Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 258

Search results for: REFERENCES [1] Xia

258 Cleaning of Scientific References in Large Patent Databases Using Rule-Based Scoring and Clustering

Authors: Emiel Caron

Abstract:

Patent databases contain patent related data, organized in a relational data model, and are used to produce various patent statistics. These databases store raw data about scientific references cited by patents. For example, Patstat holds references to tens of millions of scientific journal publications and conference proceedings. These references might be used to connect patent databases with bibliographic databases, e.g. to study to the relation between science, technology, and innovation in various domains. Problematic in such studies is the low data quality of the references, i.e. they are often ambiguous, unstructured, and incomplete. Moreover, a complete bibliographic reference is stored in only one attribute. Therefore, a computerized cleaning and disambiguation method for large patent databases is developed in this work. The method uses rule-based scoring and clustering. The rules are based on bibliographic metadata, retrieved from the raw data by regular expressions, and are transparent and adaptable. The rules in combination with string similarity measures are used to detect pairs of records that are potential duplicates. Due to the scoring, different rules can be combined, to join scientific references, i.e. the rules reinforce each other. The scores are based on expert knowledge and initial method evaluation. After the scoring, pairs of scientific references that are above a certain threshold, are clustered by means of single-linkage clustering algorithm to form connected components. The method is designed to disambiguate all the scientific references in the Patstat database. The performance evaluation of the clustering method, on a large golden set with highly cited papers, shows on average a 99% precision and a 95% recall. The method is therefore accurate but careful, i.e. it weighs precision over recall. Consequently, separate clusters of high precision are sometimes formed, when there is not enough evidence for connecting scientific references, e.g. in the case of missing year and journal information for a reference. The clusters produced by the method can be used to directly link the Patstat database with bibliographic databases as the Web of Science or Scopus.

Keywords: clustering, data cleaning, data disambiguation, data mining, patent analysis, scientometrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
257 Translation of Culture-Specific References in the Turkish Translation of Shakespeare's Macbeth

Authors: Feride Sumbul

Abstract:

Drama is a literary genre that mirrors the people and society and transfers the human nature and life to the reader or the audience within its own social-cultural structure. Each play takes on a new reality in the time and culture of the staging, and each performance actually brings a new interpretation to the play. Similarly, each translation adds a new meaning to the source text. In other words, the translated theatrical text transcends the boundaries of its language and culture and finds a new interpretation. Thus the translation of drama takes place as a transfer from one culture to another as a cross cultural communication. In this context, translating culture specific references play a key role in terms of reflecting cultural aspects of a target society. This study aims to explore the use of Venuti's translation principles of domestication and foreignization in the transfer of culture specific references in the Turkish translation of Shakespeare's Macbeth. Macbeth is to be compared with its Turkish version in terms of the transference of culture specific references such as religious, witchcraft, and mythological, which have no equivalent in the target language and culture. To evaluate these principles of Venuti, Davies’s translation strategies are also conducted. As a method, for the most part, he predominantly uses Davies’ method of ‘addition’ through adding extra information in the notes. For instance, rather than finding the Turkish renderings of them, the translator mostly chooses to transfer witchcraft references through retaining them in the target text, but he mainly adds extra information about the references in the notes. Therefore, the translator Nutku mostly uses Venuti’s translation principle of foreignization so that he preserves the foreignness of the theatrical text.

Keywords: drama translation, theatrical texts, culture specific references, Macbeth

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
256 Cultural References in Jean-François Menard's French Translation of Harry Potter a L'ecole Des Sorciers: An Analysis of the Translated Catchphrases and Spells and Cultural Elements

Authors: Brynn Patrice Fader

Abstract:

The objective of this research project is to assess the ways in which Jean-Francois Menards French translation Harry Potter a l'ecole des sorciers translates the cultural references from the original text JK Rowlings' Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone. The method of this analysis is to focus on analyzing the reasons for and the ways in which Menard translates the spells and catchphrases throughout the novel and the effects that these choices have on the reader. While at times Menard resorts to the omission or manipulation and borrowing he also contrasts these techniques by transferring the cultural references using the direct translational approach. It appears that the translator resorts to techniques other than direct translation when it is necessary to ensure that the target audience will understand the events and conversations taking place.

Keywords: cultural elements, direct translation, manipulation, omission

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
255 Managing the Magnetic Protection of Workers in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Safoin Aktaou, Aya Al Masri, Kamel Guerchouche, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul

Abstract:

Introduction: In the ‘Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)’ department, all workers involved in preparing the patient, setting it up, tunnel cleaning, etc. are likely to be exposed to ‘ElectroMagnetic fields (EMF)’ emitted by the MRI device. Exposure to EMF can cause adverse radio-biological effects to workers. The purpose of this study is to propose an organizational process to manage and control EMF risks. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at seven MRI departments using machines with 1.5 and 3 Tesla magnetic fields. We assessed the exposure of each one by measuring the two electromagnetic fields (static and dynamic) at different distances from the MRI machine both inside and around the examination room. Measurement values were compared with British and American references (those of the UK's ‘Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (MHRA)’ and the ‘American Radiology Society (ACR)’). Results: Following the results of EMF measurements and their comparison with the recommendations of learned societies, a zoning system that adapts to needs of different MRI services across the country has been proposed. In effect, three risk areas have been identified within the MRI services. This has led to the development of a good practice guide related to the magnetic protection of MRI workers. Conclusion: The guide established by our study is a standard that allows MRI workers to protect themselves against the risk of electromagnetic fields.

