Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Narendrakumar M. Chaudhari

17 Habitat-Specific Divergences in the Gene Repertoire among the Reference Prevotella Genomes of the Human Microbiome

Authors: Vinod Kumar Gupta, Narendrakumar M. Chaudhari, Suchismitha Iskepalli, Chitra Dutta


Background-The community composition of the human microbiome is known to vary at distinct anatomical niches. But little is known about the nature of variations if any, at the genome/sub-genome levels of a specific microbial community across different niches. The present report aims to explore, as a case study, the variations in gene repertoire of 28 Prevotella reference draft genomes derived from different body-sites of human, as reported earlier by the Human Microbiome Consortium. Results-The analysis reveals the exclusive presence of 11798, 3673, 3348 and 934 gene families and exclusive absence of 17, 221, 115 and 645 gene families in Prevotella genomes derived from the human oral cavity, gastro-intestinal tracts (GIT), urogenital tract (UGT) and skin, respectively. The pan-genome for Prevotella remains “open”. Distribution of various functional COG categories differs appreciably among the habitat-specific genes, within Prevotella pan-genome and between the GIT-derived Bacteroides and Prevotella. The skin and GIT isolates of Prevotella are enriched in singletons involved in Signal transduction mechanisms, while the UGT and oral isolates show higher representation of the Defense mechanisms category. No niche-specific variations could be observed in the distribution of KEGG pathways. Conclusion-Prevotella may have developed distinct genetic strategies for adaptation to different anatomical habitats through selective, niche-specific acquisition and elimination of suitable gene-families. In addition, individual microorganisms tend to develop their own distinctive adaptive stratagems through large repertoires of singletons. Such in situ, habitat-driven refurbishment of the genetic makeup can impart substantial intra-lineage genome diversity within the microbes without perturbing their general taxonomic heritage.

Keywords: body niche adaptation, human microbiome, pangenome, Prevotella

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16 Social Work Education in Gujarat: Challenges and Responses

Authors: Rajeshkumar Mahendrabhai Patel, Narendrakumar D. Vasava


It is seen that higher education in India requires a high degree of attention for the quality. The Government of India has been putting its efforts to improvise the quality of higher education through different means such as need based changes in the policy of higher education, accreditation of the institutions of higher education and many others. The Social Work education in India started way back in Tata School of Social Sciences in the year 1936. Gradually the need for social work education was felt, and different institution started imparting social work education in different regions. Due to the poor educational policy of Gujarat state (The Concept of Self-Financed Education) different Universities initiated the MSW program on a self-financed basis. The present scenario of the Social work Education in Gujarat faces ample challenges and problems which need to be addressed consciously. The present paper will try to examine and analyze the challenges and problems such as curriculum, staffing, quality of teaching, the pattern of education etc. The probable responses to this scenario are also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: social work education, challenges, problems, responses, self-financed education in Gujarat

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15 Survey: Topology Hiding in Multipath Routing Protocol in MANET

Authors: Akshay Suhas Phalke, Manohar S. Chaudhari


In this paper, we have discussed the multipath routing with its variants. Our purpose is to discuss the different types of the multipath routing mechanism. Here we also put the taxonomy of the multipath routing. Multipath routing is used for the alternate path routing, reliable transmission of data and for better utilization of network resources. We also discussed the multipath routing for topology hiding such as TOHIP. In multipath routing, different parameters such as energy efficiency, packet delivery ratio, shortest path routing, fault tolerance play an important role. We have discussed a number of multipath routing protocol based on different parameters lastly.

