Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: autograft

10 Antagonist Coactivation in Athletes Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Authors: Milad Pirali, Sohrab Keyhani, Mohhamad Ali Sanjari, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi


Purpose: The effect of hamstring antagonist activity on the knee extensors torque of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is not clear and persistent muscle weakness is common after ACLR. Hamstring activation when acting as antagonist is considered very important for knee strengths. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine hamstring antagonist coactivation during maximal effort of the isokinetic knee extension in ACLR athletes with hamstring autograft. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 20 professional athletes who underwent primary ACLR (hamstring tendon autograft)with 6-24 months postoperative and 20 healthy subjects as control group. Each subjects performed maximal effort isokinetic knee extension and flexion in 60/˚ s and 180/˚ s velocities for the involved and uninvolved limb. Synchronously, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF). The antagonist integrated EMG (IEMG) values were normalized to the IEMG of the same muscle during maximal isokinetic eccentric effort at the same velocities and ROM. Results: A one-way analysis of variance designs shows significantly greater IEMG coactivation of hamstring and decreased activation of Vm in ACLR when compared to uninvolved and control group leg in 60/˚ s and 180/˚ s velocities. Likewise peak torque to body weight was decreased in ACLR compared to uninvolved and control group during knee extension in both velocities (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Decreased extensors moment caused by decreased quadriceps inhibition and increased hamstring coactivation. In addition, these result indicated to decrease of motor unit recruitment in the VM (as a kinesiologicmonitore of the knee). It is appearing that strengthening of the quadriceps to be an important for rehabilitation program after ACLR for preparation in athletes endeavors. Therefore, we suggest that having more emphasis and focus on quadriceps strength and less emphasis on hamstring following ACLR.

Keywords: ACLR-coactivation, dynamometry, electromyography, isokinetic

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9 Autologous Blood for Conjunctival Autograft Fixation in Primary Pterygium Surgery: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Mohamed Abdelmongy


Autologous Blood for Conjunctival Autograft Fixation in Primary Pterygium Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Hossam Zein1,2, Ammar Ismail1,3, Mohamed Abdelmongy1,4, Sherif Elsherif1,5,6, Ahmad Hassanen1,4, Basma Muhammad2, Fathy Assaf1,3, Ahmed Elsehili1,7, Ahmed Negida1,7, Shin Yamane9, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim8,9 and Kazuaki Kadonosono9 BACKGROUND: Pterygium is a benign ocular lesion characterized by triangular fibrovascular growth of conjunctival tissue over the cornea. Patients complain of the bad cosmetic appearance, ocular surface irritation and decreased visual acuity if the pterygium is large enough to cause astigmatism or encroach on the pupil. The definitive treatment of pterygium is surgical removal. However, outcomes are compromised by recurrence . The aim of the current study is to systematically review the current literature to explore the efficacy and safety of fibrin glue, suture and autologous blood coagulum for conjunctivalautograft fixation in primary pterygium surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of fibrin glue compared to sutures and autologous blood coagulum in conjunctival autografting for the surgical treatment of pterygium. METHODS: During preparing this manuscript, we followed the steps adequately illustrated in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 5.3, and reported it according to the preferred reporting of systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement guidelines. We searched PubMed, Ovid (both through Medline), ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) through January 2017, using the following keywords “Pterygium AND (blood OR glue OR suture)” SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that met the following criteria: 1) comparing autologous blood vs fibrin glue for conjunctivalautograft fixation in primary pterygium surgery 2) comparing autologous blood vs sutures for conjunctivalautograft fixation in primary pterygium surgery DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the search results, assessed trial quality, and extracted data using standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The extracted data included A) study design, sample size, and main findings, B) Baseline characteristics of patients included in this review including their age, sex, pterygium site and grade, and graft size. C) Study outcomes comprising 1) primary outcomes: recurrence rate 2) secondary outcomes: graft stability outcomes (graft retraction, graft displacement), operation time (min) and postoperative symptoms (pain, discomfort, foreign body sensation, tearing) MAIN RESULTS: We included 7 RCTs and The review included662eyes (Blood: 293; Glue: 198; Suture: 171). we assess the 1) primary outcomes: recurrence rate 2) secondary outcomes: graft stability outcomes (graft retraction, graft displacement), operation time (min) and postoperative symptoms (pain, discomfort, foreign body sensation, tearing) CONCLUSIONS: Autologous blood for conjunctivalautograft fixation in pterygium surgery is associated with lower graft stability than fibrin glue or sutures. It was not inferior to fibrin glue or sutures regarding recurrence rate. The overall quality of evidence is low. Further well designed RCTs are needed to fully explore the efficacy of this new technique.

