Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 92

Search results for: newspaper

92 Criminal Exhibit the Feminine Violent Victim within Thai Newspaper

Authors: Supaporn Wimonchailerk

Abstract:

This research aims to critical analyze the feminine violent within Thai daily newspaper. This study was qualitative base; content analysis from two popular newspapers (Thairath and Dailynews) two qualitative newspapers (Thaipost and Mathichon). Purposive sampling was used to select eleven specialize news reporters to do in-depth interview. The result found that, popular newspapers, Thairath and dailynews have presented feminine violent news in their paper more than Thaipost and Mathichon the qualitative newspaper. Beside, majority of sample present the feminine violent within news under the code of ethic, The National Press Council of Thailand. Interesting, the age of feminine violent victim was the information that has been focused most. The popular newspaper have illustrated crime scene photo on their first-page while qualitative newspaper used only headline to present the same news.

Keywords: ethic, feminine, journalism, newspaper, violent victim

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
91 The Relationship between Self-Censorship and Satisfaction of Iran Newspaper's Readers, Case Study: Iran Newspaper

Authors: Elham Taghizade Sigarodi, Ani Mirzakhanian

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Journalism atmosphere in present era is highly competitive so that what matters the most is “the speed of news broadcasting”. The first newspaper that lets out the news is therefore of higher validity. The value of the news is in fact in its truthfulness. Expressing the facts and reality is an accepted norm in professional media arena and it is as well considered the acceptable and trustworthy language for journalism. However, different conditions generate self-censorship. The present study seeks to explore the relationship between self-censorship and satisfaction of Iran newspaper’s readers. Thus, the statistical population including journalists of Iran newspaper for Tehran’s readers was estimated 384 persons based on Morgan table. Through cluster sampling, 50 journalists were selected so that totally the sample size was 434 persons and questionnaire was applied for data analysis and based on Alpha Chronbache, it was supported. Through Pierson correlation, the main and all subsidiary hypotheses were supported except the forth one.

Keywords: newspaper, satisfaction of audiences, self-censorship, journalists

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
90 New Media Impact on Newspaper Readership

Authors: Umar Lawal Maradun

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Newspapers are very important sources of information and are trusted by majority of populations in America, Latin America, Europe and many parts of the world. In the mid-1950s newspapers were at the forefront of providing people with information. However, in the 1970s television took over, while in the 1980s cable satellites became popular and in the 1990s the Internet and World Wide Web became major sources of media content and also major threats to the print media form. This paper looks at how newspaper readership has been affected by new media technology, especially the Internet. It uses empirical data by reviewing available literature within the context of change that is likely to threaten conventional media. It discovers that there is a growing decline in newspaper readership as a result of widespread use of the Internet. The decline in readership has been discovered to be a global phenomenon. The paper suggests strategies for the survival and revenue generation for print-based newspapers.

Keywords: Internet, media, newspaper, press

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89 Mining News Deserts: Impact of Local Newspaper's Closure on Political Participation and Engagement in Rural Australian Town of Lightning Ridge

Authors: Marco Magasic

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This article examines how a local newspaper’s closure impacts the way everyday people in a rural Australian town are informed about and engage with political affairs. It draws on a two-month focused ethnographic study in the outback town of Lighting Ridge, New South Wales and explores people’s media-related practices following the closure of the towns’ only newspaper, The Ridge News, in 2015. While social media is considered to have partly filled the news void, there is an increasingly fragmented and less vibrant local public sphere that has led to growing complacency among individuals about political affairs. Local residents highlight a dearth of reliable, credible information and lament the loss of the newspaper and its role in community advocacy and fostering people’s engagement with political institutions, especially local government.

Keywords: public sphere, political participation, local news, democratic deficit

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88 Head of the Class: A Study of What United States Journalism School Administrators Consider the Most Valuable Educational Tenets for Their Graduates Seeking Careers at U.S. Legacy Newspapers

Authors: Adam Pitluk

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In a time period populated by legacy newspaper readers who throw around the term “fake news” as though it has long been a part of the lexicon, journalism schools must convince would-be students that their degree is still viable and that they are not teaching a curriculum of deception. As such, journalism schools’ academic administrators tasked with creating and maintaining conversant curricula must stay ahead of legacy newspaper industry trends – both in the print and online products – and ensure that what is being taught in the classroom is both fresh and appropriate to the demands of the evolving legacy newspaper industry. This study examines the information obtained from the result of interviews of journalism academic administrators in order to identify institutional pedagogy for recent journalism school graduates interested in pursuing careers at legacy newspapers. This research also explores the existing relationship between journalism school academic administrators and legacy newspaper editors. The results indicate the value administrators put on various academy teachings, and they also highlight a perceived disconnect between journalism academic administrators and legacy newspaper hiring editors.

Keywords: academic administration, education, journalism, journalism school graduates, media management, newspapers, grounded theory

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87 Newspaper Reportage and Framing of President Muhammadu Buhari’s Anti-Corruption Campaign in Nigeria

Authors: Diane Ezeh-Aruah

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This study examined newspaper coverage of President Muhammadu Buhar’s anti-corruption crusade, a case study of Guardian, Nation, Sun and Vanguard newspapers. It assessed the frequency of coverage given to President Buhari’s war against corruption, the prominence of coverage, the angles/framing of topics and the direction of the news stories. The determinants of the prominence of coverage were page placement, length of the story, illustrations and story types. The author made use of agenda setting and framing theories. The research was carried through the method of survey, by distribution of copies of the questionnaire. The result of this study showed that the media gave adequate coverage of President Buhari’s anti-corruption war, even though the reports were not many in the early stages of the law enactment, but the coverages lacked prominence as most of the major stories were not given front page coverage; they lacked pictorial illustrations and not exhaustive enough to be impactful. Newspaper organizations are therefore encouraged to include humanistic angles in their corruption stories rather than focus highly on political angles. They should adopt the elements of investigative and interpretative journalism in their coverage of corruption news.