Keywords: multi-path routing, WSN, topology, fault detection, trust

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14 Potential Role of IL-1β in Synovial Fluid in Modulating Multiple Joint Tissue Pathologies Leading to Inflammation and Accelerating Cartilage Degeneration

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Datta Shinde, Shantanu Deshpande, Narendrakumar Wagh, Abhay Harsulkar


Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with multiple and overlapping aetiologies. IL-1β is produced by stressed tissue and known to aggravate disease pathologies. We selected 10 patients with elevated IL-1β in their synovial fluids (SF). We hypothesized IL-1β as nodal-point connecting different pathologies. IL-1β was higher in all meniscal tear (MT) patients perhaps as the earliest response to injury. Since MT above age of 30 leads to OA in less than 5 years, it is attributed that IL-1β modulates OA pathology. Among all bilateral OA patients, an interesting case operated for Total-Knee-Replacement revealed differential cartilage degeneration demonstrating strong association with higher IL-1β. Symptoms like acute-pain, effusion and redness were correlated with higher IL-1β and NO (Nitric-oxide). However, higher IL-1β was also found without typical-inflammation characterized by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Cultured synoviocytes responded to IL-1β by releasing NO. In conclusion, IL-1β in SF acquires central position influencing different OA pathologies and aetiologies.

Keywords: IL-1β, meniscal tear, osteoarthritis, synovial fluid

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13 Enhancement of Capacity in a MC-CDMA based Cognitive Radio Network Using Non-Cooperative Game Model

Authors: Kalyani Kulkarni, Bharat Chaudhari


This paper addresses the issue of resource allocation in the emerging cognitive technology. Focusing the quality of service (QoS) of primary users (PU), a novel method is proposed for the resource allocation of secondary users (SU). In this paper, we propose the unique utility function in the game theoretic model of Cognitive Radio which can be maximized to increase the capacity of the cognitive radio network (CRN) and to minimize the interference scenario. The utility function is formulated to cater the need of PUs by observing Signal to Noise ratio. The existence of Nash equilibrium is for the postulated game is established.

Keywords: cognitive networks, game theory, Nash equilibrium, resource allocation

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12 Proposed Terminal Device for End-to-End Secure SMS in Cellular Networks

Authors: Neetesh Saxena, Narendra S. Chaudhari


Nowadays, SMS is a very popular mobile service and even the poor, illiterate people and those living in rural areas use SMS service very efficiently. Although many mobile operators have already started 3G and 4G services, 2G services are still being used by the people in many countries. In 2G (GSM), only encryption provided is between the MS and the BTS, there is no end-to-end encryption available. Sometimes we all need to send some confidential message to other person containing bank account number, some password, financial details, etc. Normally, a message is sent in plain text only to the recipient and it is not an acceptable standard for transmitting such important and confidential information. Authors propose an end-to-end encryption approach by proposing a terminal for sending/receiving a secure message. An asymmetric key exchange algorithm is used in order to transmit secret shared key securely to the recipient. The proposed approach with terminal device provides authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation.

Keywords: AES, DES, Diffie-Hellman, ECDH, A5, SMS

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11 Revolutionizing Traditional Farming Using Big Data/Cloud Computing: A Review on Vertical Farming

Authors: Milind Chaudhari, Suhail Balasinor


Due to massive deforestation and an ever-increasing population, the organic content of the soil is depleting at a much faster rate. Due to this, there is a big chance that the entire food production in the world will drop by 40% in the next two decades. Vertical farming can help in aiding food production by leveraging big data and cloud computing to ensure plants are grown naturally by providing the optimum nutrients sunlight by analyzing millions of data points. This paper outlines the most important parameters in vertical farming and how a combination of big data and AI helps in calculating and analyzing these millions of data points. Finally, the paper outlines how different organizations are controlling the indoor environment by leveraging big data in enhancing food quantity and quality.

Keywords: big data, IoT, vertical farming, indoor farming

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10 A.T.O.M.- Artificial Intelligent Omnipresent Machine

Authors: R. Kanthavel, R. Yogesh Kumar, T. Narendrakumar, B. Santhosh, S. Surya Prakash


This paper primarily focuses on developing an affordable personal assistant and the implementation of it in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to create a virtual assistant/friend. The problem in existing home automation techniques is that it requires the usage of exact command words present in the database to execute the corresponding task. Our proposed work is ATOM a.k.a ‘Artificial intelligence Talking Omnipresent Machine’. Our inspiration came from an unlikely source- the movie ‘Iron Man’ in which a character called J.A.R.V.I.S has omnipresence, and device controlling capability. This device can control household devices in real time and send the live information to the user. This device does not require the user to utter the exact commands specified in the database as it can capture the keywords from the uttered commands, correlates the obtained keywords and perform the specified task. This ability to compare and correlate the keywords gives the user the liberty to give commands which are not necessarily the exact words provided in the database. The proposed work has a higher flexibility (due to its keyword extracting ability from the user input) comparing to the existing work Intelligent Home automation System (IHAS), is more accurate, and is much more affordable as it makes use of WI-FI module and raspberry pi 2 instead of ZigBee and a computer respectively.