Keywords: pterygium, autograft, ophthalmology, cornea

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8 Bio-Functionalized Silk Nanofibers for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

Authors: Kayla Belanger, Pascale Vigneron, Guy Schlatter, Bernard Devauchelle, Christophe Egles


A severe injury to a peripheral nerve leads to its degeneration and the loss of sensory and motor function. To this day, there still lacks a more effective alternative to the autograft which has long been considered the gold standard for nerve repair. In order to overcome the numerous drawbacks of the autograft, tissue engineered biomaterials may be effective alternatives. Silk fibroin is a favorable biomaterial due to its many advantageous properties such as its biocompatibility, its biodegradability, and its robust mechanical properties. In this study, bio-mimicking multi-channeled nerve guidance conduits made of aligned nanofibers achieved by electrospinning were functionalized with signaling biomolecules and were tested in vitro and in vivo for nerve regeneration support. Silk fibroin (SF) extracted directly from silkworm cocoons was put in solution at a concentration of 10wt%. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was added to the resulting SF solution to increase solution viscosity and the following three electrospinning solutions were made: (1) SF/PEO solution, (2) SF/PEO solution with nerve growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor, and (3) SF/PEO solution with nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3. Each of these solutions was electrospun into a multi-layer architecture to obtain mechanically optimized aligned nanofibrous mats. For in vitro studies, aligned fibers were treated to induce β-sheet formation and thoroughly rinsed to eliminate presence of PEO. Each material was tested using rat embryo neuron cultures to evaluate neurite extension and the interaction with bio-functionalized or non-functionalized aligned fibers. For in vivo studies, the mats were rolled into 5mm long multi-, micro-channeled conduits then treated and thoroughly rinsed. The conduits were each subsequently implanted between a severed rat sciatic nerve. The effectiveness of nerve repair over a period of 8 months was extensively evaluated by cross-referencing electrophysiological, histological, and movement analysis results to comprehensively evaluate the progression of nerve repair. In vitro results show a more favorable interaction between growing neurons and bio-functionalized silk fibers compared to pure silk fibers. Neurites can also be seen having extended unidirectionally along the alignment of the nanofibers which confirms a guidance factor for the electrospun material. The in vivo study has produced positive results for the regeneration of the sciatic nerve over the length of the study, showing contrasts between the bio-functionalized material and the non-functionalized material along with comparisons to the experimental control. Nerve regeneration has been evaluated not only by histological analysis, but also by electrophysiological assessment and motion analysis of two separate natural movements. By studying these three components in parallel, the most comprehensive evaluation of nerve repair for the conduit designs can be made which can, therefore, more accurately depict their overall effectiveness. This work was supported by La Région Picardie and FEDER.

