Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 140

Search results for: isothermal

140 Comparative Study of Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation on Titanium Alloys

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee


Isothermal oxidation at 800°C for 50h and Cyclic oxidation at 600°C and 800°C for 40h of Pure Ti and Ti64 were performed in a muffle furnace. In Cyclic oxidation, massive scale spallation occurred, and the oxide scale cracks and peels off were observed at high temperature, it represents oxide scale that formed during cyclic oxidation was spalled out owing to stresses due to thermal shock generated during repetitive oxidation and subsequent cooling. The thickness of scale is larger in cyclic oxidation than the isothermal case. This is due to inward diffusion of oxygen through oxide scales and/or pores and cracks in cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, diffusion, isothermal, cyclic

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139 Effect of Plastic Deformation on the Carbide-Free Bainite Transformation in Medium C-Si Steel

Authors: Mufath Zorgani, Carlos Garcia-Mateo, Mohammad Jahazi


In this study, the influence of pre-strained austenite on the extent of isothermal bainite transformation in medium-carbon, high-silicon steel was investigated. Different amounts of deformations were applied at 600°C on the austenite right before quenching to the region, where isothermal bainitic transformation is activated. Four different temperatures of 325, 350, 375, and 400°C considering similar holding time 1800s at each temperature, were selected to investigate the extent of isothermal bainitic transformation. The results showed that the deformation-free austenite transforms to the higher volume fraction of CFB bainite when the isothermal transformation temperature reduced from 400 to 325°C, the introduction of plastic deformation in austenite prior to the formation of bainite invariably involves a delay of the same or identical isothermal treatment. On the other side, when the isothermal transformation temperature and deformation increases, the volume fraction and the plate thickness of bainite decreases and the amount of retained austenite increases. The shape of retained austenite is mostly representing blocky-shape one due to the less amount of transformed bainite. Moreover, the plate-like shape bainite cannot be resolved when the deformation amount reached 30%, and the isothermal transformation temperatures are of 375 and 400°C. The amount of retained austenite and the percentage of its transformation to martensite during the final cooling stage play a significant role in the variation of hardness level for different thermomechanical regimes.

Keywords: ausforming, carbide free bainite, dilatometry, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
138 Studies on Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of PP/SEBS-g-MA Blends

Authors: Rishi Sharma, S. N. Maiti


The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of PP/SEBS-g-MA blends up to 0-50% concentration of copolymer was studied by differential scanning calorimetry at four different cooling rates. Crystallization parameters were analyzed by Avrami and Jeziorny models. Primary and secondary crystallization processes were described by Avrami equation. Avrami model showed that all types of shapes grow from small dimensions during primary crystallization. However, three-dimensional crystal growth was observed during the secondary crystallization process. The crystallization peak and onset temperature decrease, however

Keywords: crystallization kinetics, non-isothermal, polypropylene, SEBS-g-MA

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137 Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee


In this study, the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was isothermally and cyclically oxidized at 800oC for 40 hours in air, and its oxidation behavior was characterized in terms of its oxidation rate, scaling rate, and scale spallation tendency. The isothermal oxidation tests indicated that Ti-6Al-4V oxidized fast and almost linearly, forming thick oxide scales. However, the scales that formed during isothermal oxidation were adherent. The cyclic oxidation tests indicated that the scales that formed on Ti-6Al-4V were highly susceptible to spallation owing to the large growth stress arisen and the thermal stress imposed during thermal cyclings. The formed scales frequently delaminated into several pieces owing to the excessive stress aroused by the repetitive thermal shock. Particularly, excessive oxidation and heavy spallation occurred at the edge of Ti-6Al-4V during cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, isothermal, oxidation, spallation

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
136 Tribocorrosion Behavior of Austempered Ductile Iron Microalloyed with Boron

Authors: S. Gvazava, N. Khidasheli, G. Gordeziani, A. DL. Batako


The work presented in this paper studied the tribological characteristics (wear resistance, friction coefficient) of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with different combinations of structural composition (upper bainite, lower bainite, retained austenite) in dry sliding friction. A range of structural states of the metal matrix was obtained by changing the regimes of isothermal quenching of high-strength cast iron. The tribological tests were carried out using two sets of isothermal quenched cast irons. After austenitization at 900°С for 60 minutes, the specimens from the first group were isothermally quenched at the 300°С temperature and the specimens from the second set – at 400°С. The investigations showed that the isothermal quenching increases the friction coefficient of high-strength cast irons. The friction coefficient was found to be in the range from 0.4 to 0.55 for cast irons, depending on the structures of the metal matrix. The quenched cast irons having lower bainite demonstrate higher wear resistance in dry friction conditions. The dependence of wear resistance on the amount of retained austenite in isothermal quenched cast irons has a nonlinear characteristic and reaches its maximum value when the content of retained austenite is about 15-22%. The boron micro-additives allowed to reduce the friction coefficient of ADI and increase their wear resistance by 1.5-1.7 times.

