Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3211

Search results for: Prestack depth migration

3211 Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach

Authors: Alok Kumar Routa, Priya Ranjan Mohanty

Abstract:

Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.

Keywords: Kirchhoff's migration, Prestack depth migration, Ray tracing modelling, velocity model

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3210 Decision Making to Study Abroad among Indonesian Student Migrants in Europe: The Role of Communication Technology

Authors: Inayah Hidayati

Abstract:

Innovation in communication technology has opened up opportunities for student to migrate and study abroad. The increasing number of Indonesian students migrating to study abroad suggests the importance of understanding the reason underline their movements. Objective: This research aims to explain the migration decision-making process of Indonesian student migrants in Europe. In detail, this research will consider the innovation in communication technology in the migration decision-making process of students who emigrated from Indonesia and how they use that in the context of the migration decision-making process. Methods: The data collected included qualitative data from in-depth interviews. An interview guide was formulated to facilitate the in-depth interviews and generate a better understanding of migration behavior. Expectation: 1). Innovation in communication technology help Indonesian student migrants on migration decision making process. 2). Student migrants use communication technology platforms for searching information about destination area. Result: Student migrant in Europe use their communication technology platforms to gain information before they choose that country for study. They use WhatsApp and LINE to making contact with their friends and colleagues in the destination country. WhatsApp and LINE group help Indonesian student to get information about school and daily life.

Keywords: international migration, student, decision making process, communication technology platforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3209 A Comparative Application of Ground Penetrating Radar for Detection of Kariz (Ancient Aqueduct) Galleries

Authors: S. Ghanbari, M. Kh. Hafizi, A. Ebrahimi, M. Bano

Abstract:

In general, a quantitative interpretation of ground penetrating radar (GPR) data provides information on the properties of underground geological structures and the depth of sources. However, every geophysical method invariably encounters certain limitations, including GPR. Here, we present a comparative examination of the depth obtained from GPR signals by different methods at three sites of Kariz (ancient aqueduct), i.e., two active sites (currently carrying water) and one site dried, located in the city of Kashan, Iran. The results obtained are based on very common or recently defined techniques for application in GPR signal processing in the case of Kariz studies, such as the conventional processing approach, similar to commercial software, the Kirchhoff migration, time reversal (TR) imaging, and combination of CWT and TR that forms a recent processing approach, herein-after referred to as modified TR (MTR). The estimated depth from TR and MTR is very close to drilling depth and has shown a satisfactory comparison with the drilling depth, while conventional processing and Kirchhoff migration often failed to define a clear target. Therefore, the results of TR and MTR highlight that both techniques are also applicable to GPR signals for the estimation of depth to Kariz galleries and may be extended to other similar applications like the detection of underground cavities.

Keywords: ancient aqueduct, GPR, MTR, time reversal imaging

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3208 Review of the World Migration Report 2020, with a Focus on Migration Due to Climate Change

Authors: Sincy Wilson

Abstract:

This article focuses on the data scattered throughout the 2020 Report on migration for a variety of reasons. Despite the fact that climate migrants are no longer recognized on an international or national level, their situation remains unchanged, and many countries have already encountered the problem of people entering their country without permission. With the information presented in the paper, researchers are focusing on climate-induced displacement rather than conflict-related migration. The author finishes by stating that there is no time to waste in recognizing climate migrants.

Keywords: climate refugees, climatological factors, migration, slow-onset migration

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3207 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri

Abstract:

Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: data quality, Georgia, methodology, migration

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3206 The Socio-Economic Consequences of Educational Migration for Georgia

Authors: Eteri Kharaishvili, Marina Chavleishvili, Manana Lobzhanidze, Nino Grigolia

Abstract:

The article analyzes Georgia's involvement in global migration processes, assessing migration research and policy regulatory documents. The socio-economic situation of young people has been studied in the paper, their employment and unemployment levels are analyzed, reasons for migration of youth are revealed, the impact of migration on the socio-economic development of the country is substantiated. Youth demand on education is also assessed, problems in the education sector are identified, educational migration indicators are analyzed according to the internationalization process of this sector. Based on the analysis of the motivations of young people in Georgia, orientation of values and the aspects conditioning life strategies the factors affecting educational migration are determined and the results of the positive and negative impact of educational migration on the socio-economic development of the country are substantiated. The importance of efficient management of educational migration for Georgia in getting closer to the EU and achieving inclusive economic grow this substantiated. Recommendations for efficient management of the process of Georgian citizens’ learning and acquiring experience, as well as the internationalization of education sector and educational migration, are drawn.

