Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: vibrio cholera El. tor

65 In-silico Design of Riboswitch Based Potent Inhibitors for Vibrio cholera

Authors: Somdutt Mujwar, Kamal Raj Pardasani

Abstract:

Cholera pandemics are caused by facultative pathogenic Vibrio cholera bacteria persisting in the countries having warmer climatic conditions as well as the presence of large water bodies with huge amount of organic matter, it is responsible for the millions of deaths annually. Presently the available therapy for cholera is Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) with an antibiotic drug. Excessive utilization of life saving antibiotics drugs leads to the development of resistance by the infectious micro-organism against the antibiotic drugs resulting in loss of effectiveness of these drugs. Also, many side effects are also associated with the use of these antibiotic drugs. This riboswitch is explored as an alternative drug target for Vibrio cholera bacteria to overcome the problem of drug resistance as well as side effects associated with the antibiotics drugs. The bacterial riboswitch is virtually screened with 24407 legends to get possible drug candidates. The 10 ligands showing best binding with the riboswitch are selected to design a pharmacophore, which can be utilized to design lead molecules by using the phenomenon of bioisosterism.

Keywords: cholera, drug design, ligand, riboswitch, pharmacophore

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64 Wind Direction and Its Linkage with Vibrio cholerae Dissemination

Authors: Shlomit Paz, Meir Broza

Abstract:

Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It has a short incubation period and produces an enterotoxin that causes copious, painless, watery diarrhoea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces of an infected person. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with poor treatment of sewage and drinking water. Cholera remains a global threat and is one of the key indicators of social development. An estimated 3-5 million cases and over 100,000 deaths occur each year around the world. The relevance of climatic events as causative factors for cholera epidemics is well known. However, the examination of the involvement of winds in intra-continental disease distribution is new. The study explore the hypothesis that the spreading of cholera epidemics may be related to the dominant wind direction over land by presenting the influence of the wind direction on windborn dissemination by flying insects, which may serve as vectors. Chironomids ("non-biting midges“) exist in the majority of freshwater aquatic habitats, especially in estuarine and organic-rich water bodies typical to Vibrio cholerae. Chironomid adults emerge into the air for mating and dispersion. They are highly mobile, huge in number and found frequently in the air at various elevations. The huge number of chironomid egg masses attached to hard substrate on the water surface, serve as a reservoir for the free-living Vibrio bacteria. Both male and female, while emerging from the water, may carry the cholera bacteria. In experimental simulation, it was demonstrated that the cholera-bearing adult midges are carried by the wind, and transmit the bacteria from one body of water to another. In our previous study, the geographic diffusions of three cholera outbreaks were examined through their linkage with the wind direction: a) the progress of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in Africa during 1970–1971 and b) again in 2005–2006; and c) the rapid spread of Vibrio cholerae O139 over India during 1992–1993. Using data and map of cholera dissemination (WHO database) and mean monthly SLP and geopotential data (NOAA NCEP-NCAR database), analysis of air pressure data at sea level and at several altitudes over Africa, India and Bangladesh show a correspondence between the dominant wind direction and the intra-continental spread of cholera. The results support the hypothesis that aeroplankton (the tiny life forms that float in the air and that may be caught and carried upward by the wind, landing far from their origin) carry the cholera bacteria from one body of water to an adjacent one. In addition to these findings, the current follow-up study will present new results regarding the possible involvement of winds in the spreading of cholera in recent outbreaks (2010-2013). The findings may improve the understanding of how climatic factors are involved in the rapid distribution of new strains throughout a vast continental area. Awareness of the aerial transfer of Vibrio cholerae may assist health authorities by improving the prediction of the disease’s geographic dissemination.