Keywords: wear resistance, dry sliding, austempering, ADI, friction coefficient, retained austenite, isothermal quenching

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
135 Forming Simulation of Thermoplastic Pre-Impregnated Textile Composite

Authors: Masato Nishi, Tetsushi Kaburagi, Masashi Kurose, Tei Hirashima, Tetsusei Kurasiki


The process of thermoforming a carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) has increased its presence in the automotive industry for its wide applicability to the mass production car. A non-isothermal forming for CFRTP can shorten its cycle time to less than 1 minute. In this paper, the textile reinforcement FE model which the authors proposed in a previous work is extended to the CFRTP model for non-isothermal forming simulation. The effect of thermoplastic is given by adding shell elements which consider thermal effect to the textile reinforcement model. By applying Reuss model to the stress calculation of thermoplastic, the proposed model can accurately predict in-plane shear behavior, which is the key deformation mode during forming, in the range of the process temperature. Using the proposed model, thermoforming simulation was conducted and the results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, finite element analysis, pre-impregnated textile composite, non-isothermal forming

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134 Comparative DNA Binding of Iron and Manganese Complexes by Spectroscopic and ITC Techniques and Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Maryam Nejat Dehkordi, Per Lincoln, Hassan Momtaz


Interaction of Schiff base complexes of iron and manganese (iron [N, N’ Bis (5-(triphenyl phosphonium methyl) salicylidene) -1, 2 ethanediamine) chloride, [Fe Salen]Cl, manganese [N, N’ Bis (5-(triphenyl phosphonium methyl) salicylidene) -1, 2 ethanediamine) acetate) with DNA were investigated by spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry techniques (ITC). The absorbance spectra of complexes have shown hyper and hypochromism in the presence of DNA that is indication of interaction of complexes with DNA. The linear dichroism (LD) measurements confirmed the bending of DNA in the presence of complexes. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry experiments approved that complexes bound to DNA on the base of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, ITC profile exhibits the existence of two binding phases for the complex. Antibacterial activity of ligand and complexes were tested in vitro to evaluate their activity against the gram positive and negative bacteria.

Keywords: Schiff base complexes, ct-DNA, linear dichroism (LD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), antibacterial activity

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133 Kinetic Analysis of Wood Pellets by Isothermal Calorimetry for Evaluating its Self-heating Potential

Authors: Can Yao, Chang Dong Sheng


The heat released by wood pellets during storage will cause self-heating and even self-ignition. In this work, the heat release rates of pine, fir wood and mahogany pellets at 30–70℃ were measured by TAM air isothermal calorimeter, and the kinetic analysis was performed by iso-conversion ratio and non-steady-state methods to evaluate its self-heating potential. The results show that the reaction temperature can significantly affect the heat release rate. The higher the temperature, the greater the heat release rate. The heat release rates of different kinds of wood pellets are obviously different, and the order of the heat release rates for the three pellets at 70℃ is pine > fir wood > mahogany. The kinetic analysis of the iso-conversion ratio method indicates that the distribution of activation energy for pine, fir wood and mahogany pellets under the release of 0.1–1.0 J/g specific heat are 58–102 kJ/mol, 59–108 kJ/mol and 59–112 kJ/mol, respectively. Their activation energies obtained from the non-steady-state kinetic analysis are 13.43 kJ/mol, 19.19 kJ/mol and 21.09 kJ/mol, respectively. Both kinetic analyses show that the magnitude of self-heating risk for the three pellet fuels is pine pellets > fir wood pellets > mahogany pellets.

Keywords: isothermal calorimeter, kinetics, self-heating, wood pellets

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132 Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Lauric Acid Methyl Ester from DSC Measurements

Authors: Charine Faith H. Lagrimas, Rommel N. Galvan, Rizalinda L. de Leon


An ongoing study, methyl laurate to be used as a refrigerant in an HVAC system, requires the crystallization kinetics of the said substance. Step-wise and normal forms of Avrami model parameters were used to describe the isothermal crystallization kinetics of methyl laurate at different temperatures from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements. At 3 °C, parameters showed that methyl laurate exhibits a secondary crystallization. The primary crystallization occurred with instantaneous nuclei and spherulitic growth; followed by a secondary instantaneous nucleation with a lower growth of dimensionality, rod-like. At 4 °C to 6 °C, the exotherms from DSC implied that the system was under the isokinetic range. The kinetics behavior is the same which is instantaneous nucleation with one-dimensional growth. The differences for the isokinetic range temperatures are the activation energies (directly proportional to T) and nucleation rates (inversely proportional to T). From the images obtained during the crystallization of methyl laurate using an optical microscope, it is confirmed that the nucleation and crystal growth modes obtained from the optical microscope are consistent with the parameters from Avrami model.

