Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16475

Search results for: group work

16475 A Weighted Group EI Incorporating Role Information for More Representative Group EI Measurement

Authors: Siyu Wang, Anthony Ward


Emotional intelligence (EI) is a well-established personal characteristic. It has been viewed as a critical factor which can influence an individual's academic achievement, ability to work and potential to succeed. When working in a group, EI is fundamentally connected to the group members' interaction and ability to work as a team. The ability of a group member to intelligently perceive and understand own emotions (Intrapersonal EI), to intelligently perceive and understand other members' emotions (Interpersonal EI), and to intelligently perceive and understand emotions between different groups (Cross-boundary EI) can be considered as Group emotional intelligence (Group EI). In this research, a more representative Group EI measurement approach, which incorporates the information of the composition of a group and an individual’s role in that group, is proposed. To demonstrate the claim of being more representative Group EI measurement approach, this study adopts a multi-method research design, involving a combination of both qualitative and quantitative techniques to establish a metric of Group EI. From the results, it can be concluded that by introducing the weight coefficient of each group member on group work into the measurement of Group EI, Group EI will be more representative and more capable of understanding what happens during teamwork than previous approaches.

Keywords: case study, emotional intelligence, group EI, multi-method research

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16474 Disability, Stigma and In-Group Identification: An Exploration across Different Disability Subgroups

Authors: Sharmila Rathee


Individuals with disability/ies often face negative attitudes, discrimination, exclusion, and inequality of treatment due to stigmatization and stigmatized treatment. While a significant number of studies in field of stigma suggest that group-identification has positive consequences for stigmatized individuals, ironically very miniscule empirical work in sight has attempted to investigate in-group identification as a coping measure against stigma, humiliation and related experiences among disability group. In view of death of empirical research on in-group identification among disability group, through present work, an attempt has been made to examine the experiences of stigma, humiliation, and in-group identification among disability group. Results of the study suggest that use of in-group identification as a coping strategy is not uniform across members of disability group and degree of in-group identification differs across different sub-groups of disability groups. Further, in-group identification among members of disability group depends on variables like degree and impact of disability, factors like onset of disability, nature, and visibility of disability, educational experiences and resources available to deal with disabling conditions.

Keywords: disability, stigma, in-group identification, social identity

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16473 Employees’ Work Performance Quality Development for Organizational Competency

Authors: Pornpong Porpraphant


This paper aimed to demonstrate how work performance quality development activity carried out for employees in an organization could lead to the organizational success and competency as a whole. The case studies selected for this research were the Thai huge corporate including Siam Cement Group or SCG, PTT Public Company Limited, and Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand or EGAT. The in- depth interview was applied with the three main groups that included the facilitator group, the managerial group, and the operational officer group. The Plan- Do- Check- Act approach was also utilized as to build up a conceptual model in corporate management that fostered employees’ knowledge acquisition, resulting in an improved work performance.

Keywords: high performance organization, quality, work performance quality development

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16472 The Effects on Abomasal Emtying Rate of Erythromycin and Bethanechol in Healthy, Premature and Diarrheic Calves

Authors: Sebnem Canikli Engin, Mutlu Sevinc, Hasan Guzelbektes


In this study, we aim to define the effects of erythromycin and bethanechol which are prokinetic agents, on the value of abomasal discharge in healthy, diarrhea and premature calves. In the work, 5 healty calves, 12 diarrheaic calves and 12 premature calves, amounting to a total of 29 calves. In healty calves work; the same 5 calves were used for controlled, erythromycin and bethanechol studies (there was a 48-hour waiting period between each work). In diarrheic calves work; 12 diarrheic calves were used during the study (4 of them for control group, 4 of them bethanechol group and last 4 calves erythromycin group). In premature calves works; 12 premature calves were used during the study (4 of them for control group, 4 of them bethanechol group and last 4 calves erythromycin group). 10 mg/kg IM dose of erythromycin were applied to each erythromycin group, 0,07 mg/kg IM dose of bethanechol were applied on bethanechol group. No drugs were applied to the control group and substitution milk was given to all calves. 50 mg/kg acetominophen and 25 gram/L glucose have been added into the substitution milk to evaluate the speed of gastrointestinal motility with the test results of absorptions of acetominophen and glucose. The blood samples have been taken before substitution milk application and 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 minutes after substitution milk application. Respiratory rates and number of heartbeats were also recorded during the test time. No changes were observed in the number of heartbeats, respiratory rates and general conditions for all groups after drug application. It is observed that, the feces of some calves became slightly watery and viscous and premature calves generaly defecated after 180 minutes. When Cmax, Tmax and AUC values of acetaminophen and glucose are compared with control group’s after applying erythromycin on the calves in the premature group, we obtain higher Cmax (P<0,05), shorter Tmax and greather AUC (P>0,05) values. In conclusion, according to clinical and laboratory findings, it may be stated that the application of 10 mg/kg doze of erythromycin IM has provided faster abomazal emptying in premature calves.