Keywords: comparison with international references, measurement of electromagnetic fields, magnetic protection of workers, magnetic resonance imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
254 Comparison of Sourcing Process in Supply Chain Operation References Model and Business Information Systems

Authors: Batuhan Kocaoglu

Abstract:

Although using powerful systems like ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), companies still cannot benchmark their processes and measure their process performance easily based on predefined SCOR (Supply Chain Operation References) terms. The purpose of this research is to identify common and corresponding processes to present a conceptual model to model and measure the purchasing process of an organization. The main steps for the research study are: Literature review related to 'procure to pay' process in ERP system; Literature review related to 'sourcing' process in SCOR model; To develop a conceptual model integrating 'sourcing' of SCOR model and 'procure to pay' of ERP model. In this study, we examined the similarities and differences between these two models. The proposed framework is based on the assumptions that are drawn from (1) the body of literature, (2) the authors’ experience by working in the field of enterprise and logistics information systems. The modeling framework provides a structured and systematic way to model and decompose necessary information from conceptual representation to process element specification. This conceptual model will help the organizations to make quality purchasing system measurement instruments and tools. And offered adaptation issues for ERP systems and SCOR model will provide a more benchmarkable and worldwide standard business process.

Keywords: SCOR, ERP, procure to pay, sourcing, reference model

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
253 Glimpses into the History of Makkah in the Light of Archaeological Finds

Authors: Heba Aboul-Enein

Abstract:

The blessed Mecca (Makkah) has been attacked as a city without a pre-Islamic history. Many claims have been posited denying the historicity of this holy city, and mythicizing Arabic historical records. Hence, the current paper attempted to shed light on this controversial history of Makkah. To achieve the intended objective, the study recoursed to archaeological, historical, and linguistic evidence, to prove that the holy city existed since the dawn of human history. The data under study include the results of recent excavations; archaeological surveys in Saudi Arabia, academic works of archaeologists, newspaper reports of the latest archaeological discoveries, and the findings of Saudi explorers. In addition, the study examined ancient and contemporary references; western accounts of Makkah, the bible, Jewish, Christian, Islamic, and Arabic references, in an effort to reconcile these texts with the archeological findings. The paper also reviewed the latest results of aerial archeology of the region. The study proved based on archaeological finds, and contrary to fallacious claims, that Makkah is an ancient city that existed and was inhabited by humans in varied historical eras.

Keywords: aerial archaeology, archaeological finds in the Makkan region, archaeological surveys, Western, Jewish and Islamic accounts of Makkah

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
252 Machine Translation Analysis of Chinese Dish Names

Authors: Xinyu Zhang, Olga Torres-Hostench

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative study evaluating and comparing the quality of machine translation (MT) output of Chinese gastronomy nomenclature. Chinese gastronomic culture is experiencing an increased international acknowledgment nowadays. The nomenclature of Chinese gastronomy not only reflects a specific aspect of culture, but it is related to other areas of society such as philosophy, traditional medicine, etc. Chinese dish names are composed of several types of cultural references, such as ingredients, colors, flavors, culinary techniques, cooking utensils, toponyms, anthroponyms, metaphors, historical tales, among others. These cultural references act as one of the biggest difficulties in translation, in which the use of translation techniques is usually required. Regarding the lack of Chinese food-related translation studies, especially in Chinese-Spanish translation, and the current massive use of MT, the quality of the MT output of Chinese dish names is questioned. Fifty Chinese dish names with different types of cultural components were selected in order to complete this study. First, all of these dish names were translated by three different MT tools (Google Translate, Baidu Translate and Bing Translator). Second, a questionnaire was designed and completed by 12 Chinese online users (Chinese graduates of a Hispanic Philology major) in order to find out user preferences regarding the collected MT output. Finally, human translation techniques were observed and analyzed to identify what translation techniques would be observed more often in the preferred MT proposals. The result reveals that the MT output of the Chinese gastronomy nomenclature is not of high quality. It would be recommended not to trust the MT in occasions like restaurant menus, TV culinary shows, etc. However, the MT output could be used as an aid for tourists to have a general idea of a dish (the main ingredients, for example). Literal translation turned out to be the most observed technique, followed by borrowing, generalization and adaptation, while amplification, particularization and transposition were infrequently observed. Possibly because that the MT engines at present are limited to relate equivalent terms and offer literal translations without taking into account the whole context meaning of the dish name, which is essential to the application of those less observed techniques. This could give insight into the post-editing of the Chinese dish name translation. By observing and analyzing translation techniques in the proposals of the machine translators, the post-editors could better decide which techniques to apply in each case so as to correct mistakes and improve the quality of the translation.

