Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18926

Search results for: scientific research

18926 Analysis of the Topics of Research of Brazilian Researchers Acting in the Areas of Engineering

Authors: Jether Gomes, Thiago M. R. Dias, Gray F. Moita

Abstract:

The production and publication of scientific works have increased significantly in the last years, being the Internet the main factor of access and diffusion of these. In view of this, researchers from several areas of knowledge have carried out several studies on scientific production data in order to analyze phenomena and trends about science. The understanding of how research has evolved can, for example, serve as a basis for building scientific policies for further advances in science and stimulating research groups to become more productive. In this context, the objective of this work is to analyze the main research topics investigated along the trajectory of the Brazilian science of researchers working in the areas of engineering, in order to map scientific knowledge and identify topics in highlights. To this end, studies are carried out on the frequency and relationship of the keywords of the set of scientific articles registered in the existing curricula in the Lattes Platform of each one of the selected researchers, counting with the aid of bibliometric analysis features.

Keywords: research topics, bibliometrics, topics of interest, Lattes Platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
18925 Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of Funding on Scientific Development of Researchers

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

Every year, a considerable amount of money is being invested on research, mainly in the form of funding allocated to universities and research institutes. To better distribute the available funds and to set the most proper R&D investment strategies for the future, evaluation of the productivity of the funded researchers and the impact of such funding is crucial. In this paper, using the data on 15 years of journal publications of the NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering research Council of Canada) funded researchers and by means of bibliometric analysis, the scientific development of the funded researchers and their scientific collaboration patterns will be investigated in the period of 1996-2010. According to the results it seems that there is a positive relation between the average level of funding and quantity and quality of the scientific output. In addition, whenever funding allocated to the researchers has increased, the number of co-authors per paper has also augmented. Hence, the increase in the level of funding may enable researchers to get involved in larger projects and/or scientific teams and increase their scientific output respectively.

Keywords: bibliometrics, collaboration, funding, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
18924 Gender Differences in Research Output, Funding and Collaboration

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

In spite of the global efforts toward gender equality, female researchers are still underrepresented in professional scientific activities. The gender gap is more seen in engineering and math-intensive technological scientific fields thus calling for a specific attention. This paper focuses on the Canadian funded researchers who are active in natural sciences and engineering, and analyses the gender aspects of researchers’ performance, their scientific collaboration patterns as well as their share of the federal funding within the period of 2000 to 2010. Our results confirm the existence of gender disparity among the examined Canadian researchers. Although it was observed that male researchers have been performing better in terms of number of publications, the impact of the research was almost the same for both genders. In addition, it was observed that research funding is more biased towards male researchers and they have more control over their scientific community as well.

Keywords: bibliometrics, collaboration, funding, gender differences, research output

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
18923 Identification of Coauthors in Scientific Database

Authors: Thiago M. R Dias, Gray F. Moita

Abstract:

The analysis of scientific collaboration networks has contributed significantly to improving the understanding of how does the process of collaboration between researchers and also to understand how the evolution of scientific production of researchers or research groups occurs. However, the identification of collaborations in large scientific databases is not a trivial task given the high computational cost of the methods commonly used. This paper proposes a method for identifying collaboration in large data base of curriculum researchers. The proposed method has low computational cost with satisfactory results, proving to be an interesting alternative for the modeling and characterization of large scientific collaboration networks.

Keywords: extraction, data integration, information retrieval, scientific collaboration

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
18922 On the Way to the European Research Area: Programmes of the European Union as Factor of the Innovation Development the Scientific Organization in Ukraine

Authors: Yuri Nikitin, Veronika Rukas

Abstract:

Within the framework of the FP7 project "START" the cooperation with European research centres has had a positive impact on raising the level of innovation researches and the introduction of innovations Institute for Super hard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences (ISM NAS) of Ukraine in the economy of Europe and Ukraine, which in turn permits to speeds up the way for Ukrainian science to the European research area through the creation in Ukraine the scientific organizations of innovative type.

