Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Shereen Yehia El Ezabi

24 Rendering Religious References in English: Naguib Mahfouz in the Arabic as a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Shereen Yehia El Ezabi

Abstract:

The transition from the advanced to the superior level of Arabic proficiency is widely known to pose considerable challenges for English speaking students of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL). Apart from the increasing complexity of the grammar at this juncture, together with the sprawling vocabulary, to name but two of those challenges, there is also the somewhat less studied hurdle along the way to superior level proficiency, namely, the seeming opacity of many aspects of Arab/ic culture to such learners. This presentation tackles one specific dimension of such issues: religious references in literary texts. It illustrates how carefully constructed translation activities may be used to expand and deepen students’ understanding and use of them. This is shown to be vital for making the leap to the desired competency, given that such elements, as reflected in customs, traditions, institutions, worldviews, and formulaic expressions lie at the very core of Arabic culture and, as such, pervade all modes and levels of Arabic discourse. A short story from the collection “Stories from Our Alley”, by preeminent novelist Naguib Mahfouz is selected for use in this context, being particularly replete with such religious references, of which religious expressions will form the focus of the presentation. As a miniature literary work, it provides an organic whole, so to speak, within which to explore with the class the most precise denotation, as well as the subtlest connotation of each expression in an effort to reach the ‘best’ English rendering. The term ‘best’ refers to approximating the meaning in its full complexity from the source text, in this case Arabic, to the target text, English, according to the concept of equivalence in translation theory. The presentation will show how such a process generates the sort of thorough discussion and close text analysis which allows students to gain valuable insight into this central idiom of Arabic. A variety of translation methods will be highlighted, gleaned from the presenter’s extensive work with advanced/superior students in the Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA) program at the American University in Cairo. These begin with the literal rendering of expressions, with the purpose of reinforcing vocabulary learning and practicing the rules of derivational morphology as they form each word, since the larger context remains that of an AFL class, as opposed to a translation skills program. However, departures from the literal approach are subsequently explored by degrees, moving along the spectrum of functional and pragmatic freer translations in order to transmit the ‘real’ meaning in readable English to the target audience- no matter how culture/religion specific the expression- while remaining faithful to the original. Samples from students’ work pre and post discussion will be shared, demonstrating how class consensus is formed as to the final English rendering, proposed as the closest match to the Arabic, and shown to be the result of the above activities. Finally, a few examples of translation work which students have gone on to publish will be shared to corroborate the effectiveness of this teaching practice.

Keywords: superior level proficiency in Arabic as a foreign language, teaching Arabic as a foreign language, teaching idiomatic expressions, translation in foreign language teaching

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23 FPGA Implementation of RSA Encryption Algorithm for E-Passport Application

Authors: Khaled Shehata, Hanady Hussien, Sara Yehia

Abstract:

Securing the data stored on E-passport is a very important issue. RSA encryption algorithm is suitable for such application with low data size. In this paper the design and implementation of 1024 bit-key RSA encryption and decryption module on an FPGA is presented. The module is verified through comparing the result with that obtained from MATLAB tools. The design runs at a frequency of 36.3 MHz on Virtex-5 Xilinx FPGA. The key size is designed to be 1024-bit to achieve high security for the passport information. The whole design is achieved through VHDL design entry which makes it a portable design and can be directed to any hardware platform.

Keywords: RSA, VHDL, FPGA, modular multiplication, modular exponential

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22 The Effect of Arabic Gum on Polyethersulfone Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) to the dope solutions of polyethersulfone (PES) was studied. The aim of adding AG is to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. several AG loading (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in PES/ N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) casting solutions were prepared to fabricate PES membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PES/AG membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of oil solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG to PES membranes was found to increase the permeate flux and porosity as well as reducing surface roughness and the contact angle of the membranes.

Keywords: antifouling, Arabic gum, polyethersulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
21 Motivation and Criteria as Determinant Factors in Accepting New Talents on User-Generated Content (UGC): Youtube as a Platform

Authors: Shereen Nadira Binti Jasney, Mohd Syuhaidi Bin Abu Bakar, Hafizah Binti Rosli

Abstract:

This quantitative study explored factors that motivate the public to use YouTube; and the elements of criteria, which the public are looking for to accept new talents on User-Generated Content (UGC). There are mass inputs on the net but the publics are still being very selective in accepting new talents. Thus, it is important to identify determinant factors that contribute to the acceptance of new talents on UGC. A total number of 236 respondents have participated in this study using Simple Random Sampling and they were analyzed with descriptive analysis. The findings of this paper advocate that tremendous expansion; and diversification YouTube music offers are main factors that motivated public viewers in using YouTube on accepting new talents. It is also found that by being relatable and concurrently providing interesting contents, having the artist name and song title in the YouTube talent’s title video and the number of views and likes of the video are some of the criteria that the public are looking for in accepting new talents on the UGC. This paper introduces YouTube as a mean of discovering new talents in the music industry where the public, especially the younger generations, whom are actively engaged with current digital landscape that they’ve been presently silver-plated.