Keywords: Chinese dish names, cultural references, machine translation, translation techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
251 Water and Beverage Consumption among Children and Adolescents in Tehran Metropolitan City of Iran

Authors: Mitra Abtahi, Esmat Nasseri, Morteza Abodllahi

Abstract:

Introduction: Adequate hydration is necessary for proper physical and mental function. The aim of this study is to determine the consumption of water and all other beverages in children (8-13 years) and adolescents (14-17 years) in Tehran metropolitan city of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 455 children (8-13 years) and 334 adolescents (14-17 years) were retrieved from north, center, and south of Tehran (18 schools). Instrument for data collection consisted of a “demographic and general health” questionnaire and a “7-day fluid record”. Data analyses were performed with SPSS 16 software. Results: The mean total consumption of fluids in school children was 1302 ± 500.6 ml/day. The highest mean intakes were observed for water (666 ± 398 ml/day), followed by milk (239 ± 183 ml/day), regular soft beverages (RSB) (188 ± 148 ml/day), and juices (60 ± 74 ml/day). Water, hot drinks (mainly tea) and soft drinks intake was significantly more in boys than girls. A significantly lower intake of milk and a higher intake of RSB and hot beverages (mainly tea) have been seen among adolescents compared to children. Conclusion: The most important finding is that mean fluid intake of children and adolescents does not meet international adequate intake references for water and fluids. This finding may suggest the necessity of development of the local references. To improve fluid intake habits of children and adolescents, relevant policy making and actions are warranted.

Keywords: adolescents, beverages, children, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
250 The Control of Type 2 Diabetes with Specific References to Dietary Factors

Authors: Reham Algheshairy

Abstract:

The purpose of this research study is to identify the beneficial effects of Nigella sativa seeds, cherries and Ajwah dates on blood glucose levels among people with type 2 diabetes in the KSA population and healthy people in the UK. My hypothesis questions whether or not people with type 2 diabetes can lead a healthier life using these dietary supplements.

Keywords: diabetes type 2, cherry, nigella seeds, Ajwa date

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
249 The Audiovisual Media as a Metacritical Ludicity Gesture in the Musical-Performatic and Scenic Works of Caetano Veloso and David Bowie

Authors: Paulo Da Silva Quadros

Abstract:

This work aims to point out comparative parameters between the artistic production of two exponents of the contemporary popular culture scene: Caetano Veloso (Brazil) and David Bowie (England). Both Caetano Veloso and David Bowie were pioneers in establishing an aesthetic game between various artistic expressions at the service of the music-visual scene, that is, the conceptual interconnections between several forms of aesthetic processes, such as fine arts, theatre, cinema, poetry, and literature. There are also correlations in their expressive attitudes of art, especially regarding the dialogue between the fields of art and politics (concern with respect to human rights, human dignity, racial issues, tolerance, gender issues, and sexuality, among others); the constant tension and cunning game between market, free expression and critical sense; the sophisticated, playful mechanisms of metalanguage and aesthetic metacritique. Fact is that both of them almost came to cooperate with each other in the 1970s when Caetano was in exile in England, and when both had at the same time the same music producer, who tried to bring them closer, noticing similar aesthetic qualities in both artistic works, which was later glimpsed by some music critics. Among many of the most influential issues in Caetano's and Bowie's game of artistic-aesthetic expression are, for example, the ideas advocated by the sensation of strangeness (Albert Camus), art as transcendence (Friedrich Nietzsche), the deconstruction and reconstruction of auratic reconfiguration of artistic signs (Walter Benjamin and Andy Warhol). For deepen more theoretical issues, the following authors will be used as supportive interpretative references: Hans-Georg Gadamer, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Schiller, Johan Huizinga. In addition to the aesthetic meanings of Ars Ludens characteristics of the two artists, the following supporting references will be also added: the question of technique (Martin Heidegger), the logic of sense (Gilles Deleuze), art as an event and the sense of the gesture of art ( Maria Teresa Cruz), the society of spectacle (Guy Debord), Verarbeitung and Durcharbeitung (Sigmund Freud), the poetics of interpretation and the sign of relation (Cremilda Medina). The purpose of such interpretative references is to seek to understand, from a cultural reading perspective (cultural semiology), some significant elements in the dynamics of aesthetic and media interconnections of both artists, which made them as some of the most influential interlocutors in contemporary music aesthetic thought, as a playful vivid experience of life and art.

Keywords: Caetano Veloso, David Bowie, music aesthetics, symbolic playfulness, cultural reading

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
248 Spatial Setting in Translation: A Comparative Evaluation of translations from Pre-Islamic Poetry

Authors: Raja Lahiani

Abstract:

