Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2680

Search results for: teaching idiomatic expressions

2680 Metaphors Underlying Idiomatic Expressions in Trilingual Perspective: Contributions to the Teaching of Lexicon and to Materials Development

Authors: Marilei Amadeu Sabino

Abstract:

Idiomatic expressions are linguistic phraseologisms present in natural languages. Known to be metaphorical linguistic combinations, a good majority of them provide elements that reveal important cultural aspects of their linguistic community through their metaphors. With the advent of Cognitive Linguistics (more specifically of Cognitive Semantics), the metaphor ceased to be related to poetic language and rhetorical embellishment and came to be seen as part of simple everyday language, reflecting the way human beings think, act and conceive reality, i. e., a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. In this sense, it came to be conceived as an inevitable mechanism for representing the nature of thought and language. The speakers, in conceptualizing reality, often use metaphorically parts of the body in expressions known as somatic. Several conceptual metaphors appear to be potentially universal or near-universal, because people across the world share certain bodily experiences. In these terms, many linguistic metaphors may be identical or very similar in several languages. These similarities, according to the Theory of Conceptual Metaphor, derive from universal aspects of the human body. Thus, this research aims to investigate the nature of some metaphors underlying somatic idiomatic expressions of Portuguese, Italian and English languages, establishing a pattern of similarities and differences among them from a trilingual perspective. The analysis shows that much of the studied expressions are really structurally, semantically and metaphorically identical or similar in the three languages. These findings incite relevant discussions concerning mother and foreign language learning and aim to contribute to the teaching of phraseological Lexicon as well as to materials development in mono and multilingual perspectives.

Keywords: idiomatic expressions, materials development, metaphors, phraseological lexicon, teaching and learning

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2679 The Study of Difficulties of Understanding Idiomatic Expressions Encountered by Translators 2021

Authors: Mohamed Elmogbail

Abstract:

The present study aimed at investigating difficulties those Translators encounter in understanding idiomatic expressions between Arabic and English languages. To achieve this goal, the researcher raised the three questions are:(1) What are the major difficulties that translators encounter in translating idiomatic expressions? (2) What factors cause such difficulties that translators encountered in translating idiomatic expressions? (3) What are the possible techniques that should be followed to overcome these difficulties? To answer these questions, the researcher designed questionnaire Table (2) and mentioned tables related to Test Show the second question in the study is about the factors that stand behind the challenges. Translators encounter while translating idiomatic expressions. The translators asked Provided the following factors:1- Because of lack of exposure to the source culture, they do not know the connotations of the cultural words that are related to the environment, food, folklore 2- Misusing dictionaries made the participants unable to find a proper target language idiomatic expression. 3-Lack of using idiomatic expressions in daily life. Table (3): (Questionnaire) Results to the table (3) Questions Of the study are About suggestions that can be inferred to handle these challenges. The questioned translators provided the following solutions:1- translators must be exposed to source language culture, including religion, habits, and traditions.2- translators should also be exposed to source language idiomatic expressions by introducing English culture in textbooks and through participating in extensive English culture courses.3- translators should be familiar with the differences between source and target language cultures.4- translators should avoid literal translation that results in most cases in wrong or poor translation.5- Schools, universities, and institutions should introduce translators to English culture.6- translators should participate in cultural workshops at universities.7- translators should try to use idiomatic expressions in everyday situations.8- translators should read more idiomatic expressions books. And researcher also designed a translation test consisted of 40 excerpts given to a random sample of 100 Translators in Khartoum capital of Sudan to translate them. After Collected data for the study, the researcher proceeded to a more detailed analysis, the methodology used in the analysis of idiomatic expressions Is empirical and descriptive. This study is qualitative by nature, but the quantitative method used the analysis of the data. Some figure and statistics are used, such as (statistical package for the social sciences). The researcher calculated the percentage proportion of each translation expressions. And compared them to each other. The finding of the study showed that most translations are inadequate as the translators faced difficulties while communication, these difficulties were mostly due to their unfamiliarity with idiomatic expressions producing improper equivalence in the communication, and not being able to use translation techniques as required, and resorted to literal translation, furthermore, the study recommended that more comprehensive studies to executed on translating idiomatic expressions to enrich the translation field.

Keywords: translation, translators, idioms., expressions

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2678 The Effects of High Technology on Communicative Translation: A Case Study of Yoruba Language

Authors: Modupe Beatrice Adeyinka

Abstract:

European Languages are languages of literature, science and technology. Whereas, African languages are of literature, both written and oral, making it difficult for Yoruba, the African language of Kwa linguistic classification, to neatly and accurately translate European scientific and technological words, expressions and technologies. Unless a pragmatic and communicative approach is adopted, equivalence of European technical and scientific texts might be a mission impossible for Yoruba scholars. In view of the aforementioned difficult task, this paper tends to highlight the need for a thorough study and evaluation of English or French words, expressions, idiomatic expressions, technical and scientific terminologies then, trying to find ways of adopting them to Yoruba environment through interpretative translation.