Keywords: motivation, criteria, new talents, UGC, YouTube

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20 The Use of Arabic Gum Mixed with Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Dodecylamine to Fabricate Superior Ultrafiltration Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) and carbon nanotubes functionalized with dodecylamine (CNT-DDA) to the casting solutions of polysulfone (PS) was investigated. The aim of adding AG and CNT-DDA was to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. Different CNT-DDA loadings (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in 2 wt.% AG were added to PS/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) casting solutions to prepare PS membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PS/AG/CNT-DDA membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of BSA solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG and CNT-DDA to PS membranes was found to increase the hydrophilicity, porosity and hence the permeate flux of the fabricated membranes.

Keywords: Arabic gum, hydrophilicity, polysulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

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19 Improvement of Performance for R. C. Beams Made from Recycled Aggregate by Using Non-Traditional Admixture

Authors: A. H. Yehia, M. M. Rashwan, K. A. Assaf, K. Abd el Samee

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to use an environmental, cheap; organic non-traditional admixture to improve the structural behavior of sustainable reinforced concrete beams contains different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate. The used admixture prepared by using wastes from vegetable oil industry. Under and over reinforced concrete beams made from natural aggregate and different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate were tested under static load until failure. Eight beams were tested to investigate the performance and mechanism effect of admixture on improving deformation characteristics, modulus of elasticity and toughness of tested beams. Test results show efficiency of organic admixture on improving flexural behavior of beams contains 20% recycled concrete aggregate more over the other ratios.

Keywords: deflection, modulus of elasticity, non-traditional admixture, recycled concrete aggregate, strain, toughness, under and over reinforcement

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18 Prevalence of Obesity and Associated Risk Factors in South African Employees

Authors: Jeanne Grace, Shereen Currie

Abstract:

Background: Obesity associated comorbidities increase the risk of morbidity and mortality among employees in the workplace. Objectives: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia associated with obesity within the workplace in South Africa. Methods: A total of 17359 male (n = 8561) and female (n = 8798) employees, aged between 18-64 years (40.8 ± 11.0), from various corporate and industrial companies in South Africa participated in the study. Subjects were assigned to one of five body mass index (BMI) categories, according to their BMI: normal weight, BMI of 18.5‒24.9 kg/m² (n = 7338); overweight, BMI of 25.0‒29.9 kg/m² (n = 6323); obese class I, BMI of 30.0-34.9 kg/m² (n = 2552); obese class II, BMI of 35.0-39.9 kg/m² (n = 782); and obese class III, BMI of ≥ 40 kg/m² (n = 364). Height, weight, blood pressure, random blood glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Results: The prevalence of normal weight men was 29.2% and women 55.0%; overweight men 46.4% and women 26.7%, obese men 24.4% and women 18.3%. A significant association (p<0.01) of BMI with diabetes, systolic and diastolic hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were noted. Conclusion: Obesity is strongly associated with adverse comorbidities that may impact employees’ quality of life and performance. If unaddressed, it can increase comorbidities, not only affecting the bottom line of companies but causing morbidity and mortality, including sudden death.

Keywords: body mass index, cholesterol, blood glucose, workplace

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17 Modelling and Optimization of Laser Cutting Operations

Authors: Hany Mohamed Abdu, Mohamed Hassan Gadallah, El-Giushi Mokhtar, Yehia Mahmoud Ismail

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Laser beam cutting is one nontraditional machining process. This paper optimizes the parameters of Laser beam cutting machining parameters of Stainless steel (316L) by considering the effect of input parameters viz. power, oxygen pressure, frequency and cutting speed. Statistical design of experiments are carried in three different levels and process responses such as 'Average kerf taper (Ta)' and 'Surface Roughness (Ra)' are measured accordingly. A quadratic mathematical model (RSM) for each of the responses is developed as a function of the process parameters. Responses predicted by the models (as per Taguchi’s L27 OA) are employed to search for an optimal parametric combination to achieve desired yield of the process. RSM models are developed for mean responses, S/N ratio, and standard deviation of responses. Optimization models are formulated as single objective problem subject to process constraints. Models are formulated based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using MATLAB environment. Optimum solutions are compared with Taguchi Methodology results.