Keywords: newspaper, coverage, president Muhammadu Buhari, anti-corruption campaign

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
86 Newspaper Headlines as Tool for Political Propaganda in Nigeria: Trend Analysis of Implications on Four Presidential Elections

Authors: Muhammed Jamiu Mustapha, Jamiu Folarin, Stephen Obiri Agyei, Rasheed Ademola Adebiyi, Mutiu Iyanda Lasisi

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The role of the media in political discourse cannot be overemphasized as they form an important part of societal development. The media institution is considered the fourth estate of the realm because it serves as a check and balance to the arms of government (Executive, Legislature and Judiciary) especially in a democratic setup, and makes public office holders accountable to the people. They scrutinize the political candidates and conduct a holistic analysis of the achievement of the government in order to make the people’s representative accountable to the electorates. The media in Nigeria play a seminal role in shaping how people vote during elections. Newspaper headlines are catchy phrases that easily capture the attention of the audience and call them (audience) to action. Research conducted on newspaper headlines looks at the linguistic aspect and how the tenses used has a resultant effect on peoples’ attitude and behaviour. Communication scholars have also conducted studies that interrogate whether newspaper headlines influence peoples' voting patterns and decisions. Propaganda and negative stories about political opponents are stapling features in electioneering campaigns. Nigerian newspaper readers have the characteristic of scanning newspaper headlines. And the question is whether politicians effectively have played into this tendency to brand opponents negatively, based on half-truths and inadequate information. This study illustrates major trends in the Nigerian political landscape looking at the past four presidential elections and frames the progress of the research in the extant body of political propaganda research in Africa. The study will use the quantitative content analysis of newspaper headlines from 2007 to 2019 to be able to ascertain whether newspaper headlines had any effect on the election results of the presidential elections during these years. This will be supplemented by Key Informant Interviews of political scientists or experts to draw further inferences from the quantitative data. Drawing on newspaper headlines of selected newspapers in Nigeria that have a political propaganda angle for the presidential elections, the analysis will correspond to and complements extant descriptions of how the field of political propaganda has been developed in Nigeria, providing evidence of four presidential elections that have shaped Nigerian politics. Understanding the development of the behavioural change of the electorates provide useful context for trend analysis in political propaganda communication. The findings will contribute to how newspaper headlines are used partly or wholly to decide the outcome of presidential elections in Nigeria.

Keywords: newspaper headlines, political propaganda, presidential elections, trend analysis

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85 Impact of Newspaper Coverage of 2015 General Elections in Nigeria

Authors: Shola H. Adeosun, Lekan M. Togunwa, Kolawole Z. Amos

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This paper appraises ‘Newspaper Coverage of 2015 General Election: A study of The Punch and Guardian Newspapers’. The objectives of the study were to examine how credible newspaper reports of 2015 election were and to examine the significant role Nigeria Newspapers played in the 2015 general elections. Also this study examined the extent at which the print media contributed to the success of 2015 general election and to ascertain the extent at which print media reports serve as a tool for sensitizing the masses. The research questions that guided this research include: How credible was newspaper report of 2015 general election? To what extent did the print media contributed to the success of 2015 general elections? To what extent did the print media reports serve as a tool for sensitizing the masses? The research work was given solid theoretical foundation with the review of Agenda-setting theory, Media System Dependency Theory and Normative theories. This study was given solid theoretical foundation with the review of Agenda-setting theory, Media Dependency Theory and Normative theories. The theory was conducted using content analysis method of research and 30 publications of both The Guardian and Punch Newspaper between January 1st and March 30, 2015 forms the population for this research work. Selection of the dates and editions of Newspaper under study were done using the composite week sampling technique. All the days of the week were used for the newspapers because they (The Punch and The Guardian) are published all the days of the week. Coding sheet was the tool of data collection for the content analysis of this study. Findings of the study revealed that by the Punch newspaper and Guardian has played a significant role in eradicating election malpractices in Nigeria. It therefore concludes that media is metaphoric when we termed it to be a watchdog of the nation as well the mirror through which the nation see and recognize itself. The study also recommends that Nigerian media should strike balance between entertainment stories, crisis stories, economic stories, law story, education stories, terrorism stories, health stories, sport stories, metropolitan stories instead of portraying the country as being crime oriented.

Keywords: newspaper, coverage, general elections, impact

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84 Granting Saudi Women the Right to Drive in the Eyes of Qatari Media

Authors: Rasha A. Salameh

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This research attempts to evaluate the treatment provided by the Qatari media to the decision to allow Saudi women to drive, and then activate this decision after a few months, that is, within the time frame between September 26, 2017 until June 30, 2018. This is through asking several questions, including whether the political dispute between Qatar and Saudi Arabia has cast a shadow over this handling, and if these Qatari media handlings are used to criticize the Saudi regime for delaying this step. Here emerges one of the research hypotheses that says that the coverage did not have the required professionalism, due to the fact that the decision and its activation took place in light of the political stalemate between Qatar and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which requires testing the media framing and agenda theories to know to what extent they apply to this case. The research dealt with a sample of five Qatari media read in this sample: Al-Jazeera Net, The New Arab Newspaper, Al-Sharq Newspaper, The Arab Newspaper, and Al-Watan Newspaper. The results showed that most of the authors who covered the decision to allow Saudi women to drive a car did not achieve a balance in their writing, and that almost half of them did not have objectivity, and this indicates the proof of the hypothesis that there is a defect in the professional competence in covering the decision to allow Saudi women to drive cars by means of Qatari media, and the researcher attributes this result to the political position between Qatar and Saudi Arabia, in addition to the fact that the Arab media in most of them are characterized by a low ceiling of freedom, and most of them are identical in their position with the position of the regime’s official view.