Keywords: home automation, speech recognition, voice control, personal assistant, artificial intelligence

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9 Interrelationship of BMI with Strength, Speed and Flexibility in Different Age Groups

Authors: Nimesh D. Chaudhari


The purpose of this study was to find out the interrelationship of BMI with strength, i.e. endurance strength of abdominal muscles and explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility which are respectively assessed by sit up, standing broad jump, 50 yard dash and sit and reach tests. 48 boys, aged 7 to 13 years as group A and 40 boys, aged 17 to 28 years asgroup B were selected as the subjects for the study. Product moment correlation coefficient test (r at 0.05 level of significance) was applied to test hypothesis. The findings of the study shows that there is significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, and flexibility whereas a negative significant relationship was found between BMI and speed in group A, i.e. aged from 7 to 13 years. However, there was no significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility in higher age group.

Keywords: body mass index, strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, flexibility of lower back and hamstring muscles

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8 Tribological Investigation of Piston Ring Liner Assembly

Authors: Bharatkumar Sutaria, Tejaskumar Chaudhari


An engine performance can be increased by minimizing losses. There are various losses observed in the engines. i.e. thermal loss, heat loss and mechanical losses. Mechanical losses are in the tune of 15 to 20 % of the overall losses. Piston ring assembly contributes the highest friction in the mechanical frictional losses. The variation of piston speed in stroke length the friction force development is not uniform. In present work, comparison has been made between theoretical and experimental friction force under different operating conditions. The experiments are performed using variable operating parameters such as load, speed, temperature and lubricants. It is found that reducing trend of friction force and friction coefficient is in good nature with mixed lubrication regime of the Stribeck curve. Overall outcome from the laboratory test performance of segmented piston ring assembly using multi-grade oil offers reasonably good results at room and elevated temperatures.

Keywords: friction force, friction coefficient, piston rings, Stribeck curve

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7 A Review on Applications of Nanotechnology in Automotive Industry

Authors: Akshata S. Malani, Anagha D. Chaudhari, Rajeshkumar U. Sambhe


Nanotechnology in pristine sense refers to building of structures at atomic and molecular scale. Meticulously nanotechnology encompasses the nanomaterials with atleast one dimension size ranging from 1 to 100 nanometres.Unlike the literal meaning of its name, nanotechnology is a massive concept beyond imagination. This paper predominantly deals with relevance of nanotechnology in automotive industries. New generation of automotives looks at nanotechnology as an emerging trend of manufacturing revolution. Intricate shapes can be made out of fairly inexpensive raw materials instead of conventional fabrication process. Though the current era have enough technology to face competition, nanotechnology can give futuristic implications to pick up the modern pace. Nanotechnology intends to bridge the gap between automotives with superior technical performance and their cost fluctuation. Preliminarily, it is an area of great scientific interest and a major shaper of many new technologies. Nanotechnology can be an ideal building block for automotive industries, under constant evolution offering a very wide scope of activity. It possesses huge potential and is still in the embryonic form of research and development.

Keywords: nanotechnology, nanomaterials, manufacturing, automotive industry

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6 Effect of Natural Molecular Crowding on the Structure and Stability of DNA Duplex

Authors: Chaudhari S. G., Saxena, S.