Keywords: educational migration, migration management, migration of youth, socio-economic results of educational migration, youth employment

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3205 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

Abstract:

The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: economic crisis, international migration, mobility, return migration, employement

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3204 Circular Labour Migration and Its Consequences in Georgia

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze

Abstract:

Introduction: The paper will argue that labor migration is the most important problem Georgia faces today. The structure of labor migration by age and gender of Georgia is analyzed. The main driving factors of circular labor migration during the last ten years are identified. While studying migration, it is necessary to discuss the interconnection of economic, social, and demographic features, also taking into consideration the policy of state regulations in terms of education and professional training. Methodology: Different research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical, such as selection, grouping, observation, trend, and qualitative research methods, namely; analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison ones. Main Findings: Labour migrants are filling the labor market as a low salary worker. The main positive feedback of migration from developing countries is poverty eradication, but this process is accompanied by problems, such as 'Brain Drain'. The country loses an important part of its intellectual potential, and it is invested by households or state itself. Conclusions: Labor migration is characterized to be temporary, but socio-economic problems of the country often push the labor migration in the direction of longterm and illegal migration. Countries with developed economies try to stricter migration policy and fight illegal migration with different methods; circular migration helps solve this problem. Conclusions and recommendations are included about circular labor migration consequences in Georgia and its influence on the reduction of unemployment level.

Keywords: migration, circular labor migration, labor migration employment, unemployment

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3203 Investigating the Rate of Migration of Plasticizers from PET Bottles into Salad Oil during Storage

Authors: Simin Asadollahi, Amir H. Soruri, Ali Moghimi

Abstract:

Nowadays, salad oils are used in many countries around the world. Therefore, it is of great importance to ensure the safety of these food products which are usually packaged in Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and come on the market. This study investigated the effects of storage time and temperature on the migration rate of phthalate compounds from PET bottle to salad oil. In more detail, migration rate of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from bottles to salad oil samples was measured in 1st, the 30th, and the 60th days of storage at a temperature of either 20 or 40 °C. At both storage temperatures, an increase in the storage time led to a statistically significant increase in the migration rate of phthalate compounds (p<.01). Regarding this, the highest migration rate occurred after 60 days of storage in to the samples. Furthermore, it was revealed bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had a higher migration rate at 40 °C than at 20 °C which showed that an increase in the storage temperature would lead to an increase in the migration rate. The highest migration rate occurred in relation to salad oil stored at 40 °C and after 60 days of storage.

Keywords: salad oil, migration rate, polyethylene terephthalate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

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3202 Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem

Authors: A. V. Dolzhikova

Abstract:

The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.

Keywords: comprehensive exam, migration policy, migration legislation, Russia's national security

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
3201 DAG Design and Tradeoff for Full Live Virtual Machine Migration over XIA Network

Authors: Dalu Zhang, Xiang Jin, Dejiang Zhou, Jianpeng Wang, Haiying Jiang

Abstract:

Traditional TCP/IP network is showing lots of shortages and research for future networks is becoming a hotspot. FIA (Future Internet Architecture) and FIA-NP (Next Phase) are supported by US NSF for future Internet designing. Moreover, virtual machine migration is a significant technique in cloud computing. As a network application, it should also be supported in XIA (expressive Internet Architecture), which is in both FIA and FIA-NP projects. This paper is an experimental study aims at verifying the feasibility of VM migration over XIA. We present three ways to maintain VM connectivity and communication states concerning DAG design and routing table modification. VM migration experiments are conducted intra-AD and inter-AD with KVM instances. The procedure is achieved by a migration control protocol which is suitable for the characters of XIA. Evaluation results show that our solutions can well supports full live VM migration over XIA network respectively, keeping services seamless.