Keywords: Saudi women, objectivity, hate speech, stereotype

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83 A Study on the Readers' Motivation and Satisfaction on Sports Newspaper in Vietnam

Authors: Trang Huyen Nguyen, Thien Tri Huynh

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The objectives of this paper were to determine demographics of readers at Hochiminh city (HCMC), study reading motivation which affected citizens to read sports newspapers and measure readers’ satisfaction on issues related sports newspapers. Subjects of this survey were HCMC’s citizens. After collecting data, there were 568 useful feedbacks (the rate of response was 94.7%). The data analysis in the study included descriptive statistics and inferred statistics by SPSS 16.0 program for the research questions. The majority of respondents were male, from 24 to 32 years old, got the first degree and earned monthly from $US 150 to 300. Moreover, they were government officials and read newspaper from 11 to 20 times per month, bought newspapers by themselves. Finding information to predict results of sports matches was the highest motive affected readers; and the diversity information was the most pleasure that readers felt about sports newspapers. According to research findings, the board of editors could use the worthy information to make a strategic plan for newspaper on contents as well as design to meet the increasing demands of readers.

Keywords: motivation, satisfaction, readers, sports newspapers

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82 Analysis of Newspaper Advertisements of 2015 Presidential Election in Nigeria

Authors: Thanny Noeem Taiwo

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The study is an attempt to gauge the way political parties advertised their candidates and parties during the 2015 presidential election. It examined the prominence given to political advertisement by newspapers and their patrons. It also looked at the campaign issues that the candidates emphasized in their campaign and also the appeals used in the advertisements. This research work is examined against the backdrop of the Framing Theory. The agenda setting and framing effects theories are media effects theories that explain how the media affects the people, events and situations in the society. Samples comprising of three daily newspapers were selected to represent the newspapers in the Nigeria. The Punch Newspaper, the Nation and the Vanguard will be used for population of this study. These newspapers were chosen because they are widely read national dailies and also because of its affiliation with some political parties. The study revealed that low prominence was given to political messages because most of the advertisements were in the inside pages of the newspapers. The media or the print medium could be a partner in a political setting as the fourth estate of the realm. While the press was trying hard to be professional, its operations were considerably inhibited by the political adventures of the patrons of the media. There is the need for strict professionalism to the ethics of journalism in the commercialization of political messages that would eventually rub off positively on the way the media is perceived.

Keywords: aAdvertisement, election, framing, newspaper

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81 A Contrastive Rhetoric Study: The Use of Textual and Interpersonal Metadiscoursal Markers in Persian and English Newspaper Editorials

Authors: Habibollah Mashhady, Moslem Fatollahi

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This study tries to contrast the use of metadiscoursal markers in English and Persian Newspaper Editorials as persuasive text types. These markers are linguistic elements in the text which do not add to the propositional content of it, rather they serve to realize the Halliday’s (1985) textual and interpersonal functions of language. At first, some of the most common markers from five subcategories of Text Connectives, Illocution Markers, Hedges, Emphatics, and Attitude Markers were identified in both English and Persian newspapers. Then, the frequency of occurrence of these markers in both English and Persian corpus consisting of 44 randomly selected editorials (18,000 words in each) from several English and Persian newspapers was recorded. After that, using a two-way chi square analysis, the overall x2 obs was found to be highly significant. So, the null hypothesis of no difference was confidently rejected. Finally, in order to determine the contribution of each subcategory to the overall x 2 value, one-way chi square analyses were applied to the individual subcategories. The results indicated that only two of the five subcategories of markers were statistically significant. This difference is then attributed to the differing spirits prevailing in the linguistic communities involved. Regarding the minor research question it was found that, in contrast to English writers, Persian writers are more writer-oriented in their writings.

Keywords: metadiscoursal markers, textual meta-function, interpersonal meta-function, persuasive texts, English and Persian newspaper editorials

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80 Criminals not Addicts: Newspaper Framing of Gambling-Related Crimes

Authors: Cameron Brown, Jessica Vanburen, Scott Hunt

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This study analyzed 411 international newspaper stories pertaining to gambling-related crimes from January 2013 to December 2014. These stories included accounts of crimes committed to fund gambling or pay gambling debts or that occurred at gambling establishments. Our analysis pays particular attention to those crimes that were imputed to be committed by “problem” or “addictive” gamblers, who commit crimes to fund gambling or pay gambling debts. Previous research on problem/addictive gambling has focused on its etiology or prevalence rates and has not attended to the media portrayals of this behavior and its association with crime. Using frame analysis concepts, the data demonstrate that the newspaper stories typically frame the events as “crimes” and not the result of illness or addiction. The “evidence” of motive that could have indicated psychological problems or additions were rather framed as “criminal motive.” This framing practice advances an identity of a “problem/addictive gambler” as a deviant criminal perpetrator and not a victim of addiction. The paper concludes with a discussion of how these findings can be used to advance research on social portrayals of problem/addictive gamblers. Specifically, we consider how these media frames impede an understanding of problem/addictive gambling as a public health problem.