Keywords: Avrami model, isothermal crystallization, lipids kinetics, methyl laurate

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131 Isothermal Solid-Phase Amplification System for Detection of Yersinia pestis

Authors: Olena Mayboroda, Angel Gonzalez Benito, Jonathan Sabate Del Rio, Marketa Svobodova, Sandra Julich, Herbert Tomaso, Ciara K. O'Sullivan, Ioanis Katakis


DNA amplification is required for most molecular diagnostic applications but conventional PCR has disadvantages for field testing. Isothermal amplification techniques are being developed to respond to this problem. One of them is the Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) that operates at isothermal conditions without sacrificing specificity and sensitivity in easy-to-use formats. In this work RPA was used for the optical detection of solid-phase amplification of the potential biowarfare agent Yersinia pestis. Thiolated forward primers were immobilized on the surface of maleimide-activated microtitre plates for the quantitative detection of synthetic and genomic DNA, with elongation occurring only in the presence of the specific template DNA and solution phase reverse primers. Quantitative detection was achieved via the use of biotinylated reverse primers and post-amplification addition of streptavidin-HRP conjugate. The overall time of amplification and detection was less than 1 hour at a constant temperature of 37oC. Single-stranded and double-stranded DNA sequences were detected achieving detection limits of 4.04*10-13 M and 3.14*10-16 M, respectively. The system demonstrated high specificity with negligible responses to non-specific targets.

Keywords: recombinase polymerase amplification, Yersinia pestis, solid-phase detection, ELONA

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130 Simulation of Immiscibility Regions in Sodium Borosilicate Glasses

Authors: Djamila Aboutaleb, Brahim Safi


In this paper, sodium borosilicates glasses were prepared by melting in air. These heat-resistant transparent glasses have subjected subsequently isothermal treatments at different times, which have transformed them at opaque glass (milky white color). Such changes indicate that these glasses showed clearly phase separation (immiscibility). The immiscibility region in a sodium borosilicate ternary system was investigated in this work, i.e. to determine the regions from which some compositions can show phase separation. For this we went through the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, which were translated later by mathematical equations to find an approximate solution. The latter has been translated in a simulation which was established thereafter to find the immiscibility regions in this type of special glasses.

Keywords: sodium borosilicate, heat-resistant, isothermal treatments, immiscibility, thermodynamics

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129 Study of the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Kinetic in AZ91 Alloys

Authors: A. Azizi, M. Toubane, L. Chetibi


Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique for the study of phase transformations, particularly in the study of precipitation. The kinetic of the precipitation and dissolution is always related to the concept of activation energy Ea. The determination of the activation energy gives important information about the kinetic of the precipitation reaction. In this work, we were interested in the study of the isothermal and non-isothermal treatments on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9 Al-Zn 1-0.2 Mn. mass fraction %), using Differential Calorimetric method. Through this method, the samples were heat treated up to 425° C, using different rates. To calculate the apparent activation energies associated with the formation of precipitated phases, we used different isoconversional methods. This study was supported by other analysis: X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements.

Keywords: calorimetric, activation energy, AZ91 alloys, microstructural evolution

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128 Catalytic Soot Gasification in Single and Mixed Atmospheres of CO2 and H2O in the Presence of CO and H2

Authors: Yeidy Sorani Montenegro Camacho, Samir Bensaid, Nunzio Russo, Debora Fino