Keywords: DAG, downtime, virtual machine migration, XIA

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3200 Sri Lanka-Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge

Abstract:

Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: migration, middle east, Sri Lanka, social sciences

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3199 Patterns, Determinants, and Implications of Rural-Urban Migration in the Garhwal Himalaya

Authors: Saurav Kumar

Abstract:

Rural-urban migration is the most commonly adopted strategy in rural areas to overcome the risk associated with the subsistence economy and diversify income. The Garhwal Himalaya has the highest rate of rural-urban migration in India, which has serious repercussions. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature on the implications of rural-urban migration in the Garhwal Himalaya. This paper attempts to fill this void. The objectives of the paper are to look into various types, patterns, determinants, and implications of rural-urban migration in the Garhwal Himalaya. In order to meet the objectives, 15 villages were selected from five districts of the Garhwal Himalaya. In every district, three villages were chosen from different altitudes, including five from river valleys, five from mid-altitudes, and five from highlands. The villages range in altitude from 550m to 2660m. A total of 658 households were surveyed from the villages, covering 100% samples from each village. Using a structured questionnaire, the author asked the heads of each household about the types of rural-urban migration they practiced, the year of first migration, destinations of migration, and reasons for migration. Further, migrants’ age, sex, caste, marital status, educational background, income, occupation, and remittances sent by migrants were also inquired about. The study reveals that rural-urban migration is a serious problem in Garhwal Himalayas, posing various socio-economic issues. Without immediate action, it will have serious consequences. Finally, this study suggests some policy measures to minimize the current rate of rural-urban migration in the Garhwal Himalaya.

Keywords: rural-urban migration, Garhwal Himalaya, patterns, determinants, implications

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3198 Migration as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: A Conceptual Equation for Analysis

Authors: Elisha Kyirem

Abstract:

Undoubtedly, climate change is a major global challenge that could threaten the very foundation upon which life on earth is anchored, with its impacts on human mobility attracting the attention of policy makers and researchers. There is an increasing body of literature and case studies suggesting that migration could be a way through which the vulnerable move away from areas exposed to climate extreme events to improve their lives and that of their families. This presents migration as a way through which people voluntarily move to seek opportunities that could help reduce their exposure and avoid danger from climate events. Thus, migration is seen as a proactive adaptation strategy aimed at building resilience and improving livelihoods to enable people to adapt to future changing events. However, there has not been any mathematical equation linking migration and climate change adaptation. Drawing from literature in development studies, this paper develops an equation that seeks to link the relationship between migration and climate change adaptation. The mathematical equation establishes the linkages between migration, resilience, poverty reduction and vulnerability, and these the paper maintains, are the key variables for conceptualizing the migration-climate change adaptation nexus. The paper then tests the validity of the equation using the sustainable livelihood framework and publicly available data on migration and tourism in Ghana.

Keywords: migration, adaptation, climate change, adaptation, poverty reduction

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3197 Internal Migration and Poverty Dynamic Analysis Using a Bayesian Approach: The Tunisian Case

Authors: Amal Jmaii, Damien Rousseliere, Besma Belhadj

Abstract:

We explore the relationship between internal migration and poverty in Tunisia. We present a methodology combining potential outcomes approach with multiple imputation to highlight the effect of internal migration on poverty states. We find that probability of being poor decreases when leaving the poorest regions (the west areas) to the richer regions (greater Tunis and the east regions).

Keywords: internal migration, potential outcomes approach, poverty dynamics, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
3196 Geographic Aspects of Egyptian Illegal Migration to Europe

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Aly Hassanien

Abstract:

This study examines the geographic aspects of Egyptian illegal migration to Europe. It used files of Egyptian government bodies and data obtained from a field study carried out in 2015 on the areas of origin. The study revealed that the phenomenon has passed historically through four phases. Areas of origin are classified geographically into three areas: coastal, river, and interior. The study developed a map for routes of migration which identified the main and secondary routes. The main routes included the Libyan, the Mediterranean and the Arab-Turkish routes. Recently, The Mediterranean route has been the largest and the most dangerous.