Keywords: electrospinning, nerve guidance conduit, peripheral nerve regeneration, silk fibroin

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7 Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Dextrin/Chitin Nanocomposite System for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Mohammad Shakir, Reshma Jolly, Mohammad Shoeb Khan, Noor-E-Iram


A nanocomposite system incorporating dextrin into nano-hydroxyapatite/chitin matrix (n-HA/DX/CT) has been successfully synthesized via co-precipitation route at room temperature for the application in bone tissue engineering by investigating biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and mechanical properties. The FTIR spectra of n-HA/DX/CT nanocomposite indicated a considerable intermolecular interaction between the various components of the system. The results of XRD, TEM and TGA/DTA revealed that the crystallinity, size and thermal stability of the n-HA/DX/CT scaffold has decreased and increased respectively. The result of SEM image of the n-HA/DX/CT scaffold indicated that the incorporation of dextrin affected the surface morphology while considerable in-vitro bioactivity has been observed in n-HA/DX/CT based on SBF study, referring a step towards possibility of making direct bond to living bone if implanted. Moreover, MTT assay suggested the non-toxic nature of n-HA/DX/CT to murine fibroblast L929 cells. The swelling study of n-HA/DX/CT scaffold indicated the low swelling rate for n-HADX/CT. All these results have paved the way for n-HA/DX/CT to be used as a competent material for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: autograft, chitin, dextrin, nanocomposite

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6 Fresh Amnion Membrane Grafting for the Regeneration of Skin in Full Thickness Burn in Newborn - Case Report

Authors: Priyanka Yadav, Umesh Bnasal, Yashvinder Kumar


The placenta is an important structure that provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus in utero. It is usually thrown away after birth, but it has a therapeutic role in the regeneration of tissue. It is covered by the amniotic membrane, which can be easily separated into the amnion layer and the chorion layer—the amnion layer act as a biofilm for the healing of burn wound and non-healing ulcers. The freshly collected membrane has stem cells, cytokines, growth factors, and anti-inflammatory properties, which act as a biofilm for the healing of wounds. It functions as a barrier and prevents heat and water loss and also protects from bacterial contamination, thus supporting the healing process. The application of Amnion membranes has been successfully used for wound and reconstructive purposes for decades. It is a very cheap and easy process and has shown superior results to allograft and xenograft. However, there are very few case reports of amnion membrane grafting in newborns; we intend to highlight its therapeutic importance in burn injuries in newborns. We present a case of 9 days old male neonate who presented to the neonatal unit of Maulana Azad Medical College with a complaint of fluid-filled blisters and burns wound on the body for six days. He was born outside the hospital at 38 weeks of gestation to a 24-year-old primigravida mother by vaginal delivery. The presentation was cephalic and the amniotic fluid was clear. His birth weight was 2800 gm and APGAR scores were 7 and 8 at 1 and 5 minutes, respectively. His anthropometry was appropriate for gestational age. He developed respiratory distress after birth requiring oxygen support by nasal prongs for three days. On the day of life three, he developed blisters on his body, starting from than face then over the back and perineal region. At a presentation on the day of life nine, he had blisters and necrotic wound on the right side of the face, back, right shoulder and genitalia, affecting 60% of body surface area with full-thickness loss of skin. He was started on intravenous antibiotics and fluid therapy. Pus culture grew Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, for which culture-specific antibiotics were started. Plastic surgery reference was taken and regular wound dressing was done with antiseptics. He had a storming course during the hospital stay. On the day of life 35 when the baby was hemodynamically stable, amnion membrane grafting was done on the wound site; for the grafting, fresh amnion membrane was removed under sterile conditions from the placenta obtained by caesarean section. It was then transported to the plastic surgery unit in half an hour in a sterile fluid where the graft was applied over the infant’s wound. The amnion membrane grafting was done twice in two weeks for covering the whole wound area. After successful uptake of amnion membrane, skin from the thigh region was autografted over the whole wound area by Meek technique in a single setting. The uptake of autograft was excellent and most of the areas were healed. In some areas, there was patchy regeneration of skin so dressing was continued. The infant was discharged after three months of hospital stay and was later followed up in the plastic surgery unit of the hospital.