LiFeO2 nano-powders were prepared via solution combustion synthesis (SCS) method and were used as carbon gasification catalyst in a reduced atmosphere. The gasification of soot with CO2 and H2O in the presence of CO and H2 (syngas atmosphere) were also investigated under atmospheric conditions using a fixed-bed micro-reactor placed in an electric, PID-regulated oven. The catalytic bed was composed of 150 mg of inert silica, 45 mg of carbon (Printex-U) and 5 mg of catalyst. The bed was prepared by ball milling the mixture at 240 rpm for 15 min to get an intimate contact between the catalyst and soot. A Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) of 38.000 h-1 was used for the tests campaign. The furnace was heated up to the desired temperature, a flow of 120 mL/min was sent into the system and at the same time the concentrations of CO, CO2 and H2 were recorded at the reactor outlet using an EMERSON X-STREAM XEGP analyzer. Catalytic and non-catalytic soot gasification reactions were studied in a temperature range of 120°C – 850°C with a heating rate of 5 °C/min (non-isothermal case) and at 650°C for 40 minutes (isothermal case). Experimental results show that the gasification of soot with H2O and CO2 are inhibited by the H2 and CO, respectively. The soot conversion at 650°C decreases from 70.2% to 31.6% when the CO is present in the feed. Besides, the soot conversion was 73.1% and 48.6% for H2O-soot and H2O-H2-soot gasification reactions, respectively. Also, it was observed that the carbon gasification in mixed atmosphere, i.e., when simultaneous carbon gasification with CO2 and steam take place, with H2 and CO as co-reagents; the gasification reaction is strongly inhibited by CO and H2, as well has been observed in single atmospheres for the isothermal and non-isothermal reactions. Further, it has been observed that when CO2 and H2O react with carbon at the same time, there is a passive cooperation of steam and carbon dioxide in the gasification reaction, this means that the two gases operate on separate active sites without influencing each other. Finally, despite the extreme reduced operating conditions, it has been demonstrated that the 32.9% of the initial carbon was gasified using LiFeO2-catalyst, while in the non-catalytic case only 8% of the soot was gasified at 650°C.

Keywords: soot gasification, nanostructured catalyst, reducing environment, syngas

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127 Polymerization: An Alternative Technology for Heavy Metal Removal

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud


In this paper, the adsorption performance of a novel environmental friendly material, calcium alginate gel beads as a non-conventional technique for the successful removal of copper ions from aqueous solution are reported on. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity and process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosages, initial metal ion concentrations, stirring rates and contact times. It was observed that the optimum pH for maximum copper ions adsorption was at pH 5.0. For all contact times, an increase in copper ions concentration resulted in decrease in the percent of copper ions removal. Langmuir and Freundlich's isothermal models were used to describe the experimental adsorption. Adsorbent was characterization using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Keywords: adsorption, alginate polymer, isothermal models, equilibrium

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126 A Study on Prediction Model for Thermally Grown Oxide Layer in Thermal Barrier Coating

Authors: Yongseok Kim, Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok


Thermal barrier coating(TBC) is applied for gas turbine components to protect the components from extremely high temperature condition. Since metallic substrate cannot endure such severe condition of gas turbines, delamination of TBC can cause failure of the system. Thus, delamination life of TBC is one of the most important issues for designing the components operating at high temperature condition. Thermal stress caused by thermally grown oxide(TGO) layer is known as one of the major failure mechanisms of TBC. Thermal stress by TGO mainly occurs at the interface between TGO layer and ceramic top coat layer, and it is strongly influenced by the thickness and shape of TGO layer. In this study, Isothermal oxidation is conducted on coin-type TBC specimens prepared by APS(air plasma spray) method. After the isothermal oxidation at various temperature and time condition, the thickness and shape(rumpling shape) of the TGO is investigated, and the test data is processed by numerical analysis. Finally, the test data is arranged into a mathematical prediction model with two variables(temperature and exposure time) which can predict the thickness and rumpling shape of TGO.

Keywords: thermal barrier coating, thermally grown oxide, thermal stress, isothermal oxidation, numerical analysis

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125 The Study of Aluminum Effects Layer Austenite Twins Adjacent to K-Carbide Plates in the Cellular Structure of a Mn-Al Alloy Steel

Authors: Wu Wei-Ting, Liu Po-Yen, Chang Chin-Tzu, Cheng Wei-Chun


Three types of low-temperature phase transformations in an Fe-12.5 Mn-6.53 Al-1.28 C (wt %) alloy have been studied. The steel underwent solution heat treatment at 1100℃ and isothermal holding at low temperatures. γ’ phase appears in the austenite matrix in the air-cooled steel. Coherent ultra-fine particles of γ’ phase precipitated uniformly in the austenite matrix after the air-cooling process. These ultra-fine particles were very small and only could be detected by TEM through dark-field images. After short periods of isothermal holding at low temperatures these particles of γ’ phase grew and could be easily detected by TEM. A pro-eutectoid reaction happened after isothermal holding at temperatures below 875 ℃. Proeutectoid κ-carbide and ferrite appear in the austenite matrix as grain boundary precipitates and cellular precipitates. The cellular precipitates are composed of lamellar κ-carbide and austenite. The lamellar κ-carbide grains are always accompanied by layers of austenite twins. The presence of twin layers adhering to the κ-carbide plates might be attributed to the lower activation energy for the precipitation of κ-carbide plates in the austenite. The final form of phase transformation is the eutectoid reaction for the decomposition of supersaturated austenite into stable κ-carbide and ferrite phases at temperatures below 700℃. The ferrite and κ-carbide are in the form of pearlite lamellae.

