Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 828

Search results for: stream of consciousness

828 Determination of Flow Arrangement for Optimum Performance in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Ahmed Salisu Atiku

Abstract:

This task involves the determination of the flow arrangement for optimum performance and the calculation of total heat transfer of two identical double pipe heat exchangers in series. The inner pipe contains the cold water stream at 27°C, whilst the outer pipe contains the two hot stream of water at 50°C and 90 °C which can be mixed in any way desired. The analysis was carried out using counter flow arrangement due to its good heat transfer ability. The best way of heating this cold stream was found out to be passing the 90°C hot stream through the two heat exchangers. The outlet temperature of the cold stream was found to be 39.6°C and overall heat transfer of 131.3 kW. Though starting with 50°C hot stream in the first heat exchanger followed by 90°C hot stream in the second heat exchanger gives an outlet temperature almost the same as 90°C hot stream alone, but the heat transfer is low. The reason for the low heat transfer was that only the heat transfer in the second heat exchanger is considered. Whilst the reason behind high outlet temperature was that the cold stream was already preheated by the first stream.

Keywords: cold stream, flow arrangement, heat exchanger, hot stream

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827 Towards a Computational Model of Consciousness: Global Abstraction Workspace

Authors: Halim Djerroud, Arab Ali Cherif

Abstract:

We assume that conscious functions are implemented automatically. In other words that consciousness as well as the non-consciousness aspect of human thought, planning, and perception, are produced by biologically adaptive algorithms. We propose that the mechanisms of consciousness can be produced using similar adaptive algorithms to those executed by the mechanism. In this paper, we propose a computational model of consciousness, the ”Global Abstraction Workspace” which is an internal environmental modelling perceived as a multi-agent system. This system is able to evolve and generate new data and processes as well as actions in the environment.

Keywords: artificial consciousness, cognitive architecture, global abstraction workspace, multi-agent system

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826 Constitution and Self-Consciousness in Hegel's Philosophy

Authors: Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

According to Hegel’s philosophy, constitution of any given nation is the best expression of its national Self-Consciousness. Since constitution is the place in which freedom and Universal Rights is expressed, and since the essence of Self-consciousness is freedom, the development of self-consciousness and consequently freedom, is the direct cause of the development of constitution. Self-consciousness develops in the human history according to its own internal and external dialectic; therefore, it is essentially a dynamic phenomenon. However, constitution is supposed to be a stable foundation for the legal system of state and society. Therefore, the dilemma is: how the dynamic and contradictory nature of Self-Consciousness is the foundation of constitution that supposed to be the stable base of legal system of state and society. According to Hegel’s philosophy, the contradiction between the dynamic self- consciousness and the static constitution and state has an essential role in the formation of social movements within any given state. Self-consciousness is the phenomenology of Spirit in the human history. Subjective Spirit expresses itself in the different shapes of Self-consciousness in human spirit. These different shapes of self-consciousness must be identical with its contradiction; Objective Spirit. State is the highest form of the objective Spirit. Therefore, state and its foundation namely ‘constitution’ must be identical with Self-consciousness. "Spirit cannot remain forever alienated from its expression." Hegel states. Self-consciousness is the Subjective Spirit, it freely develops according to its internal and external contradictions, but since it must be always identical with its expression namely constitution, its development results to alienation. They way by which self-consciousness became again identical with the constitution determines the nature of legal and political development of any given society and state. In the democratic states, self-consciousness shows itself partially in the public opinion. In the process of election, this public opinion changes the ruling parties that construct the government. In democracies, self-consciousness or subjective spirit is in a dialectical relationship with state or the Objective Spirit. Therefore, it cannot remain alienated with its expression that is political system and its constitution. But, in the autocracies Self-consciousness cannot easily express itself in the government and its constitution. More Self-consciousness develops more it becomes alienated with its expression that is the state and its constitution. Rebel and revolution are the symptom of alienation of Spirit (self-consciousness) with its expression (state and its constitution).

Keywords: alienation, constitution, self-consciousness, spirit

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825 The Effect of Environmental Consciousness on Firm Performance

Authors: Hossein Emari, Hossein Vazifehdoust, Hashem Nikoo Maram

Abstract:

This study aims to develop an original framework of Environmental Consciousness (EC) to explore the positive effect of environmental consciousness on financial performance through the partial mediator - green intellectual capital. A questionnaire survey on the environmental consciousness, intellectual capital, and financial performance of Iran’s manufacturing firms was conducted, and 324 samples were analyzed. This study utilizes structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect influences of EC on financial performance. Research results reveal that environmental consciousness had an indirect impact on financial performance through investment in green intellectual capital. It was thus known that green intellectual capital is a mediator of the relationship between environmental consciousness and financial performance. This paper may serve as a reference for firms mapping out future environmental policies and provide an input of various perspectives and arguments into the discipline of green management.