This study is concerned with scrutinising translations into English and French of references to locations in the desert of pre-Islamic Arabia. These references are used in the Source Text (ST) within a poetic image. Reference is made to the names of three different mountains in Arabia, namely Qatan, Sitar, and Yadhbul. As these mountains are referred to in the context of the poet’s description of the density and expansion of the clouds, it is crucial to know that while Sitar and Yadhbul are close to each other, Qatan is far away from them. This distance was functional for the poet to describe the expansion of the clouds. This reflects the spacious place (desert) he handled, and the fact that it was possible for him to physically see what he described. The purpose of this image is for the poet to communicate the vastness of the space he managed to see as he was in a moment of contemplation. Thus, knowledge of this characteristic about the setting is capital for the receiver to understand the communicative function of the verse. A corpus of eighteen translations is gathered. These vary between verse and prose renderings. The methodology adopted in this research work is comparative. Comparison is conducted at both the synchronic and diachronic levels; every translation shall be compared to the ST and then to previous translations. The comparative work will prove at the end that the translators who target historical facts do not necessarily succeed in preserving the image of the ST. It also proves that the more recent the translation is, the deeper the translator’s awareness is the link between imagery, setting, and point of view. Since the late eighteenth century and until nowadays, pre-Islamic poetry has been translated into Western languages. Translators differ as to motives, sources, priorities and intellectual backgrounds. A translator's skopoi undoubtedly affect the way s/he handles aspects of the ST. When it comes to culture-specific aspects and details related to setting, the problem is even more complex. Setting is a very important factor that reveals a great deal of the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as this is remote in place, historical framework and literary tradition from its translators. History is present in pre-Islamic poetry, which justifies the important literature that has been written to extract information and data from it. These are imbedded not only by signalling given facts, events, and meditations but also by means of references to specific locations and landmarks that used to exist at the time. Spatial setting is an integral part of a literary text as it places it within its historical context. The importance of the translator’s awareness of spatial anthropological data before indulging in the process of translation is tested. This is also crucial in measuring the effect of setting loss and setting gain in translation. The findings of this research would ultimately evaluate the extent to which a comparative methodology is reliable in investigating the role of spatial setting awareness in translation.

Keywords: historical context, translation, comparative literature, spatial setting

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
247 Interlingual Melodious Constructions: Romanian Translation of References to Songs in James Joyce’s Ulysses

Authors: Andra-Iulia Ursa

Abstract:

James Joyce employs several unconventional stylistic features in this landmark novel meant to experiment with language. The episode known as “Sirens” is entirely conceived around music and linguistic structures subordinated to sound. However, the aspiration to the condition of music is reflected throughout this entire literary work, as musical effects are echoed systematically. The numerous melodies scattered across the narrative play an important role in enhancing the thoughts and feelings that pass through the minds of the characters. Often the lyrics are distorted or interweaved with other words, preoccupations or memories, intensifying the stylistic effect. The Victorian song “Love’s old sweet song” is one of the most commonly referred to and meaningful musical allusions in Ulysses, becoming a leitmotif of infidelity. The lyrics of the song “M’appari”, from the opera “Martha”, are compared to an event from Molly and Bloom’s romantic history. Moreover, repeated phrases using words from “The bloom is on the rye” or “The croppy boy” serve as glances into the minds of the characters. Therefore, the central purpose of this study is to shed light on the way musical allusions flit through the episodes from the point of view of the stream of consciousness technique and to compare and analyse how these constructions are rendered into Romanian. Mircea Ivănescu, the single Romanian translator who succeeded in carrying out the translation of the entire ‘stylistic odyssey’, received both praises and disapprovals from the critics. This paper is not meant to call forth eventual flaws of the Romanian translation, but rather to elaborate the complexity of the task. Following an attentive examination and analysis of the two texts, from the point of view of form and meaning of the references to various songs, the conclusions of this study will be able to point out the intricacies of the process of translation.

Keywords: Joyce, melodious constructions, stream of consciousness, style, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
246 Curbing Abuses of Legal Power in the Society

Authors: Tajudeen Ojo Ibraheem

Abstract:

In a world characterized by greed and the lust for power and its attendant trappings, abuse of legal power is nothing new to most of us. Legal abuses of power abound in all fields of human endeavour. Accounts of such abuses dominate the mass media and for the average individual, no single day goes by without his getting to hear about at least one such occurrence. This paper briefly looks at the meaning of legal power, what legal abuse is all about, its causes, and some of its manifestations in the society. Its consequences will also be discussed and some suggestions for reform will be made. In the course of the paper, references will be made to various jurisdictions around the world.

Keywords: abuse, legal, power, society

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
245 Rendering Religious References in English: Naguib Mahfouz in the Arabic as a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Shereen Yehia El Ezabi

Abstract:

The transition from the advanced to the superior level of Arabic proficiency is widely known to pose considerable challenges for English speaking students of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL). Apart from the increasing complexity of the grammar at this juncture, together with the sprawling vocabulary, to name but two of those challenges, there is also the somewhat less studied hurdle along the way to superior level proficiency, namely, the seeming opacity of many aspects of Arab/ic culture to such learners. This presentation tackles one specific dimension of such issues: religious references in literary texts. It illustrates how carefully constructed translation activities may be used to expand and deepen students’ understanding and use of them. This is shown to be vital for making the leap to the desired competency, given that such elements, as reflected in customs, traditions, institutions, worldviews, and formulaic expressions lie at the very core of Arabic culture and, as such, pervade all modes and levels of Arabic discourse. A short story from the collection “Stories from Our Alley”, by preeminent novelist Naguib Mahfouz is selected for use in this context, being particularly replete with such religious references, of which religious expressions will form the focus of the presentation. As a miniature literary work, it provides an organic whole, so to speak, within which to explore with the class the most precise denotation, as well as the subtlest connotation of each expression in an effort to reach the ‘best’ English rendering. The term ‘best’ refers to approximating the meaning in its full complexity from the source text, in this case Arabic, to the target text, English, according to the concept of equivalence in translation theory. The presentation will show how such a process generates the sort of thorough discussion and close text analysis which allows students to gain valuable insight into this central idiom of Arabic. A variety of translation methods will be highlighted, gleaned from the presenter’s extensive work with advanced/superior students in the Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA) program at the American University in Cairo. These begin with the literal rendering of expressions, with the purpose of reinforcing vocabulary learning and practicing the rules of derivational morphology as they form each word, since the larger context remains that of an AFL class, as opposed to a translation skills program. However, departures from the literal approach are subsequently explored by degrees, moving along the spectrum of functional and pragmatic freer translations in order to transmit the ‘real’ meaning in readable English to the target audience- no matter how culture/religion specific the expression- while remaining faithful to the original. Samples from students’ work pre and post discussion will be shared, demonstrating how class consensus is formed as to the final English rendering, proposed as the closest match to the Arabic, and shown to be the result of the above activities. Finally, a few examples of translation work which students have gone on to publish will be shared to corroborate the effectiveness of this teaching practice.

Keywords: superior level proficiency in Arabic as a foreign language, teaching Arabic as a foreign language, teaching idiomatic expressions, translation in foreign language teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
244 Examining the Dubbing Strategies Used in the Egyptian Dubbed Version of Mulan (1998)

Authors: Shaza Melies, Saadeya Salem, Seham Kareh

Abstract:

Cartoon films are multisemiotic as various modes integrate in the production of meaning. This study aims to examine the cultural and linguistic specific references in the Egyptian dubbed cartoon film Mulan. The study examines the translation strategies implemented in the Egyptian dubbed version of Mulan to meet the cultural preferences of the audience. The study reached the following findings: Using the traditional translation strategies does not deliver the intended meaning of the source text and causes loss in the intended humor. As a result, the findings showed that in the dubbed version, translators tend to omit, change, or add information to the target text to be accepted by the audience. The contrastive analysis of the Mulan (English and dubbed versions) proves the connotations that the dubbing has taken to be accepted by the target audience. Cartoon films are multisemiotic as various modes integrate in the production of meaning. This study aims to examine the cultural and linguistic specific references in the Egyptian dubbed cartoon film Mulan. The study examines the translation strategies implemented in the Egyptian dubbed version of Mulan to meet the cultural preferences of the audience. The study reached the following findings: Using the traditional translation strategies does not deliver the intended meaning of the source text and causes loss in the intended humor. As a result, the findings showed that in the dubbed version, translators tend to omit, change, or add information to the target text to be accepted by the audience. The contrastive analysis of the Mulan (English and dubbed versions) proves the connotations that the dubbing has taken to be accepted by the target audience.

Keywords: domestication, dubbing, Mulan, translation theories

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
243 Web-Content Analysis of the Major Spanish Tourist Destinations Evaluation by Russian Tourists

Authors: Natalia Polkanova, Sergey Kazakov

Abstract:

In the research, we proposed the set of factors of tourist destinations attractiveness in Spain and determined the factors that have the greatest impact on the positive perception of the tourist destination by Russian tourists; also, we examined what factors create the willingness for Russians to recommend this tourist destination to their friends and relatives. The tourists' comments on the Russian travel sites have been analyzed in order to determine the frequency of attractiveness characteristics references. Additionally, the study will reflect the relationship of variables.

Keywords: tourism destination, destination attractiveness, destination competitiveness, content analysis, unstructured image

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
242 Literature Review and Evaluation of the Internal Marketing Theory

Authors: Hsiao Hsun Yuan

Abstract:

Internal marketing was proposed in 1970s. The theory of the concept has continually changed over the past forty years. This study discussed the following themes: the definition and implication of internal marketing, the progress of its development, and the evolution of its theoretical model. Moreover, the study systematically organized the strategies of the internal marketing theory adopted on enterprise and how they were put into practice. It also compared the empirical studies focusing on how the existent theories influenced the important variables of internal marketing. The results of this study are expected to serve as references for future exploration of the boundary and studies aiming at how internal marketing is applied to different types of enterprises.

Keywords: corporate responsibility, employee organizational performance, internal marketing, internal customer

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
241 Analyzing Sun Valley Music Pavilion Idaho, USA, 2008 in Relation Flexibility and Adaptability

Authors: Ola Haj Saleh

Abstract:

This study of a contemporary building attempts to identify how a building can reflect its presence within its community. The example of the pavilion is discussed here with references to adaptability and flexibility theories. The analytical methodology of the Sun Valley Pavilion discovers to what extent a public space can be flexible and adaptable to several conditions. Furthermore, redefine an existing public building in an urban landscape context, becomes more than an important place for its community as a music pavilion for the arts, it is even for the interactivity wedding parties. Thus, the Sun Valley Pavilion can have an obvious role in a community gathering place in a result that flexibility and adaptability are more economical in the long term.