Keywords: austenite, austenite twin layers, κ-carbide, twins

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124 Experimental Assessment of Artificial Flavors Production

Authors: M. Unis, S. Turky, A. Elalem, A. Meshrghi


The Esterification kinetics of acetic acid with isopropnol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a homogenous catalyst was studied with isothermal batch experiments at 60,70 and 80°C and at a different molar ratio of isopropnol to acetic acid. Investigation of kinetics of the reaction indicated that the low of molar ratio is favored for esterification reaction, this is due to the reaction is catalyzed by acid. The maximum conversion, approximately 60.6% was obtained at 80°C for molar ratio of 1:3 acid : alcohol. It was found that increasing temperature of the reaction, increases the rate constant and conversion at a certain mole ratio, that is due to the esterification is exothermic. The homogenous reaction has been described with simple power-law model. The chemical equilibrium combustion calculated from the kinetic model in agreement with the measured chemical equilibrium.

Keywords: artificial flavors, esterification, chemical equilibria, isothermal

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123 Designing, Processing and Isothermal Transformation of Al-Si High Carbon Ultrafine High Strength Bainitic Steel

Authors: Mohamed K. El-Fawkhry, Ahmed Shash, Ahmed Ismail Zaki Farahat, Sherif Ali Abd El Rahman, Taha Mattar


High-carbon, silicon-rich steels are commonly suggested to obtain very fine bainitic microstructure at low temperature ranged from 200 to 300°C. Thereby, the resulted microstructure consists of slender of bainitic-ferritic plates interwoven with retained austenite. The advanced strength and ductility package of this steel is much dependent on the fineness of bainitic ferrite, as well as the retained austenite phase. In this article, Aluminum to Silicon ratio, and the isothermal transformation temperature have been adopted to obtain ultra high strength high carbon steel. Optical and SEM investigation of the produced steels have been performed. XRD has been used to track the retained austenite development as a result of the change in the chemical composition of developed steels and heat treatment process. Mechanical properties in terms of hardness and microhardness of obtained phases and structure were investigated. It was observed that the increment of aluminum to silicon ratio has a great effect in promoting the bainitic transformation, in tandem with improving the stability and the fineness of retained austenite. Such advanced structure leads to enhancement in the whole mechanical properties of the high carbon steel.

Keywords: high-carbon steel, silicon-rich steels, fine bainitic microstructure, retained austenite, isothermal transformation

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122 Modelling for Temperature Non-Isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Nasser Mohamed Ramli, Mohamad Syafiq Mohamad


Many types of controllers were applied on the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) unit to control the temperature. In this research paper, Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller are compared with Fuzzy Logic controller for temperature control of CSTR. The control system for temperature non-isothermal of a CSTR will produce a stable response curve to its set point temperature. A mathematical model of a CSTR using the most general operating condition was developed through a set of differential equations into S-function using MATLAB. The reactor model and S-function are developed using m.file. After developing the S-function of CSTR model, User-Defined functions are used to link to SIMULINK file. Results that are obtained from simulation and temperature control were better when using Fuzzy logic control compared to PID control.

Keywords: CSTR, temperature, PID, fuzzy logic

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121 Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor Convection of Newtonian Nanoliquid

Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, T. N. Sakshath


In the paper we make linear and non-linear stability analyses of Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a Newtonian nanoliquid in a rotating medium (called as Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor convection). Rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries are considered for investigation. Khanafer-Vafai-Lightstone single phase model is used for studying instabilities in nanoliquids. Various thermophysical properties of nanoliquid are obtained using phenomenological laws and mixture theory. The eigen boundary value problem is solved for the Rayleigh number using an analytical method by considering trigonometric eigen functions. We observe that the critical nanoliquid Rayleigh number is less than that of the base liquid. Thus the onset of convection is advanced due to the addition of nanoparticles. So, increase in volume fraction leads to advanced onset and thereby increase in heat transport. The amplitudes of convective modes required for estimating the heat transport are determined analytically. The tri-modal standard Lorenz model is derived for the steady state assuming small scale convective motions. The effect of rotation on the onset of convection and on heat transport is investigated and depicted graphically. It is observed that the onset of convection is delayed due to rotation and hence leads to decrease in heat transport. Hence, rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. This is due to the fact that the energy of the system is used to create the component V. We observe that the amount of heat transport is less in the case of rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries compared to free-free isothermal boundaries.

