

Authors: A. Benbouali, H. Saidi, A. Derrouazin, T. Bessaad


Aerial robotics is a very exciting research field dealing with a variety of subjects, including the attitude control. This paper deals with the control of a four rotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The paper presents a mathematical model based on the approach of Lagrange for the flight control of an autonomous quad-rotor. It also describes the controller architecture which is based on PID regulators. The control method has been simulated in closed loop in different situations. All the calculation stages and the simulation results have been detailed.

Keywords: quad-rotor, lagrange approach, proportional integral derivate (PID) controller, Matlab/Simulink

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6 Landing Performance Improvement Using Genetic Algorithm for Electric Vertical Take Off and Landing Aircrafts

Authors: Willian C. De Brito, Hernan D. C. Munoz, Erlan V. C. Carvalho, Helder L. C. De Oliveira


In order to improve commute time for small distance trips and relieve large cities traffic, a new transport category has been the subject of research and new designs worldwide. The air taxi travel market promises to change the way people live and commute by using the concept of vehicles with the ability to take-off and land vertically and to provide passenger’s transport equivalent to a car, with mobility within large cities and between cities. Today’s civil air transport remains costly and accounts for 2% of the man-made CO₂ emissions. Taking advantage of this scenario, many companies have developed their own Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL) design, seeking to meet comfort, safety, low cost and flight time requirements in a sustainable way. Thus, the use of green power supplies, especially batteries, and fully electric power plants is the most common choice for these arising aircrafts. However, it is still a challenge finding a feasible way to handle with the use of batteries rather than conventional petroleum-based fuels. The batteries are heavy and have an energy density still below from those of gasoline, diesel or kerosene. Therefore, despite all the clear advantages, all electric aircrafts (AEA) still have low flight autonomy and high operational cost, since the batteries must be recharged or replaced. In this sense, this paper addresses a way to optimize the energy consumption in a typical mission of an aerial taxi aircraft. The approach and landing procedure was chosen to be the subject of an optimization genetic algorithm, while final programming can be adapted for take-off and flight level changes as well. A real tilt rotor aircraft with fully electric power plant data was used to fit the derived dynamic equations of motion. Although a tilt rotor design is used as a proof of concept, it is possible to change the optimization to be applied for other design concepts, even those with independent motors for hover and cruise flight phases. For a given trajectory, the best set of control variables are calculated to provide the time history response for aircraft´s attitude, rotors RPM and thrust direction (or vertical and horizontal thrust, for independent motors designs) that, if followed, results in the minimum electric power consumption through that landing path. Safety, comfort and design constraints are assumed to give representativeness to the solution. Results are highly dependent on these constraints. For the tested cases, performance improvement ranged from 5 to 10% changing initial airspeed, altitude, flight path angle, and attitude.

Keywords: air taxi travel, all electric aircraft, batteries, energy consumption, genetic algorithm, landing performance, optimization, performance improvement, tilt rotor, VTOL design

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5 Modeling and Optimal Control of Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Wind Disturbance

Authors: Sunsoo Kim, Niladri Das, Raktim Bhattacharya


This paper addresses modeling and control of a six-degree-of-freedom unmanned aerial vehicle capable of vertical take-off and landing in the presence of wind disturbances. We design a hybrid vehicle that combines the benefits of both the fixed-wing and the rotary-wing UAVs. A non-linear model for the hybrid vehicle is rapidly built, combining rigid body dynamics, aerodynamics of wing, and dynamics of the motor and propeller. Further, we design a H₂ optimal controller to make the UAV robust to wind disturbances. We compare its results against that of proportional-integral-derivative and linear-quadratic regulator based control. Our proposed controller results in better performance in terms of root mean squared errors and time responses during two scenarios: hover and level- flight.

Keywords: hybrid UAVs, VTOL, aircraft modeling, H2 optimal control, wind disturbances

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4 Rotorcraft Performance and Environmental Impact Evaluation by Multidisciplinary Modelling

Authors: Pierre-Marie Basset, Gabriel Reboul, Binh DangVu, Sébastien Mercier


Rotorcraft provides invaluable services thanks to their Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL), hover and low speed capabilities. Yet their use is still often limited by their cost and environmental impact, especially noise and energy consumption. One of the main brakes to the expansion of the use of rotorcraft for urban missions is the environmental impact. The first main concern for the population is the noise. In order to develop the transversal competency to assess the rotorcraft environmental footprint, a collaboration has been launched between six research departments within ONERA. The progress in terms of models and methods are capitalized into the numerical workshop C.R.E.A.T.I.O.N. “Concepts of Rotorcraft Enhanced Assessment Through Integrated Optimization Network”. A typical mission for which the environmental impact issue is of great relevance has been defined. The first milestone is to perform the pre-sizing of a reference helicopter for this mission. In a second milestone, an alternate rotorcraft concept has been defined: a tandem rotorcraft with optional propulsion. The key design trends are given for the pre-sizing of this rotorcraft aiming at a significant reduction of the global environmental impact while still giving equivalent flight performance and safety with respect to the reference helicopter. The models and methods have been improved for catching sooner and more globally, the relative variations on the environmental impact when changing the rotorcraft architecture, the pre-design variables and the operation parameters.