Keywords: adaptability, flexibility, pavilion, tensile

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
240 Different Receptions of Hygienic Architecture in Two Mexican Cities: Cuernavaca and Mexico

Authors: Marcela Dávalos López

Abstract:

In Mexico, the distribution of hygienistarchitecture during the 20th century had different rhythms. The culmination of the urban hygiene system (from sewers to showers, passing through garbage collection) forced neighbors and citizens to participate in the common welfare. This turned the urban references and dissociated the ways of living and led to comfort and health. However, the contrast between two Mexicancities, Cuernavaca and Mexico City shows us very different cultural practices regarding the use of hygienicarchitectures: in the first, thenature of its deepravines marked the destiny of residential architecture, while in Mexico City, state participation alteredthelandscape and homogenized the architectural models of domestic and intímate spaces.

Keywords: Cultural Practices, Dissociated Ways To Comfort, Hygiene Architecture , Mexico

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
239 Non-Universality in Barkhausen Noise Signatures of Thin Iron Films

Authors: Arnab Roy, P. S. Anil Kumar

Abstract:

We discuss angle dependent changes to the Barkhausen noise signatures of thin epitaxial Fe films upon altering the angle of the applied field. We observe a sub-critical to critical phase transition in the hysteresis loop of the sample upon increasing the out-of-plane component of the applied field. The observations are discussed in the light of simulations of a 2D Gaussian Random Field Ising Model with references to a reducible form of the Random Anisotropy Ising Model.

Keywords: Barkhausen noise, Planar Hall effect, Random Field Ising Model, Random Anisotropy Ising Model

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
238 Impact of Lack of Testing on Patient Recovery in the Early Phase of COVID-19: Narratively Collected Perspectives from a Remote Monitoring Program

Authors: Nicki Mohammadi, Emma Reford, Natalia Romano Spica, Laura Tabacof, Jenna Tosto-Mancuso, David Putrino, Christopher P. Kellner

Abstract:

Introductory Statement: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic demanded an unprecedented need for the rapid development, dispersal, and application of infection testing. However, despite the impressive mobilization of resources, individuals were incredibly limited in their access to tests, particularly during the initial months of the pandemic (March-April 2020) in New York City (NYC). Access to COVID-19 testing is crucial in understanding patients’ illness experiences and integral to the development of COVID-19 standard-of-care protocols, especially in the context of overall access to healthcare resources. Succinct Description of basic methodologies: 18 Patients in a COVID-19 Remote Patient Monitoring Program (Precision Recovery within the Mount Sinai Health System) were interviewed regarding their experience with COVID-19 during the first wave (March-May 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. Patients were asked about their experiences navigating COVID-19 diagnoses, the health care system, and their recovery process. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for thematic codes, using grounded theory to guide the identification of emergent themes and codebook development through an iterative process. Data coding was performed using NVivo12. References for the domain “testing” were then extracted and analyzed for themes and statistical patterns. Clear Indication of Major Findings of the study: 100% of participants (18/18) referenced COVID-19 testing in their interviews, with a total of 79 references across the 18 transcripts (average: 4.4 references/interview; 2.7% interview coverage). 89% of participants (16/18) discussed the difficulty of access to testing, including denial of testing without high severity of symptoms, geographical distance to the testing site, and lack of testing resources at healthcare centers. Participants shared varying perspectives on how the lack of certainty regarding their COVID-19 status affected their course of recovery. One participant shared that because she never tested positive she was shielded from her anxiety and fear, given the death toll in NYC. Another group of participants shared that not having a concrete status to share with family, friends and professionals affected how seriously onlookers took their symptoms. Furthermore, the absence of a positive test barred some individuals from access to treatment programs and employment support. Concluding Statement: Lack of access to COVID-19 testing in the first wave of the pandemic in NYC was a prominent element of patients’ illness experience, particularly during their recovery phase. While for some the lack of concrete results was protective, most emphasized the invalidating effect this had on the perception of illness for both self and others. COVID-19 testing is now widely accessible; however, those who are unable to demonstrate a positive test result but who are still presumed to have had COVID-19 in the first wave must continue to adapt to and live with the effects of this gap in knowledge and care on their recovery. Future efforts are required to ensure that patients do not face barriers to care due to the lack of testing and are reassured regarding their access to healthcare. Affiliations- 1Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 2Abilities Research Center, Department of Rehabilitation and Human Performance, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY

Keywords: accessibility, COVID-19, recovery, testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
237 Unsteady and Steady State in Natural Convection

Authors: Syukri Himran, Erwin Eka Putra, Nanang Roni

Abstract:

This study explains the natural convection of viscous fluid flowing on semi-infinite vertical plate. A set of the governing equations describing the continuity, momentum and energy, have been reduced to dimensionless forms by introducing the references variables. To solve the problems, the equations are formulated by explicit finite-difference in time dependent form and computations are performed by Fortran program. The results describe velocity, temperature profiles both in transient and steady state conditions. An approximate value of heat transfer coefficient and the effects of Pr on convection flow are also presented.