Keywords: cholera, Vibrio cholerae, wind direction, Vibrio cholerae dissemination

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63 Mechanistic Understanding of the Difference in two Strains Cholerae Causing Pathogens and Predicting Therapeutic Strategies for Cholera Patients Affected with new Strain Vibrio Cholerae El.tor. Using Constrain-based Modelling

Authors: Faiz Khan Mohammad, Saumya Ray Chaudhari, Raghunathan Rengaswamy, Swagatika Sahoo

Abstract:

Cholera caused by pathogenic gut bacteria Vibrio Cholerae (VC), is a major health problem in developing countries. Different strains of VC exhibit variable responses subject to different extracellular medium (Nag et al, Infect Immun, 2018). In this study, we present a new approach to model the variable VC responses in mono- and co-cultures, subject to continuously changing growth medium, which is otherwise difficult via simple FBA model. Nine VC strain and seven E. coli (EC) models were assembled and considered. A continuously changing medium is modelled using a new iterative-based controlled medium technique (ITC). The medium is appropriately prefixed with the VC model secretome. As the flux through the bacteria biomass increases secretes certain by-products. These products shall add-on to the medium, either deviating the nutrient potential or block certain metabolic components of the model, effectively forming a controlled feed-back loop. Different VC models were setup as monoculture of VC in glucose enriched medium, and in co-culture with VC strains and EC. Constrained to glucose enriched medium, (i) VC_Classical model resulted in higher flux through acidic secretome suggesting a pH change of the medium, leading to lowering of its biomass. This is in consonance with the literature reports. (ii) When compared for neutral secretome, flux through acetoin exchange was higher in VC_El tor than the classical models, suggesting El tor requires an acidic partner to lower its biomass. (iii) Seven of nine VC models predicted 3-methyl-2-Oxovaleric acid, mysirtic acid, folic acid, and acetate significantly affect corresponding biomass reactions. (iv) V. parhemolyticus and vulnificus were found to be phenotypically similar to VC Classical strain, across the nine VC strains. The work addresses the advantage of the ITC over regular flux balance analysis for modelling varying growth medium. Future expansion to co-cultures, potentiates the identification of novel interacting partners as effective cholera therapeutics.

Keywords: cholera, vibrio cholera El. tor, vibrio cholera classical, acetate

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62 Outbreak of Cholera, Jalgaon District, Maharastra, 2013

Authors: Yogita Tulsian, A. Yadav

Abstract:

Background: India reports 3,600 cholera cases annually. In August 2013, a cholera outbreak was reported in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra state. We sought to describe the epidemiological characteristics,identify risk factors, and recommend control measures. Methods: We collected existing stool and water testing laboratory results, and conducted a1: 1 matched case-control study. A cholera case was defined as a resident of Vishnapur or Malapur villagewith onset of acute watery diarrhea on/ after 1-July-2013. Controls were matched by age, gender and village and had not experienced any diarrhea for 3 months. We collected socio-demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and food/travel/water exposure history and conducted conditional logistic regression. Results: Of 50 people who met the cholera case definition, 40 (80%) were from Vishnapur village and 30 (60%) were female. The median age was 8.5 years (range; 0.3-75). Twenty (45%) cases were hospitalized, twelve (60%) with severe dehydration. Three of five stool samples revealed Vibrio cholerae 01 El Tor, Ogawa and samples from 7 of 14 Vishnapur water sources contained fecal coliforms. Cases from Vishnapur were significantly more likely to drink from identified contaminated water sources (matched odds ratio (MOR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1-13), or from a river/canal (MOR=18.4;95%CI: 2-504). Cases from Malapur were more likely to drink from a river/canal (MOR=6.2; 95%CI: 0.6-196). Cases from both villages were significantly more likely to visit the forest (MOR 6.3; 95%CI: 2-30) or another village (MOR 3.5; 95%CI; 0.9-17). Conclusions: This outbreak was caused by Vibrio cholerae, likely through contamination of water in Vishnapur village and/or through drinking river/canal water. We recommended safe drinking water for forest visitors and all residents of these villages and use of regular water testing.