Keywords: communication, high technology, translation, Yoruba language

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2677 Unveiling the Indonesian Identity through Proverbial Expressions: The Relation of Meaning between Authority and Globalization

Authors: Prima Gusti Yanti, Fairul Zabadi

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to find out relation of moral massage with the authority ang globalization in proverb. Proverb is one of the many forms of cultural identity of the Indonesian/Malay people fulled with moral values. The values contained within those proverbs are beneficial not only to the society, but also to those who held power amidst on this era of globalization. The method being used is qualitative research by using content analysis which is done by describing and uncovering the forms and meanings of proverbs used within Indonesia Minangkabau society. Sources for this study’s data were extracted from a Minangkabau native speaker in the subdistrict of Tanah Abang, Jakarta. Said sources were retrieved through a series of interviews with the Minangkabau native speaker, whose speech is still adorned with idiomatic expressions. The research findings show that there existed 30 proverbs or idiomatic expressions in the Minangkabau language that are often used by its indigenous people. The thirty data contain moral values that are closely interwoven with the matter of power and globalization. Analytical results show that there are fourteen moral values contained within proverbs reflect a firm connection between rule and power in globalization; such as: responsible, brave, togetherness and consensus,tolerance, politeness, thorough and meticulous,honest and keeping promise, ingenious and learning, care, self-correction, be fair, alert, arbitrary, self-awareness. Structurally, proverbs possess an unchangeably formal construction; symbolically, proverbs possess meanings that are clearly decided through ethnographic communicative factors along with situational and cultural contexts. Values contained within proverbs may be used as a guide in social management, be it between fellow men, men between nature, or even men between their Creator. Therefore, the meanings and values contained within the morals of proverbs could also be utilized as a counsel for those who rule and in charge of power in order to stem the tides of globalization that had already spread into sectoral, territorial and educational continuums.

Keywords: continuum, globalization, identity, proverb, rule-power

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2676 The Fallacy around Inserting Brackets to Evaluate Expressions Involving Multiplication and Division

Authors: Manduth Ramchander

Abstract:

Evaluating expressions involving multiplication and division can give rise to the fallacy that brackets can be arbitrarily inserted into expressions involving multiplication and division. The aim of this article was to draw upon mathematical theory to prove that brackets cannot be arbitrarily inserted into expressions involving multiplication and division and in particular in expressions where division precedes multiplication. In doing so, it demonstrates that the notion that two different answers are possible, when evaluating expressions involving multiplication and division, is indeed a false one. Searches conducted in a number of scholarly databases unearthed the rules to be applied when removing brackets from expressions, which revealed that consideration needs to be given to sign changes when brackets are removed. The rule pertaining to expressions involving multiplication and division was then extended upon, in its reverse format, to prove that brackets cannot be arbitrarily inserted into expressions involving multiplication and division. The application of the rule demonstrates that an expression involving multiplication and division can have only one correct answer. It is recommended that both the rule and its reverse be included in the curriculum, preferably at the juncture when manipulation with brackets is introduced.

Keywords: brackets, multiplications and division, operations, order

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2675 Rendering Religious References in English: Naguib Mahfouz in the Arabic as a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Shereen Yehia El Ezabi

Abstract:

The transition from the advanced to the superior level of Arabic proficiency is widely known to pose considerable challenges for English speaking students of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL). Apart from the increasing complexity of the grammar at this juncture, together with the sprawling vocabulary, to name but two of those challenges, there is also the somewhat less studied hurdle along the way to superior level proficiency, namely, the seeming opacity of many aspects of Arab/ic culture to such learners. This presentation tackles one specific dimension of such issues: religious references in literary texts. It illustrates how carefully constructed translation activities may be used to expand and deepen students’ understanding and use of them. This is shown to be vital for making the leap to the desired competency, given that such elements, as reflected in customs, traditions, institutions, worldviews, and formulaic expressions lie at the very core of Arabic culture and, as such, pervade all modes and levels of Arabic discourse. A short story from the collection “Stories from Our Alley”, by preeminent novelist Naguib Mahfouz is selected for use in this context, being particularly replete with such religious references, of which religious expressions will form the focus of the presentation. As a miniature literary work, it provides an organic whole, so to speak, within which to explore with the class the most precise denotation, as well as the subtlest connotation of each expression in an effort to reach the ‘best’ English rendering. The term ‘best’ refers to approximating the meaning in its full complexity from the source text, in this case Arabic, to the target text, English, according to the concept of equivalence in translation theory. The presentation will show how such a process generates the sort of thorough discussion and close text analysis which allows students to gain valuable insight into this central idiom of Arabic. A variety of translation methods will be highlighted, gleaned from the presenter’s extensive work with advanced/superior students in the Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA) program at the American University in Cairo. These begin with the literal rendering of expressions, with the purpose of reinforcing vocabulary learning and practicing the rules of derivational morphology as they form each word, since the larger context remains that of an AFL class, as opposed to a translation skills program. However, departures from the literal approach are subsequently explored by degrees, moving along the spectrum of functional and pragmatic freer translations in order to transmit the ‘real’ meaning in readable English to the target audience- no matter how culture/religion specific the expression- while remaining faithful to the original. Samples from students’ work pre and post discussion will be shared, demonstrating how class consensus is formed as to the final English rendering, proposed as the closest match to the Arabic, and shown to be the result of the above activities. Finally, a few examples of translation work which students have gone on to publish will be shared to corroborate the effectiveness of this teaching practice.