Keywords: optimization, laser cutting, robust design, kerf width, Taguchi method, RSM and DOE

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16 Performance Study of Classification Algorithms for Consumer Online Shopping Attitudes and Behavior Using Data Mining

Authors: Rana Alaa El-Deen Ahmed, M. Elemam Shehab, Shereen Morsy, Nermeen Mekawie

Abstract:

With the growing popularity and acceptance of e-commerce platforms, users face an ever increasing burden in actually choosing the right product from the large number of online offers. Thus, techniques for personalization and shopping guides are needed by users. For a pleasant and successful shopping experience, users need to know easily which products to buy with high confidence. Since selling a wide variety of products has become easier due to the popularity of online stores, online retailers are able to sell more products than a physical store. The disadvantage is that the customers might not find products they need. In this research the customer will be able to find the products he is searching for, because recommender systems are used in some ecommerce web sites. Recommender system learns from the information about customers and products and provides appropriate personalized recommendations to customers to find the needed product. In this paper eleven classification algorithms are comparatively tested to find the best classifier fit for consumer online shopping attitudes and behavior in the experimented dataset. The WEKA knowledge analysis tool, which is an open source data mining workbench software used in comparing conventional classifiers to get the best classifier was used in this research. In this research by using the data mining tool (WEKA) with the experimented classifiers the results show that decision table and filtered classifier gives the highest accuracy and the lowest accuracy classification via clustering and simple cart.

Keywords: classification, data mining, machine learning, online shopping, WEKA

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15 Small Fixed-Wing UAV Physical Based Modeling, Simulation, and Validation

Authors: Ebrahim H. Kapeel, Ehab Safwat, Hossam Hendy, Ahmed M. Kamel, Yehia Z. Elhalwagy

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Motivated by the problem of the availability of high-fidelity flight simulation models for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This paper focuses on the geometric-mass inertia modeling and the actuation system modeling for the small fixed-wing UAVs. The UAV geometric parameters for the body, wing, horizontal and vertical tail are physically measured. Pendulum experiment with high-grade sensors and data analysis using MATLAB is used to estimate the airplane moment of inertia (MOI) model. Finally, UAV’s actuation system is modeled by estimating each servo transfer function by using the system identification, which uses experimental measurement for input and output angles through using field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Experimental results for the designed models are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology. It also gives a very promising result to finalize the open-loop flight simulation model through modeling the propulsion system and the aerodynamic system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle, geometric-mass inertia model, system identification, Simulink

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14 Antifungal Protein ~35kDa Produced by Bacillus cereus Inhibits the Growth of Some Molds and Yeasts

Authors: Saleh H. Salmen, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Hany M. Yehia, Mohammad A. Khiyami, Milton Wainwright, Naiyf S. Alharbi, Arunachalam Chinnathambi

Abstract:

An antifungal protein synthesized by Bacillus cereus has been partially purified by the use of ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex-G-200 column chromatography. The protein was produced from Bacillus cereus grown in potato Dextrose Broth Medium (PDB) at 30 ºC for 3 days at 100 rpm. The protein showed antagonistic effect against some fungi and yeasts. Crude extract from medium and semi-purified protein were tested in vitro against both fungi and yeasts using the disc diffusion method in order to detect the inhibitory effect of the protein. Zones of inhibition of the following diameter were found (mm) were Alternaria alternate (28), Rhodotorula glutinis (20), Fusarium sp. (16), Rhizopus sp. (15), Penicillium digitatum (13), Mucor sp. (13) and Aspergillus niger (10). The isolated protein was found to have a molecular weight of ~35kDa by sodium deodecyl sulfate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The data showed that the protein of Bacillus cereus has antifungal activity, a fact which points to the possibility of using it as a bio-control agent against some fungi, findings which emphasize the potential role of B. cereus as an important bio-control agent.

Keywords: bacillus cereus, ~35kDa protein, molds, yeasts

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13 Desalination via Electrodialysis: A Newly Designed Fixed Bed Reactor Powered by Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Hend Mesbah, Yehia Youssef, Ibrahim Hassan, Shaaban Nosier, Ahmed El-Shazly, Ahmed Helal

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The problem of drinking water shortage is becoming more crucial nowadays as a result of the increased demand due to the population growth and the rise in the standard living. In recent years, desalination using electrodialysis powered by solar energy (PV-ED) is being widely used to help provide treated water and reduce the scarcity in water supply. In the present study, a water desalination laboratory scale ED cell with a fixed bed circulation system was designed, developed, and tested. The effect of three parameters (namely, cell voltage , flowrate, and salt concentration) on the removal percentage of salt ions was studied. The cell voltage was adjusted at 3 , 4 and 6 V. A flow rate of 5, 10, and 20 ml/s and an initial salt concentration of 2000, 5000, and 7000 ppm were investigated. The maximum salt percentage removal obtained was 52.5% at the lowest initial concentration (2000 ppm) and at the highest cell voltage (6 V). There was no significant effect of the flow rate on the removal percentage. A model of PV module has also been developed to calculate the dimensions of a solar cell based on the amount of energy consumed and it was calculated from the Overall ED cell voltage.