Keywords: environmental consciousness, social responsibility, green intellectual capital, financial performance

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824 Numerical Study of an Impinging Jet in a Coflow Stream

Authors: Rim Ben Kalifa, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec

Abstract:

The present study treats different phenomena taking place in a configuration of air jet impinging on a flat surface in a coflow stream. A Computational Fluid Dynamics study is performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations by means of the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) second order turbulent closure model. The results include mean and turbulent velocities and quantify the large effects of the coflow stream on an impinging air jet. The study of the jet in a no-directed coflow stream shows the presence of a phenomenon of recirculation near the flat plate. The influence of the coflow velocity ratio on the behavior of an impinging plane jet was also numerically investigated. The coflow stream imposed noticeable restrictions on the spreading of the impinging jet. The results show that the coflow stream decreases considerably the entrainment of air jet.

Keywords: turbulent jet, turbulence models, coflow stream, velocity ratio

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823 Ecopsychological Approach to Enhance Space Consciousness Toward Environment

Authors: Tiwi Kamidin

Abstract:

After years of effort trying to integrate environmental education, studies keep revealing that Malaysian still not reached the certain level of desired commitment toward the environment. Some researchers mentioned that our planet healthy is depending on our mentally health especially our psychological and spiritual is split from the natural. Therefore, this study discussed on ecopcyhological approach in order to enhance space consciousness toward the environment. Space consciousness represents not only freedom from ego but also from dependency on the things of this world, from materialism and materiality. It is the spiritual dimension which alone can give transcendent and true meaning to this world. If pupils can balance this internal awareness will put an individual to respect the environment as part of yourself and your family against only as contributors to the continuance of human’s life. Qualitative findings showed that the informants considered their consciousness toward environment has been changed.

Keywords: ecopsychological approach, space consciousness, environmental education, environment

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822 The Study of Public Consciousness of Undergraduate Students, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Nantida Otakum

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to study the level of public consciousness of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University undergraduate students. This study also compares differences in the level of public consciousness among undergraduate students who are different in sex and year of study. The research methodology employed a questionnaire as a quantitative method. The respondents were undergraduate students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Totally, 400 usable questionnaires were received. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. The results showed that the level of public consciousness of undergraduate students was at a good level in all aspects. The aspect of social participation was at the highest level, while the aspect of shared vision was at the lowest level. The results also indicated that undergraduate students with differences in sex and year of study were not significantly different in public consciousness level.

Keywords: participation, public consciousness, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, undergraduate students

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821 DCT and Stream Ciphers for Improved Image Encryption Mechanism

Authors: T. R. Sharika, Ashwini Kumar, Kamal Bijlani

Abstract:

Encryption is the process of converting crucial information’s unreadable to unauthorized persons. Image security is an important type of encryption that secures all type of images from cryptanalysis. A stream cipher is a fast symmetric key algorithm which is used to convert plaintext to cipher text. In this paper we are proposing an image encryption algorithm with Discrete Cosine Transform and Stream Ciphers that can improve compression of images and enhanced security. The paper also explains the use of a shuffling algorithm for enhancing securing.

Keywords: decryption, DCT, encryption, RC4 cipher, stream cipher

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820 Stream Channel Changes in Balingara River, Sulawesi Tengah

Authors: Muhardiyan Erawan, Zaenal Mutaqin

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Balingara River is one of the rivers with the type Gravel-Bed in Indonesia. Gravel-Bed Rivers easily deformed in a relatively short time due to several variables, that are climate (rainfall), river discharge, topography, rock types, and land cover. To determine stream channel changes in Balingara River used Landsat 7 and 8 and analyzed planimetric or two dimensions. Parameters to determine changes in the stream channel are sinuosity ratio, Brice Index, the extent of erosion and deposition. Changes in stream channel associated with changes in land cover then analyze with a descriptive analysis of spatial and temporal. The location of a stream channel has a low gradient in the upstream, and middle watershed with the type of rock in the form of gravel is more easily changed than other locations. Changes in the area of erosion and deposition influence the land cover changes.