Keywords: nanoliquid, rigid-rigid, rotation, single phase

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120 Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Garlic in Food

Authors: Ting-Ying Su, Meng-Shiou Lee, Shyang-Chwen Sheu


Garlic is used commonly as a seasoning around the world. But some people suffer from allergy to garlic. Garlic may also cause burning of mouth, stomach, and throat. In some Buddhist traditions, consuming garlic is not allowed. The objective of this study is to develop a LAMP based method for detection of garlic in food. We designed specific primers targeted on ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequence of garlic DNA. The LAMP assay was performed using a set of four different primers F3, B3, FIP and BIP at 60˚C in less than 60 mins. Results showed that the primer was not cross-reactive to other commonly used spice including Chinese leek, Chinese onion, green onion, onion, pepper, basil, parsley, pepper and ginger. As low as 2% of garlic DNA could be detected. Garlic still could be detected by developed LAMP after boiled at 100˚C for 80 minutes and autoclaved at 121˚C for 60 minutes. Commercial products labeled with garlic ingredient could be identified by the developed method.

Keywords: garlic, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, processing, DNA

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119 Studying the Intercalation of Low Density Polyethylene/Clay Nanocomposites after Different UV Exposures

Authors: Samir Al-Zobaidi


This study attempts to understand the effect of different UV irradiation methods on the intercalation of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites, and its molecular behavior at certain isothermal crystallization temperature. Three different methods of UV exposure were employed using single composition of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites. All samples were annealed for 5 hours at a crystallization temperature of 100°C. The crystallization temperature was chosen to be at large supercooling temperature to ensure quick and complete crystallization. The raw material of LDPE consisted of two stable monoclinic and orthorhombic phases according to XRD results. The thermal behavior of both phases acted differently when UV exposure method was changed. The monoclinic phase was more dependent on the method used compared to the orthorhombic phase. The intercalation of clay, as well as, the non-isothermal crystallization temperature, has also shown a clear dependency on the type of UV exposure. A third phase that is thermally less stable was also observed. Its respond to UV irradiation was greater since it contains low molecular weight entities which make it more vulnerable to any UV exposure.

Keywords: LDPE/MMt nanocomposites, crystallization, UV irradiation, intercalation

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118 Influence of Brazing Process Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Superalloy

Authors: M. Zielinska, B. Daniels, J. Gabel, A. Paletko


A common nickel based superalloy Inconel625 was brazed with Ni-base braze filler material (AMS4777) containing melting-point-depressants such as B and Si. Different braze gaps, brazing times and forms of braze filler material were tested. It was determined that the melting point depressants B and Si tend to form hard and brittle phases in the joint during the braze cycle. Brittle phases significantly reduce mechanical properties (e. g. tensile strength) of the joint. Therefore, it is important to define optimal process parameters to achieve high strength joints, free of brittle phases. High ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values can be obtained if the joint area is free of brittle phases, which is equivalent to a complete isothermal solidification of the joint. Isothermal solidification takes place only if the concentration of the melting point depressant in the braze filler material of the joint is continuously reduced by diffusion into the base material. For a given brazing temperature, long brazing times and small braze filler material volumes (small braze gaps) are beneficial for isothermal solidification. On the base of the obtained results it can be stated that the form of the braze filler material has an additional influence on the joint quality. Better properties can be achieved by the use of braze-filler-material in form of foil instead of braze-filler-material in form of paste due to a reduced amount of voids and a more homogeneous braze-filler-material-composition in the braze-gap by using foil.

Keywords: diffusion brazing, microstructure, superalloy, tensile strength

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117 Wear Behavior of Intermetallic (Ni3Al) Coating at High Temperature

Authors: K. Mehmood, Muhammad Asif Rafiq, A. Nasir Khan, M. Mudassar Rauf


Air plasma spraying system was utilized to deposit Ni3Al coatings on AISI 321 steel samples. After thermal spraying, the nickel aluminide intermetallic coatings were isothermal heat treated at various temperatures. In this regard, temperatures from 500 °C to 800 °C with 100 °C increments were selected. The coatings were soaked for 10, 30, 60 and 100 hours at the mentioned temperatures. These coatings were then tested by a pin on disk method. It was observed that the coatings exposed at comparatively higher temperature experienced lower wear rate. The decrease in wear rate is due to the formation of NiO phase. Further, the as sprayed and heat treated coatings were characterized by other tools such as Microhardness testing, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction analysis. After isothermal heat treatment, NiO was observed the main phase by X-Ray diffraction technique. Moreover, the surface hardness was also determined higher than cross sectional hardness.