Keywords: desalination, electrodialysis, solar desalination, photovoltaic electrodialysis

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12 Cantilever Shoring Piles with Prestressing Strands: An Experimental Approach

Authors: Hani Mekdash, Lina Jaber, Yehia Temsah

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Underground space is becoming a necessity nowadays, especially in highly congested urban areas. Retaining underground excavations using shoring systems is essential in order to protect adjoining structures from potential damage or collapse. Reinforced Concrete Piles (RCP) supported by multiple rows of tie-back anchors are commonly used type of shoring systems in deep excavations. However, executing anchors can sometimes be challenging because they might illegally trespass neighboring properties or get obstructed by infrastructure and other underground facilities. A technique is proposed in this paper, and it involves the addition of eccentric high-strength steel strands to the RCP section through ducts without providing the pile with lateral supports. The strands are then vertically stressed externally on the pile cap using a hydraulic jack, creating a compressive strengthening force in the concrete section. An experimental study about the behavior of the shoring wall by pre-stressed piles is presented during the execution of an open excavation in an urban area (Beirut city) followed by numerical analysis using finite element software. Based on the experimental results, this technique is proven to be cost-effective and provides flexible and sustainable construction of shoring works.

Keywords: deep excavation, prestressing, pre-stressed piles, shoring system

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11 Effect of Perioperative Protocol of Care on Clinical Outcomes among Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Authors: Manal Ahmed, Amal Shehata, Shereen Deeb

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The study's purpose was to determine the effect of the perioperative protocol of care on clinical outcomes among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Subjects: A sample of 100 adult patients who were planned for coronary artery bypass graft, were selected and divided alternatively and randomly into two equal groups (50 study -50 control).The study was carried out at National heart Institute in Cairo and open heart surgical intensive care unit in Shebin El-Kom Teaching Hospital. Instruments: Four instruments were used for data collection: Interviewing questionnaire, dyspnea analogue scale, Biophysiological measurement instrument, and Compliance assessment sheet. Results: There were statistically significant differences between both groups regarding most respiratory system assessment findings at discharge. More than two-thirds of the study group of the current study had a continuous and regular commitment to diet regimen, which ranked first followed by the compliance of daily living activities then quitting smoking. Conclusions: The perioperative protocol of care has a significant improving effect on respiratory findings, dyspnea degree, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, compliance to diet, therapeutic regimen, daily living activities, and quit smoking among study group undergoing CABG. Recommendations: Perioperative protocol of care should be carried out for CABG patients at open-heart surgical units as well as an illustrative colored booklet about CAD, CABG and perioperative care should be available and distributed to all CABG patients.

Keywords: perioperative, effect, clinical outcomes, coronary artery, bypass graft, protocol of care

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10 Impact of Welding Distortion on the Design of Fabricated T-Girders Using Finite Element Modeling

Authors: Ahmed Hammad, Yehia Abdel-Nasser, Mohamed Shamma

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The main configuration of ship construction consists of standard and fabricated stiffening members which are commonly used in shipbuilding such as fabricated T-sections. During the welding process, the non-uniform heating and rapid cooling lead to the inevitable presence of out-of-plane distortion and welding induced residual stresses. Because of these imperfections, the fabricated structural members may not attain their design load to be carried. The removal of these imperfections will require extra man-hours. In the present work, controlling these imperfections has been investigated at both design and fabrication stages. A typical fabricated T-girder is selected to investigate the problem of these imperfections using double-side welding. A numerical simulation based on finite element (FE) modeling has been used to investigate the effect of different parameters of the selected fabricated T-girder such as geometrical properties and welding sequences on the magnitude of welding imperfections. FE results were compared with the results of experimental model of a double-side fillet weld. The present work concludes that: Firstly, in the design stage, the optimum geometry of the fabricated T- girder is determined based on minimum steel weight and out- of- plane distortion. Secondly, in the fabrication stage, the best welding sequence is determined on the basis of minimum welding out- of- plane distortion.

Keywords: fabricated T-girder, FEM, out-of-plane distortion, section modulus, welding residual stresses

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9 Early versus Late Percutaneous Tracheostomy in Critically Ill Adult Mechanically Ventilated Patients

Authors: Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed, Ahmed Yehia Mousa, Ahmed Samir ElSawy, Adel Mohamed Saleem

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Introduction: Critically ill patients frequently require tracheostomy to simplify long term air way management. While tracheostomy indications have remained unchanged, the timing of elective tracheostomy for the ventilated patient has been questioned. Aim of the work: This study was performed to compare the differences between early and late percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) regarding, mechanical ventilation duration (MVD), length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia and hospital outcome. Patients and methods: Forty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into early PDT who had the tracheostomy within the first 10 days of mechanical ventilation (MV) and the late PDT who had the tracheostomy after 10 days of MV. On admission, demographic data and Acute Physiology and Chronic ill Health II and GCS were collected. The duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS were all calculated. Results: Total of 40 patients were randomized to either early PDT (n= 20) or late PDT (n= 20). There were no significant differences between both groups regarding demographic data or the scores: APACHE II (22.75± 7 vs 24.35 ± 8) and GCS (6.10 ±2 vs 7.10 ± 2.71). An early PDT showed fewer complications vs late procedure, however it was insignificant. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding mean (MVD) which was shorter in early PDT than the late PDT group (32.2± 10.5) vs (20.6 ± 13 days; p= 0.004). Mean ICU stay was shorter in early PDT than late PDT (21 .0± 513.4) vs (40.15 ±12.7 days; p 6 0.001). Mean hospital stay was shorter in early PDT than late PDT (34.60± 18.37) vs (55.60± 25.73 days; p=0.005). Patients with early PDT suffered less sepsis and VAP than late PDT, there was no difference regarding the mortality rate between the two groups. Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