Keywords: problem gambling, addictive gambling, identity resonace, frame analysis

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79 Analyzing Apposition and the Typology of Specific Reference in Newspaper Discourse in Nigeria

Authors: Monday Agbonica Bello Eje

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The language of the print media is characterized by the use of apposition. This linguistic element function strategically in journalistic discourse where it is communicatively necessary to name individuals and provide information about them. Linguistic studies on the language of the print media with bias for apposition have largely dwelt on other areas but the examination of the typology of appositive reference in newspaper discourse. Yet, it is capable of revealing ways writers communicate and provide information necessary for readers to follow and understand the message. The study, therefore, analyses the patterns of appositional occurrences and the typology of reference in newspaper articles. The data were obtained from The Punch and Daily Trust Newspapers. A total of six editions of these newspapers were collected randomly spread over three months. News and feature articles were used in the analysis. Guided by the referential theory of meaning in discourse, the appositions identified were subjected to analysis. The findings show that the semantic relation of coreference and speaker coreference have the highest percentage and frequency of occurrence in the data. This is because the subject matter of news reports and feature articles focuses on humans and the events around them; as a result, readers need to be provided with some form of detail and background information in order to identify as well as follow the discourse. Also, the non-referential relation of absolute synonymy and speaker synonymy no doubt have fewer occurrences and percentages in the analysis. This is tied to a major feature of the language of the media: simplicity. The paper concludes that appositions is mainly used for the purpose of providing the reader with much detail. In this way, the writer transmits information which helps him not only to give detailed yet concise descriptions but also in some way help the reader to follow the discourse.

Keywords: apposition, discourse, newspaper, Nigeria, reference

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78 Newspaper Framing of President Buhari’s Handling of Insecurity in Nigeria, January 2016 - December 2017

Authors: Onyekwere Okpara, Kingsley C. Izuogu

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This paper examined newspaper framing of President Buhari's handling of insecurity in Nigeria between January 2016-December 2017. The objectives were to examine the tone and sources of news frames used in reporting President Buhari's handling of insecurity in Nigeria. This paper did a content analysis of three newspapers-Daily Sun, The Nation, and the Leadership. Using a systematic random sampling, the study sampled a total of 732 editions of the selected newspapers and found out that the newspapers used neutral tone and government frame. The study, therefore, recommended that newspapers should improve their investigative reporting efforts.

Keywords: insecurity, newspapers, framing, media

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77 A Comparative Study of Language Used in English Newspaper Dailies of Mumbai in Addressing Disability Related Issues

Authors: Amrin Moger, Martin Mathew, Sagar Bhalerao

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Mass media may be categorized into print and digital, former being the traditional form of reaching the masses to inform and educate on various issues. The Indian print media is more than two centuries old. Its strengths have largely been shaped by its historical experience and, in particular, by its association with the freedom struggle as well as movements for social emancipation, reform, and amelioration. Therefore, it is highly regarded in the Indian society. Persons with disability are part of Indian Society. Persons with Disability have always been looked down upon and not considered as part of the society. People with disabilities were commonly feared, pitied, and neglected. Much of the literature on disability in India has pointed to the importance of the concept of karma in attitudes to disability, with disability perceived either as punishment for misdeeds in the past lives of the PWD, or the wrongdoings of their parents. Some Indian authors consider the passage of the PWD Act as a landmark step in the history of rehabilitation services in India have put it, ‘At a profoundly serious and spiritual level, disability represents divine justice’. The newspaper has to play a role where it changes this attitude of the people. A short comparative content analysis of two English newspapers of Mumbai edition was selected, to analyze the language that is used for reporting disability issues. Software Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to gather and analyze data.

Keywords: content analysis, disability, newspaper dailies, language

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76 The Promise of Nunca Más after Cambiemos: Representations of the 2x1 Decision of the Supreme Court and Santiago Maldonado's Disappearance in the Newspaper La Nación

Authors: Uluhan Berk Ondul

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This article aims to shed light on the new stage of transitional justice in Argentina through examining the representations of the 2x1 decision of the Supreme Court and Santiago Maldonado’s Disappearance in the newspaper, La Nación. The two events hold the key to understanding Argentina’s journey since return to democracy as they are about the same crimes of the dictatorship, namely, the forced disappearance of civilians and the subsequent impunity that follows. In the case of a convicted torturer, The Supreme Court of Argentina ruled on 3rd of May 2017 that the days spent in preventive detention after two years should be counted double for the overall sentence. This court decision was met with severe resistance from the members of the parliament as well as the human rights movement. The second item on the list still continues and divides the country into two camps: (1) those who think that the police force has committed another act of forced disappearance in the case of activist Santiago Maldonado and (2) the others who blame the peronistas (the party and supporters of the ex-president Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner) of using this subject as a means to score political points. As a newspaper known for its proximity to the current administration, La Nación offers an insight to the direction of the country and also demonstrates how the neoliberal mindset works. The results of the study show that the transitional justice process in Argentina is far from being complete as the Promise of Nunca Más is still not a shared value but a political statement.