We systematically and quantitatively investigated the effect of glucose as a model of natural molecular crowding agent on the structure and thermodynamics of Watson-Crick base paired three duplexes (named as D1, D2 and D3) of different base compositions and lengths. Structural analyses demonstrated that duplexes (D1 and D2) folded into B-form with different cations in the absence and presence of glucose while duplex (D3) folded into mixed A and B-form. Moreover, we demonstrated that the duplex was more stable in the absence of glucose, and marginally destabilized in its presence because glucose act as a weak structure breaker on the tetrahedral network of water. In the absence of glucose, the values of ΔG°25 for duplex (D1) were -13.56, -13.76, -12.46, and -12.36 kcal/mol, for duplex (D2) were -13.64, -12.93, -12.86, and -12.30 kcal/mol, for duplex (D3) were -10.05, -11.76, -9.91, -9.70 kcal/mol in the presence of Na+, K+, Na+ + Mg++ and K+ + Mg++ respectively. At high concentration of glucose (1:10000), there was increase in ΔG°25 for duplex (D1) -12.47, -12.37, -11.96, -11.55 kcal/mol, for duplex (D2) -12.37, -11.47, -11.98, -11.01 kcal/mol and for duplex (D3) -8.47, -9.17, -9.16, -8.66 kcal/mol. Our results provide the information that structure and stability of DNA duplex depends on the structure of molecular crowding agent present in its close vicinity. In this study, I have taken the hydration of simple sugar as an essential model for understanding interactions between hydrophilic groups and interfacial water molecules and its effect on hydrogen bonded DNA duplexes. On the basis of these relatively simple building blocks I hope to gain some insights for understanding more generally the properties of sugar–water–salt systems with DNA duplexes.

Keywords: natural molecular crowding, DNA Duplex, structure of DNA, bioengineering and life sciences

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5 Glycosaminoglycan, a Cartilage Erosion Marker in Synovial Fluid of Osteoarthritis Patients Strongly Correlates with WOMAC Function Subscale

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Narendrakumar Wagh, Dhanshri Ingle, Onkar Lande, Abhay Harsulkar


Cartilage is an extracellular matrix composed of aggrecan, which imparts it with a great tensile strength, stiffness and resilience. Disruption in cartilage metabolism leading to progressive degeneration is a characteristic feature of Osteoarthritis (OA). The process involves enzymatic depolymerisation of cartilage specific proteoglycan, releasing free glycosaminoglycan (GAG). This released GAG in synovial fluid (SF) of knee joint serves as a direct measure of cartilage loss, however, limited due to its invasive nature. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) is widely used for assessing pain, stiffness and physical-functions in OA patients. The scale is comprised of three subscales namely, pain, stiffness and physical-function, intends to measure patient’s perspective of disease severity as well as efficacy of prescribed treatment. Twenty SF samples obtained from OA patients were analysed for their GAG values in SF using DMMB based assay. LK 1.0 vernacular version was used to attain WOMAC scale. The results were evaluated using SAS University software (Edition 1.0) for statistical significance. All OA patients revealed higher GAG values compared to the control value of 78.4±30.1µg/ml (obtained from our non-OA patients). Average WOMAC calculated was 51.3 while pain, stiffness and function estimated were 9.7, 3.9 and 37.7, respectively. Interestingly, a strong statistical correlation was established between WOMAC function subscale and GAG (p = 0.0102). This subscale is based on day-to-day activities like stair-use, bending, walking, getting in/out of car, rising from bed. However, pain and stiffness subscale did not show correlation with any of the studied markers and endorsed the atypical inflammation in OA pathology. On one side, where knee pain showed poor correlation with GAG, it is often noted that radiography is insensitive to cartilage degenerative changes; thus OA remains undiagnosed for long. Moreover, active cartilage degradation phase remains elusive to both, patient and clinician. Through analysis of large number of OA patients we have established a close association of Kellgren-Lawrence grades and increased cartilage loss. A direct attempt to correlate WOMAC and radiographic progression of OA with various biomarkers has not been attempted so far. We found a good correlation in GAG levels in SF and the function subscale.