Keywords: abomazal emptying, bethanechol, calf, erythromycin

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16471 Work with Children's Music Group: Important Aspects of Didactic and Artistic Performance

Authors: Eudjen Cinc


Work with a human voice, especially with a child s voice and cultivating the sound of the choir, presents an area of crucial importance for a conductor. We use the term conductor because it needs to be understood that regardless of whether we have in front of us an amateur or a professional choir, whether they are singers with a wealth of experience or children who are still developing and educating their inner ear so that in the future they could contribute to the development of choir music, the person who stands in front of the group and works with them, needs to have the characteristics of a conductor. Voice formation is a long-term process, without which there is no success in both solo and collective music performance.

Keywords: music group, conductor, collective, performance

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16470 Influence of Shift Work on Fasting Blood Sugar in Hospital Workers

Authors: Sheila R. Pai, N. K. Subbalakshmi, C. Vidya


Background: Accumulating evidence from prospective studies suggests an increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep deprivation and sleep disorders. Shift work by disrupting the circadian rhythm, could possibly cause metabolic disturbances. Objective: To investigate the influence of shift work on fasting blood glucose in hospital workers population. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 90 night shift workers (study group) and 90 day workers (controls) drawn from paramedical personnel. Night shift work was on a forward rotation basis, with an average of one night shift every 4 weeks. Each night shift rotation was for a period of 7 days, with a total of 8 hours of shift work per night. In the entire subjects body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) was measured. Statistical analysis included unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test and Chi-square test. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The study and control groups were comparable with regard to age, sex distribution and duration of employment. FBS was higher in study group compared to controls (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in BMI between control and study group. Conclusion: Shift work may adversely influence glucose metabolism.

Keywords: shift work, fasting blood sugar, sleep disturbances, diabetes

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16469 Effectiveness of an Unorthodox Intervention for Work-Family Interaction: A Field Experiment

Authors: Hassan Rasool


There is limited research in the intervention domain of work family interaction. We identified that meditation could be effective in coping work family conflict and nurturing work family facilitation across domains. We conducted pretest posttest control group field experiment on a sample of sixty employees to test the effectiveness of meditation in a financial sector organization. Empirical evidence confirms that the intervention was effective in coping work family conflict & nurturing facilitation across work & home domains. The intervention, also positively affected a known outcome (i.e. satisfaction at work and home) of work family interaction. Future research perspectives on the use of unorthodox interventions in the domain of work family interaction are also discussed.

Keywords: work family interaction, meditation, satisfaction, experiment

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16468 Radiofrequency Ablation: A Technique in the Management of Low Anal Fistula

Authors: R. Suresh, C. B. Singh, A. K. Sarda


Background: Over the decades, several surgical techniques have been developed to treat anal fistulas with variable success rates and complications. Large amount of work has been done in radiofrequency excision of the fistula for several years but no work has been done for ablating the tract. Therefore one can consider for obliteration ofanal fistula by Radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Material and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at Lok Nayak Hospital, where a total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study and they were randomly assigned to Group I (fistulectomy)(n=20) and Group II (RFA) (n=20). Aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of RFA of fistula versus fistulectomy in the treatment of a low anal fistula and to evaluate RFA as an effective alternative to fistulectomy with respect to time taken for wound healing as primary outcome and post-operative pain, time taken to return to work as secondary outcomes. Patients with simple low anal fistulas, single internal and external opening, not more than two secondary tracts were included. Patients with high complex fistula, fistulas communicating with cavity, fistula due to condition like tuberculosis, Crohn's, malignancy were excluded from the study. Results: Both groups were comparable with respect to age, sex ratio, type of fistula. Themean healing time was significantly shorter in group II (41.02 days) than in group I(62.68 days).The mean operative time was significantly shorter in groupII (21.40 min) than in group I(28.50 min). The mean time taken to return to work was significantly shorter in group II(8.30 days)than in group I(12.01 days).There was no significant difference in the post operative hospital stay, mean postoperative pain score, wound infection and recurrence between the two groups. Conclusion: The patients who underwent RFA of fistula had shorter wound healing time, operative time and time taken to return to work when compared to those who underwent fistulectomy and therefore RFA shows outcome comparable to fistulectomy in the treatment of low anal fistula.