Keywords: Argentina, Fallo 2x1, impunity, Santiago Maldonado, transitional justice

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75 Nigerian Media Coverage of the Chibok Girls Kidnap: A Qualitative News Framing Analysis of the Nation Newspaper

Authors: Samuel O. Oduyela

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Over the last ten years, many studies have examined the media coverage of terrorism across the world. Nevertheless, most of these studies have been inclined to the western narrative, more so in relation to the international media. This study departs from that partiality to explore the Nigerian press and its coverage of the Boko Haram. The study intends to illustrate how the Nigerian press has reported its homegrown terrorism within its borders. On 14 April 2014, the Shekau-led Boko Haram kidnapped over 200 female students from Chibok in the Borno State. This study analyses a structured sample of news stories, feature articles, editorial comments, and opinions from the Nation newspaper. The study examined the representation of the Chibok girls kidnaps by concentrating on four main viewpoints. The news framing of the Chibok girls’ kidnap under Presidents Goodluck Jonathan (2014) and Mohammadu Buhari (2016-2018), the sourcing model present in the news reporting of the kidnap and the challenges Nation reporters face in reporting Boko Haram. The study adopted the use of qualitative news framing analysis to provide further insights into significant developments established from the examination of news contents. The study found that the news reportage mainly focused on the government response to Chibok girls kidnap, international press and Boko Haram. Boko Haram was also framed, as a political conspiracy, as prevailing, and as instilling fear. Political, and economic influence appeared to be a significant determinant of the reportage. The study found that the Nation newspaper's portrayal of the crisis under President Jonathan differed significantly from under President Buhari. While the newspaper framed the action of President Jonathan as lacklustre, dismissive, and confusing, it was less critical of President Buhari's government's handling of the crisis. The Nation newspaper failed to promote or explore non-violent approaches. News reports of the kidnap, thus, were presented mainly from a political and ethnoreligious perspective. The study also raised questions of what roles should journalists play in covering conflicts? Should they merely report comments on and interpret it, or should they be actors in the resolution or, more importantly, the prevention of conflicts? The study underlined the need for the independence of the media, more training for journalists to advance a more nuanced and conflict-sensitive news coverage in the Nigerian context.

Keywords: boko haram, chibok girls kidnap, conflict in nigeria, media framing

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74 Violations of Press Freedom

Authors: Khalid Achaat

Abstract:

It is difficult to speak about freedom of the press in Algeria without first talking to fifty-seven journalists killed in the country between 1993 and 1997 and the five missing journalists. No serious investigation was conducted to find the culprits. When a State is not able to guarantee law, there is no justice and violations of the law become "systematic". How to claim the freedom of press in Algeria, when death becomes "banal"? In these circumstances, can we talk of rights of the Algerian press? It is impossible to understand the problems of the press in Algeria, focusing solely legal issues. Take into account technical, financial and political. Their respective roles varies depending on whether one focuses on the collection of information, the regime of the newspaper company or publication and dissemination. Can we say that the Algerian press is "the freest in the Arab world", while the latter reflects only partially the real problems facing the country? While any newspaper company is subject, de facto, to an authorization scheme, permanently subjected to the constant threat of withdrawal of the authorization, suspension, prohibition or closure without it has the right to a remedy? Can it be free when the majority of "media owners", head of the largest daily newspapers are derived from the single party in power since independence? Some of this release does not it serves the interests of the Algerian power?

Keywords: freedom, press, power, closure, suspension

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73 Media Coverage of the Turkish Armenian Journalist Hrant Dink Assassination: The Analysis of Media News in the Aftermath of the Assassination

Authors: Nusret Mesut Sahin

Abstract:

Hrant Dink, a prominent Turkish-Armenian journalist, and editor-in-chief of the bilingual Turkish-Armenian newspaper Agos, was assassinated in Istanbul on January 19th, 2007 by a nationalist extremist, Ogun Samast. Dink had been voicing the atrocities against the Armenians between 1915 and 1922 during the Ottoman rule, and his comments on the issue appeared in the Turkish media many times before his assassination. Despite intensive media coverage of his assassination, there is not enough research analyzing how national and international media presented Dink’s assassination. In this research, a content analysis of national and international news articles (N= 139) is conducted to identify whether there is a significant difference in national and international media’s coverage of the assassination. The content of the newspaper articles is categorized and coded according to the topics covered. The findings of this research suggested that Dink’s assassination wounded Turkey’s image as a democratic country. It has also been found that the Turkish media focused on security forces and their responsibility in Dink’s assassination, whereas international media focused more on the Article 301 of the Turkish penal code, freedom of expression, and atrocities against the Armenians during the Ottoman rule.

Keywords: Hrant Dink, Armenian, journalist, assassination

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72 The Use of Graphic Design Elements for Design of Newspaper for Women