Keywords: natural convection, vertical plate, velocity and temperature profiles, steady and unsteady

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
236 Using a GIS-Based Method for Green Infrastructure Accessibility of Different Socio-Economic Groups in Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Jing Ma, Xindong An

Abstract:

Green infrastructure, the most important aspect of improving the quality of life, has been a crucial element of the liveability measurement. With demanding of more liveable urban environment from increasing population in city area, access to green infrastructure in walking distance should be taken into consideration. This article exemplifies the study on accessibility measurement of green infrastructure in central Auckland (New Zealand), using network analysis tool on the basis of GIS, to verify the accessibility levels of green infrastructure. It analyses the overall situation of green infrastructure and draws some conclusions on the city’s different levels of accessibility according to the categories and facilities distribution, which provides valuable references and guidance for the future facility improvement in planning strategies.

Keywords: quality of life, green infrastructure, GIS, accessibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
235 Understanding the Challenges of Lawbook Translation via the Framework of Functional Theory of Language

Authors: Tengku Sepora Tengku Mahadi

Abstract:

Where the speed of book writing lags behind the high need for such material for tertiary studies, translation offers a way to enhance the equilibrium in this demand-supply equation. Nevertheless, translation is confronted by obstacles that threaten its effectiveness. The primary challenge to the production of efficient translations may well be related to the text-type and in terms of its complexity. A text that is intricately written with unique rhetorical devices, subject-matter foundation and cultural references will undoubtedly challenge the translator. Longer time and greater effort would be the consequence. To understand these text-related challenges, the present paper set out to analyze a lawbook entitled Learning the Law by David Melinkoff. The book is chosen because it has often been used as a textbook or for reference in many law courses in the United Kingdom and has seen over thirteen editions; therefore, it can be said to be a worthy book for studies in law. Another reason is the existence of a ready translation in Malay. Reference to this translation enables confirmation to some extent of the potential problems that might occur in its translation. Understanding the organization and the language of the book will help translators to prepare themselves better for the task. They can anticipate the research and time that may be needed to produce an effective translation. Another premise here is that this text-type implies certain ways of writing and organization. Accordingly, it seems practicable to adopt the functional theory of language as suggested by Michael Halliday as its theoretical framework. Concepts of the context of culture, the context of situation and measures of the field, tenor and mode form the instruments for analysis. Additional examples from similar materials can also be used to validate the findings. Some interesting findings include the presence of several other text-types or sub-text-types in the book and the dependence on literary discourse and devices to capture the meanings better or add color to the dry field of law. In addition, many elements of culture can be seen, for example, the use of familiar alternatives, allusions, and even terminology and references that date back to various periods of time and languages. Also found are parts which discuss origins of words and terms that may be relevant to readers within the United Kingdom but make little sense to readers of the book in other languages. In conclusion, the textual analysis in terms of its functions and the linguistic and textual devices used to achieve them can then be applied as a guide to determine the effectiveness of the translation that is produced.

Keywords: functional theory of language, lawbook text-type, rhetorical devices, culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
234 Improvement in Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Adult Patients After Rehabilitation With Partial Dentures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Adama NS Bah

Abstract:

Background: Loss of teeth has a negative influence on essential oral functions such as phonetics, mastication, and aesthetics. Dentists treat people with prosthodontic rehabilitation to recover essential oral functions. The oral health quality of life inventory reflects the success of prosthodontic rehabilitation. In many countries, the current conventional care delivered to replace missing teeth for adult patients involves the provision of removable partial dentures. Aim: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to gather the best available evidence to determine patients’ oral health-related quality of life improvement after treatment with partial dentures. Methods: We searched electronic databases from January 2010 to September 2019, including PubMed, ProQuest, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar. In this paper, studies were included only if the average age was 30 years and above and also published in English. Two reviewers independently screened and selected all the references based on inclusion criteria using the PRISMA guideline, and assessed the quality of the included references using the Joanna Briggs Institute quality assessment tools. Data extracted were analyzed in RevMan 5.0 software, the heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using Forest plot, I2 statistics and chi-square test with a statistical P value less than 0.05 to indicate statistical significance. Random effect models were used in case of moderate or high heterogeneity. Four studies were included in the systematic review and three studies were pooled for meta-analysis. Results: Four studies included in the systematic review and three studies included in the meta-analysis with a total of 285 patients comparing the improvement in oral health-related quality of life before and after rehabilitation with partial denture, the pooled results showed a better improvement of oral health-related quality of life after treatment with partial dentures (mean difference 5.25; 95% CI [3.81, 6.68], p < 0.00001) favoring the wearing of partial dentures. In order to ascertain the reliability of the included studies for meta-analysis risk of bias was assessed and found to be low in all included studies for meta-analysis using the Cochrane collaboration tool for risk of bias assessment. Conclusion: There is high evidence that rehabilitation with partial dentures can improve the patient’s oral health-related quality of life measured with Oral Health Impact Profile 14. This review has clinical evidence value for dentists treating the expanding vulnerable adult population.

Keywords: meta-analysis, oral health impact profile, partial dentures, systematic review

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
233 Spline Solution of Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems

Authors: Reza Mohammadi

Abstract:

Using quartic spline, we develop a method for numerical solution of singularly perturbed two-point boundary-value problems. The purposed method is fourth-order accurate and applicable to problems both in singular and non-singular cases. The convergence analysis of the method is given. The resulting linear system of equations has been solved by using a tri-diagonal solver. We applied the presented method to test problems which have been solved by other existing methods in references, for comparison of presented method with the existing methods. Numerical results are given to illustrate the efficiency of our methods.