Keywords: Brice Index, erosion, deposition, gravel-bed, land cover change, sinuosity ratio, stream channel change

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819 Water Quality Determination of River Systems in Antalya Basin by Biomonitoring

Authors: Hasan Kalyoncu, Füsun Kılçık, Hatice Gülboy Akyıldırım, Aynur Özen, Mehmet Acar, Nur Yoluk

Abstract:

For evaluation of water quality of the river systems in Antalya Basin, macrozoobenthos samples were taken from 22 determined stations by a hand net and identified at family level. Water quality of Antalya Basin was determined according to Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) system, by using macrozoobenthic invertebrates and physicochemical parameters. As a result of the evaluation, while Aksu Stream was determined as the most polluted stream in Antalya Basin, Isparta Stream was determined as the most polluted tributary of Aksu Stream. Pollution level of the Isparta Stream was determined as quality class V and it is the extremely polluted part of stream. Pollution loads at the sources of the streams were determined in low levels in general. Due to some parts of the streams have passed through deep canyons and take their sources from nonresidential and non-arable regions, majority of the streams that take place in Antalya Basin are at high quality level. Waste water, which comes from agricultural and residential regions, affects the lower basins of the streams. Because of the waste water, lower parts of the stream basins exposed to the pollution under anthropogenic effects. However, in Aksu Stream, which differs by being exposed to domestic and industrial wastes of Isparta City, extreme pollution was determined, particularly in the Isparta Stream part.

Keywords: Antalya basin, biomonitoring, BMWP, water quality

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818 Influence of the Popular Literature on Consciousness of the Person

Authors: Alua Temirbolat, Sergei Kibalnik, Zhuldyz Essimova

Abstract:

The article is devoted to research of influence of the modern literature on the consciousness of the person. Tendencies and features of the progress of the historical-cultural and artistic process at the end of XX–the beginning of XXI centuries are considered. The object of the analysis is the popular literature which has found last decades greater popularity among readers of different generations. In the article, such genres, as melodramas, female, espionage, criminal, pink, costume-historical novels, thrillers, elements, a fantasy are considered. During research, specific features of the popular literature, its difference from works of classics is revealed. On specific examples, its negative and positive influence on consciousness, psychology of the reader is shown, its role and value in a modern society are defined.

Keywords: the popular literature, the person, consciousness, a genre, psychology

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817 Plecoptera Fauna of Alara and Karpuz Streams and Determination of their Relationships with Water Quality

Authors: Hasan Kalyoncu, Ayşe Güneş

Abstract:

This study was carried on 12 determined stations, on Alara and Karpuz Streams, between January and November 2014. Seasonal samples were taken from the stations to analyze physicochemical parameters and Plecoptera Fauna in the water. The correlation between identified taxa and physicochemical data were tried to determine. As the result of the study, 2088 individuals from Plecoptera fauna were examined, 3 genera and 13 species were identified. The taxa of Brachyptera risi, Capnia bifrons, Dinocras cephalotes, Diura bicaudata, Isogenus nebecula, Isogenus sp., Isoperla grammatica, Leuctra hippopus, Leuctra inermis, Leuctra moselyi, Leuctra sp., Nemoura sp., Perla bipunctata, Perla marginata, Protonemura meyeri and Rhabdiopteryx acuminata were determined. In Alara Stream, the dominant species were; Isogenus nebecula at stations I and IV, Leuctra moselyi at station II, Leuctra hippopus at stations III, V and VI. In Karpuz Stream, Brachyptera risi was the dominant species in all stations. While Leuctra hippopus was the dominant taxon in Alara Stream, in Karpuz Stream it was Brachyptera risi. The highest diversity value was at station III and the lowest was at station VI in Alara Stream and the lowest diversity value was at station VI, while the highest was at station I in Karpuz Stream. In Alara Stream, the most similar stations were I and III, while in Karpuz Stream the highest similarity was determined between stations I and II. As for the evaluation result, the water quality of Alara and Karpuz Streams were determined as at oligosaprobic level.

Keywords: Alara stream, Karpuz stream, plecoptera, water quality

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816 An In-Depth Definition of the 24 Levels of Consciousness and Its Relationship to Buddhism and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: James V. Luisi

Abstract:

Understanding consciousness requires a synthesis of ideas from multiple disciplines, including obvious ones like psychology, biology, evolution, neurology, and neuroscience, as well as less obvious ones like protozoology, botany, entomology, carcinology, herpetology, mammalogy, and computer sciences. Furthermore, to incorporate the necessary backdrop, it is best presented in a theme of Eastern philosophy, specifically leveraging the teachings of Buddhism for its relevance to early thought on consciousness. These ideas are presented as a multi-level framework that illustrates the various aspects of consciousness within a tapestry of foundational and dependent building blocks as to how living organisms evolved to understand elements of their reality sufficiently to survive, and in the case of Homo sapiens, eventually move beyond meeting the basic needs of survival, but to also achieve survival of the species beyond the eventual fate of our planet. This is not a complete system of thought, but just a framework of consciousness gathering some of the key elements regarding the evolution of consciousness and the advent of free will, and presenting them in a unique way that encourages readers to continue the dialog and thought process as an experience to enjoy long after reading the last page. Readers are encouraged to think for themselves about the issues raised herein and to question every facet presented, as much further exploration is needed. Needless to say, this subject will remain a rapidly evolving one for quite some time to come, and it is probably in the interests of everyone to at least consider attaining both an ability and willingness to participate in the dialog.