Keywords: intensive care unit, early PDT, late PDT, intubation

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8 Fexofenadine Hydrochloride Orodispersisble Tablets: Formulation and in vitro/in vivo Evaluation in Healthy Human Volunteers

Authors: Soad Ali Yehia, Mohamed Shafik El-Ridi, Mina Ibrahim Tadros, Nolwa Gamal El-Sherif

Abstract:

Fexofenadine hydrochloride (FXD) is a slightly soluble, bitter-tasting, drug having an oral bioavailability of 35%. The maximum plasma concentration is reached 2.6 hours (Tmax) post-dose. The current work aimed to develop taste-masked FXD orodispersible tablets (ODTs) to increase extent of drug absorption and reduce Tmax. Taste masking was achieved via solid dispersion (SD) with chitosan (CS) or sodium alginate (ALG). FT-IR, DSC and XRD were performed to identify physicochemical interactions and FXD crystallinity. Taste-masked FXD-ODTs were developed via addition of superdisintegrants (crosscarmelose sodium or sodium starch glycolate, 5% and 10%, w/w) or sublimable agents (camphor, menthol or thymol; 10% and 20%, w/w) to FXD-SDs. ODTs were evaluated for weight variation, drug-content, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and drug release. Camphor-based (20%, w/w) FXD-ODT (F12) was optimized (F23) by incorporation of a more hydrophilic lubricant, sodium stearyl fumarate (Pruv®). The topography of the latter formula was examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vivo estimation of FXD pharmacokinetics, relative to Allegra® tablets, was evaluated in healthy human volunteers. Based on the gustatory sensation test in healthy volunteers, FXD:CS (1:1) and FXD:ALG (1:0.5) SDs were selected. Taste-masked FXD-ODTs had appropriate physicochemical properties and showed short wetting and disintegration times. Drug release profiles of F23 and phenylalanine-containing Allegra® ODT were similar (f2 = 96) showing a complete release in two minutes. SEM micrographs revealed pores following camphor sublimation. Compared to Allegra® tablets, pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers proved F23 ability to increase extent of FXD absorption (14%) and reduce Tmax to 1.83 h.

Keywords: fexofenadine hydrochloride, taste masking, chitosan, orodispersible

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7 An Investigation into the Potential of Industrial Low Grade Heat in Membrane Distillation for Freshwater Production

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Ahmad Kayvanifard

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Membrane distillation is an emerging technology which has been used to produce freshwater and purify different types of aqueous mixtures. Qatar is an arid country where almost 100% of its freshwater demand is supplied through the energy-intensive thermal desalination process. The country’s need for water has reached an all-time high which stipulates finding an alternative way to augment freshwater without adding any drastic affect to the environment. The objective of this paper was to investigate the potential of using the industrial low grade waste heat to produce freshwater using membrane distillation. The main part of this work was conducting a heat audit on selected Qatari chemical industries to estimate the amounts of freshwater produced if such industrial waste heat were to be recovered. By the end of this work, the main objective was met and the heat audit conducted on the Qatari chemical industries enabled us to estimate both the amounts of waste heat which can be potentially recovered in addition to the amounts of freshwater which can be produced if such waste heat were to be recovered. By the end, the heat audit showed that around 605 Mega Watts of waste heat can be recovered from the studied Qatari chemical industries which resulted in a total daily production of 5078.7 cubic meter of freshwater. This water can be used in a wide variety of applications such as human consumption or industry. The amount of produced freshwater may look small when compared to that produced through thermal desalination plants; however, one must bear in mind that this water comes from waste and can be used to supply water for small cities or remote areas which are not connected to the water grid. The idea of producing freshwater from the two widely-available wastes (thermal rejected brine and waste heat) seems promising as less environmental and economic impacts will be associated with freshwater production which may in the near future augment the conventional way of producing freshwater currently being thermal desalination. This work has shown that low grade waste heat in the chemical industries in Qatar and perhaps the rest of the world can contribute to additional production of freshwater using membrane distillation without significantly adding to the environmental impact.