Keywords: second-order ordinary differential equation, singularly-perturbed, quartic spline, convergence analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
232 Integrating Qualitative and Behavioural Insights to Increase the Take-Up of an Education Savings Program for Low Income Canadians

Authors: Mathieu Audet, Monica Soliman, Emilie Eve Gravel, Rebecca Friesdorf

Abstract:

Access to higher education is critical for reducing social inequalities. The Canada Learning Bond (CLB) is a government savings incentive aimed at increasing higher education access for children of low income families by providing money toward a Registered Education Savings Plan. To better understand the educational and financial decision-making of low income families, Employment Social Development Canada conducted qualitative fieldwork with eligible parents and children, teachers, and community organizations promoting the Bond. Insights from this fieldwork were then used to develop letters to better target the needs and experiences of eligible families. In the present study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial with children ages 12 to 13, the oldest cohort of eligible children, to test the effectiveness of the new letters. Parents or caregivers of 150,088 eligible children were assigned to one of five letter conditions promoting the Bond or to a control condition that did not receive a letter. The letter conditions were: (a) the standard letter from past outreach, (b) a letter presenting the exact amount the child was eligible to receive, enhancing the salience of benefits, (c) a letter with a social norm, (d) a letter with an image emphasizing the feasibility of higher education by presenting the diversity of options (i.e., college, trade schools, apprenticeships) – many participants interviewed viewed that university was unfeasible, and (e) a letter minimizing references to 'saving' (i.e., not framing the Bond explicitly as a savings incentive) – a concept that did not resonate with low income families who felt they could not afford to save. The exact amount was also presented in letters (c) through (e). The letter minimizing references to 'saving' and presenting the exact amount had the highest net take-up rate at 6.6%, compared to 3.5% for the standard letter group. Furthermore, this trial’s BI-informed letters showed the largest impact on take-up so far, with a net take-up of 5.7% compared to 3.0% and 3.9% in the first two trials. This research highlights the value of mixed-method approaches combining qualitative and behavioural insights methods for developing context-sensitive interventions for social programs. By gaining a deeper understanding of the needs and experiences of program users through qualitative fieldwork, and then integrating these insights into behaviourally informed communications, we were able to increase take-up of an education savings program, which may ultimately improve access to higher education in children of low income families.

Keywords: access to higher education, behavioral insights, government, innovation, mixed-methods, social programs

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
231 An Encapsulation of a Navigable Tree Position: Theory, Specification, and Verification

Authors: Nicodemus M. J. Mbwambo, Yu-Shan Sun, Murali Sitaraman, Joan Krone

Abstract:

This paper presents a generic data abstraction that captures a navigable tree position. The mathematical modeling of the abstraction encapsulates the current tree position, which can be used to navigate and modify the tree. The encapsulation of the tree position in the data abstraction specification avoids the use of explicit references and aliasing, thereby simplifying verification of (imperative) client code that uses the data abstraction. To ease the tasks of such specification and verification, a general tree theory, rich with mathematical notations and results, has been developed. The paper contains an example to illustrate automated verification ramifications. With sufficient tree theory development, automated proving seems plausible even in the absence of a special-purpose tree solver.

Keywords: automation, data abstraction, maps, specification, tree, verification

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
230 Gravitrap for Surveillance of Mosquito Density in Kaohsiung

Authors: Meng-Yu Tsai, Jui-hun Chang, Wen-Feng Hung, Jing-Dong Chou

Abstract:

The objective of this paper was to use gravitrap to survey the mosquito density in Kaohsiung. Gravitrap is one of the tools for surveillance the mosquito density. Gravitrap not only monitor the mosquito density but also decrease the mosquito density. Kaohsiung Environment Protection Bureau (KEPB) used gravitrap to monitor the mosquito density in 2016. KEPB put gravitrap in five districts which had the more confirmed dengue cases in 2015. The results indicated that (1)the highest positive rate (PR) of gravitrap was in Gushan district, the PR of gravitrap in Gushan district was 19.25%. (2) the lowest PR of gravitrap was in Sanmin district, the PR of gravitrap in Sanmin district was 8.55%. (3) compared these two districts, the most important factor to influence of PR of gravitrap was the knowledge of dengue prevention. Therefore, the PR of gravitrap was one of the references for making dengue prevention policy.

Keywords: continuous assessment, course integration, curricular reform, student feedback

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
229 Research on Spatial Morphology and Protection of Traditional Rural Settlements Based on Space Syntax: Taking Xiazhuang Village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as Example

Authors: Shenpu Liu

Abstract:

Space syntax, a paradigm of the urban research, which manifests people’s intuitive and abstract perception of a material space with a solid mathematical way, explores how space represents its social characteristics. Taking Xiazhuang village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as an example and focusing on inward structure and street space, this article recognizes the connotative significance of the settlement with the aid of space syntax theory and quantitative analysis method from the perspective of spatial configuration to present relevant suggestions for its future planning and provides references for traditional rural settlement protection.

Keywords: Shijia village, space configuration, space syntax, traditional rural settlement, Xiazhuang village

Procedia PDF Downloads 98