Keywords: fistulectomy, low anal fistula, radio frequency ablation, wound healing

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16467 Challenges to Collaborative Learning in Architectural Education in the Middle East

Authors: Lizmol Mathew, Divya Thomas, Shiney Rajan


Educational paradigm all over the globe is undergoing significant reform today. Because of this, so-called flipped classroom model is becoming increasingly popular in higher education. Flipped classroom has proved to be more effective than traditional lecture based model as flipped classroom model promotes active learning by encouraging students to work on in collaborative tasks and peer-led learning during the class-time. However, success of flipped classrooms relies on students’ ability and their attitudes towards collaboration and group work. This paper examines: 1) Students’ attitudes towards collaborative learning; 2) Main challenges to successful collaboration from students’ experience and 3) Students’ perception of criteria for successful team work. 4) Recommendations for enhancing collaborative learning. This study’s methodology involves quantitative analysis of surveys collected from students enrolled in undergraduate Architecture program at Qatar University. Analysis indicates that in general students enrolled in the program do not have positive perceptions or experiences associated with group work. Positive and negative factors that influence collaborative learning in higher education have been identified. Recommendations for improving collaborative work experience have been proposed.

Keywords: architecture, collaborative learning, female, group work, higher education, Middle East, Qatar, student experience

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16466 'How to Change Things When Change is Hard' Motivating Libyan College Students to Play an Active Role in Their Learning Process

Authors: Hameda Suwaed


Group work, time management and accepting others' opinions are practices rooted in the socio-political culture of democratic nations. In Libya, a country transitioning towards democracy, what is the impact of encouraging college students to use such practices in the English language classroom? How to encourage teachers to use such practices in educational system characterized by using traditional methods of teaching? Using action research and classroom research gathered data; this study investigates how teachers can use education to change their students' understanding of their roles in their society by enhancing their belonging to it. This study adjusts a model of change that includes giving students clear directions, sufficient motivation and supportive environment. These steps were applied by encouraging students to participate actively in the classroom by using group work and variety of activities. The findings of the study showed that following the suggested model can broaden students' perception of their belonging to their environment starting with their classroom and ending with their country. In conclusion, although this was a small scale study, the students' participation in the classroom shows that they gained self confidence in using practices such as group work, how to present their ideas and accepting different opinions. What was remarkable is that most students were aware that is what we need in Libya nowadays.

Keywords: educational change, students' motivation, group work, foreign language teaching

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16465 Is There a Group of "Digital Natives" at Secondary Schools?

Authors: L. Janská, J. Kubrický


The article describes a research focused on the influence of the information and communication technology (ICT) on the pupils' learning. The investigation deals with the influences that distinguish between the group of pupils influenced by ICT and the group of pupils not influenced by ICT. The group influenced by ICT should evince a different approach in number of areas (in managing of two and more activities at once, in a quick orientation and searching for information on the Internet, in an ability to quickly and effectively assess the data sources, in the assessment of attitudes and opinions of the other users of the network, in critical thinking, in the preference to work in teams, in the sharing of information and personal data via the virtual social networking, in insisting on the immediate reaction on their every action etc.).

Keywords: ICT influence, digital natives, pupil´s learning

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16464 Gender Role Attitudes and Work-Life Balance among Dual-Earner Couples: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Tipu Sultan


The proposed research intends to explore the gender role attitudes and work-life balance among dual-earner couples in Pakistan. With the increase of female labor force participation in Pakistan, the trend of dual-earner couples has been increased than ever before. This new trend of dual-earner families has significantly affected the personal life of dual-earner couples. Due to major change in household structures, the traditions and the routine activities are in continuous transition. Balancing work and family life is more complex in the patriarchal society of Pakistan because of the social expectations of gender roles. A dichotomous behavioral reflection is being observed in Pakistani society. The one group of people having an egalitarian attitude are supporting the new gender roles of females, whereas the other group of people having a traditional mindset is still in the favor of patriarchy. Therefore, gender roles are re-evaluated, and it would be more interesting to raise questions on the interplay of new gender roles and work-life balance among dual-earners. The semi-structured interview guide will be utilized to explore gender role attitudes, ideal and in-practice gender roles, experiences of work-life imbalances/balances, possible strategies to create a balance between work and family life among dual-earner couples.

Keywords: dual-earner couples, gender role attitudes, Pakistan, work-life balance

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16463 Effect of Self-Compassion Techniques for Individuals with Depression: A Pilot Study

Authors: Piyanud Chompookard


This research aims to study the effect of self-compassion techniques for individuals with depression (A pilot study). A quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest is used to design this work. The research includes 30 participants, divided into the experimental group (ten samples) and the control group (twenty samples). The experimental group received a self-compassion techniques with an appropriate treatment for a total six times. The control group received an appropriate treatment. The measurement of this study using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai version). There are significant differences in levels of depression after received a self-compassion techniques with an appropriate treatment (p<.01). And there are significant differences in levels of depression between the experimental group and the control group (p<.01).