Keywords: superior level proficiency in Arabic as a foreign language, teaching Arabic as a foreign language, teaching idiomatic expressions, translation in foreign language teaching

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2674 Cognitions of Physical Education Supervisors and Teachers for Conceptions of Effective Teaching Related to the Concerns Theory

Authors: Ali M. Alsagheir

Abstract:

Effective teaching is concerned to be one of the research fields of teaching, and its fundamental case is to reach the most successful ways that makes teaching fruitful. Undoubtedly, these methods are common factors between all parties who are concerned with the educational process such as instructors, directors, parents, and others. This study had aimed to recognize the cognitions of physical education supervisors and teachers for conceptions of effective teaching according to the interests theory. A questionnaire was used to collect data of the study; the sample contained 230 teachers and supervisors.The results were ended in: that the average of conceptions of effective teaching expressions for the sample of the study decreases at the progress through stages of teaching development in general. The study showed the absence of statistical indicator between teachers and supervisors at the core of both teaching principals and teaching tasks although the results showed that there are statistical indicators at the core of teaching achievements between supervisors and teachers in favor of supervisors. The study ended in to recommendations which can share in increasing the effectiveness of teaching such as: putting clear and specific standards for the effectiveness of teaching in which teacher's performance is based, constructing practical courses that focus on bringing on both supervisors and teachers with skills and strategies of effectiveness teaching, taking care of children achievement as an important factor and a strong indicator on effectiveness of teaching and learning.

Keywords: concerns theory, effective teaching, physical education, supervisors, teachers

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2673 A Research on Flipped-Classroom Teaching Model in English for Academic Purpose Teaching

Authors: Li Shuang

Abstract:

With rigid teaching procedures and limited academic performance assessment methods, traditional teaching model stands in the way of college English reform in China, which features EAP (English for Academic Purpose) teaching. Flipped-classroom teaching, which has been extensively applied to science subjects teaching, however, covers the shortage of traditional teaching model in EAP teaching, via creatively inverting traditional teaching procedures. Besides, the application of flipped-classroom teaching model in EAP teaching also proves that this new teaching philosophy is not confined to science subjects teaching; it goes perfectly well with liberal-arts subjects teaching. Data analysis, desk research survey, and comparative study are referred to in the essay so as to prove its feasibility and advantages in EAP teaching.

Keywords: EAP, traditional teaching method, flipped-classroom teaching model, teaching model design

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2672 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Jamaican and Trinidadian News Articles about D/Deafness

Authors: Melissa Angus Baboun

Abstract:

Utilizing a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) methodology and a theoretical framework based on disability studies, how Jamaican and Trinidadian newspapers discussed issues relating to the Deaf community were examined. The term deaf was inputted into the search engine tool of the online website for the Jamaica Observer and the Trinidad & Tobago Guardian. All 27 articles that contained the term deaf in its content and were written between August 1, 2017 and November 15, 2017 were chosen for the study. The data analysis was divided into three steps: (1) listing and analysis instances of metaphorical deafness (e.g. fall on deaf ears), (2) categorization of the content of the articles into the models of disability discourse (the medical, socio-cultural, and superscrip models of disability narratives), and (3) the analysis of any additional data found. A total of 42% of the articles pulled for this study did not deal with the Deaf community in any capacity, but rather instances of the use of idiomatic expressions that use deafness as a metaphor for a non-physical, undesirable trait. The most common idiomatic expression found was fall on deaf ears. Regarding the models of disability discourse, eight articles were found to follow the socio-cultural model, two were found to follow the medical model, and two were found to follow the superscrip model. The additional data found in these articles include two instances of the term deaf and mute, an overwhelming use of lower case d for the term deaf, and the misuse of the term translator (to mean interpreter).