Keywords: membrane distillation, desalination, heat recovery, environment

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6 Correlative Study of Serum Interleukin-18 and Disease Activity, Functional Disability and Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Hamdy Khamis Korayem, Manal Yehia Tayel, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Shimaa Badr Abdelnaby Badr

Abstract:

The aim of the current study was to demonstrate whether serum Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its correlation with disease activity, functional disability and quality of life in RA patients. The study included 30 RA patients and 20 healthy normal control subjects. The RA patients were diagnosed according to the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for RA with the exclusion of those who had diabetes mellitus, endocrine disorders, associated rheumatologic diseases, viral hepatitis B or C and other diseases with increased serum IL-18 level. All patients were subjected to clinical evaluation of the musculoskeletal system. Disease activity was assessed by disease activity score 28 with 4 variables (DAS 28). Functional disability was assessed by health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI). The quality of life was assessed by Short form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Radiological assessment of both hands and feet by Sharp/van der Heijde (SvH) scoring method. Laboratory parameters including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) were assessed in patients and serum level of IL-18 in both patients and control subjects. There was no statistically significant difference between patient and control group as regards age and sex. Among patients, 29 % were females and the age range was between 25 to 55 years. Extra-articular manifestations were presented in 56.7% of the patients. The mean of DAS 28 score was 5.73±1.46 and that of HAQ-DI was 1.22±0.72 while that of SF-36 was 40.03±13.96. The level of serum IL-18 was significantly higher in patients than in the control subjects (P= 0.030). Serum IL-18 was correlated with ACPA among the patient group. There were no statistically significant correlations between serum IL-18 and DAS28, HAQ-DI, SF-36, total SvH score and the other laboratory results. In conclusion, IL-18 is significantly higher in RA patient than in healthy control subjects and positively correlated with ACPA level. IL-18 is associated with extra-articular manifestations. However, it is not correlated with other laboratory parameters, disease activity, functional disability, quality of life nor radiological severity.

Keywords: disease activity score, Interleukin-18, quality of life assessment, rheumatoid arthritis

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5 A Study of The Factors Predicting Radiation Exposure to Contacts of Saudi Patients Treated With Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine (I-131)

Authors: Khalid A. Salman, Shereen Wagih, Tariq Munshi, Musaed Almalki, Safwan Zatari, Zahid Khan

Abstract:

Aim: To measure exposure levels to family members and caregivers of Saudi patients treated with low dose I131 therapy, and household radiation exposure rate to predict different factors that can affect radiation exposure. Patients and methods: All adult self dependent patients with hyperthyroidism or cancer thyroid referred for low dose radioactive I131 therapy on outpatient basis are included. Radiation protection procedures are given to the participant and family members in details. TLD’s were dispensed to each participant in sufficient quantity for his/her family members living in the household. TLD’s are collected at fifth days post-dispense from patients who agreed to have a home visit during which the household is inspected and level of radiation contamination of surfaces was measured. Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the current study, with a mean age of 43.1± 17.1 years Out of them 25 patients (78%) are females. I131 therapy was given in twenty patients (63%) for cancer thyroid of and for toxic goiter in the remaining twelve patients (37%), with an overall mean I131 dose of 24.1 ± 7.5mCi that is relatively higher in the former. The overall number of household family members and helpers of patients are 139, out of them77 are females (55.4%) & 62 are males (44.6%) with a mean age of 29.8± 17.6. The mean period of contact with the patient is 7.6 ±5.6hours. The cumulative radiation exposure shows that radiation exposure to all family members is below the exposure constraint (1mSv), with a range of 109 to 503uSv, and a mean value of 220.9±91 uSv. Numerical data shows a little higher exposure rate for family members of those who receive higher dose of I131 (patients with thyroid cancer) and household members who spent longer time with the patient, yet, the difference is statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Besides, no significant correlation was found between the degree of cumulative exposure of the family members to their gender, age, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors. In the 21 home visits all data from bedrooms, reception areas and kitchens are below hazardous limits (0.5uSv/h) apart from bathrooms that give a slightly higher reading of 0.57±0.39 uSv/h in those with cancer thyroid who receive a higher radiation dose. A statistically significant difference was found between radiation exposure rate in bathrooms used by the patient versus those used by family members only, with a mean value of exposure rate of 0.701±0.21 uSv/h and 0.17±0.82 uSv/h respectively, with a p-value of 0.018 (<0.05). Conclusion: Family members of patients treated with low dose I131 on outpatient basis have a good compliance to radiation protection instruction if given properly with a cumulative radiation exposure rate evidently beyond the radiation exposure constraints of 1 mSv. Given I131 dose, hours spent with the patient, age, gender, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors have no significant correlation with the cumulative radiation exposure. The patient bathroom exhibits more radiation exposure rate, needing more strict instructions for patient bathroom use and health hygiene.