Keywords: cholera, case control study, contaminated water, river

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61 Bacteremia Caused by Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in an Immunocompromised Patient in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors: Fatma Koksal Çakirlar, Si̇nem Ozdemir, Selcan Akyol, Revazi̇ye Gulesen, Murat Gunaydin, Nevri̇ye Gonullu, Belkis Levent, Nuri̇ Kiraz

Abstract:

Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 are the causative agent of epidemic or pandemic cholera. V. cholerae O1 is generally accepted as a non-invasive enterotoxigenic organism causing gastroenteritis of various severities. Non-O1 V. cholerae can cause small outbreaks of diarrhea due to consumption of contaminated food and water. Particularly, the patients with achlorydria have a risk for vibrio infections. There are numerous case reports of bacteremia caused by vibrio in patients with predisposing conditions like cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes, hematologic malignancy, gastrectomy, and AIDS. We described in this study the first case of nontoxigenic, non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae isolated from the blood culture of a 77-year-old female patient with hipertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, gout and about 9 years ago migrated breast cancer history. The patient with complaints of shortness of breath, fever and malaise admitted to our emergency clinic were evaluated. There was no diarrhea or abdominal symptoms in the patient. No growth in her urine culture, but blood culture (BACTEC 9120 system, Becton Dickinson, USA) was positive for non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that was identified by conventional methods and Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD). It does not secrete the cholera toxin. The agglutination test was negative with polyvalent O1 antisera and O139 antiserum. Empirically ceftriaxone was administered to the patient and she was discharged with improvement in general condition. In this study we report bacteremia by non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that is rare in the worldwide and first in Turkey.

Keywords: bacteremia, blood culture, immunocompromised patient, Non-O1 vibrio cholerae

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60 Genetic and Phenotypic Variability Among the Vibrio Cholerae O1 Isolates of India

Authors: Sreeja Shaw, Prosenjit Samanta, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Cholera is still a global public health burden and is caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups. Evidence from recent outbreaks in Haiti and Yemen suggested that circulating V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains are continuously changing to cause more ruinous outbreaks worldwide, and most of them have emerged from the Indian subcontinents. Therefore, we studied the changing virulence characteristics along with the antibiotic resistance profile of V. cholerae O1strains isolated from seasonal outbreaks in three cholera endemic regions during 2018, Gujarat and Maharashtra in Western India (87 strains), and to compare those features with the isolates of West Bengal in Eastern India (48 strains) collected during the same period. All the strains from Western India were of Ogawa serotype, polymyxin B-sensitive, hemolytic, and contained a large fragment deletion in VSP-II genomic region similar with Yemen outbreak strains and carried more virulent Haitian genetic alleles of major virulence associated genes ctxB, tcpA, and rtxA. Conversely, 14.6% (7/48) of the strains from Eastern India were belong to the Inaba serotype, polymyxin B-resistant, non-hemolytic, harbored intact VSP-II region, classical ctxB, Haitian tcpA, and El Tor rtxA alleles. Interestingly, resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol was seen in isolates from both regions, which are not very common among V. cholerae O1 isolates in India. Therefore, this study indicated West Bengal as a diverse region where two different types of El Tor variant hypervirulent strains are co-existed, probably competing for their better environmental survival, which may result in severe irrepressible disease outcome in the future.

Keywords: cholera, vibrio cholerae, polymyxin B, Non-hemolytic, ctxB, tcpA, rtxA, VSP-II

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59 A Foodborne Cholera Outbreak in a School Caused by Eating Contaminated Fried Fish: Hoima Municipality, Uganda, February 2018

Authors: Dativa Maria Aliddeki, Fred Monje, Godfrey Nsereko, Benon Kwesiga, Daniel Kadobera, Alex Riolexus Ario

Abstract:

Background: Cholera is a severe gastrointestinal disease caused by Vibrio cholera. It has caused several pandemics. On 26 February 2018, a suspected cholera outbreak, with one death, occurred in School X in Hoima Municipality, western Uganda. We investigated to identify the scope and mode of transmission of the outbreak, and recommend evidence-based control measures. Methods: We defined a suspected case as onset of diarrhea, vomiting, or abdominal pain in a student or staff of School X or their family members during 14 February–10 March. A confirmed case was a suspected case with V. cholerae cultured from stool. We reviewed medical records at Hoima Hospital and searched for cases at School X. We conducted descriptive epidemiologic analysis and hypothesis-generating interviews of 15 case-patients. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared attack rates between exposed and unexposed persons. Results: We identified 15 cases among 75 students and staff of School X and their family members (attack rate=20%), with onset from 25-28 February. One patient died (case-fatality rate=6.6%). The epidemic curve indicated a point-source exposure. On 24 February, a student brought fried fish from her home in a fishing village, where a cholera outbreak was ongoing. Of the 21 persons who ate the fish, 57% developed cholera, compared with 5.6% of 54 persons who did not eat (RR=10; 95% CI=3.2-33). None of 4 persons who recooked the fish before eating, compared with 71% of 17 who did not recook it, developed cholera (RR=0.0, 95%CIFisher exact=0.0-0.95). Of 12 stool specimens cultured, 6 yielded V. cholerae. Conclusion: This cholera outbreak was caused by eating fried fish, which might have been contaminated with V. cholerae in a village with an ongoing outbreak. Lack of thorough cooking of the fish might have facilitated the outbreak. We recommended thoroughly cooking fish before consumption.

Keywords: cholera, disease outbreak, foodborne, global health security, Uganda

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58 Bifurcation and Stability Analysis of the Dynamics of Cholera Model with Controls

Authors: C. E. Madubueze, S. C. Madubueze, S. Ajama

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Cholera is a disease that is predominately common in developing countries due to poor sanitation and overcrowding population. In this paper, a deterministic model for the dynamics of cholera is developed and control measures such as health educational message, therapeutic treatment, and vaccination are incorporated in the model. The effective reproduction number is computed in terms of the model parameters. The existence and stability of the equilibrium states, disease free and endemic equilibrium states are established and showed to be locally and globally asymptotically stable when R0 < 1 and R0 > 1 respectively. The existence of backward bifurcation of the model is investigated. Furthermore, numerical simulation of the model developed is carried out to show the impact of the control measures and the result indicates that combined control measures will help to reduce the spread of cholera in the population

Keywords: backward bifurcation, cholera, equilibrium, dynamics, stability

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57 The Physicochemical Properties of Two Rivers in Eastern Cape South Africa as Relates to Vibrio Spp Density

Authors: Oluwatayo Abioye, Anthony Okoh

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In the past view decades; human has experienced outbreaks of infections caused by pathogenic Vibrio spp which are commonly found in aquatic milieu. Asides the well-known Vibrio cholerae, discovery of other pathogens in this genus has been on the increase. While the dynamics of occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp have been linked to some physicochemical parameters in salt water, data in relation to fresh water is limited. Hence, two rivers of importance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa were selected for this study. In all, eleven sampling sites were systematically identified and relevant physicochemical parameters, as well as Vibrio spp density, were determined for the period of six months using standard instruments and methods. Results were statistically analysed to determined key physicochemical parameters that determine the density of Vibrio spp in the selected rivers. Results: The density of Vibrio spp in all the sampling points ranges between < 1 CFU/mL to 174 x 10-2 CFU/mL. The physicochemical parameters of some of the sampling points were above the recommended standards. The regression analysis showed that Vibrio density in the selected rivers depends on a complex relationship between various physicochemical parameters. Conclusion: This study suggests that Vibrio spp density in fresh water does not depend on only temperature and salinity as suggested by earlier studies on salt water but rather on a complex relationship between several physicochemical parameters.