Keywords: areas of destination, areas of origin, illegal migration, routes of migration

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3195 Security Practices of the European Union on Migration: An Analysis of the Frontex Within the Framework of Biopolitics

Authors: Gizem Ertürk, Nursena Dinç

Abstract:

The Aegean area has always been an important transit point for migration; however, the establishment of the European Union gave further impetus to the migration phenomenon and increased the significance of the area within this context. The migration waves have been more visible in the area in recent decades, and particularly after the “2015 Migration Crisis,” this issue has been subject to further securitization in the EU. In this conjuncture, the Frontex, which is an agency set up by the EU in 2005 for the purpose of managing and coordinating the border control efforts, has become more functional in the relevant area, but at the same time, have some questionable actions within the context of human rights. This paper problematizes the rationality behind the existence and practices of such a structure and attempts to make a political and legal analysis of the security practices of the European Union against migration within a framework based on the biopolitics approaches of Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben. The dataset of this paper, which focuses on the agency in question by taking it as a case, is formed by making use of the existing literature on the EU’s security policies, the relevant official texts of the Union and Frontex reports on migration practices in and around the Aegean Sea.

Keywords: migration, biopolitics, Frontex, security, European union, securitization

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3194 Migration and Displacement: A Study on the Impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali Migration to North-Eastern India

Authors: Sri Mahan Borah

Abstract:

The issue of migration and displacement is considered so sensitive that states have often linked it with their sovereignty, independence and even existence. Therefor, even in the era of globalisation no nation-state is ready to compromise with its territorial boundaries. The problem of migration and displacement has generated a range of socio-political, economic, ethnic, and communal tensions in India in general and northeastern States in particular. In such situation it becomes unpreventable to look over the issue so that a viable elucidation may emerge. The present paper is an attempt to understand the impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali migration to North-Eastern states of India through historical and analytical methods. In this course it will look into the emergence of the migration and displacement problem, its causes, impacts on security and other issues of national interest especially when the migration is illegal and poses multi-layered challenges to the Indian state. The nature of migration from these countries to India has been dissimilar. This is because of their different historical backgrounds, geographical variants, ethno-religious affinities, political systems and bilateral arrangements with India. It concludes inter alia that, India’s borders with Bangladesh and Nepal must be regulated and that resident migrants need to be strategically dealt with, keeping in mind age-old relationships with these countries and, more importantly, the nature and construct of our geography.

Keywords: migration, displacement, North-East, India

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3193 Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Siegfried Bauer

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the migration process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households. The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants of migration at farm household level are household age, economically active males and females, number of young and old dependent members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other hand, the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability of economically adult male in the household, number of young dependents and agricultural land holding.

Keywords: determinants, Heckman Probit model, migration, rural-urban

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3192 The Impact of the Atypical Crisis on Educational Migration: Economic and Policy Challenges

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze, Marine Kobalava, Lali Chikviladze

Abstract:

The global pandemic crisis has had a significant impact on educational migration, substantially limiting young people’s access to education abroad. Therefore, it became necessary to study the economic, demographic, social, cultural and other factors associated with educational migration, to identify the economic and political challenges of educational migration and to develop recommendations. The aim of the research is to study the effects of the atypical crisis on educational migration and to make recommendations on effective migration opportunities based on the identification of economic and policy challenges in this area. Bibliographic research is used to assess the effects of the impact of the atypical crisis on educational migration presented in the papers of various scholars. Against the background of the restrictions imposed during the COVID19 pandemic, migration rates have been analyzed, endogenous and exogenous factors affecting educational migration have been identified. Quantitative and qualitative research of students and graduates of TSU Economics and Business Faculty is conducted, the results have been processed by SPSS program, the factors hindering educational migration and the challenges have been identified. The Internet and digital technologies have been shown to play a vital role in alleviating the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, however, lack of Internet access and limited financial resources have played a disruptive role in the educational migration process. The analysis of quantitative research materials revealed the problems of educational migration caused by the atypical crisis, while some issues were clarified during the focus group meetings. The following theoretical-methodological approaches were used during the research: a bibliographic research, analysis, synthesis, comparison, selection-grouping are used; Quantitative and qualitative research has been carried out, the results have been processed by SPSS program. The article presents the consequences of the atypical crisis for educational migration, identifies the main economic and policy challenges in the field of educational migration, and develops appropriate recommendations to overcome them.