Keywords: deafness, disability, news coverage, Caribbean newspapers

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2671 Effects of Audiovisual Contextualization of L2 Idioms on Enhancing Students’ Comprehension and Retention

Authors: Monica Karlsson

Abstract:

The positive effect of a supportive written context on comprehension and retention when faced with a previously unknown idiomatic expression is today an indisputable fact, especially if relevant clues are given in close proximity of the item in question. Also, giving learners a chance of visualizing the meaning of an idiom by offering them its source domain and/or by elaborating etymologically, i.e. providing a mental picture in addition to the spoken/written form (referred to as dual coding), seems to enhance comprehension and retention even further, especially if the idiom is of a more transparent kind. For example, by explaining that walk the plank has a maritime origin and a canary in a coal mine comes from the time when canaries were kept in cages to warn miners if gas was leaking out at which point the canaries succumbed immediately, learners’ comprehension and retention have been shown to increase. The present study aims to investigate whether contextualization of an audiovisual kind could help increase comprehension and retention of L2 idioms. 40 Swedish first-term university students studying English as part of their education to become middle-school teachers participated in the investigation, which tested 24 idioms, all of which were ascertained to be previously unknown to the informants. While half of the learners were subjected to a test in which they were asked to watch scenes from various TV programmes, each scene including one idiomatic expression in a supportive context, the remaining 20 students, as a point of reference, were only offered written contexts, though equally supportive. Immediately after these sessions, both groups were given the same idioms in a decontextualized form and asked to give their meaning. After five weeks, finally, the students were subjected to yet another decontextualized comprehension test. Furthermore, since mastery of idioms in one’s L1 appears to correlate to a great extent with a person’s ability to comprehend idioms in an L2, all the informants were also asked to take a test focusing on idioms in their L1. The result on this test is thus seen to indicate each student’s potential for understanding and memorizing various idiomatic expressions from a more general perspective. Preliminary results clearly show that audiovisual contextualization indeed has a positive effect on learners’ retention. In addition, preliminary results also show that those learners’ who were able to recall most meanings were those who had a propensity for idiom comprehension in their L1.

Keywords: English, L2, idioms, audiovisual context

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2670 The Application of Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching EFL Students to Understand Spoken Coinages: Based on an Experiment with Speakers of Russian

Authors: Ekaterina Lukianchenko

Abstract:

The present article addresses the nuances of teaching English vocabulary to Russian-speaking students. The experiment involving 39 participants aged 17 to 21 proves that the key to understanding spoken coinages is not only the knowledge of their constituents, but rather the understanding of the context and co-text. The volunteers who took part knew the constituents, but did not know the meaning of the words. The assumption of the authors consists in the fact that the structure of the concept has a direct relation with the form of the particular vocabulary unit, but its form is secondary to its meaning, if the word is a spoken coinage, which is partly proved by the fact that in modern slang words have multiple meanings, as well as one notion can have various embodiments that have virtually nothing in common. The choice of vocabulary items that youngsters use is not exactly arbitrary, but, even if complex nominals are taken into consideration, whose meaning seems clear, as it looks like a sum of their constituents’ meanings, they are still impossible to understand without any context or co-text, as a lot of them are idiomatic, non-transparent. It is further explained what methods might be effective in teaching students how to deal with new words they encounter in real-life situations and how student’s knowledge of vocabulary might be enhanced.

Keywords: spoken language, cognitive linguistics, complex nominals, nominals with the incorporated object, concept, EFL, communicative language teaching

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2669 The Arabic Literary Text, between Proficiency and Pedagogy

Authors: Abdul Rahman M. Chamseddine, Mahmoud El-ashiri

Abstract:

In the field of language teaching, communication skills are essential for the learner to achieve, however, these skills, in general, might not support the comprehension of some texts of literary or artistic nature like poetry. Understanding sentences and expressions is not enough to understand a poem; other skills are needed in order to understand the special structure of a text which literary meaning is inapprehensible even when the lingual meaning is well comprehended. And then there is the need for many other components that surpass one text to other similar texts that can be understood through solid traditions, which do not form an obstacle in the face of change and progress. This is not exclusive to texts that are classified as a literary but it is also the same with some daily short phrases and indicatively charged expressions that can be classified as literary or bear a taste of literary nature.. it can be found in Newpapers’ titles, TV news reports, and maybe football commentaries… the need to understand this special lingual use – described as literary – is highly important to understand this discourse that can be generally classified as very far from literature. This work will try to explore the role of the literary text in the language class and the way it is being covered or dealt with throughout all levels of acquiring proficiency. It will also attempt to survery the position of the literary text in some of the most important books for teaching Arabic around the world. The same way grammar is needed to understand the language, another (literary) grammar is also needed for understanding literature.