Keywords: depression, self compassion techniques, psychotherapy, pilot study

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16462 A Social Decision Support Mechanism for Group Purchasing

Authors: Lien-Fa Lin, Yung-Ming Li, Fu-Shun Hsieh


With the advancement of information technology and development of group commerce, people have obviously changed in their lifestyle. However, group commerce faces some challenging problems. The products or services provided by vendors do not satisfactorily reflect customers’ opinions, so that the sale and revenue of group commerce gradually become lower. On the other hand, the process for a formed customer group to reach group-purchasing consensus is time-consuming and the final decision is not the best choice for each group members. In this paper, we design a social decision support mechanism, by using group discussion message to recommend suitable options for group members and we consider social influence and personal preference to generate option ranking list. The proposed mechanism can enhance the group purchasing decision making efficiently and effectively and venders can provide group products or services according to the group option ranking list.

Keywords: social network, group decision, text mining, group commerce

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16461 Work Happiness for Personnel of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Adisai Thovicha


This study is the survey research, designed to study the work happiness level of personnel at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The sample group consisted of 329 personnel. The results were collected by stratified sampling, using work positions for each stage. The results were analyzed and calculated by computer program. Statistics used during analyzing were percentage, mean, and standard deviation. From the study, the work happiness level of personnel were in very high score range in both overall and specific category. The top category which received the most score was positive attitude, work satisfaction, life satisfaction, and negative attitude.

Keywords: work happiness, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, personnel, positive attitude

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16460 Flexible Work Arrangements for Managers-Gender Diversity and Organizational Development in German Firms

Authors: Marc Gärtner, Monika Huesmann, Katharina Schiederig


While workplace flexibility provides opportunities to better balance work and family care, careers in management are still predominantly based on physical presence, blurred boundaries and a culture of availability at the workplace. Thus, carers (mostly women) still experience disadvantages and stalled careers. In a multi-case study, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, success factors and barriers of flexible work arrangements in five big organizations, including three of the largest German companies, have been identified. Using qualitative interview methods, the working models of 10 female and male users of flexible work arrangements like part time, home office and job sharing have been studied. The study group applied a 360-degree approach with focus groups, covering the users’ themselves, their superiors, colleagues and staff as well as in-house human resource managers. The group interviews reveal that success of flexible models is mainly built on three factors: (a) the inclusiveness of the organizational culture, (b) the commitment of leaders and especially the supervisors, and (c) the fitting of the model and the user(s). Flexibilization of time and space can indeed contribute to a better work-life balance. This is, however, not a necessary outcome, as the interviews suggest, but depends on the right implementation of the right model in the particular work environment. Beyond the actual study results, the presentation will also assess the methodological approach.

Keywords: flexible work, leadership, organizational culture, work-life balance

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16459 Genistein Treatment Confers Protection Against Gliopathy & Vasculopathy of the Diabetic Retina in Rats

Authors: Sanaa AM Elgayar, Sohair A Eltony, Maha Mahmoud Abd El Rouf


Background: Retinopathy remains an important complication of diabetes. Aim of work: This work was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of genistein from diabetic retinopathy in rat. Material and Methods: Fifteen adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; Group I: control (n=5) and Group II: streptozotocin induced diabetic group (n=10), which is equally divided into two subgroups; IIa (diabetic vehicle control) and IIb (diabetic genistein-treated). Specimens were taken from the retina 12 weeks post induction, processed and examined using light, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural techniques. Blood samples were assayed for the levels of glucose. Results: In comparison with the diabetic non-treated group, the histological changes in macro and microglial glial cells reactivity and retinal blood capillaries were improved in genistein-treated groups. In addition, GFAP and iNOS expressions in the retina and the blood glucose level were reduced. Conclusion: Genistein ameliorates the histological changes of diabetic retinopathy reaching healing features, which resemble that of a normal retina.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, genistein, glia, capillaries.

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16458 Photoactivated Chromophore for Keratitis-Cross Linking Window Absorption Alone versus Combined Pack-CXL Window Absorption and Standard Anti-microbial Therapy for Treatment of Infectious Keratitis: A Prospective Study