Keywords: programs of the EU, innovative scientific results, innovation competence of the staff, commercialization in business of industry of the Europe and Ukraine

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
18921 Ontology-Based Systemizing of the Science Information Devoted to Waste Utilizing by Methanogenesis

Authors: Ye. Shapovalov, V. Shapovalov, O. Stryzhak, A. Salyuk

Abstract:

Over the past decades, amount of scientific information has been growing exponentially. It became more complicated to process and systemize this amount of data. The approach to systematization of scientific information on the production of biogas based on the ontological IT platform “T.O.D.O.S.” has been developed. It has been proposed to select semantic characteristics of each work for their further introduction into the IT platform “T.O.D.O.S.”. An ontological graph with a ranking function for previous scientific research and for a system of selection of microorganisms has been worked out. These systems provide high performance of information management of scientific information.

Keywords: ontology-based analysis, analysis of scientific data, methanogenesis, microorganism hierarchy, 'T.O.D.O.S.'

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
18920 Analyzing Emerging Scientific Domains in Biomedical Discourse: Case Study Comparing Microbiome, Metabolome, and Metagenome Research in Scientific Articles

Authors: Kenneth D. Aiello, M. Simeone, Manfred Laubichler

Abstract:

It is increasingly difficult to analyze emerging scientific fields as contemporary scientific fields are more dynamic, their boundaries are more porous, and the relational possibilities have increased due to Big Data and new information sources. In biomedicine, where funding, medical categories, and medical jurisdiction are determined by distinct boundaries on biomedical research fields and definitions of concepts, ambiguity persists between the microbiome, metabolome, and metagenome research fields. This ambiguity continues despite efforts by institutions and organizations to establish parameters on the core concepts and research discourses. Further, the explosive growth of microbiome, metabolome, and metagenomic research has led to unknown variation and covariation making application of findings across subfields or coming to a consensus difficult. This study explores the evolution and variation of knowledge within the microbiome, metabolome, and metagenome research fields related to ambiguous scholarly language and commensurable theoretical frameworks via a semantic analysis of key concepts and narratives. A computational historical framework of cultural evolution and large-scale publication data highlight the boundaries and overlaps between the competing scientific discourses surrounding the three research areas. The results of this study highlight how discourse and language distribute power within scholarly and scientific networks, specifically the power to set and define norms, central questions, methods, and knowledge.

Keywords: biomedicine, conceptual change, history of science, philosophy of science, science of science, sociolinguistics, sociology of knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
18919 Reader Reception of Cultural Context for Chinese Translation of Scientific and Technical Discourse: An Empirical Study

Authors: Caiwen Wang, Yuling Liu

Abstract:

Scientific and technical discourse is non-literary, and so it is often regarded as merely informative, free of the cultural context of both the source and the target language. Thus it is supposed that translators of sci-tech texts do not need to consider cultural factors in the translation process as readers only care for the information conveyed. This paper takes a different standpoint and shows that cultural context plays an important part in scientific and technical texts and thereafter in bridging the gap between different cultural communities of readers. The paper argues that the common cultural context for members of the same cultural community, such as morals, customs, and values, also underpins the sci-tech discourse of various text types, and therefore may pose difficulties for readers of a different cultural community if this is re-presented or translated literally. The research hypothesises that depending on how it is re-presented or translated; cultural context can either encourage or discourage readers’ reading experience and subsequently their interest to read and use translation texts. Drawing upon the Reception Theory by Hans Robert Jauss, the research investigates the relationship between cultural context and scientific and technical translation from English to Chinese. Citing 55 examples of sci-tech translations from magazines, newspapers and the website of Shell, a major international oil and gas company, the research shows that the source texts for these 55 cases all have bearing on the source cultural context, and translators will need to address this in the translation process instead of doing literal translation to be merely correct. The research then interviews 15 research subjects for their views of the translations. By assessing readers’ reception and perception of translated Chinese sci-tech discourse, the research concludes that cultural context contributes to the quality of scientific and technical translation in an important way and then discusses the implications of the findings for training scientific and technical translators.