Keywords: consciousness, sentience, intelligence, artificial intelligence, Buddhism

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815 Improved Hash Value Based Stream CipherUsing Delayed Feedback with Carry Shift Register

Authors: K. K. Soundra Pandian, Bhupendra Gupta

Abstract:

In the modern era, as the application data’s are massive and complex, it needs to be secured from the adversary attack. In this context, a non-recursive key based integrated spritz stream cipher with the circulant hash function using delayed feedback with carry shift register (d-FCSR) is proposed in this paper. The novelty of this proposed stream cipher algorithm is to engender the improved keystream using d-FCSR. The proposed algorithm is coded using Verilog HDL to produce dynamic binary key stream and implemented on commercially available FPGA device Virtex 5 xc5vlx110t-2ff1136. The implementation of stream cipher using d-FCSR on the FPGA device operates at a maximum frequency of 60.62 MHz. It achieved the data throughput of 492 Mbps and improved in terms of efficiency (throughput/area) compared to existing techniques. This paper also briefs the cryptanalysis of proposed circulant hash value based spritz stream cipher using d-FCSR is against the adversary attack on a hardware platform for the hardware based cryptography applications.

Keywords: cryptography, circulant function, field programmable gated array, hash value, spritz stream cipher

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814 Altered States of Consciousness in Narrative Cinema: Subjective Film Sound

Authors: Mladen Milicevic

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In this paper, subjective film sound will be addressed as it gets represented in narrative cinema. First, 'meta-diegetic' sound will be briefly explained followed by transition to “oneiric” sound. The representation of oneiric sound refers to a situation where film characters are experiencing some sort of an altered state of consciousness. Looking at an antlered state of consciousness in terms of human brain processes will point out to the cinematic ways of expression, which 'mimic' those processes. Using several examples for different films will illustrate these points.

Keywords: oneiric, ASC, film, sound

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813 Data Stream Association Rule Mining with Cloud Computing

Authors: B. Suraj Aravind, M. H. M. Krishna Prasad

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There exist emerging applications of data streams that require association rule mining, such as network traffic monitoring, web click streams analysis, sensor data, data from satellites etc. Data streams typically arrive continuously in high speed with huge amount and changing data distribution. This raises new issues that need to be considered when developing association rule mining techniques for stream data. This paper proposes to introduce an improved data stream association rule mining algorithm by eliminating the limitation of resources. For this, the concept of cloud computing is used. Inclusion of this may lead to additional unknown problems which needs further research.

Keywords: data stream, association rule mining, cloud computing, frequent itemsets

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812 Effects of Urbanization on Land Use/Land Cover and Stream Flow of a Sub-Tropical River Basin of India

Authors: Satyavati Shukla, Lakhan V. Rathod, Mohan V. Khire

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Rapid urbanization changes the land use/land cover pattern of a developing region. Due to these land surface changes, stream flow of the rivers also changes. It is important to investigate the factors affecting hydrological characteristics of the river basin for better river basin management planning. This study is aimed to understand the effect of Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) changes on stream flow of Upper Bhima River basin which is highly stressed in terms of water resources. In this study, Upper Bhima River basin is divided into two adjacent sub-watersheds: Mula-Mutha (urbanized) sub-watershed and Bhima (non-urbanized) sub-watershed. First of all, LU/LC changes were estimated over 1980, 2002, and 2009 for both Mula-Mutha and Bhima sub-watersheds. Further, stream flow simulations were done using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the streams draining both watersheds. Results revealed that stream flow was relatively higher for urbanized sub-watershed. Through Sensitivity Analysis it was observed that out of all the parameters used, base flow was the most sensitive parameter towards LU/LC changes.