Keywords: air plasma spraying, Ni -20Al, tribometer, intermetallic coating, nickel aluminide

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116 Investigation on the Kinetic Mechanism of the Reduction of Fe₂O₃/CoO-Decorated Carbon Xerogel

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghaani, Michele Catti


The reduction of CoO/Fe₂O₃ oxides supported on carbon xerogels was studied to elucidate the effect of nano-size distribution of the catalyst in carbon matrices. Resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels were synthesized, impregnated with iron and cobalt nitrates, and subsequently heated to obtain the oxides. The mechanism of oxide reduction to metal was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction in dynamic, non-isothermal conditions. Kinetic profiles of the reactions were obtained by plotting the diffraction intensities of selected Bragg peaks vs. temperature. The extracted Temperature-Programmed-Reduction (TPR) diagrams were analyzed by appropriate kinetic models, leading to best results with the Avrami-Erofeev model for all reduction reactions considered. The activation energies for the two-step reduction of iron oxide were 65 and 37 kJmol⁻¹, respectively. The average value for the reduction of CoO to Co was found to be around 21 kJ mol⁻¹. Such results may contribute to develop efficient and inexpensive non-noble metal-based catalysts in element form, e.g., Fe, Co, via heterogenization of metal complexes on mesoporous supports.

Keywords: non-isothermal kinetics, carbon aerogel, in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, reduction mechanisms

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115 Modeling Drying and Pyrolysis of Moist Wood Particles at Slow Heating Rates

Authors: Avdhesh K. Sharma


Formulation for drying and pyrolysis process in packed beds at slow heating rates is presented. Drying of biomass particles bed is described by mass diffusion equation and local moisture-vapour-equilibrium relations. In gasifiers, volatilization rate during pyrolysis of biomass is modeled by using apparent kinetic rate expression, while product compositions at slow heating rates is modeled using empirical fitted mass ratios (i.e., CO/CO2, ME/CO2, H2O/CO2) in terms of pyrolysis temperature. The drying module is validated fairly with available chemical kinetics scheme and found that the testing zone in gasifier bed constituted of relatively smaller particles having high airflow with high isothermal temperature expedite the drying process. Further, volatile releases more quickly within the shorter zone height at high temperatures (isothermal). Both, moisture loss and volatile release profiles are found to be sensitive to temperature, although the influence of initial moisture content on volatile release profile is not so sensitive.

Keywords: modeling downdraft gasifier, drying, pyrolysis, moist woody biomass

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114 Comparison of the Thermal Behavior of Different Crystal Forms of Manganese(II) Oxalate

Authors: B. Donkova, M. Nedyalkova, D. Mehandjiev


Sparingly soluble manganese oxalate is an appropriate precursor for the preparation of nanosized manganese oxides, which have a wide range of technological application. During the precipitation of manganese oxalate, three crystal forms could be obtained – α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG C2/c), γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG P212121) and orthorhombic MnC₂O₄.3H₂O (SG Pcca). The thermolysis of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O has been extensively studied during the years, while the literature data for the other two forms has been quite scarce. The aim of the present communication is to highlight the influence of the initial crystal structure on the decomposition mechanism of these three forms, their magnetic properties, the structure of the anhydrous oxalates, as well as the nature of the obtained oxides. For the characterization of the samples XRD, SEM, DTA, TG, DSC, nitrogen adsorption, and in situ magnetic measurements were used. The dehydration proceeds in one step with α-MnC₂O₄.2H2O and γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O, and in three steps with MnC₂O₄.3H2O. The values of dehydration enthalpy are 97, 149 and 132 kJ/mol, respectively, and the last two were reported for the first time, best to our knowledge. The magnetic measurements show that at room temperature all samples are antiferomagnetic, however during the dehydration of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O the exchange interaction is preserved, for MnC₂O₄.3H₂O it changes to ferromagnetic above 35°C, and for γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O it changes twice from antiferomagnetic to ferromagnetic above 70°C. The experimental results for magnetic properties are in accordance with the computational results obtained with Wien2k code. The difference in the initial crystal structure of the forms used determines different changes in the specific surface area during dehydration and different extent of Mn(II) oxidation during decomposition in the air; both being highest at α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O. The isothermal decomposition of the different oxalate forms shows that the type and physicochemical properties of the oxides, obtained at the same annealing temperature depend on the precursor used. Based on the results from the non-isothermal and isothermal experiments, and from different methods used for characterization of the sample, a comparison of the nature, mechanism and peculiarities of the thermolysis of the different crystal forms of manganese oxalate was made, which clearly reveals the influence of the initial crystal structure. Acknowledgment: 'Science and Education for Smart Growth', project BG05M2OP001-2.009-0028, COST Action MP1306 'Modern Tools for Spectroscopy on Advanced Materials', and project DCOST-01/18 (Bulgarian Science Fund).