Keywords: Chinese translation, cultural context, reception theory, scientific and technical texts

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
18918 Effect of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Activities to Thai Undergraduate Student Teachers Attitude and Their Achievement

Authors: Thanawit Tongmai, Chatchawan Saewor

Abstract:

Learning management is very important for students’ development. To promote students’ potential, the teacher should design appropriate learning activity that brings their students potential out. Problem based learning has been using worldwide and it has presented numerous of success. This research aims to study third year students’ attitude and their achievement in scientific research course. To find the results, mix method was used to design research conduction. The researcher used PBL and reflection activity in the class. The students had to choose a topic, reviewed information, designed experimental, wrote academic report and presented their research by themselves. The researcher was only a facilitator. Reflection activity was used to progressing and consulting their research. The data was collected along with research conduction by questionnaire and test, including attitude, opinion and their achievement. The result of this study showed that 74.71% from all of students (n = 87) benefited from PBL and reflection activity, while 25.19% were just satisfied. 100% of students had a positive reflection toward PBL activity and they believed that PBL was the best pedagogy method for scientific research course. The achievements of these students were higher than the previous study (P < 0.05). The student’s learning achievement, A, B+ and B, was 48.28, 28.74 and 22.98% respectively. Therefore, it can conclude that PBL activity is appropriate for scientific research course and it can also promote student’s achievement.

Keywords: reflection, attitude, learning, achievement, PBL

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
18917 Analyzing Keyword Networks for the Identification of Correlated Research Topics

Authors: Thiago M. R. Dias, Patrícia M. Dias, Gray F. Moita

Abstract:

The production and publication of scientific works have increased significantly in the last years, being the Internet the main factor of access and distribution of these works. Faced with this, there is a growing interest in understanding how scientific research has evolved, in order to explore this knowledge to encourage research groups to become more productive. Therefore, the objective of this work is to explore repositories containing data from scientific publications and to characterize keyword networks of these publications, in order to identify the most relevant keywords, and to highlight those that have the greatest impact on the network. To do this, each article in the study repository has its keywords extracted and in this way the network is  characterized, after which several metrics for social network analysis are applied for the identification of the highlighted keywords.

Keywords: bibliometrics, data analysis, extraction and data integration, scientometrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
18916 Research Opportunities in Business Process Management and Performance Measurement from a Constructivist View

Authors: R.T.O. Lacerda, L. Ensslin., S.R. Ensslin, L. Knoff

Abstract:

This research paper aims to discover research opportunities in business process management and performance measurement from a constructivist view. The nature of this research is exploratory and descriptive and the research method was performed in a qualitative way. The process narrowed down 2142 articles, gathered after a search in scientific databases, and identified 16 articles that were relevant to the research and highly cited. The analysis found that most of the articles uses realistic approach and there is a need to analyze the decision making process in a singular manner. The measurement criteria are identified from scientific literature searching, in most cases, using ordinal scale without any integration process to present the results to the decision maker. Regarding management aspects, most of the articles do not have a structured process to measure the current situation and generate improvements opportunities.

Keywords: performance measurement, BPM, decision, research opportunities

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
18915 Neuropedagogy as a Scientific Discipline: Interdisciplinary Description of the Theoretical Basis for the Development of a Research Field

Authors: M. Chojak

Abstract:

Recently, more and more scientific disciplines refer to research in the field of neurobiology. Interdisciplinary research procedures are created using modern methods of brain imaging. Neither did the pedagogues start looking for neuronal conditions for various processes. The publications began to show concepts such as ‘neuropedagogy’, ‘neuroeducation’, ‘neurodidactics’, ‘brain-friendly education’. They were and are still used interchangeably. In the offer of training for teachers, the topics of multiple intelligences or educational kinesiology began to be more and more popular. These and other ideas have been actively introduced into the curricula. To our best knowledge, the literature on the subject lacks articles organizing the new nomenclature and indicating the methodological framework for research that would confirm the effectiveness of the above-mentioned innovations. The author of this article tries to find the place for neuropedagogy in the system of sciences, define its subject of research, methodological framework and basic concepts. This is necessary to plan studies that will verify the so-called neuromyths.