Keywords: amnion membrane grafting, autograft, meek technique, newborn, regeneration of skin

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5 Comparative Study of Dermal Regeneration Template Made by Bovine Collagen with and without Silicone Layer in the Treatment of Post-Burn Contracture

Authors: Elia Caldini, Cláudia N. Battlehner, Marcelo A. Ferreira, Rolf Gemperli, Nivaldo Alonso, Luiz P. Vana


The advent of dermal regenerate templates has fostered major advances in the treatment of acute burns and their sequelae, in the last two decades. Both data on morphological aspects of the newly-formed tissue, and clinical trials comparing different templates, are still lacking. The goal of this study was to prospectively analyze the outcome of patients treated with two of the existing templates, followed by thin skin autograft. They are both made of bovine collagen, one includes a superficial silicone layer. Surgery was performed on patients with impaired mobility resulting from burn sequelae (n = 12 per template). Negative pressure therapy was applied post-surgically; patients were monitored for 12 months. Data on scar skin quality (Vancouver and POSAS evaluation scales), rate of joint mobility recovery, and graft contraction were recorded. Improvement in mobility and skin quality were demonstrated along with graft contraction, in all patients. The silicone-coupled template showed the best performance in all aspects.

Keywords: dermal regeneration template, artificial skin, skin quality, scar contracture

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4 Variation In Gastrocnemius and Hamstring Muscle Activity During Peak Knee Flexor Torque After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Hamstring Graft

Authors: Luna Sequier, Florian Forelli, Maude Traulle, Amaury Vandebrouck, Pascal Duffiet, Louis Ratte, Jean Mazeas


The study's objective is to compare the muscular activity of the flexor knee muscle in patients who underwent an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring autograft and the individuals who have not undergone surgery. Methods: The participants were divided into two groups: a healthy group and an experimental group who had undergone an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft. All participants had to perform a knee flexion strength test on an isokinetic dynamometer. The medial Gastrocnemius, lateral Gastrocnemius, Biceps femoris, and medial Hamstring muscle activity were measured during this test. Each group’s mean muscle activity was tested with statistical analysis, and a muscle activity ratio of gastrocnemius and hamstring muscles was calculated Results: The results showed a significant difference in activity of the medial gastrocnemius (p = 0,004901), the biceps femoris (p = 5,394.10-6), and the semitendinosus muscles (p = 1,822.10-6), with a higher Biceps femoris and Semitendinosus activity for the experimental group. It is however noticeable that inter-subject differences were important. Conclusion: This study has shown a difference in the gastrocnemius and hamstring muscle activity between patients who underwent an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery and healthy participants. With further results, this could show a modification of muscle activity patterns after surgery which could lead to compensatory behaviors at a return to sport and eventually explain a higher injury risk for our patients.

Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament, electromyography, muscle activity, physiotherapy

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3 Comparison of Bone-Patella Tendon-Bone and Four Strand Hamstring Tendon Graft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Prospective Study

Authors: Christina Arida, Dimitrios Mastrokalos, Antreas Panagopoulos, John Vlamis, Ioannis K. Triantafyllopoulos


Introduction: To date, the proper choice of graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains a matter of conflict. Aim: To compare the clinical and functional outcomes of the two most commonly utilized autografts, bone-patella tendon-bone (BPTB) and four-strand hamstring tendon (HT) graft, at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Methods: In a prospective randomized study, we included a total of 60 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, thirty in BPTB and thirty in the HT group. All patients were amateur athletes and were evaluated at 6 and 12 months after surgery for a) postoperative functionality of the operated knee by the Tegner, the Lysholm and the IKDC scoring scales, b) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) instability of the operated knee compared to the healthy contralateral knee by the KT-1000 arthrometer and c) the extension and flexion muscle strength of the operated knee by a CYBEX isokinetic dynamometer. Results: Patients in the two groups did not differ regarding demographics and pre-injury functionality status. Significantly more patients in the HT group (n=6) compared to the BPTB group (n=1) experienced ACL re-rupture and underwent revision surgery before follow-up end (p=0.044). All patients, regardless of graft, showed significant improvement within each group of functional assessments by Lysholm, Tegner and IKDC scores, as well as of Cybex measurements -with an increase of peak torque at 60° extension and 180°extension and 60° flexion and 180° flexion- at 12 months compared to 6 months follow-up (p<0.05). However, there was no difference between the two groups regarding knee function improvement or extension measurements neither at 6 nor 12 months. Contrarily, the BPTB graft group had higher values of peak torque (Nm) at 60° and 180° flexion compared to the HT group, both at 6 (p=0.014 and 0.019, respectively) and 12 months (p=0.033 and 0.030, respectively). Postoperative stability was similar between the two groups at 12 months (p=0.519). Conclusion: Both BPTB and HT grafts remain viable options for primary ACL reconstruction and the graft selection should be based on the needs and activities of each patient.

Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament, bone-patella tendon-bone, four-strand hamstring, autograft

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2 An Unusual Case of Wrist Pain: Idiopathic Avascular Necrosis of the Scaphoid, Preiser’s Disease

Authors: Adae Amoako, Daniel Montero, Peter Murray, George Pujalte


We present a case of a 42-year-old, right-handed Caucasian male who presented to a medical orthopedics clinic with left wrist pain. The patient indicated that the pain started two months prior to the visit. He could only remember helping a friend move furniture prior to the onset of pain. Examination of the left wrist showed limited extension compared to the right. There was clicking with flexion and extension of the wrist on the dorsal aspect. Mild tenderness was noticed over the distal radioulnar joint. There was ulnar and radial deviation on provocation. Initial 4-view x-rays of the left wrist showed mild radiocarpal and scapho-trapezium-trapezoid (ST-T) osteoarthritis, with subchondral cysts seen in the lunate and scaphoid, with no obvious fractures. The patient was initially put in a wrist brace and diclofenac topical gel was prescribed for pain control, as a patient could not take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to gastritis. Despite diclofenac topical gel use and bracing, symptoms remained, and a steroid injection with 1 mL of lidocaine with 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide was performed under fluoroscopy. He obtained some relief but after 3 months, the injection had to be repeated. On 2-month follow up after the initial evaluation, symptoms persisted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained which showed an abnormal T1 hypodense signal involving the proximal pole of the scaphoid and articular collapse proximally of the scaphoid, with marked irregularity of the overlying cartilage, suggesting a remote injury, findings consistent with avascular necrosis of the proximal pole of the scaphoid. A month after that, the patient had the left proximal pole of the scaphoid debrided and an intercompartmental supraretinacular artery vascularized. Pedicle bone graft reconstruction of the proximal pole of the left scaphoid was done. A non-vascularized autograft from the left radius was also applied. He was put in a thumb spica cast with the interphalangeal joint free for 6 weeks. On 6-week follow-up after surgery, the patient was healing well and could make a composite fist with his left hand. The diagnosis of Preiser’s disease is primarily based on radiological findings. Due to the fact that necrosis happens over a period of time, most AVNs are diagnosed at the late stages of the disease. There appear to be no specific guidelines on the management AVN of the scaphoid. In the past, immobilization and arthroscopic debridement had been used. Radial osteotomy has also been tried. Vascularized bone grafts have also been used to treat Preiser’s disease. In our patient, we used three of these treatment modalities, starting with conservative management with topical NSAIDS and immobilization, then debridement with vascularized bone grafts.

Keywords: wrist pain, avascular necrosis of the scaphoid, Preiser’s disease, vascularized bone grafts

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1 The Outcome of Early Balance Exercises and Agility Training in Sports Rehabilitation for Patients Post Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

Authors: S. M. A. Ismail, M. I. Ibrahim, H. Masdar, F. M. Effendi, M. F. Suhaimi, A. Suun