Keywords: land use/land cover, remote sensing, stream flow, urbanization

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811 Interlingual Melodious Constructions: Romanian Translation of References to Songs in James Joyce’s Ulysses

Authors: Andra-Iulia Ursa

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James Joyce employs several unconventional stylistic features in this landmark novel meant to experiment with language. The episode known as “Sirens” is entirely conceived around music and linguistic structures subordinated to sound. However, the aspiration to the condition of music is reflected throughout this entire literary work, as musical effects are echoed systematically. The numerous melodies scattered across the narrative play an important role in enhancing the thoughts and feelings that pass through the minds of the characters. Often the lyrics are distorted or interweaved with other words, preoccupations or memories, intensifying the stylistic effect. The Victorian song “Love’s old sweet song” is one of the most commonly referred to and meaningful musical allusions in Ulysses, becoming a leitmotif of infidelity. The lyrics of the song “M’appari”, from the opera “Martha”, are compared to an event from Molly and Bloom’s romantic history. Moreover, repeated phrases using words from “The bloom is on the rye” or “The croppy boy” serve as glances into the minds of the characters. Therefore, the central purpose of this study is to shed light on the way musical allusions flit through the episodes from the point of view of the stream of consciousness technique and to compare and analyse how these constructions are rendered into Romanian. Mircea Ivănescu, the single Romanian translator who succeeded in carrying out the translation of the entire ‘stylistic odyssey’, received both praises and disapprovals from the critics. This paper is not meant to call forth eventual flaws of the Romanian translation, but rather to elaborate the complexity of the task. Following an attentive examination and analysis of the two texts, from the point of view of form and meaning of the references to various songs, the conclusions of this study will be able to point out the intricacies of the process of translation.

Keywords: Joyce, melodious constructions, stream of consciousness, style, translation

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810 Structure of Consciousness According to Deep Systemic Constellations

Authors: Dmitry Ustinov, Olga Lobareva

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The method of Deep Systemic Constellations is based on a phenomenological approach. Using the phenomenon of substitutive perception it was established that the human consciousness has a hierarchical structure, where deeper levels govern more superficial ones (reactive level, energy or ancestral level, spiritual level, magical level, and deeper levels of consciousness). Every human possesses a depth of consciousness to the spiritual level, however deeper levels of consciousness are not found for every person. It was found that the spiritual level of consciousness is not homogeneous and has its own internal hierarchy of sublevels (the level of formation of spiritual values, the level of the 'inner observer', the level of the 'path', the level of 'God', etc.). The depth of the spiritual level of a person defines the paradigm of all his internal processes and the main motives of the movement through life. At any level of consciousness disturbances can occur. Disturbances at a deeper level cause disturbances at more superficial levels and are manifested in the daily life of a person in feelings, behavioral patterns, psychosomatics, etc. Without removing the deepest source of a disturbance it is impossible to completely correct its manifestation in the actual moment. Thus a destructive pattern of feeling and behavior in the actual moment can exist because of a disturbance, for example, at the spiritual level of a person (although in most cases the source is at the energy level). Psychological work with superficial levels without removing a source of disturbance cannot fully solve the problem. The method of Deep Systemic Constellations allows one to work effectively with the source of the problem located at any depth. The methodology has confirmed its effectiveness in working with more than a thousand people.

Keywords: constellations, spiritual psychology, structure of consciousness, transpersonal psychology

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809 The Single-Level Structure in Lucid Dreams

Authors: Jinshuo Zhang

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Lucid dreams(LD) are the mental states in which people are aware that they are dreaming, which is a rising interdisciplinary topic among psychologists, neuroscientists and spiritual practitioners. From a phenomenological perspective, this research explores the self-consciousness structure in lucid dreams, particularly focusing on the self-reference structure between lucidity(the observer) and the dream ego(the observed). The main argument of this paper is that the self-structure in lucid dreams is a single-level paradigm. In this paper, the phenomenological characteristics of lucidity in LD are carefully unfolded. The appearance of lucidity is the most significant part of understanding the self-structure and the consciousness in dreams, which is also related to the “Six Bardos practices” in Tibetan Buddhism. In the second section, this research investigates the referential relationship between"lucidity" and "the dream ego" using the phenomenological resource of subjectivity theory, as well as referring to many cases in the psychological labs. Despite the appearance of various consciousness layers in lucid dreams, according to this paper, they are all part of a single-level consciousness paradigm. Dream ego is transparent, and dream lucidity can grasp it directly and thoroughly during LD. This research also responds to some potential criticisms and engages in current debates about the self-structure issue in lucid dreams, as well as discussing some future research prospects for dreams and lucid dreams.