Keywords: educational migration, atypical crisis, economic-political challenges, educational migration factors

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3191 Numerical Modeling of the Depth-Averaged Flow over a Hill

Authors: Anna Avramenko, Heikki Haario

Abstract:

This paper reports the development and application of a 2D depth-averaged model. The main goal of this contribution is to apply the depth averaged equations to a wind park model in which the treatment of the geometry, introduced on the mathematical model by the mass and momentum source terms. The depth-averaged model will be used in future to find the optimal position of wind turbines in the wind park. K-E and 2D LES turbulence models were consider in this article. 2D CFD simulations for one hill was done to check the depth-averaged model in practise.

Keywords: depth-averaged equations, numerical modeling, CFD, wind park model

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3190 RGB-D SLAM Algorithm Based on pixel level Dense Depth Map

Authors: Hao Zhang, Hongyang Yu

Abstract:

Scale uncertainty is a well-known challenging problem in visual SLAM. Because RGB-D sensor provides depth information, RGB-D SLAM improves this scale uncertainty problem. However, due to the limitation of physical hardware, the depth map output by RGB-D sensor usually contains a large area of missing depth values. These missing depth information affect the accuracy and robustness of RGB-D SLAM. In order to reduce these effects, this paper completes the missing area of the depth map output by RGB-D sensor and then fuses the completed dense depth map into ORB SLAM2. By adding the process of obtaining pixel-level dense depth maps, a better RGB-D visual SLAM algorithm is finally obtained. In the process of obtaining dense depth maps, a deep learning model of indoor scenes is adopted. Experiments are conducted on public datasets and real-world environments of indoor scenes. Experimental results show that the proposed SLAM algorithm has better robustness than ORB SLAM2.

Keywords: RGB-D, SLAM, dense depth, depth map

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3189 On the Effect of Immigration on Destination: Country Corruption

Authors: Eugen Dimant, Tim Krieger, Margarete Redlin

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the impact of migration on destination-country corruption levels. Capitalizing on a comprehensive dataset consisting of annual immigration stocks of OECD coun-tries from 207 countries of origin for the period 1984-2008, we explore different channels through which corruption might migrate. We employ different estimation methods using fixed effects and Tobit regressions in order to validate our findings. What is more, we also address the issue of endogeneity by using the Difference-Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator. Independent of the econometric methodology we consistently find that while general migration has an insignificant effect on the destination country’s corruption level, immigration from corruption-ridden origin countries boosts corruption in the destination country. Our findings provide a more profound understanding of the economic implications associated with migration flows.

Keywords: corruption, migration, impact of migration, destination-country corruption

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3188 Migration and Policy Dedication in Ethiopia: A Study of Migration of Hadiya People

Authors: Solomon Tagesse

Abstract:

This study has been conducted on “Migration and Policy Dedication in Ethiopia: A Study of Migration of Hadiya People,” which was aimed at scrutinizing the reason for Hadiya people's migration from Ethiopia to the Republic of South Africa. Basically, a qualitative research approach has been employed to address the justified problem and to achieve the objectives stated accordingly. The purposive and snowball sampling techniques were employed to identify the study sites and respondents for the study. Field observations, interviews, focus group discussions and recording of data were used as instruments to collect data. It has been observed that lack of jobs and peer pressure, lack of interest to learn and work, scarcity and low wages were push factors; whereas job opportunity and better income; the existence of families, relatives and friends pull factors. Communication, transportation, the existence of brokers, etc., were also found to be intermediary factors. Based on the findings, recommendations and policy suggestions have been made in specific areas of the study.