Authors: Pibool Waijittragum

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This paper has its objectives to reveal contents and personality suitable to women’s newspapers. The research methodology employed in this study is the questionnaire which is derived from a literature review related to newspapers, graphic elements method for print media design and 12 sample sizes of different daily newspapers. In order to acquire an in-depth understanding and comprehensible view of desirable for a women’s newspaper design, graphic elements that related to that personality as well as other preferable elements for a women’s newspaper, including seven editorial Many Thai newspapers were offer a women’s documentary and column space. With its feminine looks, most of them appeared with warm tones and friendly mood through their headlines, contents, illustrations and graphics. The study found that most desirable personalities for a women’s newspaper design in Thailand are: Modern, Chic and Natural. Each personality has significant graphic elements as follows: 1. Modern: significant elements of modern personality comprises of the composition with graduation pattern which creates attractiveness by using an anomalous alignment layout grid and outstanding structure to create focal points and dynamic movement. Dark to black color that has narrowed, limited hue coupled with bright color tones. The round shape of the Thai font style was suitable for this concept. Such Thai fonts have harmonious proportion and consistent stroke with the urban-polite look. 2. Chic: significant elements of chic personality comprises of the proper composition with distinctive scale, using rhythmic repetition and a contrast of scale to draw in reader attention. Vivid and bright color tones with extensive hues coupled with similar color tones and round shape of the Thai font style with a light stroke and consistent line. 3. Natural: significant elements of natural personality comprises of the proper composition using rhythmic repetition that creates a focal point through striking images and harmonious perspective. Warm color tones with restricted hues that appear to look natural. Duo tone color was suitable through the gradually increasing gradient. The Thai style with hand writing font was suitable through the inconsistent stroke. There are 10 types of daily content that were revealed to be the most desirable for Thai women readers, these are: Daily News, Economics News, Education News, Entertainment News, International news, Political News, Public Health News, Scientific News, Social News and Sports News. As well, there are 16 topics identified as very desirable for Thai women readers, such as: Art and Culture, Automobile, Classified, Special Scoop, Editorial, Advertisement, Entertainment, Health and Quality of Life, History, Horoscope, Lifestyle and Fashion, Literature, Nature - Environment and Tourism, Night Life, Stars and Jet Set Gossip, Women’s Issue.

Keywords: women behaviors, feminine looks, newspaper design, news content

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71 Understanding the Motivations behind the Assassination of Turkish Armenian Journalist, Hrant Dink

Authors: Nusret Mesut Sahin

Abstract:

Hrant Dink, a prominent Turkish-Armenian journalist, and editor-in-chief of the bilingual Turkish-Armenian newspaper Agos was assassinated in Istanbul on January 19th, 2007 by a nationalist extremist, Ogun Samast. Dink had been voicing the atrocities against the Armenians between 1915 and 1922 during the Ottoman rule, and his comments on the issue appeared in the Turkish media many times before his assassination. It has been argued that the suffocating atmosphere created by the Turkish news media targeting Mr. Dink made him a target of an extremist Turkish juvenile. This study analyzes the media news to understand and explain why Hrant Dink became the target of a nationalist extremist. In this research, content analysis of news articles (N= 170) is conducted to identify whether there is a link between hate speech against Hrant Dink in the Turkish media and his assassination. The content of the newspaper articles is categorized and coded according to the hate language being used. The analysis suggested that Turkish media paved the way for Dink’s assassination. Hate speech against Hrant Dink on the media had risen gradually before the assassination. The study also found that the number of news stories covering hate speech and racist discourse against non-Muslim citizens of Turkey also increased dramatically before the assassination. Therefore, hate speech against minorities in media narratives and news reports should be monitored, and political figures or leaders of social groups who are targeted by some media outlets should be protected.

Keywords: Hrant Dink, assassination, Turkish Armenian journalist, media

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70 Multi-Objective Optimization for the Green Vehicle Routing Problem: Approach to Case Study of the Newspaper Distribution Problem

Authors: Julio C. Ferreira, Maria T. A. Steiner

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to present a solution procedure referred to here as the Multi-objective Optimization for Green Vehicle Routing Problem (MOOGVRP) to provide solutions for a case study. The proposed methodology consists of three stages to resolve Scenario A. Stage 1 consists of the “treatment” of data; Stage 2 consists of applying mathematical models of the p-Median Capacitated Problem (with the objectives of minimization of distances and homogenization of demands between groups) and the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (with the objectives of minimizing distances and minimizing time). The weighted method was used as the multi-objective procedure. In Stage 3, an analysis of the results is conducted, taking into consideration the environmental aspects related to the case study, more specifically with regard to fuel consumption and air pollutant emission. This methodology was applied to a (partial) database that addresses newspaper distribution in the municipality of Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The preliminary findings for Scenario A showed that it was possible to improve the distribution of the load, reduce the mileage and the greenhouse gas by 17.32% and the journey time by 22.58% in comparison with the current scenario. The intention for future works is to use other multi-objective techniques and an expanded version of the database and explore the triple bottom line of sustainability.

Keywords: Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem, Green Vehicle Routing Problem, Multi-objective Optimization, p-Median Capacitated Problem

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69 Indian Business-Papers in Industrial Revolution 4.0: A Paradigm Shift

Authors: Disha Batra

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The Industrial Revolution 4.0 is quite different, and a paradigm shift is underway in the media industry. With the advent of automated journalism and social media platforms, newspaper organizations have changed the way news was gathered and reported. The emergence of the fourth industrial revolution in the early 21st century has made the newspapers to adapt the changing technologies to remain relevant. This paper investigates the content of Indian business-papers in the era of the fourth industrial revolution and how these organizations have emerged in the time of convergence. The study is the content analyses of the top three Indian business dailies as per IRS (Indian Readership Survey) 2017 over a decade. The parametric analysis of the different parameters (source of information, use of illustrations, advertisements, layout, and framing, etc.) have been done in order to come across with the distinct adaptations and modifications by these dailies. The paper significantly dwells upon the thematic analysis of these newspapers in order to explore and find out the coverage given to various sub-themes of EBF (economic, business, and financial) journalism. Further, this study reveals the effect of high-speed algorithm-based trading, the aftermath of the fourth industrial revolution on the creative and investigative aspect of delivering financial stories by these respective newspapers. The study indicates a change heading towards an ongoing paradigm shift in the business newspaper industry with an adequate change in the source of information gathering along with the subtle increase in the coverage of financial news stories over the time.