Keywords: family members, radiation exposure, radioactive iodine therapy, radiation safety

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4 Impact of Stress and Protein Malnutrition on the Potential Role of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Providing Protection from Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Aluminum in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Mona G. Khalil, Hemat A. Elariny, Shereen S. El Shaer

Abstract:

Background: Aluminium (Al) is very abundant metal in the earth’s crust. It is a constituent of cooking utensils, medicines, cosmetics, some foods and food additives. Salts of Al are widely used in the treatment of drinking water for purification purposes. Excessive and prolonged exposure to Al causes oxidative stress and impairment of many physiological functions. Its accumulation in liver and kidney causes hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Social isolation (SI) or Protein malnutrition (PM) also increases oxidative stress and may enhance the toxicity of Al as well as the degeneration in liver and kidney. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities and can protect against oxidative stress-induced degenerations. Objective: To study the influence of stress or PM on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats, as well as on the potential role of EGCG in providing protection. Methods: Rats received daily AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for three weeks (Al-toxicity groups) except one normal control group received saline. Al-toxicity groups were divided into four treated and four untreated groups; treated rats received EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) together with AlCl3. One group of both treated and untreated rats served as control for each of them, and the others were subjected to either stress (mild using isolation or high using electric shock) or to PM (10% casein diet). Specimens of liver and kidney were used for assessment of levels of inflammatory mediators as TNF-α, IL6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO), Caspase-3 and for DNA fragmentation as well as for histopathological examinations. Biochemical changes were also measured in the serum as total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea as well as the level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate deshydrogenase (LDH). Results: Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by Al were enhanced in rats exposed to stress and to PM. The influence of stress was more pronounced than PM. Al-toxicity was indicated by the increase in liver and kidney MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3, DNA fragmentation and in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels, together with the decrease in total proteins, SOD, TAC. EGCG provided protection against hazards of Al as indicated by the decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation as well as in levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea in liver and kidney, together with the increase in total proteins, SOD, TAC and confirmed by histopathological examinations. It provided more pronounced protection in high stressful conditions than in mild one than in PM. Conclusion: Stress have a bad impact on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity more than PM. Thus it can clarify and maximize the role of EGCG in providing protection. Consequently, administration of EGCG is advised with excessive Al-exposure to avoid nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity especially in populations more subjected to stress or PM.

Keywords: aluminum, stress, protein malnutrition, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, rats

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3 Teaching English for Children in Public Schools Can Work in Egypt

Authors: Shereen Kamel

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This study explores the recent application of bilingual education in Egyptian public schools. It aims to provide an overall picture of bilingual education programs globally and examine its adequacy to the Egyptian social and cultural context. The study also assesses the current application process of teaching English as a Second Language in public schools from the early childhood education stage and onwards, instead of starting it from middle school; as a strategy that promotes English language proficiency and equity among students. The theoretical framework is based on Jim Cummins’ bilingual education theories and on recent trends adopting different developmental theories and perspectives, like Stephen Crashen’s theory of Second Language Acquisition that calls for communicative and meaningful interaction rather than memorization of grammatical rules. The question posed here is whether bilingual education, with its peculiar nature, could be a good chance to reach out to all Egyptian students and prepare them to become global citizens. In addition to this, a more specific question is related to the extent to which social and cultural variables can affect the young learners’ second language acquisition. This exploratory analytical study uses mixed-methods research design to examine the application of bilingual education in Egyptian public schools. The study uses a cluster sample of schools in Egypt from different social and cultural backgrounds to assess the determining variables. The qualitative emphasis is on interviewing teachers and reviewing students’ achievement documents. The quantitative aspect is based on observations of in-class activities through tally sheets and checklists. Having access to schools and documents is authorized by governmental and institutional research bodies. Data sources will comprise achievement records, students’ portfolios, parents’ feedback and teachers’ viewpoints. Triangulation and SPSS will be used for analysis. Based on the gathered data, new curricula have been assigned for elementary grades and teachers have been required to teach the newly developed materials all of a sudden without any prior training. Due to shortage in the teaching force, many assigned teachers have not been proficient in the English language. Hence, teachers’ incompetency and unpreparedness to teach this grade specific curriculum constitute a great challenge in the implementation phase. Nevertheless, the young learners themselves as well as their parents seem to be enthusiastic about the idea itself. According to the findings of this research study, teaching English as a Second Language to children in public schools can be applicable and is culturally relevant to the Egyptian context. However, there might be some social and cultural differences and constraints when it comes to application in addition to various aspects regarding teacher preparation. Therefore, a new mechanism should be incorporated to overcome these challenges for better results. Moreover, a new paradigm shift in these teacher development programs is direly needed. Furthermore, ongoing support and follow up are crucial to help both teachers and students realize the desired outcomes.