Authors: Mohammed M. Mahdy Tawfeek


Objective: The aim of this work is to compare the outcome of photoactivated chromophore for keratitis-cross linking (PACK-CXL) window absorption (WA) alone with combined PACK-CXL WA and standard anti-microbial therapy (SAT) for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Patients and Methods: This is a randomized prospective comparative clinical trial. Thirty eyes with clinically suspected infectious keratitis were randomly assigned into two equal groups of 15 eyes each: Group (A) was treated by PACK-CXL WA alone and group (B) was treated by PACK-CXL WA combined with SAT. Identification of organisms was made by lab study before treatment. Corneal healing was evaluated by corneal examination and anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants and the study was approved by the research ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University. The work has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for studies involving humans. Results: Complete healing and resolution (Successful treatment) were observed in 10 eyes (66.7%) of a group (A) and 14 eyes (93.3%) of group (B) and failure was observed in 5 eyes (33.3%) of a group (A) and one eye (6.67%) of group (B). They were statistically significant (P =0.042 and 0.003) in a comparison between both groups regarding success and failure of treatment, respectively. Complete corneal healing was reported in the third month postoperatively in 10 eyes (66.7%) of group (A) and 14 eyes (93.3%) of group (B). Complications were absent in 12 patients (80%) in group (A) and 14 patients (93.3%) of group (B); however, perforation and impending perforation were found in 3 patients of group (A) and only one patient of group (B). Conclusion: PACK-CXL is a promising, non-invasive treatment option for infectious keratitis, especially when performed with the window absorption (WA) technique, either alone or combined with SAT. It has a synergistic effect with a standard antimicrobial treatment that gives good outcome results in the treatment of infectious keratitis. Also, it avoids the antibiotics resistance that has become rapidly spreading worldwide.

Keywords: corneal cross linking, infectious keratitis, PACK-CXL, window absorption

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16457 How to Change Things When Change is Hard: Beyond Teaching Facts, How Can English Language Teachers Train Students to Use the 21st Century Skills

Authors: Hameda Suwaed


In today's world, knowledge and information are increasing in a way that no one can learn everything about every subject and the jobs that students will get after graduation may not yet exist. Therefore, teaching them just facts without teaching them how to use the facts in real life, how to work in a team and how to think critically is no longer enough. In Libya, a country characterized by using traditional methods of teaching, how can English language teachers train students to use such skills? And what type of activities and adaptations to classroom teaching methods will be necessary to do this? Using action research and classroom research gathered data, this study adjusts Heath's (2010) model of change that includes giving students clear directions, sufficient motivation and supportive environment. These steps were applied by encouraging students to participate actively in the classroom by using group work and variety of activities to train them how to find, interpret and use information. The findings of the study showed that following the suggested model can broaden students' perspectives on studying in their environment starting with their classroom and ending with their country. In conclusion, although this was a small scale study, the students' participation in the classroom shows that they gained self confidence in using practices such as group work, critical thinking, time management, creativity and how to present their ideas and accepting different opinions. What was remarkable is that most students were aware that is what we need in Libya nowadays.

Keywords: change, classroom practice, skills, Libya, group work

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16456 hsa-miR-1204 and hsa-miR-639 Prominent Role in Tamoxifen's Molecular Mechanisms on the EMT Phenomenon in Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Mahsa Taghavi


In the treatment of breast cancer, tamoxifen is a regularly prescribed medication. The effect of tamoxifen on breast cancer patients' EMT pathways was studied. In this study to see if it had any effect on the cancer cells' resistance to tamoxifen and to look for specific miRNAs associated with EMT. In this work, we used continuous and integrated bioinformatics analysis to choose the optimal GEO datasets. Once we had sorted the gene expression profile, we looked at the mechanism of signaling, the ontology of genes, and the protein interaction of each gene. In the end, we used the GEPIA database to confirm the candidate genes. after that, I investigated critical miRNAs related to candidate genes. There were two gene expression profiles that were categorized into two distinct groups. Using the expression profile of genes that were lowered in the EMT pathway, the first group was examined. The second group represented the polar opposite of the first. A total of 253 genes from the first group and 302 genes from the second group were found to be common. Several genes in the first category were linked to cell death, focal adhesion, and cellular aging. Two genes in the second group were linked to cell death, focal adhesion, and cellular aging. distinct cell cycle stages were observed. Finally, proteins such as MYLK, SOCS3, and STAT5B from the first group and BIRC5, PLK1, and RAPGAP1 from the second group were selected as potential candidates linked to tamoxifen's influence on the EMT pathway. hsa-miR-1204 and hsa-miR-639 have a very close relationship with the candidates genes according to the node degrees and betweenness index. With this, the action of tamoxifen on the EMT pathway was better understood. It's important to learn more about how tamoxifen's target genes and proteins work so that we can better understand the drug.

Keywords: tamoxifen, breast cancer, bioinformatics analysis, EMT, miRNAs

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16455 Reflections of Nocturnal Librarian: Attaining a Work-Life Balance in a Mega-City of Lagos State Nigeria

Authors: Oluwole Durodolu


The rationale for this study is to explore the adaptive strategy that librarians adopt in performing night shifts in a mega-city like Lagos state. Maslach Burnout Theory would be used to measure the three proportions of burnout in understanding emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and individual accomplishment to scrutinise job-related burnout syndrome allied with longstanding, unsolved stress. The qualitative methodology guided by a phenomenological research paradigm, which is an approach that focuses on the commonality of real-life experience in a particular group, would be used, focus group discussion adopted as a method of data collection from library staff who are involved in night-shift. The participant for the focus group discussion would be selected using a convenience sampling technique in which staff at the cataloguing unit would be included in the sample because of the representative characteristics of the unit. This would be done to enable readers to understand phenomena as it is reasonable than from a remote perspective. The exploratory interviews which will be in focus group method to shed light on issues relating to security, housing, transportation, budgeting, energy supply, employee duties, time management, information access, and sustaining professional levels of service and how all these variables affect the productivity of all the 149 library staff and their work-life balance.