Keywords: business-papers, business news, financial news, industrial revolution 4.0.

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68 A Qualitative Study of Newspaper Discourse and Online Discussions of Climate Change in China

Authors: Juan Du

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Climate change is one of the most crucial issues of this era, with contentious debates on it among scholars. But there are sparse studies on climate change discourse in China. Including China in the study of climate change is essential for a sociological understanding of climate change. China -- as a developing country and an essential player in tackling climate change -- offers an ideal case for studying climate change for scholars moving beyond developed countries and enriching their understandings of climate change by including diverse social settings. This project contrasts the macro- and micro-level understandings of climate change in China, which helps scholars move beyond a focus on climate skepticism and denialism and enriches sociology of climate change knowledge. The macro-level understanding of climate change is obtained by analyzing over 4,000 newspaper articles from various official outlets in China. State-controlled newspapers play an essential role in transmitting essential and high-quality information and promoting broader public understanding of climate change and its anthropogenic nature. Thus, newspaper articles can be seen as tools employed by governments to mobilize the public in terms of supporting the development of a strategy shift from economy-growth to an ecological civilization. However, media is just one of the significant factors influencing an individual’s climate change concern. Extreme weather events, access to accurate scientific information, elite cues, and movement/countermovement advocacy influence an individual’s perceptions of climate change. Hence, there are differences in the ways that both newspaper articles and the public frame the issues. The online forum is an informative channel for scholars to understand the public’s opinion. The micro-level data comes from Zhihu, which is China’s equivalence of Quora. Users can propose, answer, and comment on questions. This project analyzes the questions related to climate change which have over 20 answers. By open-coding both the macro- and micro-level data, this project will depict the differences between ideology as presented in government-controlled newspapers and how people talk and act with respect to climate change in cyberspace, which may provide an idea about any existing disconnect in public behavior and their willingness to change daily activities to facilitate a greener society. The contemporary Yellow Vest protests in France illustrate that the large gap between governmental policies of climate change mitigation and the public’s understanding may lead to social movement activity and social instability. Effective environmental policy is impossible without the public’s support. Finding existing gaps in understanding may help policy-makers develop effective ways of framing climate change and obtain more supporters of climate change related policies. Overall, this qualitative project provides answers to the following research questions: 1) How do different state-controlled newspapers transmit their ideology on climate change to the public and in what ways? 2) How do individuals frame climate change online? 3) What are the differences between newspapers’ framing and individual’s framing?

Keywords: climate change, China, framing theory, media, public’s climate change concern

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67 Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions on Nuclear Non-Proliferation: Constructing Domestic Effects of International Sanctions in the Iranian Presidential Election of 2013

Authors: Adel Hawatmeh

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This study aims to explore how the effects of economic sanctions against nuclear proliferation affect nuclear policy choices through elite discourse in general elections. Sanctions on Iran 2006-2015 were continuous, inclusive, mandatory, and collective CIMC. Sanctions impacts have affected significantly Iranian macroeconomic indicators such as GDP growth, inflation, and unemployment. In addition, mismanagement has also contributed minorly to the economic harms. These causes have been portrayed and articulated differently among elite discourse in Iran during the 2013 presidential election campaigning, especially by the two dominant candidates. For a better understanding of Iran’s elite discourse, this study uses Norman Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework in analysing Iran’s elite discourse of domestic newspapers “Shargh & Keyhan”, Mr. Muhammad Baqer Ghalibaf, and Mr. Hassan Rouhani. The main results of the research show that sanctions’ effects have contributed significantly in constructing elite discourses of domestic newspapers “Shargh & Keyhan”, Mr. Muhammad Baqer Ghalibaf, and Mr. Hassan Rouhani during the presidential election of 2013; economic issues have been articulated more than any other issues such as political or social ones; Rouhani’s discourse was convergent with Shargh newspaper both have ranked the effects of economic sanctions as the main cause of economic harms. Rouhani’s announced policies and approach were convergent with Shargh newspaper in the way of solving the economic hardship, that is, reconsidering current Iran’s nuclear choice by renegotiating the nuclear programme in order to get rid of economic sanctions; the economic issue was the main priority of the voters; Muhammad Ghalibaf ranked the economic mismanagement as the main cause of economic harms in convergence with Keyhan newspaper. Ghalibaf and Keyhan were convergent that the effects of economic sanctions were not significant and the way to solve the economic hardship is to enhance the effectiveness of economic management and no need to change the current choice of Iran’s nuclear policy. The convergent policies of Rouhani and voters’ priorities might contribute significantly to his victory in 2013 and consequently reached a nuclear deal through renegotiating the nuclear issue with the 5+1 in 2015 according to the JCPOA agreement. This topic is significant because it explores the crucial role of economic sanctions in influencing nuclear choices through elite discourses in general elections that affects voter preferences. Methodology:This is a qualitative study that seeks to understand in depth the case study of Iran, using discourse analysis.

Keywords: economic sanctions, international security, Iran, discourse analysis, nuclear non-proliferation.