Keywords: language teaching, Arabic, literature, pedagogy, language proficiency

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2668 A Comparative Analysis of Body Idioms in Two Romance Languages and in English Aiming at Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

Authors: Marilei Amadeu Sabino

Abstract:

Before the advent of Cognitive Linguistics, metaphor was considered a stylistic issue, but now it is viewed as a critical component of everyday language and a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. It means that human beings' conceptual system (the way we think and act) is metaphorical in nature. Another interesting hypothesis in Cognitive Linguistics is that cognition is embodied, that is, our cognition is influenced by our experiences in the physical world: the mind is connected to the body and the body influences the mind. In this sense, it is believed that many conceptual metaphors appear to be potentially universal or near-universal, because people across the world share certain bodily experiences. In these terms, many metaphors may be identical or very similar in several languages. Thus, in this study, we analyzed some somatic (also called body) idioms of Italian and Portuguese languages, in order to investigate the proportion in which their metaphors are the same, similar or different in both languages. It was selected hundreds of Italian idioms in dictionaries and indicated their corresponding idioms in Portuguese. The analysis allowed to conclude that much of the studied expressions are really structurally, semantically and metaphorically identical or similar in both languages. We also contrasted some Portuguese and Italian somatic expressions to their corresponding English idioms to have a multilingual perspective of the issue, and it also led to the conclusion that the most common idioms based on metaphors are probably those that have to do with the human body. Although this is mere speculation and needs more study, the results found incite relevant discussions on issues that matter Foreign and Second Language Teaching and Learning, including the retention of vocabulary. The teaching of the metaphorically different body idioms also plays an important role in language learning and teaching as it will be shown in this paper. Acknowledgments: FAPESP – São Paulo State Research Support Foundation –the financial support offered (proc. n° 2017/02064-7).

Keywords: body idioms, cognitive linguistics, metaphor, vocabulary teaching and learning

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2667 KSVD-SVM Approach for Spontaneous Facial Expression Recognition

Authors: Dawood Al Chanti, Alice Caplier

Abstract:

Sparse representations of signals have received a great deal of attention in recent years. In this paper, the interest of using sparse representation as a mean for performing sparse discriminative analysis between spontaneous facial expressions is demonstrated. An automatic facial expressions recognition system is presented. It uses a KSVD-SVM approach which is made of three main stages: A pre-processing and feature extraction stage, which solves the problem of shared subspace distribution based on the random projection theory, to obtain low dimensional discriminative and reconstructive features; A dictionary learning and sparse coding stage, which uses the KSVD model to learn discriminative under or over dictionaries for sparse coding; Finally a classification stage, which uses a SVM classifier for facial expressions recognition. Our main concern is to be able to recognize non-basic affective states and non-acted expressions. Extensive experiments on the JAFFE static acted facial expressions database but also on the DynEmo dynamic spontaneous facial expressions database exhibit very good recognition rates.

Keywords: dictionary learning, random projection, pose and spontaneous facial expression, sparse representation

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2666 Types of Taboo Expressions in Igbo Society

Authors: Christian Nwaoha

Abstract:

This study investigates taboo expressions and classifications in Igbo discourse, their socio-cultural factors affecting their usage. The study classifies Linguistic taboo expressions by their discourse into five categories: morality-related taboo, veneration-related, decorum-related, religion-related and fear-related taboo expressions. This study argues that while religion-related and decorum-related taboos are unmentioned and have no euphemistic synonyms is because they are closely tied to various Igbo deities and objects, while morality, veneration, and fear-related have permissible alternatives. A descriptive research design was adopted and the data collection was by questionnaire and oral interview. The result of the research proves that aside of the categories of taboos in Igbo, socially, the styles of discourse have some levels of gender, age and class-connected taboos, which for instance, in gender-connected taboos, women in Igbo are forbidden to use style of discourse that are connected with genital organs in social gathering comprising men and women. The same has to do with class-connected where much younger men can use some certain expressions that are taboo, but in much older men gathering such expressions would be tagged forbidden in the context. The study further reveals that there are occasions in which these taboos can be used with reasons. The research concludes that using these taboos in literary text can enhance clear understanding of Igbo taboos to the users and learners of Igbo language.

Keywords: taboo expressions, classifications, Igbo, socio-cultural factors, discourse

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2665 Investigating Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of the Effective Teaching Strategies

Authors: Zafer F. Alshehri

Abstract:

This paper investigated mathematics teachers' knowledge of the effective teaching strategies at the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia. Specifically, it aimed to identify a list of the effective strategies of teaching mathematics; the extent of mathematics teachers' knowledge of these strategies; and the differences (if any) of mathematics teachers' knowledge of these strategies regarding scientific degree, teaching experience, and educational sage. To achieve that, the researcher used the descriptive approach for preparing a list of effective mathematics teaching strategies and developing a questionnaire of a sample of (240) mathematics teachers. As a result, there were differences in teachers' knowledge of the effective teaching strategies, which ranked as a low, and the highest knowledge was in favor of higher degrees. In addition, there were a few recommendations and suggestions for developing mathematics teachers' knowledge of effective teaching strategies, such as involving in workshops of mathematics teaching strategies, integrating technology into mathematics teaching, and using research findings in the instruction process.