Keywords: vibrio density, physicochemical properties, pathogen, aquatic milieu

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56 Isolation of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio alginolyticus Strains from Cultured Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) and Seabream (Sparus auratus L.) in Egypt

Authors: M. Khallaf, R. Khalil, H. Ghetas

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In the present study, V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus were isolated from cultured seabass and seabream at Damietta Governorate, Egypt, during summer season. Isolates were biochemically and molecularly identified using primers for Vhh and Collagenase genes. The most prominent clinical observations of diseased fish were exophthalmia, abdominal distension, and multifocal cutaneous hemorrhagic ulceration on the dorsal musculature and caudal peduncle. Physicochemical characteristics of water samples indicated that the unionized ammonia, nitrate, and hydrogen sulphate concentrations were higher than the acceptable limits. Heavy metals concentrations in water samples exhibited higher concentrations than the permissible levels for fish culture, which was considered as chemical stressors that increase the prevalence of these bacterial diseases. Immune parameters were lower in diseased seabass and seabream than apparently healthy fish. Lesions of different fish organs were identified histopathologically.

Keywords: seabass, seabream, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi

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55 Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Estuarine Fish from Dhaka City Markets

Authors: Fahmida Khalique Nitu

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Little is known on the biosafety level of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concentration of V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fishes using the Polymerase Chain Reaction( PCR) method . The study was conducted on 37 fishes of different species from different types of estuarine fish commonly sold at city markets. Sampling was done on the intestinal tract and gills of each fish. The prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was found to be 29.72% with higher percentages detected in samples from the gills (89.28%) followed by the intestinal tract (10.71%). The density of Vibrio spp. in the gill of estuarine fishes with an average was 4.4 x103CFU/g and in the intestine samples was 1.5x103 CFU/g. The outcome of the biosafety assessment V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish indicates another potential source of food safety issues to consumers.

Keywords: biosafety, estuarine, prevalence, Vibrios

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54 Effects of Allium Sativum Essential Oil on MIC, MBC and Growth Curve of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus ATCC 43996 and Its Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Production

Authors: Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Zohreh Mashak, Ali Khanjari, Mohammad Adel Rezaei, Fatemeh Mohammadkhan

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Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium and often causes gastroenteritis because of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked seafood. Studies showed a strong association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) produced by members of this species with its pathogenicity. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil at concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.045% on the minimum inhibitiotory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), growth curve and production of TDH toxin of vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied in BHI model. MIC and MBC of Allium sativum essential oil was estimated 0.03%. The results of this study revealed that the TDH production was significantly affected by Allium sativum EO and titers of TDH production in 0 and 0.005 % were 1/256 whereas this titer in 0.015 % concentration of EO. Concentrations of 0.005 and 0/015 % of garlic essential oil reduced the bacterial growth rate significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. According to the results Allium sativum essential oil showed to be effective against bacterial growth and production of TDH toxin. Its potential application in food systems may be suggested.

Keywords: allium sativum essential oil, vibrio parahaemolyticus, TDH, consumption

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53 Assessment of the Physicochemical Qualities and Prevalence of Vibrio Pathogens in the Final Effluents of Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: C. A Osunla, A. I. Okoh

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Treated wastewater effluent has been found to encompass high levels of pollutants, including disease-causing bacteria such as Vibrio pathogens. The current study was designed to evaluate the physicochemical qualities and prevalence of Vibrio pathogens in treated effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa over the period of six months. Parameters measured include pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, salinity, turbidity, total dissolved solid (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), and free chlorine; and these parameters were simultaneously monitored in the treated final effluents of the two wastewater treatment plants using standard methods. The ranges of values for the physicochemical are: pH (7.0–8.6), total dissolved solids (286.3–916.5 mg/L), electrical conductivity (572.57–1704.5 mS/m), temperature (10.3–28.6 °C), turbidity (4.02–43.20 NTU), free chlorine (0.00–0.19 mg/L), dissolve oxygen (2.06–6.32 mg/L) and biochemical oxygen demand (0.1–9.0 mg/L). The microbiological assessment for both WWTPs revealed the presence of Vibrio counts ranging between 0 and 8.76×104 CFU/100 mL. The obtained values of the measured parameters and Vibrio loads of the treated wastewater effluents were found outside the compliance levels of the South African guidelines and World Health Organization tolerance limits for effluents intended to be discharged into receiving waterbodies. Hence, we conclude that these WWTPs are important point sources of pollution in surface water with potential public health and ecological risks.