Keywords: migration, reason, migrant, households

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3187 Gendered Narratives of ‘Respectability’: Migrant Garo Women and Their Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

Authors: A. Drong, K. S. Kerkhoff

Abstract:

Migration affects women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper reports on the social constructs of gender, and livelihood pursuits as beauty parlours workers amongst the young Garo women in Bangladesh, and studies changes in their accessibility to the healthcare services due to migration and livelihood. The paper is based on in-depth interviews and participant-led group discussions with 30 women working in various beauty parlours across the city. The data indicate that social perceptions of ‘good’, ‘bad’ and ‘respectable’ determine the expression of sexuality, and often dictates sexual and reproductive practices for these women. This study also reveals that unregulated work conditions, and the current cost of local healthcare services, have a strong impact on the women’s accessibility to the healthcare services; thus often limiting their choices to only customary and/or unqualified practitioners for abortions and child-births. Development programmes on migrant indigenous women’s health must, therefore, take the contextual gender norms and livelihood choices into account.

Keywords: gender, indigenous women, reproductive rights, sexual rights, Garo, migration, livelihood, healthcare

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3186 Impact of COVID-19 on Study Migration

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has made significant changes in migration processes, notably changes in the study migration process. The constraints caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to changes in the studying process, which negatively affected its efficiency. The educational process has partially or completely shifted to distance learning; Both labor and study migration have increased significantly in the world. The employment and education market has become global and consequently, a number of challenges have arisen for employers, researchers, and businesses. The role of preparing qualified personnel in achieving high productivity is justified, the benefits for employers and employees are assessed on the one hand, and the role of study migration for the country’s development is examined on the other hand. Research methods. The research is based on methods of analysis and synthesis, quantitative and qualitative, groupings, relative and mean quantities, graphical representation, comparison, analysis and etc. In-depth interviews were conducted with experts to determine quantitative and qualitative indicators. Research findings. Factors affecting study migration are analysed in the paper and the environment that stimulates migration is explored. One of the driving forces of migration is considered to be the desire for receiving higher pay. Levels and indicators of study migration are studied by country. Comparative analysis has found that study migration rates are high in countries where the price of skilled labor is high. The productivity of individuals with low skills is low, which negatively affects the economic development of countries. It has been revealed that students leave the country to improve their skills during study migration. The process mentioned in the article is evaluated as a positive event for a developing country, as individuals are given the opportunity to share the technology of developed countries, gain knowledge, and then introduce it in their own country. The downside of study migration is the return of a small proportion of graduates from developed economies to their home countries. The article concludes that countries with emerging economies devote less resources to research and development, while this is a priority in developed countries, allowing highly skilled individuals to use their skills efficiently. The paper studies the national education system examines the level of competition in the education market and the indicators of educational migration. The level of competition in the education market and the indicators of educational migration are studied. The role of qualified personnel in achieving high productivity is substantiated, the benefits of employers and employees are assessed on the one hand, and the role of study migration in the development of the country is revealed on the other hand. The paper also analyzes the level of competition in the education and labor markets and identifies indicators of study migration. During the pandemic period, there was a great demand for the digital technologies. Open access to a variety of comprehensive platforms will significantly reduce study migration to other countries. As a forecast, it can be said that the intensity of the use of e-learning platforms will be increased significantly in the post-pandemic period. The paper analyzes the positive and negative effects of study migration on economic development, examines the challenges of study migration in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, suggests ways to avoid negative consequences, and develops recommendations for improving the study migration process in the post-pandemic period.