Keywords: brain, education, neuropedagogy, research

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
18914 Mapping of Adrenal Gland Diseases Research in Middle East Countries: A Scientometric Analysis, 2007-2013

Authors: Zahra Emami, Mohammad Ebrahim Khamseh, Nahid Hashemi Madani, Iman Kermani

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to map scientific research on adrenal gland diseases in the Middle East countries through the Web of Science database using scientometric analysis. Data were analyzed with Excel software; and HistCite was used for mapping of the scientific texts. In this study, from a total of 268 retrieved records, 1125 authors from 328 institutions published their texts in 138 journals. Among 17 Middle East countries, Turkey ranked first with 164 documents (61.19%), Israel ranked second with 47 documents (15.53%) and Iran came in the third place with 26 documents. Most of the publications (185 documents, 69.2%) were articles. Among the universities of the Middle East, Istanbul University had the highest science production rate (9.7%). The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism had the highest TGCS (243 citations). In the scientific mapping, 7 clusters were formed based on TLCS (Total Local Citation Score) & TGCS (Total Global Citation Score). considering the study results, establishment of scientific connections and collaboration with other countries and use of publications on adrenal gland diseases from high ranking universities can help in the development of this field and promote the medical practice in this regard. Moreover, investigation of the formed clusters in relation to Congenital Hyperplasia and puberty related disorders can be research priorities for investigators.

Keywords: mapping, scientific research, adrenal gland diseases, scientometric

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
18913 Psychometric Examination of the QUEST-25: An Online Assessment of Intellectual Curiosity and Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The current study reports an examination of the QUEST-25 (Q-Assessment of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thinking) online version for assessing the dispositional attitudes toward scientific thinking and intellectual curiosity among undergraduate students. The QUEST-25 consists of scientific thinking (SIQ-25) and intellectual curiosity (ICIQ-25), which were correlated in hypothesized directions with the Religious Commitment Inventory, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory, Belief in Science scale, and measures of academic self-efficacy. Additionally, concurrent validity was established by the resulting significant differences between those identifying the centrality of religious belief in their lives and those who do not self-identify as being guided daily by religious beliefs. This study demonstrates the utility of the QUEST-25 for research, evaluation, and theory development.

Keywords: guided-inquiry learning, intellectual curiosity, psychometric assessment, scientific thinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
18912 Heterogeneity of Thinking: Religious Beliefs and Logical Concepts

Authors: Alisa Rekunova

Abstract:

According to the theory of word meaning structure developed by Lev Vygotsky (and later modified by Aaro Toomela), there are several levels of thought: sensory-based concepts, situation concepts, logical concepts, and structural-systemic concepts. There are differences between people who have relatively easy access to logical thought compared to those who mostly tend to think in everyday concepts. Religious beliefs are connected with unprovable concepts (Christian Jesus’s ascension or Pagan energy) that cannot be non-controversially related to scientific concepts. However, many scientists in the research are believers of some kinds. Religious views can be different: there are believers, non-believers (atheists), and undecided (we can call them agnostics). Some of the respondents say that scientific or professional and religious spheres do not overlap. Therefore, we can assume they do not see any conflict. Some of them, on the contrary, hesitate to answer and we can conclude they see the conflicts, but they do not want (or do not believe they are able to) to solve it. Finally, the third category of respondents says that religious beliefs and scientific concepts cannot coexist in the human mind. It can be expected that the third category of respondents should have higher education (or even work in the scientific field) but many scientists in the research answer that religious and scientific spheres do not overlap. Therefore, there are other things besides the level of education that is connected with resolving conflicts.