Introduction: It is generally known that the rehabilitation process is as important as the reconstruction surgery. Several literature has focused on how early the rehabilitation modalities can be initiated after the surgery to ensure a safe return of patients to sports or at least regaining the pre-injury level of function following an ACL reconstruction. Objectives: The main objective is to study and evaluate the outcome of early balance exercises and agility training in sports rehabilitation for patients post ACL reconstruction. To compare between early balance exercises and agility training as intervention and control. (material or non-material). All of them were recruited for material exercise (balance exercises and agility training with strengthening) and strengthening only rehabilitation protocol (non-material). Followed the prospective intervention trial. Materials and Methods: Post-operative ACL reconstruction patients performed in Selayang and Sg Buloh Hospitals from 2012 to 2014 were selected for this study. They were taken from Malaysian Knee Ligament Registry (MKLR) and all patients had single bundle reconstruction with autograft hamstring tendon (semitendinosus and gracilis). ACL injury from any type of sports were included. Subjects performed various type of physical activity for rehabilitation in every 18 week for a different type of rehab activity. All subject attended all 18 sessions of rehabilitation exercises and evaluation was done during the first, 9th and 18th session. Evaluation format were based on clinical assessment (anterior drawer, Lachmann, pivot shift, laxity with rolimeter, the end point and thigh circumference) and scoring (Lysholm Knee scoring and Tegner Activity Level scale). Rehabilitation protocol initiated from 24 week after the surgery. Evaluation format were based on clinical assessment (anterior drawer, Lachmann, pivot shift, laxity with rolimeter, the end point and thigh circumference) and scoring (Lysholm Knee scoring and Tegner Activity Level scale). Results and Discussion: 100 patients were selected of which 94 patients are male and 6 female. Age range is 18 to 54 year with the average of 28 years old for included 100 patients. All patients are evaluated after 24 week after the surgery. 50 of them were recruited for material exercise (balance exercises and agility training with strengthening) and 50 for strengthening only rehabilitation protocol (non-material). Demographically showed 85% suffering sports injury mainly from futsal and football. 39 % of them have abnormal BMI (26 – 38) and involving of the left knee. 100% of patient had the basic radiographic x-ray of knee and 98% had MRI. All patients had negative anterior drawer’s, Lachman test and Pivot shift test during the post ACL reconstruction after the complete rehabilitation. There was 95 subject sustained grade I injury, 5 of grade II and 0 of grade III with 90% of them had soft end-point. Overall they scored badly on presentation with 53% of Lysholm score (poor) and Tegner activity score level 3/10. After completing 9 weeks of exercises, of material group 90% had grade I laxity, 75% with firm end-point, Lysholm score 71% (fair) and Tegner activity level 5/10 comparing non-material group who had 62% of grade I laxity , 54% of firm end-point, Lyhslom score 62 % (poor) and Tegner activity level 4/10. After completed 18 weeks of exercises, of material group maintained 90% grade I laxity with 100 % with firm end-point, Lysholm score increase 91% (excellent) and Tegner activity level 7/10 comparing non-material group who had 69% of grade I laxity but maintained 54% of firm end-point, Lysholm score 76% (fair) and Tegner activity level 5/10. These showed the improvement were achieved fast on material group who have achieved satisfactory level after 9th cycle of exercises 75% (15/20) comparing non-material group who only achieved 54% (7/13) after completed 18th session. Most of them were grade I. These concepts are consolidated into our approach to prepare patients for return to play including field testing and maintenance training. Conclusions: The basic approach in ACL rehabilitation is to ensure return to sports at post-operative 6 month. Grade I and II laxity has favourable and early satisfactory outcome base on clinical assessment and Lysholm and Tegner scoring point. Reduction of laxity grading indicates satisfactory outcome. Firm end-point showed the adequacy of rehabilitation before starting previous sports game. Material exercise (balance exercises and agility training with strengthening) were beneficial and reliable in order to achieve favourable and early satisfactory outcome comparing strengthening only (non-material).We have identified that rehabilitation protocol varies between different patients. Therefore future post ACL reconstruction rehabilitation guidelines should look into focusing on rehabilitation techniques instead of time.

Keywords: post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, single bundle, hamstring tendon, sports rehabilitation, balance exercises, agility balance

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