Keywords: effluents, public health, South Africa, Vibrio, wastewater

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52 Antimicrobial Activity of a Single Wap Domain (SWD)-Containing Protein from Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio parahaemolyticus Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND)

Authors: Suchao Donpudsa, Suwattana Visetnan, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit

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The Single Wap Domain (SWD) is a type III crustin antimicrobial peptide whose function is to defense the host animal against the bacterial infection by means of antimicrobial and antiproteinase activities. A study of LvSWD from Litopenaeus vannamei is reported herein about its activities and function against bacteria, particularly the Vibrio parahaemolyticus AHPND (VPAHPND) that causes acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. The over-expressed mature recombinant (r)LvSWD exhibits antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially VPAHPND. With four times the MIC of rLvSWD, the treated post larval shrimp infected by VPAHPND is able to survive longer with the 50% survival rate as long as 78 h as compared to 36 h of the infected shrimp without rLvSWD. To a certain extent, we have demonstrated that the rLvSWD can be applied to protect the post larval shrimp.

Keywords: crustin, Litopenaeus vannamei, Vibrio parahaemolyticus AHPND, antimicrobial activity

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51 Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Resistance to Nitric Oxide in Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Authors: Yantao Li, Jun Zheng

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Food poison caused by consumption of contaminated food, especially seafood, is one of most serious public health threats worldwide. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is emerging bacterial pathogen and the leading cause of human gastroenteritis associated with food poison, especially in the southern coastal region of China. To successfully cause disease in host, bacterial pathogens need to overcome the host-derived stresses encountered during infection. One of the toxic chemical species elaborated by the host is nitric oxide (NO). NO is generated by acidified nitrite in the stomach and by enzymes of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the host cell, and is toxic to bacteria. Bacterial pathogens have evolved some mechanisms to battle with this toxic stress. Such mechanisms include genes to sense NO produced from immune system and activate others to detoxify NO toxicity, and genes to repair the damage caused by toxic reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated during NO toxic stress. However, little is known about the NO resistance in V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, a transposon coupled with next generation sequencing (Tn-seq) technology will be utilized to identify genes for NO resistance in V. parahaemolyticus. Our strategy will include construction the saturating transposon insertion library, transposon library challenging with NO, next generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics analysis and verification of the identified genes in vitro and in vivo.

Keywords: vibrio parahaemolyticus, nitric oxide, tn-seq, virulence

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50 Multiple Etiologies and Incidences of Co-Infections in Childhood Diarrhea in a Hospital Based Screening Study in Odisha, India

Authors: Arpit K. Shrivastava, Nirmal K. Mohakud, Subrat Kumar, Priyadarshi S. Sahu

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Acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years of age. Multiple etiologies have been implicated for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea. In our study fecal samples (n=165) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies such as Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, EHEC, STEC, O157, O111), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholera, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. The overall results from our study showed that 57% of children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were positive for at least one infectious etiology. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli was detected to be the major etiological agent (29.09%) followed by Rotavirus (24.24%), Shigella (21.21%), Adenovirus (5.45%), Cryptosporidium (2.42%), and Giardia (0.60%). Among the different DEC strains, EPEC was detected significantly higher in <2 years children in comparison to >2 years age group (p =0.001). Concurrent infections with two or more pathogens were observed in 47 of 160 (28.48%) cases with a predominant incidence particularly in <2-year-old children (66.66%) compared to children of 2 to 5 years age group. Co-infection of Rotavirus with Shigella was the most frequent combination, which was detected in 17.94% cases, followed by Rotavirus with EPEC (15.38%) and Shigella with STEC (12.82%). Detection of multiple infectious etiologies and diagnosis of the right causative agent(s) can immensely help in better management of acute childhood diarrhea. In future more studies focusing on the detection of cases with concurrent infections must be carried out, as we believe that the etiological agents might be complementing each other’s strategies of pathogenesis resulting in severe diarrhea.