Keywords: cartilage, Glycosaminoglycan, synovial fluid, western ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index

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4 The Influence of Bentonite on the Rheology of Geothermal Grouts

Authors: A. N. Ghafar, O. A. Chaudhari, W. Oettel, P. Fontana


This study is a part of the EU project GEOCOND-Advanced materials and processes to improve performance and cost-efficiency of shallow geothermal systems and underground thermal storage. In heat exchange boreholes, to improve the heat transfer between the pipes and the surrounding ground, the space between the pipes and the borehole wall is normally filled with geothermal grout. Traditionally, bentonite has been a crucial component in most commercially available geothermal grouts to assure the required stability and impermeability. The investigations conducted in the early stage of this project during the benchmarking tests on some commercial grouts showed considerable sensitivity of the rheological properties of the tested grouts to the mixing parameters, i.e., mixing time and velocity. Further studies on this matter showed that bentonite, which has been one of the important constituents in most grout mixes, was probably responsible for such behavior. Apparently, proper amount of shear should be applied during the mixing process to sufficiently activate the bentonite. The higher the amount of applied shear the more the activation of bentonite, resulting in change in the grout rheology. This explains why, occasionally in the field applications, the flow properties of the commercially available geothermal grouts using different mixing conditions (mixer type, mixing time, mixing velocity) are completely different than expected. A series of tests were conducted on the grout mixes, with and without bentonite, using different mixing protocols. The aim was to eliminate/reduce the sensitivity of the rheological properties of the geothermal grouts to the mixing parameters by replacing bentonite with polymeric (non-clay) stabilizers. The results showed that by replacing bentonite with a proper polymeric stabilizer, the sensitivity of the grout mix on mixing time and velocity was to a great extent diminished. This can be considered as an alternative for the developers/producers of geothermal grouts to provide enhanced materials with less uncertainty in obtained results in the field applications.

Keywords: flow properties, geothermal grout, mixing time, mixing velocity, rheological properties

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3 Mechanistic Understanding of the Difference in two Strains Cholerae Causing Pathogens and Predicting Therapeutic Strategies for Cholera Patients Affected with new Strain Vibrio Cholerae El.tor. Using Constrain-based Modelling

Authors: Faiz Khan Mohammad, Saumya Ray Chaudhari, Raghunathan Rengaswamy, Swagatika Sahoo


Cholera caused by pathogenic gut bacteria Vibrio Cholerae (VC), is a major health problem in developing countries. Different strains of VC exhibit variable responses subject to different extracellular medium (Nag et al, Infect Immun, 2018). In this study, we present a new approach to model the variable VC responses in mono- and co-cultures, subject to continuously changing growth medium, which is otherwise difficult via simple FBA model. Nine VC strain and seven E. coli (EC) models were assembled and considered. A continuously changing medium is modelled using a new iterative-based controlled medium technique (ITC). The medium is appropriately prefixed with the VC model secretome. As the flux through the bacteria biomass increases secretes certain by-products. These products shall add-on to the medium, either deviating the nutrient potential or block certain metabolic components of the model, effectively forming a controlled feed-back loop. Different VC models were setup as monoculture of VC in glucose enriched medium, and in co-culture with VC strains and EC. Constrained to glucose enriched medium, (i) VC_Classical model resulted in higher flux through acidic secretome suggesting a pH change of the medium, leading to lowering of its biomass. This is in consonance with the literature reports. (ii) When compared for neutral secretome, flux through acetoin exchange was higher in VC_El tor than the classical models, suggesting El tor requires an acidic partner to lower its biomass. (iii) Seven of nine VC models predicted 3-methyl-2-Oxovaleric acid, mysirtic acid, folic acid, and acetate significantly affect corresponding biomass reactions. (iv) V. parhemolyticus and vulnificus were found to be phenotypically similar to VC Classical strain, across the nine VC strains. The work addresses the advantage of the ITC over regular flux balance analysis for modelling varying growth medium. Future expansion to co-cultures, potentiates the identification of novel interacting partners as effective cholera therapeutics.

Keywords: cholera, vibrio cholera El. tor, vibrio cholera classical, acetate

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2 Risk of Mortality and Spectrum of Second Primary Malignancies in Mantle Cell Lymphoma before and after Ibrutinib Approval: A Population-Based Study