Keywords: lucid dream, self-awareness, phenomenological perspective, high-order theory, one-level consciousness

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808 Influence of Social Norms and Perceived Government Roles on Environmental Consciousness: A Multi-Socio-Economic Approach

Authors: Mona Francesca B. Dela Cruz, Katrina Marie R. Mamaril, Mariah Hannah Kassandra Salazar, Emerald Jay D. Ilac

Abstract:

One key factor that should be considered when determining sustainable solutions to various environmental problems is the potential impact of individual human beings. In order to understand an individual, there is a need to examine cognitive, emotional, dispositional, and behavioral factors which are all indicative of one’s environmental consciousness. This quantitative study explored the moderated mediation between environmental consciousness, socio-economic status, social norms as a mediator, and the perceived role of government as a moderator for 381 Filipinos, aged 25 to 65, in urban and suburban settings. Results showed social norms do not have a mediating effect between socio-economic status and environmental consciousness. This may be influenced by the collectivist culture of the Philippines and the tendency for people to copy behaviors according to the descriptive norm effect. Meanwhile, there exists a moderating effect of the perceived role of government between the relationship of social norms and environmental consciousness which can be explained by the government’s ability to impose social norms that can induce a person to think and act pro-environmentally. Practical applications of this study can be used to tap the ability of the government to strengthen their influence and control over environmental protection and to provide a basis for the development of class-specific environmental solutions that can be done by individuals depending on their socioeconomic status.

Keywords: environmental consciousness, role of government, social norms, socio-economic status

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807 Quantitative Analysis of Presence, Consciousness, Subconsciousness, and Unconsciousness

Authors: Hooshmand Kalayeh

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The human brain consists of reptilian, mammalian, and thinking brain. And mind consists of conscious, subconscious, and unconscious parallel neural-net programs. The primary objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for quantitative analysis of neural-nets associated with these mental activities in the neocortex. The secondary objective of this paper is to suggest a methodology for quantitative analysis of presence; the proposed methodologies can be used as a first-step to measure, monitor, and understand consciousness and presence. This methodology is based on Neural-Networks (NN), number of neuron in each NN associated with consciousness, subconsciouness, and unconsciousness, and number of neurons in neocortex. It is assumed that the number of neurons in each NN is correlated with the associated area and volume. Therefore, online and offline visualization techniques can be used to identify these neural-networks, and online and offline measurement methods can be used to measure areas and volumes associated with these NNs. So, instead of the number of neurons in each NN, the associated area or volume also can be used in the proposed methodology. This quantitative analysis and associated online and offline measurements and visualizations of different Neural-Networks enable us to rewire the connections in our brain for a more balanced living.

Keywords: brain, mind, consciousness, presence, sub-consciousness, unconsciousness, skills, concentrations, attention

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806 The Concept of Path in Original Buddhism and the Concept of Psychotherapeutic Improvement

Authors: Beth Jacobs

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The landmark movement of Western clinical psychology in the 20th century was the development of psychotherapy. The landmark movement of clinical psychology in the 21st century will be the absorption of meditation practices from Buddhist psychology. While millions of people explore meditation and related philosophy, very few people are exposed to the materials of original Buddhism on this topic, especially to the Theravadan Abhidharma. The Abhidharma is an intricate system of lists and matrixes that were used to understand and remember Buddha’s teaching. The Abhidharma delineates the first psychological system of Buddhism, how the mind works in the universe of reality and why meditation training strengthens and purifies the experience of life. Its lists outline the psychology of mental constructions, perception, emotion and cosmological causation. While the Abhidharma is technical, elaborate and complex, its essential purpose relates to the central purpose of clinical psychology: to relieve human suffering. Like Western depth psychology, the methodology rests on understanding underlying processes of consciousness and perception. What clinical psychologists might describe as therapeutic improvement, the Abhidharma delineates as a specific pathway of purified actions of consciousness. This paper discusses the concept of 'path' as presented in aspects of the Theravadan Abhidharma and relates this to current clinical psychological views of therapy outcomes and gains. The core path in Buddhism is the Eight-Fold Path, which is the fourth noble truth and the launching of activity toward liberation. The path is not composed of eight ordinal steps; it’s eight-fold and is described as opening the way, not funneling choices. The specific path in the Abhidharma is described in many steps of development of consciousness activities. The path is not something a human moves on, but something that moments of consciousness develop within. 'Cittas' are extensively described in the Abhidharma as the atomic-level unit of a raw action of consciousness touching upon an object in a field, and there are 121 types of cittas categorized. The cittas are embedded in the mental factors, which could be described as the psychological packaging elements of our experiences of consciousness. Based on these constellations of infinitesimal, linked occurrences of consciousness, citta are categorized by dimensions of purification. A path is a chain of citta developing through causes and conditions. There are no selves, no pronouns in the Abhidharma. Instead of me walking a path, this is about a person working with conditions to cultivate a stream of consciousness that is pure, immediate, direct and generous. The same effort, in very different terms, informs the work of most psychotherapies. Depth psychology seeks to release the bound, unconscious elements of mental process into the clarity of realization. Cognitive and behavioral psychologies work on breaking down automatic thought valuations and actions, changing schemas and interpersonal dynamics. Understanding how the original Buddhist concept of positive human development relates to the clinical psychological concept of therapy weaves together two brilliant systems of thought on the development of human well being.