Keywords: nightshift, work-life balance, mega-city, academic library, Maslach Burnout Theory, Lagos State, University of Lagos

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16454 Pattern of ICU Admission due to Drug Problems

Authors: Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed


Introduction: Drug related problems (DRPs) are of major concern, affecting patients of both sex. They impose considerable economic burden on the society and the health-care systems. Aim of the work: The aim of this work was to identify and categorize drug-related problems in adult intensive care unit. Patients and methods: The study was a prospective, observational study as eighty six patients were included. They were consecutively admitted to ICU through the emergency room or transferred from the general ward due to DRPs. Parameters included in the study as length of stay in ICU, need for cardiovascular support or mechanical ventilation, dialysis, as well as APACHE II score were recorded. Results: Drug related problems represent 3.6% of the total ICU admission. The median (range) of APACHE II score for 86 patients included in the study was 17 (10-23), and length of ICU stay was 2.4 (1.5-4.2) days. In 45 patients (52%), DRP was drug over dose (group 1), while other DRP was present in the other 41 patients (48%, group 11). Patients in group 1 were older (39 years versus 32 years in group 11), with significant impaired renal function. The need of inotropic drugs and mechanical ventilation as well as the length of stay (LOS) in ICU was significantly higher in group 1. There were no significant difference in GCS between both groups, however APACHE II score was significantly higher in group 1. Only four patients (4.6%) were admitted by suicidal attempt as well as three patients (3.4%) due to trauma drug-related admissions, all were in (group 1). Nineteen percent of the patients had drug related problem due to hypoglycaemic medication followed by tranquilizer (15%). Adverse drug effect followed by failure to receive medication were the most causes of drug problem in (group11).The total mortality rate was 4.6%, all of them were eventually non preventable. Conclusion: The critically ill patients admitted due to drug related problems represented a small proportion (3.6%) of admissions to the ICU. Hypoglycaemic medication was one of the most common causes of admission by drug related problems.

Keywords: drug related problems, ICU, cost, safety

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16453 Contextual Meaning of Work and its Sociological Significance among the Yoruba People in Nigeria

Authors: Aroge Stephen Talabi


Work is a term that appears to be very common in usage and occurrence the world over. The meanings attached to it and what it implies equally appears to be that common and somewhat similar in description by individuals and groups as derivatives of their contexts. Work is generally seen as the exertion of efforts and the application of knowledge and skills to achieve different purposes comprising of earning a living, making money, prestige, achievement, recognition, companionship and other satisfactions. The paper examined the general meanings of work from the perspectives of various religions. It situated these meanings by drawing on the sociological significance of work among the Yoruba. It established work as social control for a reorientation in peoples approach to work. The Yoruba people of the Western Nigeria share, to a great extent, in common conceptualization and application of work as they believe and understand that their individual and community existence and living are contingent on work participation. The contextual meaning and sociological significance of work as investigated in this paper show that the Yorubas concept of work is daily applied variously in both their material and non-material cultural undertakings to influence individual and group for effective participation in productive ventures for overall social well-being. The Yoruba use all forms of training method which could be adopted by adult educators as pathways to increase individual’s work participation and to improve productivity in work organizations.The paper found out that in the Yoruba socio cultural milieu, the meanings, conceptions and the importance attached to work are used as method of inculcating in members of society the spirit of commitment and hard-work and the advantages thereof. Yoruba contexts of work are geared towards enhancement of commitment, diligence and improved productivity on-the-job behaviour. The paper, therefore, submits that using the Yoruba’s conceptions of work could enhance commitment on the parts of all those engaged in production of goods and services. The paper also suggests that the Yoruba principle and perception and application of work could be used as one of the training techniques in industrial education, which is a major aspect of adult education programmes for inculcating ethics in the workplace. Thus, effort should be made to embrace the Yoruba conception and tenet of work by all stakeholders such as the workers, group (Union), managers and the society at large. Such principles and tenet of work should be included in industrial education curriculum.