Keywords: conflicts in thinking, cultural-historical psychology, heterogeneity of thinking, religious thinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
18911 Analysis of Scientific Attitude, Computer Anxiety, Educational Internet Use, Problematic Internet Use, and Academic Achievement of Middle School Students According to Demographic Variables

Authors: Mehmet Bekmezci, Ismail Celik, Ismail Sahin, Ahmet Kiray, A. Oguz Akturk

Abstract:

In this research, students’ scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents’ educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are located in the center of Konya. The “general survey method” is adopted in the research. In accordance with the purpose of the study, percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent samples t--‐test, ANOVA (variance) are employed in the study. A total of four scales are implemented. These four scales include a total of 13 sub-dimensions. The scores from these scales and their subscales are studied in terms of various variables. In the research, students’ scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, the problematic Internet use and academic achievement (gender, parent educational level, and daily access to the Internet) are investigated based on various variables and some significant relations are found.

Keywords: scientific attitude, educational use of the internet, computer anxiety, problematic use of the internet, academic achievement

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
18910 Database Playlists: Croatia's Popular Music in the Mirror of Collective Memory

Authors: Diana Grguric, Robert Svetlacic, Vladimir Simovic

Abstract:

Scientific research analytically explores database playlists by studying the memory culture through Croatian popular radio music. The research is based on the scientific analysis of databases developed on the basis of the playlist of ten Croatian radio stations. The most recent Croatian song on Statehood Day 2008-2013 is analyzed in order to gain insight into their (memory) potential in terms of storing, interpreting and presenting a national identity. The research starts with the general assumption that popular music is an efficient identifier, transmitter, and promoter of national identity. The aim of the scientific research of the database was to analytically reveal specific titles of Croatian popular songs that participate in marking memories and analyzing their symbolic capital to gain insight into the popular music experience of the past and to develop a new method of scientifically based analysis of specific databases.

Keywords: specific databases, popular radio music, collective memory, national identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
18909 A Research on Tourism Market Forecast and Its Evaluation

Authors: Min Wei

Abstract:

The traditional prediction methods of the forecast for tourism market are paid more attention to the accuracy of the forecasts, ignoring the results of the feasibility of forecasting and predicting operability, which had made it difficult to predict the results of scientific testing. With the application of Linear Regression Model, this paper attempts to construct a scientific evaluation system for predictive value, both to ensure the accuracy, stability of the predicted value, and to ensure the feasibility of forecasting and predicting the results of operation. The findings show is that a scientific evaluation system can implement the scientific concept of development, the harmonious development of man and nature co-ordinate.

Keywords: linear regression model, tourism market, forecast, tourism economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
18908 Encouraging the Development of Scientific Literacy in Early Childhood Institutions: Croatian Experience

Authors: L. Vujičić, Ž. Ivković, Ž. Boneta

Abstract:

There is a widespread belief in everyday discourse that science subjects (physics, chemistry and biology) are, along with math, the most difficult school subjects in the education of an individual. This assumption is usually justified by the following facts: low GPA in these subjects, the number of pupils who fail these subjects is high in comparison to other subjects, and the number of pupils interested in continuing their studies in the fields with a focus on science subjects is lower compared to non-science-oriented fields. From that perspective, the project: “Could it be different? How do children explore it?” becomes extremely interesting because it is focused on young children and on the introduction of new methods, with aim of arousing interest in scientific literacy development in 10 kindergartens by applying the methodology of an action research, with an ethnographic approach. We define scientific literacy as a process of encouraging and nurturing the research and explorative spirit in children, as well as their natural potential and abilities that represent an object of scientific research: to learn about exploration by conducting exploration. Upon project completion, an evaluation questionnaire was created for the parents of the children who had participated in the project, as well as for those whose children had not been involved in the project. The purpose of the first questionnaire was to examine the level of satisfaction with the project implementation and its outcomes among those parents whose children had been involved in the project (N=142), while the aim of the second questionnaire was to find out how much the parents of the children not involved (N=154) in this activity were interested in this topic.