Keywords: Abhidharma, Buddhist path, clinical psychology, psychotherapeutic outcome

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805 Modeling Stream Flow with Prediction Uncertainty by Using SWAT Hydrologic and RBNN Neural Network Models for Agricultural Watershed in India

Authors: Ajai Singh

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Simulation of hydrological processes at the watershed outlet through modelling approach is essential for proper planning and implementation of appropriate soil conservation measures in Damodar Barakar catchment, Hazaribagh, India where soil erosion is a dominant problem. This study quantifies the parametric uncertainty involved in simulation of stream flow using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a watershed scale model and Radial Basis Neural Network (RBNN), an artificial neural network model. Both the models were calibrated and validated based on measured stream flow and quantification of the uncertainty in SWAT model output was assessed using ‘‘Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm’’ (SUFI-2). Though both the model predicted satisfactorily, but RBNN model performed better than SWAT with R2 and NSE values of 0.92 and 0.92 during training, and 0.71 and 0.70 during validation period, respectively. Comparison of the results of the two models also indicates a wider prediction interval for the results of the SWAT model. The values of P-factor related to each model shows that the percentage of observed stream flow values bracketed by the 95PPU in the RBNN model as 91% is higher than the P-factor in SWAT as 87%. In other words the RBNN model estimates the stream flow values more accurately and with less uncertainty. It could be stated that RBNN model based on simple input could be used for estimation of monthly stream flow, missing data, and testing the accuracy and performance of other models.

Keywords: SWAT, RBNN, SUFI 2, bootstrap technique, stream flow, simulation

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804 Jalal-Ale-Ahmad and ‘Critical Consciousness’: A Comparative Study

Authors: Zohreh Ramin

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One of the most important contributions that Edward Said has had in the realm of critical theory is his insistence on the worldliness of the text and the critic. By this, Said meant that the critic and the text must be considered in their ‘material’ contexts. Foregrounding the substantial role of a critic as embodying what he refers to as ‘critical consciousness’, a true critic, Said maintains, is one who can stand between the ‘dominant culture’ and ‘the totalizing forms of critical systems.’ Considered as one of Iran’s major contemporary intellectuals, Jalal Ale Ahmad is responsible for introducing the idea of ‘Westoxication’ in Iran, constructing a social paradigm of the necessity to return to tradition in contemporary Iran. The present paper intends to study Al-Ahmad’s definition of the orient versus the occident, his criticism of the ‘machination’ of contemporary Iranian society, and his solution to the problem of ‘Westoxication’. The objective of this study is to see whether Ale Ahmad can be considered as embodying the spirit of ‘critical consciousness’ as described by Said as the necessary tool in the hands of an intellectual who is simultaneously attached filitavely to his culture but can detach himself affilitavely through employing critical consciousness.

Keywords: Westoxication, filiative, affiliative, machination

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803 Jet-Stream Airsail: Study of the Shape and the Behavior of the Connecting Cable

Authors: Christopher Frank, Yoshiki Miyairi

Abstract:

A jet-stream airsail concept takes advantage of aerology in order to fly without propulsion. Weather phenomena, especially jet streams, are relatively permanent high winds blowing from west to east, located at average altitudes and latitudes in both hemispheres. To continuously extract energy from the jet-stream, the system is composed of a propelled plane and a wind turbine interconnected by a cable. This work presents the aerodynamic characteristics and the behavior of the cable that links the two subsystems and transmits energy from the turbine to the aircraft. Two ways of solving this problem are explored: numerically and analytically. After obtaining the optimal shape of the cross-section of the cable, its behavior is analyzed as a 2D problem solved numerically and analytically. Finally, a 3D extension could be considered by adding lateral forces. The results of this work can be further used in the design process of the overall system: aircraft-turbine.