Keywords: crystal structure, magnetic properties, manganese oxalate, thermal behavior

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113 Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Human Papillomavirus 16 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Suharni Mohamad Suharni Mohamad, Nurul Izzati Hamzan Nurul Izzati Hamzan, Norhayu Abdul Rahman Norhayu Abdul Rahman, Siti Suraiya Md Noor Siti Suraiya Md Noor


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important risk factor for development of oral cancer. HPV16 is the most common type found in HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, we established a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (real-time LAMP) for detection of HPV16. A set of six primers was specially designed to recognize eight distinct sequences of HPV16-E6. Detection and quantification was achieved by real-time monitoring using a real-time turbidimeter based on threshold time required for turbidity in the LAMP reaction. LAMP reagents (MgSO4, dNTPs, Bst polymerase concentrations) and various incubation times and temperatures were optimized. The sensitivity was determined using 10-fold serial dilutions of HPV16 standard strain. The specificity of was evaluated using other HPV genotypes. The optimized method was established with specifically designed primers by real-time detection in approximately 30 min at 65°C. The limit of detection of HPV16 using the LAMP assay was 10 pg/ml that could be detected in 30 min. The LAMP assay was 10 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR in detecting HPV16. No cross-reactivity with other HPV genotypes was observed. This quantitative real-time LAMP assay may improve diagnostic potential for the detection and quantification of HPV16 in clinical samples and epidemiological studies due to its rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and specificity. This assay will be further evaluated with HPV DNAs of saliva from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Acknowledgement: This study was financially supported by the ScienceFund Grant, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (305/PPSG/6113219).

Keywords: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP), rapid detection

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112 Two-Dimensional Analysis and Numerical Simulation of the Navier-Stokes Equations for Principles of Turbulence around Isothermal Bodies Immersed in Incompressible Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Romulo D. C. Santos, Silvio M. A. Gama, Ramiro G. R. Camacho


In this present paper, the thermos-fluid dynamics considering the mixed convection (natural and forced convections) and the principles of turbulence flow around complex geometries have been studied. In these applications, it was necessary to analyze the influence between the flow field and the heated immersed body with constant temperature on its surface. This paper presents a study about the Newtonian incompressible two-dimensional fluid around isothermal geometry using the immersed boundary method (IBM) with the virtual physical model (VPM). The numerical code proposed for all simulations satisfy the calculation of temperature considering Dirichlet boundary conditions. Important dimensionless numbers such as Strouhal number is calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Nusselt number, drag and lift coefficients, velocity and pressure. Streamlines and isothermal lines are presented for each simulation showing the flow dynamics and patterns. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations for mixed convection were discretized using the finite difference method for space and a second order Adams-Bashforth and Runge-Kuta 4th order methods for time considering the fractional step method to couple the calculation of pressure, velocity, and temperature. This work used for simulation of turbulence, the Smagorinsky, and Spalart-Allmaras models. The first model is based on the local equilibrium hypothesis for small scales and hypothesis of Boussinesq, such that the energy is injected into spectrum of the turbulence, being equal to the energy dissipated by the convective effects. The Spalart-Allmaras model, use only one transport equation for turbulent viscosity. The results were compared with numerical data, validating the effect of heat-transfer together with turbulence models. The IBM/VPM is a powerful tool to simulate flow around complex geometries. The results showed a good numerical convergence in relation the references adopted.

Keywords: immersed boundary method, mixed convection, turbulence methods, virtual physical model

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111 Assessment of Rock Masses Performance as a Support of Lined Rock Cavern for Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage

Authors: Vathna Suy, Ki-Il Song


In order to store highly pressurized gas such as an isothermal compressed air energy storage, Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) are constructed underground and supported by layers of concrete, steel and rock masses. This study aims to numerically investigate the performance of rock masses which serve as a support of Lined Rock Cavern subjected to high cyclic pressure loadings. FLAC3D finite different software is used for the simulation since the software can effectively model the behavior of concrete lining and steel plate with its built-in structural elements. Cyclic pressure loadings are applied onto the inner surface of the cavern which then transmitted to concrete, steel and eventually to the surrounding rock masses. Changes of stress and strain are constantly monitored throughout all the process of loading operations. The results at various monitoring locations are then extracted and analyzed to assess the response of the rock masses, specifically on its ability to absorb energy during loadings induced by the changes of cyclic pressure loadings inside the cavern. By analyzing the obtained data of stress-strain relation and taking into account the behavior of materials under the effect of strain-dependency, conclusions on the performance of rock masses subjected to high cyclic loading conditions are drawn.

Keywords: cyclic loading, FLAC3D, lined rock cavern (LRC), strain-dependency

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