Keywords: study migration, COVID-19 pandemic, factors affecting migration, economic development, post-pandemic migration

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3185 Polarization of Glass with Positive and Negative Charge Carriers

Authors: Valentina V. Zhurikhina, Mihail I. Petrov, Alexandra A. Rtischeva, Mark Dussauze, Thierry Cardinal, Andrey A. Lipovskii

Abstract:

Polarization of glass, often referred to as thermal poling, is a well-known method to modify the glass physical and chemical properties, that manifest themselves in loosing central symmetry of the medium, glass structure and refractive index modification. The usage of the poling for second optical harmonic generation, fabrication of optical waveguides and electrooptic modulators was also reported. Nevertheless, the detailed description of the poling of glasses, containing multiple charge carriers is still under discussion. In particular, the role of possible migration of electrons in the space charge formation usually remains out of the question. In this work, we performed the numerical simulation of thermal poling of a silicate glass, containing Na, K, Mg, and Ca. We took into consideration the contribution of electrons in the polarization process. The possible explanation of migration of electrons can be the break of non-bridging oxygen bonds. It was found, that the modeled depth of the space charge region is about 10 times higher if the migration of the negative charges is taken under consideration. The simulated profiles of cations, participating in the polarization process, are in a good agreement with the experimental data, obtained by glow discharge spectroscopy.

Keywords: glass poling, charge transport, modeling, concentration profiles

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3184 Traditional Factors of States’ Economic Growth: Modern Patterns, Values and Limitations

Authors: Denis Ushakov

Abstract:

Fast growing international migration as a factor of labor globalization now is one of the most important trends of world economy and determinant of social-political transformations. Study of fundamental economical reasons for international migration is relevant due to their prognostic, predictable and normative potential, which can be used in conditions of global economic non-stability. This paper analyzes role of natural-resources, financial and labor factors in economic growth of the modern states; studies relationships between stimulating role of natural resources, finance and labor with levels of modern countries’ economy development. Based on achieved results, findings about fundamental reasons of international migration; transformation of labor factor’s role in providing an economical progress of the states; efficiency of positive impact of manufacturing factors (domestic and attracted from international markets) were offered.

Keywords: international migration, migrant, labor productivity, economy efficiency of migration, migration policy

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3183 Coping Resource Triad, Experiences of Filipina Wives in Japan

Authors: Maria Luisa T. Uayan

Abstract:

This study aims to describe the lived experiences of Filipina migrants married to Japanese and to discuss coping strategies that facilitates positive migration events. It utilizes a qualitative study design with focus group discussion which allows clear details on insights and perspectives based on migration process. The grounding of the coping resource triad is the unique finding of this study. It defines coping resource triad as a set of complex factors that relieves Filipina migrants of the stresses associated in migration and cross-cultural marriage. The results of the stress-coping experiences of Filipina migrants in Japan serves as basis for future studies on cross-cultural marriages and other deeper concerns associated with migration as well as in the formulation of relevant programs on acculturation.

Keywords: coping resource triad, migration, Filipina, cross-cultural marriage

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3182 Climate Change and Human Migration

Authors: Sungwoo Park

Abstract:

The paper attempts to investigate the correlation between climate change and migration that has caused violent disputes in some regions of the world. Recently, NGOs and educational institutions have proposed claims that migratory patterns and violent uprisings are intertwined with climate change. Thus, the paper is primarily concerned with collecting evidences provided from scholars, validating this significant connection between climate change and migration, and evaluating and suggesting current and future research approaches respectively to enhance the acknowledgment and protection of environmental refugees. In order to examine the linkage of environmental migration, primary sources, such as political speeches, and secondary sources like theses from environmental policy analysts, books, and reports are used. More specifically, the investigation focuses on an civil war in Syria to draw a connection between environmental migration and violent dispute that threatens the global security. The examination undertaken specifically analyzes examples where forced migration occurred due to climate change. In Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Kiribati, residents have been at risk of fleeing their countries because of abnormal climate patterns, such as the rise of sea level or an excessive heat stress. As the brutal uprising in Syria has proven that climate change can pose a significant threat to global security, correlation between climate change and migration is surely worth delving into.

Keywords: climate change, climate migration, global security, refugee crisis

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