Keywords: environmental impact, flight performance, helicopter, multi objectives multidisciplinary optimization, rotorcraft

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3 Brain-Computer Interface Based Real-Time Control of Fixed Wing and Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Ravi Vishwanath, Saumya Kumaar, S. N. Omkar


Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) is a technology that is almost four decades old, and it was developed solely for the purpose of developing and enhancing the impact of neuroprosthetics. However, in the recent times, with the commercialization of non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) headsets, the technology has seen a wide variety of applications like home automation, wheelchair control, vehicle steering, etc. One of the latest developed applications is the mind-controlled quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. These applications, however, do not require a very high-speed response and give satisfactory results when standard classification methods like Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLPC). Issues are faced when there is a requirement for high-speed control in the case of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles where such methods are rendered unreliable due to the low speed of classification. Such an application requires the system to classify data at high speeds in order to retain the controllability of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method of classification which uses a combination of Common Spatial Paradigm and Linear Discriminant Analysis that provides an improved classification accuracy in real time. A non-linear SVM based classification technique has also been discussed. Further, this paper discusses the implementation of the proposed method on a fixed-wing and VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, classification, machine learning, unmanned aerial vehicles

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2 Unmanned Aerial System Development for the Remote Reflectance Sensing Using Above-Water Radiometers

Authors: Sunghun Jung, Wonkook Kim


Due to the difficulty of the utilization of satellite and an aircraft, conventional ocean color remote sensing has a disadvantage in that it is difficult to obtain images of desired places at desired times. These disadvantages make it difficult to capture the anomalies such as the occurrence of the red tide which requires immediate observation. It is also difficult to understand the phenomena such as the resuspension-precipitation process of suspended solids and the spread of low-salinity water originating in the coastal areas. For the remote sensing reflectance of seawater, above-water radiometers (AWR) have been used either by carrying portable AWRs on a ship or installing those at fixed observation points on the Ieodo ocean research station, Socheongcho base, and etc. In particular, however, it requires the high cost to measure the remote reflectance in various seawater environments at various times and it is even not possible to measure it at the desired frequency in the desired sea area at the desired time. Also, in case of the stationary observation, it is advantageous that observation data is continuously obtained, but there is the disadvantage that data of various sea areas cannot be obtained. It is possible to instantly capture various marine phenomena occurring on the coast using the unmanned aerial system (UAS) including vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) type unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) since it could move and hover at the one location and acquire data of the desired form at a high resolution. To remotely estimate seawater constituents, it is necessary to install an ultra-spectral sensor. Also, to calculate reflected light from the surface of the sea in consideration of the sun’s incident light, a total of three sensors need to be installed on the UAV. The remote sensing reflectance of seawater is the most basic optical property for remotely estimating color components in seawater and we could remotely estimate the chlorophyll concentration, the suspended solids concentration, and the dissolved organic amount. Estimating seawater physics from the remote sensing reflectance requires the algorithm development using the accumulation data of seawater reflectivity under various seawater and atmospheric conditions. The UAS with three AWRs is developed for the remote reflection sensing on the surface of the sea. Throughout the paper, we explain the details of each UAS component, system operation scenarios, and simulation and experiment results. The UAS consists of a UAV, a solar tracker, a transmitter, a ground control station (GCS), three AWRs, and two gimbals.

Keywords: above-water radiometers (AWR), ground control station (GCS), unmanned aerial system (UAS), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

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1 Lifting Body Concepts for Unmanned Fixed-Wing Transport Aircrafts

Authors: Anand R. Nair, Markus Trenker


Lifting body concepts were conceived as early as 1917 and patented by Roy Scroggs. It was an idea of using the fuselage as a lift producing body with no or small wings. Many of these designs were developed and even flight tested between 1920’s to 1970’s, but it was not pursued further for commercial flight as at lower airspeeds, such a configuration was incapable to produce sufficient lift for the entire aircraft. The concept presented in this contribution is combining the lifting body design along with a fixed wing to maximise the lift produced by the aircraft. Conventional aircraft fuselages are designed to be aerodynamically efficient, which is to minimise the drag; however, these fuselages produce very minimal or negligible lift. For the design of an unmanned fixed wing transport aircraft, many of the restrictions which are present for commercial aircraft in terms of fuselage design can be excluded, such as windows for the passengers/pilots, cabin-environment systems, emergency exits, and pressurization systems. This gives new flexibility to design fuselages which are unconventionally shaped to contribute to the lift of the aircraft. The two lifting body concepts presented in this contribution are targeting different applications: For a fast cargo delivery drone, the fuselage is based on a scaled airfoil shape with a cargo capacity of 500 kg for euro pallets. The aircraft has a span of 14 m and reaches 1500 km at a cruising speed of 90 m/s. The aircraft could also easily be adapted to accommodate pilot and passengers with modifications to the internal structures, but pressurization is not included as the service ceiling envisioned for this type of aircraft is limited to 10,000 ft. The next concept to be investigated is called a multi-purpose drone, which incorporates a different type of lifting body and is a much more versatile aircraft as it will have a VTOL capability. The aircraft will have a wingspan of approximately 6 m and flight speeds of 60 m/s within the same service ceiling as the fast cargo delivery drone. The multi-purpose drone can be easily adapted for various applications such as firefighting, agricultural purposes, surveillance, and even passenger transport. Lifting body designs are not a new concept, but their effectiveness in terms of cargo transportation has not been widely investigated. Due to their enhanced lift producing capability, lifting body designs enable the reduction of the wing area and the overall weight of the aircraft. This will, in turn, reduce the thrust requirement and ultimately the fuel consumption. The various designs proposed in this contribution will be based on the general aviation category of aircrafts and will be focussed on unmanned methods of operation. These unmanned fixed-wing transport drones will feature appropriate cargo loading/unloading concepts which can accommodate large size cargo for efficient time management and ease of operation. The various designs will be compared in performance to their conventional counterpart to understand their benefits/shortcomings in terms of design, performance, complexity, and ease of operation. The majority of the performance analysis will be carried out using industry relevant standards in computational fluid dynamics software packages.

Keywords: lifting body concept, computational fluid dynamics, unmanned fixed-wing aircraft, cargo drone

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