Keywords: mathematics teaching knowledge, mathematics teachers, effective mathematics teaching strategies

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2664 Practical Methods for Automatic MC/DC Test Cases Generation of Boolean Expressions

Authors: Sekou Kangoye, Alexis Todoskoff, Mihaela Barreau

Abstract:

Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) is a structural coverage criterion that aims to prove that all conditions involved in a Boolean expression can influence the result of that expression. In the context of automotive, MC/DC is highly recommended and even required for most security and safety applications testing. However, due to complex Boolean expressions that often embedded in those applications, generating a set of MC/DC compliant test cases for any of these expressions is a nontrivial task and can be time consuming for testers. In this paper we present an approach to automatically generate MC/DC test cases for any Boolean expression. We introduce novel techniques, essentially based on binary trees to quickly and optimally generate MC/DC test cases for the expressions. Thus, the approach can be used to reduce the manual testing effort of testers.

Keywords: binary trees, MC/DC, test case generation, nontrivial task

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2663 Project and Module Based Teaching and Learning

Authors: Jingyu Hou

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new teaching and learning approach-project and Module Based Teaching and Learning (PMBTL). The PMBTL approach incorporates the merits of project/problem based and module based learning methods, and overcomes the limitations of these methods. The correlation between teaching, learning, practice, and assessment is emphasized in this approach, and new methods have been proposed accordingly. The distinct features of these new methods differentiate the PMBTL approach from conventional teaching approaches. Evaluation of this approach on practical teaching and learning activities demonstrates the effectiveness and stability of the approach in improving the performance and quality of teaching and learning. The approach proposed in this paper is also intuitive to the design of other teaching units.

Keywords: computer science education, project and module based, software engineering, module based teaching and learning

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2662 Implementing Learner-Centered Teaching Approach In Iraqi Higher Education

Authors: Iman Ali Ahmed Al-Rashed

Abstract:

This paper directs attention to the limitations of the teacher-centered strategy in teaching. The aim of this study is to draw more educational attention to learner-centered strategy in order to shift the emphasis from the traditional concept of teaching to a new concept in teaching. To begin bridging the traditional concept of teaching and the new concept, the study will explore the new concept of teaching to support teaching in Arab World generally and in Iraq specifically. A qualitative case study orientation was used to collect data in the form of classroom observations, interviews and field notes. The teaching practices used by three university instructors are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: case study, learner-centered strategy, qualitative study, teacher-centered strategy, traditional teaching

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2661 Emotion Recognition with Occlusions Based on Facial Expression Reconstruction and Weber Local Descriptor

Authors: Jadisha Cornejo, Helio Pedrini

Abstract:

Recognition of emotions based on facial expressions has received increasing attention from the scientific community over the last years. Several fields of applications can benefit from facial emotion recognition, such as behavior prediction, interpersonal relations, human-computer interactions, recommendation systems. In this work, we develop and analyze an emotion recognition framework based on facial expressions robust to occlusions through the Weber Local Descriptor (WLD). Initially, the occluded facial expressions are reconstructed following an extension approach of Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA). Then, WLD features are extracted from the facial expression representation, as well as Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG). The feature vector space is reduced using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Finally, K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers are used to recognize the expressions. Experimental results on three public datasets demonstrated that the WLD representation achieved competitive accuracy rates for occluded and non-occluded facial expressions compared to other approaches available in the literature.

Keywords: emotion recognition, facial expression, occlusion, fiducial landmarks

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2660 The Russian Preposition 'за': A Cognitive Linguistic Approach

Authors: M. Kalyuga

Abstract:

Prepositions have long been considered to be one of the major challenges for second language learners, since they have multiple uses that differ greatly from one language to another. The traditional approach to second language teaching supplies students with a list of uses of a preposition that they have to memorise and no explanation is provided. Contrary to the traditional grammar approach, the cognitive linguistic approach offers an explanation for the use of prepositions and provides strategies to comprehend and learn prepositions that would be otherwise seem obscure. The present paper demonstrates the use of the cognitive approach for the explanation of prepositions through the example of the Russian preposition 'за'. The paper demonstrates how various spatial and non-spatial uses of this preposition are linked together through metaphorical and metonymical mapping. The diversity of expressions with за is explained by the range of spatial scenes this preposition is associated with.

Keywords: language teaching, Russian, preposition 'за', cognitive approach

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2659 Effective Teaching of Thermofluid Pratical Courses during COVID-19

Authors: Opeyemi Fadipe, Masud Salimian

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a new normal into the world; online teaching is now the most used method of teaching over the face to face meeting. With the emergency of these teaching, online-teaching has been improved over time and with more technological advancement tools introduced. Practical courses are more demanding to teach because it requires the physical presence of the student as well as a demonstration of the equipment. In this study, a case of Lagos State University thermofluid practical was the understudy. A survey was done and give to a sample of students to fill. The result showed that the blend-approach is better for practical course teaching. Software simulation of the equipment used to conduct practical should be encouraged in the future.