Keywords: documenting, early childhood education, evaluation questionnaire for parents, scientific literacy development

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
18907 Improving the Statistics Nature in Research Information System

Authors: Rajbir Cheema

Abstract:

In order to introduce an integrated research information system, this will provide scientific institutions with the necessary information on research activities and research results in assured quality. Since data collection, duplication, missing values, incorrect formatting, inconsistencies, etc. can arise in the collection of research data in different research information systems, which can have a wide range of negative effects on data quality, the subject of data quality should be treated with better results. This paper examines the data quality problems in research information systems and presents the new techniques that enable organizations to improve their quality of research information.

Keywords: Research information systems (RIS), research information, heterogeneous sources, data quality, data cleansing, science system, standardization

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
18906 An Observation of the Information Technology Research and Development Based on Article Data Mining: A Survey Study on Science Direct

Authors: Muhammet Dursun Kaya, Hasan Asil

Abstract:

One of the most important factors of research and development is the deep insight into the evolutions of scientific development. The state-of-the-art tools and instruments can considerably assist the researchers, and many of the world organizations have become aware of the advantages of data mining for the acquisition of the knowledge required for the unstructured data. This paper was an attempt to review the articles on the information technology published in the past five years with the aid of data mining. A clustering approach was used to study these articles, and the research results revealed that three topics, namely health, innovation, and information systems, have captured the special attention of the researchers.

Keywords: information technology, data mining, scientific development, clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
18905 The Strategy for Increasing the Competitiveness of Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili

Abstract:

The paper discusses economic policy of Georgia aiming to increase national competitiveness as well as the tools and means which will help to improve the competitiveness of the country. The sectors of the economy, in which the country can achieve the competitive advantage, are studied. It is noted that the country’s economic policy plays an important role in obtaining and maintaining the competitive advantage - authority should take measures to ensure high level of education; scientific and research activities should be funded by the state; foreign direct investments should be attracted mainly in science-intensive industries; adaptation with the latest scientific achievements of the modern world and deepening of scientific and technical cooperation. Stable business environment and export oriented strategy is the basis for the country’s economic growth. As the outcome of the research, the paper suggests the strategy for improving competitiveness in Georgia; recommendations are provided based on relevant conclusions.

Keywords: competitive advantage, competitiveness, competitiveness improvement strategy, competitiveness of Georgia

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
18904 Ways for Improving Citation of the Cyrillic Publications

Authors: Victoria Y. Garnova, Vladimir G. Merzlikin, Denis G. Yakovlev, Andrei А. Amelenkov, Sergey V. Khudyakov

Abstract:

Assessment of novelty of studies submitted in Russian publications is given by the method citation analysis to identify scientific research with a high degree of innovation. This may be the basis of recommendations for subjects new joint projects setting of the RF and the EU. Apart from not the best rating of Russian publications (may even its lack) current IT ensure open access to the WEB-sites of these journals that make possible own expertise selective rapid assessment of the advanced developments in Russia by interested foreign investors. Cited foreign literature in Russian journals can become the subject of study to determine the innovative attractiveness of scientific research on the background a specific future-proof abroad. Authors introduced: (1) linguistic impact factor Li-f of journals for describing the share of publications in the majority language; (2) linguistic citation index Lact characterizing the significance of scientific research and linguistic top ones Ltop for evaluation of the spectral width of citing of foreign journals.

Keywords: citation analysis, linguistic citation indexes, linguistic impact factor, innovative projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
18903 Narratives in Science as Covert Prestige Indicators

Authors: Zinaida Shelkovnikova

Abstract:

The language in science is changing and meets the demands of the society. We shall argue that in the varied modern world there are important reasons for the integration of narratives into scientific discourse. As far as nowadays scientists are faced with extremely prompt science development and progress; modern scientific society lives in the conditions of tough competition. The integration of narratives into scientific discourse is thus a good way to prompt scientific experience to different audiences and to express covert prestige of the discourse. Narratives also form the identity of the persuasive narrator. Using the narrative approach to the scientific discourse analysis we reveal the sociocultural diversity of the scientists. If you want to attract audience’s attention to your scientific research, narratives should be integrated into your scientific discourse. Those who understand this consistent pattern are considered the leading scientists. Taking into account that it is prestigious to be renowned, celebrated in science, it is a covert prestige to write narratives in science. We define a science narrative as the intentional, consequent, coherent, event discourse or a discourse fragment, which contains the author creativity, in some cases intrigue, and gives mostly qualitative information (compared with quantitative data) in order to provide maximum understanding of the research. Science narratives also allow the effective argumentation and consequently construct the identity of the persuasive narrator. However, skills of creating appropriate scientific discourse reflect the level of prestige. In order to teach postgraduate students to be successful in English scientific writing and to be prestigious in the scientific society, we have defined the science narrative and outlined its main features and characteristics. Narratives contribute to audience’s involvement with the narrator and his/her narration. In general, the way in which a narrative is performed may result in (limited or greater) contact with the audience. To gain these aim authors use emotional fictional elements; descriptive elements: adjectives; adverbs; comparisons and so on; author’s evaluative elements. Thus, the features of science narrativity are the following: descriptive tools; authors evaluation; qualitative information exceeds the quantitative data; facts take the event status; understandability; accessibility; creativity; logics; intrigue; esthetic nature; fiction. To conclude, narratives function covert prestige of the scientific discourse and shape the identity of the persuasive scientist.

Keywords: covert prestige, narrativity, scientific discourse, scientific narrative

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
18902 Strategies for Achieving Application of Science in National Development

Authors: Orisakwe Chimuanya Favour Israel

Abstract:

In a world filled with the products of scientific inquiry, scientific literacy has become a necessity for everyone because it is indispensable to achieving technological development of any nation. Everyone needs to use scientific information to make choices that arise every day. Everyone needs to be able to engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about important issues that involves science and technology. And everyone deserves to share in the excitement and personal fulfillment that can come from -understanding and learning about the natural world. No doubt that industrialized countries have, through their control of science and technology education, developed the potential to increase production, and to improve the standard of living of their people. The main thrust of this paper therefore, is to present an overview of science education, strategies for achieving application of science in national development, such as teaching science with the right spirit of inquiry. Also, the paper discussed three research models that can help in national development and suggests the best out of the three which is more realistic for a developing country like ours (Nigeria) to follow for a sustainable national development and finally suggests some key ways of solving problems of development.

Keywords: scientific inquiry, scientific literacy, strategies, sustainable national development

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
18901 Exploring Students’ Visual Conception of Matter and Its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Arlyne C. Marasigan, Janir T. Datukan

Abstract:

The study explored how students visualize the states and classifications of matter using scientific models. It also identified misconceptions of students in using scientific models. In general, high percentage of students was able to use scientific models correctly and only a little misconception was identified. From the result of the study, a teaching framework was formulated wherein scientific models should be employed in classroom instruction to visualize abstract concepts in chemistry and for better conceptual understanding.

Keywords: visual conception, scientific models, mental models, states of matter, classification of matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
18900 A Critical Reflection of Ableist Methodologies: Approaching Interviews and Go-Along Interviews

Authors: Hana Porkertová, Pavel Doboš

Abstract:

Based on a research project studying the experience of visually disabled people with urban space in the Czech Republic, the conference contribution discusses the limits of social-science methodologies used in sociology and human geography. It draws on actor-network theory, assuming that science does not describe reality but produces it. Methodology connects theory, research questions, ways to answer them (methods), and results. A research design utilizing ableist methodologies can produce ableist realities. Therefore, it was necessary to adjust the methods so that they could mediate blind experience to the scientific community without reproducing ableism. The researchers faced multiple challenges, ranging from questionable validity to how to research experience that differs from that of the researchers who are able-bodied. Finding a suitable theory that could be used as an analytical tool that would demonstrate space and blind experience as multiple, dynamic, and mutually constructed was the first step that could offer a range of potentially productive methods and research questions, as well as bring critically reflected results. Poststructural theory, mainly Deleuze-Guattarian philosophy, was chosen, and two methods were used: interviews and go-along interviews that had to be adjusted to be able to explore blind experience. In spite of a thorough preparation of these methods, new difficulties kept emerging, which exposed the ableist character of scientific knowledge. From the beginning of data collecting, there was an agreement to work in teams with slightly different roles of each of the researchers, which was significant especially during go-along interviews. In some cases, the anticipations of the researchers and participants differed, which led to unexpected and potentially dangerous situations. These were not caused only by the differences between scientific and lay communities but also between able-bodied and disabled people. Researchers were sometimes assigned to the assistants’ roles, and this new position – doing research together – required further negotiations, which also opened various ethical questions.