Keywords: work, contextual meaning, sociological significance, Yoruba-people, social milieu, productivity

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16452 Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Nebulized Chemotherapy in Treatment of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Comparison to Standard Antimycobacterial Therapy

Authors: M. Kuzhko, M. Gumeniuk, D. Butov, T. Tlustova, O. Denysov, T. Sprynsian


Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the efficacy and safety of inhaled nebulized chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis in comparison with standard antimycobacterial therapy. Materials and methods: The study involved 68 patients aged between 20 and 70 years with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients were allocated to two groups. The first (main, n=21) group of patients received standard chemotherapy and further 0.15 g of isoniazid and rifampicin 0.15 g inhaled through a nebulizer, also they received salmeterol 50 mcg + fluticasone propionate 250 mcg at 2 breaths twice a day for 2 months. The second (control, n=47) group of patients received standard chemotherapy, consisting of orally administered isoniazid (0.3 g), rifampicin (0.6 g), pyrazinamide (2 g), ethambutol (1.2 g) with a dose reduction after the intensive phase of the therapy. The anti-TB drugs were procured through the Ukraine’s centralized national supply system. Results: Intoxication symptoms in the first group reduced following 1.39±0.18 months, whereas in the second group, intoxication symptoms reduced following 2.7±0.1 months, p<.001. Moreover, respiratory symptoms regression in the first group was observed following 1.6±0.2 months, whereas in the second group – following 2.5±0.2 months, p<0.05. Bacillary excretion period evaluated within 1 month was reduced, as it was shown by 66.6±10.5% in the main group compared to 27.6±6.5%, p<0.05, in the control group. In addition, period of cavities healing was reduced to 2.9±0.2 months in the main group compared to 3.7±0.1 months, p<0.05, in the control group. Residual radiological lung damage findings (large residual changes) were observed in 22 (23.8±9.5 %) patients of the main group versus 24 (51.0±7.2 %) patients in the control group, p<0.05. After completion of treatment scar stenosis of the bronchi II-III art. diagnosed in 3 (14.2±7.8%) patients in main group and 17 (68.0±6.8%) - control group, p<0.05. The duration of hospital treatment was 2.4±0.4 months in main group and 4.1±0.4 months in control group, p<0.05. Conclusion: Administration of of inhaled nebulized chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis resulted in a comparatively quick reduction of disease manifestation.

Keywords: inhaled nebulized chemotherapy, pulmonary tuberculosis, tuberculosis, treatment of tuberculosis

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16451 Effect on Occupational Health Safety and Environment at Work from Metal Handicraft Using Rattanakosin Local Wisdom

Authors: Witthaya Mekhum, Waleerak Sittisom


This research investigated the effect on occupational health safety and environment at work from metal handicraft using Rattanakosin local wisdom focusing on pollution, accidents, and injuries from work. The sample group in this study included 48 metal handicraft workers in 5 communities by using questionnaires and interview to collect data. The evaluation form TISI 18001 was used to analyze job safety analysis (JSA). The results showed that risk at work reduced after applying the developed model. Banbu Community produces alloy bowl rubbed with stone. The high risk process is melting and hitting process. Before the application, the work risk was 82.71%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 50.61%. Banbart Community produces monk’s food bowl. The high risk process is blow pipe welding. Before the application, the work risk was 93.59%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 48.14%. Bannoen Community produces circle gong. The high risk process is milling process. Before the application, the work risk was 85.18%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 46.91%. Teethong Community produces gold leaf. The high risk process is hitting and spreading process. Before the application, the work risk was 86.42%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 64.19%. Ban Changthong Community produces gold ornament. The high risk process is gold melting process. Before the application, the work risk was 67.90%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 37.03%. It can be concluded that with the application of the developed model, the work risk of 5 communities was reduced in the 3 main groups: (1) Work illness reduced by 16.77%; (2) Pollution from work reduced by 10.31%; (3) Accidents and injuries from work reduced by 15.62%.

Keywords: occupational health, safety, local wisdom, Rattanakosin

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16450 The Control Illusion of Conditioned Superstition

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai


The study examined the control illusion of conditioned superstition by using Taiwanese subjects. The study had a three-group experimental design, that is, conditioning group and a control group, and the conditioning group was further separated into superstitious and unsuperstitious groups. The results showed that conditioned superstition can significantly influence the control illusion. Further analysis showed that the control illusion in the superstitious conditioning group was significantly greater than in the control group or in the unsuperstitious conditioning group. Besides, there was no significant difference between the control group and the unsuperstitious conditioning group.