Keywords: COVID-19, online teaching, t-distribution, thermofluid

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2658 Application of Vector Representation for Revealing the Richness of Meaning of Facial Expressions

Authors: Carmel Sofer, Dan Vilenchik, Ron Dotsch, Galia Avidan

Abstract:

Studies investigating emotional facial expressions typically reveal consensus among observes regarding the meaning of basic expressions, whose number ranges between 6 to 15 emotional states. Given this limited number of discrete expressions, how is it that the human vocabulary of emotional states is so rich? The present study argues that perceivers use sequences of these discrete expressions as the basis for a much richer vocabulary of emotional states. Such mechanisms, in which a relatively small number of basic components is expanded to a much larger number of possible combinations of meanings, exist in other human communications modalities, such as spoken language and music. In these modalities, letters and notes, which serve as basic components of spoken language and music respectively, are temporally linked, resulting in the richness of expressions. In the current study, in each trial participants were presented with sequences of two images containing facial expression in different combinations sampled out of the eight static basic expressions (total 64; 8X8). In each trial, using single word participants were required to judge the 'state of mind' portrayed by the person whose face was presented. Utilizing word embedding methods (Global Vectors for Word Representation), employed in the field of Natural Language Processing, and relying on machine learning computational methods, it was found that the perceived meanings of the sequences of facial expressions were a weighted average of the single expressions comprising them, resulting in 22 new emotional states, in addition to the eight, classic basic expressions. An interaction between the first and the second expression in each sequence indicated that every single facial expression modulated the effect of the other facial expression thus leading to a different interpretation ascribed to the sequence as a whole. These findings suggest that the vocabulary of emotional states conveyed by facial expressions is not restricted to the (small) number of discrete facial expressions. Rather, the vocabulary is rich, as it results from combinations of these expressions. In addition, present research suggests that using word embedding in social perception studies, can be a powerful, accurate and efficient tool, to capture explicit and implicit perceptions and intentions. Acknowledgment: The study was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Defense in Israel to GA and CS. CS is also supported by the ABC initiative in Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

Keywords: Glove, face perception, facial expression perception. , facial expression production, machine learning, word embedding, word2vec

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2657 Glushkov's Construction for Functional Subsequential Transducers

Authors: Aleksander Mendoza

Abstract:

Glushkov's construction has many interesting properties, and they become even more evident when applied to transducers. This article strives to show the vast range of possible extensions and optimisations for this algorithm. Special flavour of regular expressions is introduced, which can be efficiently converted to e-free functional subsequential weighted finite state transducers. Produced automata are very compact, as they contain only one state for each symbol (from input alphabet) of original expression and only one transition for each range of symbols, no matter how large. Such compactified ranges of transitions allow for efficient binary search lookup during automaton evaluation. All the methods and algorithms presented here were used to implement open-source compiler of regular expressions for multitape transducers.

Keywords: weighted automata, transducers, Glushkov, follow automata, regular expressions

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2656 The Effects of Co-Teaching on Study Achievement by Teaching Unite of Teaching Strategy Course on a Sample of Student at Education College at King Faisal University

Authors: Layla Alzarah

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the effects of co-teaching upon study achievement by teaching unite of teaching strategy course to a sample of students at education college at King Faisal University. The sample of this study, which consisted of 100 students, was divided into two equal groups. 50 students were selected to be the Control group which had been taught by the traditional way with one teacher, whereas the remaining 50 students represented the experimental group who had been taught by co-teaching. The study had lasted for 4 weeks. Related achievement test had been prepared, consisted of 23 questions, from multi choice question type, which had been divided on the chosen unite syllabus. The validity and reliability had been tested. The study conducted at the second semester of 1433-1434 HT tests had been used to analysis the data. The research findings showed that the average exam scores of students receiving team teaching were higher than those of students receiving traditional teaching as there were significant differences in means at (<0.05) between the two groups in favor of the experimental group. Based on the study findings the researcher recommended applying co-teaching in teaching the course of teaching strategies and other courses also to conduct similar studies.