Keywords: ableist methodology, blind experience, go-along interviews, research ethics, scientific knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
18899 3D-Vehicle Associated Research Fields for Smart City via Semantic Search Approach

Authors: Haluk Eren, Mucahit Karaduman

Abstract:

This paper presents 15-year trends for scientific studies in a scientific database considering 3D and vehicle words. Two words are selected to find their associated publications in IEEE scholar database. Both of keywords are entered individually for the years 2002, 2012, and 2016 on the database to identify the preferred subjects of researchers in same years. We have classified closer research fields after searching and listing. Three years (2002, 2012, and 2016) have been investigated to figure out progress in specified time intervals. The first one is assumed as the initial progress in between 2002-2012, and the second one is in 2012-2016 that is fast development duration. We have found very interesting and beneficial results to understand the scholars’ research field preferences for a decade. This information will be highly desirable in smart city-based research purposes consisting of 3D and vehicle-related issues.

Keywords: Vehicle, three-dimensional, smart city, scholarly search, semantic

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
18898 Negotiating Increased Food Production with African Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge: The Ugandan Case

Authors: Harriet Najjemba, Simon Peter Rutabajuuka, Deo Katono Nzarwa

Abstract:

Scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Africa, including Uganda, during colonial rule. While this form of knowledge was introduced as part of Western scientific canon, African indigenous knowledge was not destroyed and has remained vital in food production. Modern scientific methods were devoted to export crops while food crop production was left to Africans who continued to use indigenous knowledge. Today, indigenous agricultural knowledge still provides farming skills and practices, more than a century since modern scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Uganda. It is evident that there is need to promote the still useful and more accessible indigenous agricultural practices in order to sustain increased food production. It is also important to have a tailor made agricultural knowledge system that combines practical indigenous practices with financially viable western scientific agricultural practices for sustained food production. The proposed paper will explain why the African indigenous agricultural knowledge has persisted and survived for over a century after colonial introduction of western scientific agricultural knowledge. The paper draws on research findings for a PhD study at Makerere University, Uganda. The study uses both written and oral sources, including colonial and postcolonial archival documents, and interviews. It critiques the parameters within which Western farming methods were introduced to African farmers.

Keywords: food production, food shortage, indigenous agricultural knowledge, western scientific agricultural practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
18897 Secondary Science Teachers' Views about Purposes of Practical Works in School Science

Authors: Kew-Cheol Shim, Sung-Hwan Moon, Ji-Hyon Kil, Kyoungho Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper was to examine views of secondary school science teachers about purposes to use practical works in school science. The instrument to survey consisted eighteen items, which were categorized into four components as follows: ‘Scientific inquiry’, ‘Scientific knowledge’, ‘Science-related attitude’, and ‘STS (science-technology-society)’. Subjects were 152 secondary school science teachers (male 70 and female 82; middle school 50 and high school 102), who are teaching in 42 schools of 8 provinces. On the survey, science teachers were asked to answer on 5-point Lickert scale (from 1 to 5) how they thought of using practical works on purposes with domains of science objectives in school. They had positive views about using practical works for improving scientific inquiry process skills, science-related attitudes, and perceptions about STS literacy, and acquiring scientific knowledge. They would have the most willingness of using practical works for ‘Scientific Inquiry’ among domains of science objectives in school.

Keywords: secondary school, science teacher, practical work, scientific inquiry, scientific knowledge, scientific attitude, STS

Procedia PDF Downloads 386