Keywords: bilingual education, communicative approach, early childhood education, language and culture, second language acquisition

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2 Anthropogenic Impact on Surface and Groundwaters Quality in the Western Part of the River Nile, Elsaff Village, Giza

Authors: Mohamed Elkashouty, Mohamed Yehia, Ahmed Tawfuk

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The study area is located in the southern part of Giza Governorate at both side of the Nile Valley. A combination of major and trace elements have been used to classify surface- and ground-waters in El Kurimat village, Egypt. The main purpose of the project is to investigate the surface-and ground-waters quality and hydrochemical evaluation. The situation is further complicated by contamination with lithogenic and anthropogenic (agricultural and sewage wastewaters) sources and low groundwater management strategies. The Quaternary aquifer consists of sands and gravels of Pleistocene age intercalated with clay lenses and overlain by silty clay aquitard (Holocene). The semi-pervious silty clay aquitard of the Holocene Nile sediments cover the Quaternary aquifer in most areas. The groundwater flows generally from southwest to northeast. To achieve this target, thirty five and seventy three samples were collected from surface– and ground-waters within summer and winter seasons 2009-2010). Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations, anions, NO2, NO3, PO4 , Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, F, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr and V) were determined in water samples. Grain size analysis was achieved to eight soil samples and measured the organic matter percent in different fractions. The TDS concentration is high in Arab El Ein canal by lithogenic and anthropogenic sources. The average concentrations of TDS in the River Nile are 245 (summer) and 254 ppm (winter). NO3 content ranges from 1.7 to 12 mg/l (summer), while in winter it ranges from 0.4 to 2.4. Most of the toxic metal concentrations are below the drinking and irrigation guidelines except Mn, V, Cr, Al, and Fe, which are higher than the guidelines in some canals and drains. The TDS concentration in groundwater increases toward northeastern and northwestern part of the study area (i.e. toward limestone plateau). It is due to hydrogeological interconnection between Quaternary and Eocene aquifer (saline water), wastewater dump and recharge from wadi El Atfihi wastewater. There is a good match between the hydrogeology and the hydrogeochemistry. Total dissolved solid in groundwater increases toward southwestern part, may be due to hydrogeological interconnection between Quaternary and Eocene aquifer and leakage from agricultural waste water of El Mohut drain. Fe, Mn, Cr, Al, PO4 and NO3 concentrations are high due to anthropogenic sources, therefore they are unsuitable for drinking. The average concentration of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn &Zn are higher in winter than those in summer due to winter drought. The organic matter content in soil are increases in the northeastern and southwestern part, with different fractions, sue to agricultural wastewaters. Reused of contaminated surface- and ground-waters samples by mixing with fresh water (By AquaChem) was estimated to increase the income per capita.

Keywords: surface water, groundwater, major ions, toxic metals

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1 Seawater Desalination for Production of Highly Pure Water Using a Hydrophobic PTFE Membrane and Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD)

Authors: Ahmad Kayvani Fard, Yehia Manawi

Abstract:

Qatar’s primary source of fresh water is through seawater desalination. Amongst the major processes that are commercially available on the market, the most common large scale techniques are Multi-Stage Flash distillation (MSF), Multi Effect distillation (MED), and Reverse Osmosis (RO). Although commonly used, these three processes are highly expensive down to high energy input requirements and high operating costs allied with maintenance and stress induced on the systems in harsh alkaline media. Beside that cost, environmental footprint of these desalination techniques are significant; from damaging marine eco-system, to huge land use, to discharge of tons of GHG and huge carbon footprint. Other less energy consuming techniques based on membrane separation are being sought to reduce both the carbon footprint and operating costs is membrane distillation (MD). Emerged in 1960s, MD is an alternative technology for water desalination attracting more attention since 1980s. MD process involves the evaporation of a hot feed, typically below boiling point of brine at standard conditions, by creating a water vapor pressure difference across the porous, hydrophobic membrane. Main advantages of MD compared to other commercially available technologies (MSF and MED) and specially RO are reduction of membrane and module stress due to absence of trans-membrane pressure, less impact of contaminant fouling on distillate due to transfer of only water vapor, utilization of low grade or waste heat from oil and gas industries to heat up the feed up to required temperature difference across the membrane, superior water quality, and relatively lower capital and operating cost. To achieve the objective of this study, state of the art flat-sheet cross-flow DCMD bench scale unit was designed, commissioned, and tested. The objective of this study is to analyze the characteristics and morphology of the membrane suitable for DCMD through SEM imaging and contact angle measurement and to study the water quality of distillate produced by DCMD bench scale unit. Comparison with available literature data is undertaken where appropriate and laboratory data is used to compare a DCMD distillate quality with that of other desalination techniques and standards. Membrane SEM analysis showed that the PTFE membrane used for the study has contact angle of 127º with highly porous surface supported with less porous and bigger pore size PP membrane. Study on the effect of feed solution (salinity) and temperature on water quality of distillate produced from ICP and IC analysis showed that with any salinity and different feed temperature (up to 70ºC) the electric conductivity of distillate is less than 5 μS/cm with 99.99% salt rejection and proved to be feasible and effective process capable of consistently producing high quality distillate from very high feed salinity solution (i.e. 100000 mg/L TDS) even with substantial quality difference compared to other desalination methods such as RO and MSF.

Keywords: membrane distillation, waste heat, seawater desalination, membrane, freshwater, direct contact membrane distillation

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