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66 A Comparative Semantic Network Study between Chinese and Western Festivals

Authors: Jianwei Qian, Rob Law

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With the expansion of globalization and the increment of market competition, the festival, especially the traditional one, has demonstrated its vitality under the new context. As a new tourist attraction, festivals play a critically important role in promoting the tourism economy, because the organization of a festival can engage more tourists, generate more revenues and win a wider media concern. However, in the current stage of China, traditional festivals as a way to disseminate national culture are undergoing the challenge of foreign festivals and the related culture. Different from those special events created solely for developing economy, traditional festivals have their own culture and connotation. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study on not only protecting the tradition, but promoting its development as well. This study conducts a comparative study of the development of China’s Valentine’s Day and Western Valentine’s Day under the Chinese context and centers on newspaper reports in China from 2000 to 2016. Based on the literature, two main research focuses can be established: one is concerned about the festival’s impact and the other is about tourists’ motivation to engage in a festival. Newspaper reports serve as the research discourse and can help cover the two focal points. With the assistance of content mining techniques, semantic networks for both Days are constructed separately to help depict the status quo of these two festivals in China. Based on the networks, two models are established to show the key component system of traditional festivals in the hope of perfecting the positive role festival tourism plays in the promotion of economy and culture. According to the semantic networks, newspaper reports on both festivals have similarities and differences. The difference is mainly reflected in its cultural connotation, because westerners and Chinese may show their love in different ways. Nevertheless, they share more common points in terms of economy, tourism, and society. They also have a similar living environment and stakeholders. Thus, they can be promoted together to revitalize some traditions in China. Three strategies are proposed to realize the aforementioned aim. Firstly, localize international festivals to suit the Chinese context to make it function better. Secondly, facilitate the internationalization process of traditional Chinese festivals to receive more recognition worldwide. Finally, allow traditional festivals to compete with foreign ones to help them learn from each other and elucidate the development of other festivals. It is believed that if all these can be realized, not only the traditional Chinese festivals can obtain a more promising future, but foreign ones are the same as well. Accordingly, the paper can contribute to the theoretical construction of festival images by the presentation of the semantic network. Meanwhile, the identified features and issues of festivals from two different cultures can enlighten the organization and marketing of festivals as a vital tourism activity. In the long run, the study can enhance the festival as a key attraction to keep the sustainable development of both the economy and the society.

Keywords: Chinese context, comparative study, festival tourism, semantic network analysis, valentine’s day

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65 A Newspapers Expectations Indicator from Web Scraping

Authors: Pilar Rey del Castillo

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This document describes the building of an average indicator of the general sentiments about the future exposed in the newspapers in Spain. The raw data are collected through the scraping of the Digital Periodical and Newspaper Library website. Basic tools of natural language processing are later applied to the collected information to evaluate the sentiment strength of each word in the texts using a polarized dictionary. The last step consists of summarizing these sentiments to produce daily indices. The results are a first insight into the applicability of these techniques to produce periodic sentiment indicators.

Keywords: natural language processing, periodic indicator, sentiment analysis, web scraping

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64 A Corpus-Based Study of Evaluative Language in Leading Articles in British Broadsheet and Tabloid Newspapers

Authors: Fatimah AlSaiari

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In recent years, newspapers in the United Kingdom have been no longer just a means of sharing news about what happens in the world; they are also used to influence target readers by having them become more up-to-date, well-informed, entertained, exasperated, delighted, and infuriated. To achieve these objectives and maintain influence on public opinion, journalists use a particular language in which they can convey emotions and opinions, organize their discourse, and establish solidarity with their audience. This type of language has been widely analyzed under different labels, such as evaluation, appraisal, and stance. There is a considerable amount of linguistic and non-linguistic research devoted to analyzing this type of interpersonal language in journalistic discourse, and most of these studies were carried out to challenge the traditional assumptions of the objectivity and impartiality of news reporting. However, very little research has been undertaken on evaluative language in newspaper institutional editorials, and there is hardly any systematic or exhaustive analysis of this type of language in British tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. This study will attempt to provide new insights into the nature of authorial and non-authorial evaluation in leading articles in popular and quality British newspapers, along with their targets, sources, and discourse functions. The study will also attempt to develop a framework of evaluation that can be applied to evaluative lexical items in newspaper opinion texts. The framework is both theory-driven (i.e., it builds on and modifies previous frameworks of evaluation such as appraisal theory and parameter-based approach) and data-driven (i.e., it elicits the evaluative categories from the analysis of the corpus, which helps in the development of the current framework). To achieve this aim, a corpus of 140 leading articles were selected. The findings revealed that the tabloids tended to express their stance through explicitness, dramatization, frequent reference to social actors’ emotions and beliefs, and exaggeration in negativity, while the broadsheets preferred to express their stance through mitigation ambiguity and implicitness. conceptual themes and propositions were more preferable targets for expressing stance in the broadsheets while human behavior and characters were preferable targets for the tabloids.

Keywords: appraisal theory, evaluative language, British newspapers, broadsheets & tabloids, evaluative adjectives

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63 The Introduction of Modern Diagnostic Techniques and It Impact on Local Garages

Authors: Mustapha Majid

Abstract:

Gone were the days when technicians/mechanics will have to spend too much time trying to identify a mechanical fault and rectify the problem. Now the emphasis is on the use of Automobile diagnosing Equipment through the use of computers and special software. An investigation conducted at Tamale Metropolis and Accra in the Northern and Greater Accra regions of Ghana, respectively. Methodology for data gathering were; questionnaires, physical observation, interviews, and newspaper. The study revealed that majority of mechanics lack computer skills which can enable them use diagnosis tools such as Exhaust Gas Analyzer, Scan Tools, Electronic Wheel Balancing machine, etc.

Keywords: diagnosing, local garages and modern garages, lack of knowledge of diagnosing posing an existential threat, training of local mechanics

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