Keywords: co-teaching, cooperative teaching, teaching strategies, study achievement

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2655 An Atomistic Approach to Define Continuum Mechanical Quantities in One Dimensional Nanostructures at Finite Temperature

Authors: Smriti, Ajeet Kumar

Abstract:

We present a variant of the Irving-Kirkwood procedure to obtain the microscopic expressions of the cross-section averaged continuum fields such as internal force and moment in one-dimensional nanostructures in the non-equilibrium setting. In one-dimensional continuum theories for slender bodies, we deal with quantities such as mass, linear momentum, angular momentum, and strain energy densities, all defined per unit length. These quantities are obtained by integrating the corresponding pointwise (per unit volume) quantities over the cross-section of the slender body. However, no well-defined cross-section exists for these nanostructures at finite temperature. We thus define the cross-section of a nanorod to be an infinite plane which is fixed in space even when time progresses and defines the above continuum quantities by integrating the pointwise microscopic quantities over this infinite plane. The method yields explicit expressions of both the potential and kinetic parts of the above quantities. We further specialize in these expressions for helically repeating one-dimensional nanostructures in order to use them in molecular dynamics study of extension, torsion, and bending of such nanostructures. As, the Irving-Kirkwood procedure does not yield expressions of stiffnesses, we resort to a thermodynamic equilibrium approach to obtain the expressions of axial force, twisting moment, bending moment, and the associated stiffnesses by taking the first and second derivatives of the Helmholtz free energy with respect to conjugate strain measures. The equilibrium approach yields expressions independent of kinetic terms. We then establish the equivalence of the expressions obtained using the two approaches. The derived expressions are used to understand the extension, torsion, and bending of single-walled carbon nanotubes at non-zero temperatures.

Keywords: thermoelasticity, molecular dynamics, one dimensional nanostructures, nanotube buckling

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2654 What are Parents of Teacher Candidates’ Belief Towards Teaching as a Profession?

Authors: Chua Lee Chuan

Abstract:

This study was conducted to explore parents’ beliefs towards the teaching profession. This survey was conducted on 51 parents of teacher candidates in a teacher training institute. A research instrument, using questionnaires, adapted from FIT-Choice scale developed by Richardson and Watt (2006) was used to collect data from the population. The findings showed that parents, in general, have positive attitudes towards the teaching profession. They perceived teaching as a career highly valued by the society. Though the teaching job was viewed as difficult and requiring high expertise, the salary received commensurate their hard work and heavy workload. In terms of gender, male and female parents did not differ in their beliefs about the teaching profession. However, results indicated that educational attainment and income level had significant effect on parents’ beliefs on teaching as a profession. Implications and recommendations in relation to the findings are also included.

Keywords: beliefs, teaching profession, parents, teacher candidates

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2653 Highly Realistic Facial Expressions of Anthropomorphic Social Agent as a Factor in Solving the 'Uncanny Valley' Problem

Authors: Daniia Nigmatullina, Vlada Kugurakova, Maxim Talanov

Abstract:

We present a methodology and our plans of anthropomorphic social agent visualization. That includes creation of three-dimensional model of the virtual companion's head and its facial expressions. Talking Head is a cross-disciplinary project of developing of the human-machine interface with cognitive functions. During the creation of a realistic humanoid robot or a character, there might be the ‘uncanny valley’ problem. We think about this phenomenon and its possible causes. We are going to overcome the ‘uncanny valley’ by increasing of realism. This article discusses issues that should be considered when creating highly realistic characters (particularly the head), their facial expressions and speech visualization.

Keywords: anthropomorphic social agent, facial animation, uncanny valley, visualization, 3D modeling

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2652 Teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language Under Humanistic and Sociocultural Psychology

Authors: Mahrukh Baig

Abstract:

This research paper, sets out to draw some traditional english language teaching practices and to suggest ways for their improvement under the light of humanistic and socio-cultural psychology. This is going to aid language teachers by applying principled psychological methods on the field of education in order to introduce a reciprocal mode of teaching where teacher and learner begin with a mutual effort. However the teacher, after initiating most of the work, gradually passes on more and more responsibility to the learners resulting in their independent endeavors.

Keywords: English Language Teaching (ELT), Second Language Acquisition (SLA), teaching english as second/foreign language, humanistic psychology, socio-cultural psychology, application of psychology to language teaching

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2651 Higher Education Teachers' Perceptions of Core Competencies and Innovation: The Case of Mohamed V University Abu Dhabi

Authors: Khalid Soussi

Abstract:

Implementing innovative teaching and learning methods is of pivotal importance for student motivation and teaching quality. At the center of such quality are teaching competencies. The present paper investigates three teachers’ core competencies related to their innovative teaching performance: educational/pedagogical competency, teaching competency, and social competency. The paper also attempts to describe the influence of social factors on innovation in higher education. Many recent studies highlight the technological competency as an independent one, but it is believed in this study that the latter makes part of the pedagogical competency. A Likert scale questionnaire was used to measure teachers’ judgements of core competencies role in innovative teaching performance. The study also attempted to demarcate the social variables that may affect innovative teaching in higher education. The findings indicate that teachers’ educational competency and teaching competency were generally confirmed to be either important or very important for innovation in teaching performance. Regarding social competency, the study also shows that satisfaction from job, daily working hours, amount of workload, flexibility in the functioning and the quality of students are the main factors that have a large effect on teachers’ innovative teaching performance.

Keywords: higher education, innovative teaching, teaching competencies, teaching performance

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