Authors: Karthik Chamari, Vasudha Rudraraju, Gaurav Chaudhari


Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the mature B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The course of MCL is moderately aggressive and variable, and it has median overall survival of 8 to 10 years. Ibrutinib, a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration in November of 2013 for the treatment of MCL patients who have received at least one prior therapy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether there has been a change in survival and patterns of second primary malignancies (SPMs) among the MCL population in the US after ibrutinib approval. Methods: Using the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18, we conducted a retrospective study with patients diagnosed with MCL (ICD-0-3 code 9673/3) between 2007 and 2018. We divided patients into two six-year cohorts, pre-ibrutinib approval (2007-2012) and post-ibrutinib approval (2013-2018), and compared relative survival rates (RSRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPMs between cohorts. Results: We included 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL between 2007 and 2018 in the SEER-18 survival and SIR registries. Of these, 4,205 (45%) patients were included in the pre-ibrutinib cohort, and 5052 (55%) patients were included in the post-ibrutinib cohort. The median follow-up duration for the pre-ibrutinib cohort was 54 months (range 0 to 143 months), and the post-ibrutinib cohort was 20 months (range 0 to 71 months). There was a significant difference in the five-year RSRs between pre-ibrutinib and post-ibrutinib cohorts (57.5% vs. 62.6%, p < 0.005). Out of the 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL, 920 developed SPMs. A higher proportion of SPMs occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (63%) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (37%). Non-hematological malignancies comprised most of all SPMs. A higher incidence of non-hematological malignancies occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.56) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.14, 95% CI 1 to 1.3). There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of cancers of the respiratory tract (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.18), urinary tract (SIR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.06) when compared with other non-hematological malignancies in post-ibrutinib cohort. Conclusions: Our study results suggest the relative survival rates have increased since the approval of ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma patients. Additionally, for some unclear reasons, the incidence of SPM’s (non-hematological malignancies), mainly cancers of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, have increased in the six years following the approval of ibrutinib. Further studies should be conducted to determine the cause of these findings.

Keywords: mantle cell lymphoma, Ibrutinib, relative survival analysis, secondary primary cancers

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1 A Practical Construction Technique to Enhance the Performance of Rock Bolts in Tunnels

Authors: Ojas Chaudhari, Ali Nejad Ghafar, Giedrius Zirgulis, Marjan Mousavi, Tommy Ellison, Sandra Pousette, Patrick Fontana


In Swedish tunnel construction, a critical issue that has been repeatedly acknowledged is corrosion and, consequently, failure of the rock bolts in rock support systems. The defective installation of rock bolts results in the formation of cavities in the cement mortar that is regularly used to fill the area under the dome plates. These voids allow for water-ingress to the rock bolt assembly, which results in corrosion of rock bolt components and eventually failure. In addition, the current installation technique consists of several manual steps with intense labor works that are usually done in uncomfortable and exhausting conditions, e.g., under the roof of the tunnels. Such intense tasks also lead to a considerable waste of materials and execution errors. Moreover, adequate quality control of the execution is hardly possible with the current technique. To overcome these issues, a non-shrinking/expansive cement-based mortar filled in the paper packaging has been developed in this study which properly fills the area under the dome plates without or with the least remaining cavities, ultimately that diminishes the potential of corrosion. This article summarizes the development process and the experimental evaluation of this technique for the installation of rock bolts. In the development process, the cementitious mortar was first developed using specific cement and shrinkage reducing/expansive additives. The mechanical and flow properties of the mortar were then evaluated using compressive strength, density, and slump flow measurement methods. In addition, isothermal calorimetry and shrinkage/expansion measurements were used to elucidate the hydration and durability attributes of the mortar. After obtaining the desired properties in both fresh and hardened conditions, the developed dry mortar was filled in specific permeable paper packaging and then submerged in water bath for specific intervals before the installation. The tests were enhanced progressively by optimizing different parameters such as shape and size of the packaging, characteristics of the paper used, immersion time in water and even some minor characteristics of the mortar. Finally, the developed prototype was tested in a lab-scale rock bolt assembly with various angles to analyze the efficiency of the method in real life scenario. The results showed that the new technique improves the performance of the rock bolts by reducing the material wastage, improving environmental performance, facilitating and accelerating the labor works, and finally enhancing the durability of the whole system. Accordingly, this approach provides an efficient alternative for the traditional way of tunnel bolt installation with considerable advantages for the Swedish tunneling industry.

Keywords: corrosion, durability, mortar, rock bolt

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