Keywords: Control illusion, Conditioned superstition, experimental design

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16449 Introducing α-Oxoester (COBz) as a Protecting Group for Carbohydrates

Authors: Atul Kumar, Veeranjaneyulu Gannedi, Qazi Naveed Ahmed


Oligosaccharides, which are essential to all cellular organisms, play vital roles in cell recognition, signaling, and are involved in a broad range of biological processes. The chemical synthesis of carbohydrates represents a powerful tool to provide homogeneous glycans. In carbohydrate synthesis, the major concern is the orthogonal protection of hydroxyl groups that can be unmasked independently. Classical protecting groups include benzyl ethers (Bn), which are normally cleaved through hydrogenolysis or by means of metal reduction, and acetate (Ac), benzoate (Bz) or pivaloate esters, which are removed using base promoted hydrolysis. In present work a series of α-Oxoester (COBz) protected saccharides, with divergent base sensitivity profiles against benzoyl (Bz) and acetyl (Ac), were designed and KHSO₅/CH₃COCl in methanol was identified as an easy, mild, selective and efficient deprotecting reagent for their removal in the perspective of carbohydrate synthesis. Timely monitoring of later reagent was advantageous in establishing both sequential as well as simultaneous deprotecting of COBz, Bz, and Ac. The salient feature of our work is its ease to generate different acceptors using designed monosaccharides. In summary, we demonstrated α-Oxoester (COBz) as a new protecting group for carbohydrates and the application of this group for the synthesis of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor are in progress.

Keywords: α-Oxoester, oligosaccharides, new protecting group, acceptor synthesis, glycosylation

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16448 Effects of Different Dietary Crude Fiber Levels on the Growth Performance of Finishing Su-Shan Pigs

Authors: Li Bixia, Ren Shouwen, Fu Yanfeng, Tu Feng, Xiaoming Fang, Xueming Wang


The utilization of dietary crude fiber in different breed pigs is not the same. Su-shan pigs are a new breed formed by crossing Taihu pigs and Yorkshire pigs. In order to understand the resistance of Su-shan pigs to dietary crude fiber, 150 Su-shan pigs with 60 kg of average body weight and similar body conditions were allocated to three groups randomly, and there are 50 pigs in each group. The percentages of dietary crude fiber were 8.35%, 9.10%, and 11.39%, respectively. At the end of the experiment, 15 pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered. The results showed as follows: average daily gain of the 9.10% group was higher than that of the 8.35% group and the 11.39% group; there was a significant difference between the 9.10% group and the 8.35% group (p < 0.05. Levels of urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein in the 9.10% group were significantly higher than those in the 8.35% group and the 11.39% group (p < 0.05). Ratios of meat to fat in the 9.10% group and the 11.39% group were significantly higher than that in the 8.35% group (p < 0.05). Lean percentage of 9.10% group was higher than that of 8.35% group and 11.39% group, but there was no significant difference in three groups (p > 0.05). The weight of small intestine and large intestine in the 11.39% group was higher than that in the 8.35% group, and the 9.10% group and the difference reached a significant level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing dietary crude fiber properly could reduce fat percentage, and improve the ratio of meat to fat of finishing Su-shan pigs. The digestion and metabolism of dietary crude fiber promoted the development of stomach and intestine of finishing Su-shan pig.

Keywords: Su-shan pigs, dietary crude fiber, growth performance, serum biochemical indexes

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16447 Nurses' Assessments of Their Work Environments

Authors: Manar Aslan, Selver Gokdemir, Chatitze Chousein


This research was conducted to evaluate the factors affecting the working environment of nurses working in three state hospitals. A favorable working environment contributes to increased job satisfaction of nurses and improved working conditions that affects the quality of the work done in a positive way. The population of the study was composed the three largest state hospitals in the region of Thrace in Turkey and 931 nurses working in there. In this research was not used any sampling method. The sampling was composed of nurses who accepted to take part in this research from three hospitals. It was used nursing work index-the practice work environment scale (Turkish version) for data collection (Cronbach alpha: 0.94).When the total scale scores of the nurses in the research were examined, it was determined that they evaluated the working environment below the average. It was also determined that the adequacy of human and other resources, dimensions of the physician-nurse communication scores were low. As in every profession group, the working environment in nursing has an importance to provide quality health and nursing care. A favorable working environment will increase nurses' performance and satisfaction with their work. Identifying the factors affecting the working environment and carrying out the remedial work for them will increase the quality of the health service.

Keywords: work environment, work index, nursing, hospitals

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16446 Combining Mobile Intelligence with Formation Mechanism for Group Commerce

Authors: Lien Fa Lin, Yung Ming Li, Hsin Chen Hsieh


The rise of smartphones brings new concept So-Lo-Mo (social-local-mobile) in mobile commerce area in recent years. However, current So-Lo-Mo services only focus on individual users but not a group of users, and the development of group commerce is not enough to satisfy the demand of real-time group buying and less to think about the social relationship between customers. In this research, we integrate mobile intelligence with group commerce and consider customers' preference, real-time context, and social influence as components in the mechanism. With the support of this mechanism, customers are able to gather near customers with the same potential purchase willingness through mobile devices when he/she wants to purchase products or services to have a real-time group-buying. By matching the demand and supply of mobile group-buying market, this research improves the business value of mobile commerce and group commerce further.

Keywords: group formation, group commerce, mobile commerce, So-Lo-Mo, social influence

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