Keywords: jet-stream, cable, tether, aerodynamics, aircraft, airsail, wind

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802 Comparison of Agree Method and Shortest Path Method for Determining the Flow Direction in Basin Morphometric Analysis: Case Study of Lower Tapi Basin, Western India

Authors: Jaypalsinh Parmar, Pintu Nakrani, Bhaumik Shah

Abstract:

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is elevation data of the virtual grid on the ground. DEM can be used in application in GIS such as hydrological modelling, flood forecasting, morphometrical analysis and surveying etc.. For morphometrical analysis the stream flow network plays a very important role. DEM lacks accuracy and cannot match field data as it should for accurate results of morphometrical analysis. The present study focuses on comparing the Agree method and the conventional Shortest path method for finding out morphometric parameters in the flat region of the Lower Tapi Basin which is located in the western India. For the present study, open source SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission with 1 arc resolution) and toposheets issued by Survey of India (SOI) were used to determine the morphometric linear aspect such as stream order, number of stream, stream length, bifurcation ratio, mean stream length, mean bifurcation ratio, stream length ratio, length of overland flow, constant of channel maintenance and aerial aspect such as drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circularity ratio, elongation ratio, shape factor and relief aspect such as relief ratio, gradient ratio and basin relief for 53 catchments of Lower Tapi Basin. Stream network was digitized from the available toposheets. Agree DEM was created by using the SRTM and stream network from the toposheets. The results obtained were used to demonstrate a comparison between the two methods in the flat areas.

Keywords: agree method, morphometric analysis, lower Tapi basin, shortest path method

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801 The Roles of Health Consciousness, Health Motivation, and Trust in the Purchase Intention of Meat with Traceability

Authors: Kawpong Polyorat, Nathamon Buaprommee

Abstract:

Food safety crises including mad cow disease and bird flu have raised consumers’ concern in meat safety. In response, the meat industry has adopted traceability systems to standardize quality and safety of their meat production. Traceability, however, is still rarely positioned as a marketing tool to persuade consumers who are meat endusers. Therefore, the present study attempts to understand consumer behaviors in the context of meat with traceability system by conducting a study in Thailand where research in this area is scant. The study results, based on structural equation modeling with AMOS, reveal that, while health motivation has a significant, positive impact on traceability trust, health consciousness does not directly affect traceability. Health consciousness, nevertheless, have a positive influence on health motivation. Finally, traceability trust has a positive impact on purchase intention of meat with traceability. Research implications and future study directions conclude the study report.

Keywords: consumer behavior, health consciousness, health motivation, traceability, trust

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800 Representation of Master–Disciple Relationship in Rumi’s Poems: Spirituality Vis-A-Vis Collective Consciousness

Authors: Nodi Islam

Abstract:

This paper critically reads Rumi’s poems in The Masnavi (Book One) and the philosophy of master-disciple relationship, as reflected as a medium to attain the higher consciousness in the poems which is considered as spiritual by the Sufi practitioners. This paper further applies the concept of collective consciousness introduced by Durkheim, which stands for a set of beliefs, ideas, moral attitudes that operate as a unifying force in a certain society, in reading Rumi’s poems. According to Sufi philosophy, in order to reach to the beloved who is the Higher Being, a lover has to be a disciple of a master and dedicate himself completely even if it means to give up the earthly desires. When the process is completed, he achieves the divinity which is the utmost happiness to be one with the beloved. As this process is considered spiritual by the Sufi practitioners, this paper suggests that, apart from being spiritual, this is a reflection of collective consciousness also. This process plays a part to construct the collectivity as a means to create masters and disciples. Collective consciousness operates in this particular belief system of Sufis who tend to follow this phenomenon as a rule of obedience and accepts the rule because this is how their particular community proceeds on. This paper offers a view of Rumi’s poems which reflect such relationship and tends to offer a general discussion on the hegemonic approach of the Sufi society especially of the Mevlevi order. Finally, this paper offers a constructive representation of Mevlevi society based upon the idea of spirituality which could be an outcome of psychological and social issues and practices.

Keywords: collective consciousness, divinity, master-disciple relationship, Mevlevi order

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799 Static vs. Stream Mining Trajectories Similarity Measures

Authors: Musaab Riyadh, Norwati Mustapha, Dina Riyadh

Abstract:

Trajectory similarity can be defined as the cost of transforming one trajectory into another based on certain similarity method. It is the core of numerous mining tasks such as clustering, classification, and indexing. Various approaches have been suggested to measure similarity based on the geometric and dynamic properties of trajectory, the overlapping between trajectory segments, and the confined area between entire trajectories. In this article, an evaluation of these approaches has been done based on computational cost, usage memory, accuracy, and the amount of data which is needed in advance to determine its suitability to stream mining applications. The evaluation results show that the stream mining applications support similarity methods which have low computational cost and memory, single scan on data, and free of mathematical complexity due to the high-speed generation of data.

Keywords: global distance measure, local distance measure, semantic trajectory, spatial dimension, stream data mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 75