Keywords: children, co-infection, infectious diarrhea, Odisha

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49 Effect of Bactocellon White Leg Shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamei) Growth Performance and the Shrimp Survival to Vibrio paraheamolyticus

Authors: M. Soltani, K. Pakzad, A. Haghigh-Khiyabani, M. Alavi, R. Naderi, M. Castex

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Effect of probiotic Bactocell (Pediococcus acidilactici) as a supplementary diet was studied on post-larvae 12-15 of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (150000 PL/0.5 h pond, average body weight=0.02 g) growth performance under farm condition for 102 days at water quality parameters consisting of temperature at 30.5-36οC, dissolved oxygen 4.1-6.6 mg/l, salinity 40-54 g/l, turbidity 35-110 cm, ammonia 0.1-0.8 mg/l and nitrite 0.1-0.9 mg/l. Also, the resistance level of the treated shrimps was assessed against a virulent strain of Vibrio paraheamolyticus as intramuscular injection route at 1.4 x 106 cells/shrimp. Significantly higher growth rate (11.3±1.54 g) and lower feed conversion ratio (1.1) were obtained in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ tone feed compared to other treatments of 250 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.8±2 g, 1.3), 500 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.3±1.7 g, 1.3) and untreated control (10.1±2 g, 1.4). Also, thermal growth coefficient (0.057%) and protein efficiency ratio (2.13) were significantly improved in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ton feed compare to other groups. Shrimps fed diet supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/tone feed showed significantly higher protein content (72.56%) in their carcass composition than treatments of 250 g/ton feed (65.9%), 500 g/ton feed (67.5%) and control group (65.9%), while the carcass contents of moisture, lipid and ash in all shrimp groups were not significantly affected by different concentrations of Bactocell. No mortality occurred in the experimentally infected shrimps fed with Bactocell at 500 g/tone feed after 7 hours post-challenge with V. parahemolyticus. The mortality levels of 100%, 40%, 50% and 70% were obtained in shrimps fed with 0.0, 500 g/tone feed, 350 g/ton feed and 250 g/ton feed, respectively 14 hours post-infection. Also, the cumulative mortalities were achieved in 100%, 92% and 81% in shrimps few with Bactocell at 500 g/ton feed, 250 g/ton feed and 350 g/ton feed, respectively.

Keywords: litopenaeus vannamei, vibrio paraheamolyticus, pediococcus acidilactici, growth performance, bactocell

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48 Preventive Effect of Three Kinds of Bacteriophages to Control Vibrio coralliilyticus Infection in Oyster Larvae

Authors: Hyoun Joong Kim, Jin Woo Jun, Sib Sankar Giri, Cheng Chi, Saekil Yun, Sang Guen Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jeong Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park

Abstract:

Vibrio corallilyticus is a well-known pathogen of coral. It is also infectious to a variety of shellfish species, including Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae. V. corallilyticus is remained to be a major constraint in marine bivalve aquaculture practice, especially in artificial seed production facility. Owing to the high mortality and contagious nature of the pathogen, large amount of antibiotics has been used for disease prevention and control. However, indiscriminate use of antibiotics may result in food and environmental pollution, and development of antibiotic resistant strains. Therefore, eco-friendly disease preventative measures are imperative for sustainable bivalve culture. The present investigation proposes the application of bacteriophage (phage) as an effective alternative method for controlling V. corallilyticus infection in marine bivalve hatcheries. Isolation of phages from sea water sample was carried out using drop or double layer agar methods. The host range, stability and morphology of the phage isolates were studied. In vivo phage efficacy to prevent V. corallilyticus infection in oyster larvae was also performed. The isolated phages, named pVco-5 and pVco-7 was classified as a podoviridae and pVco-14, was classified as a siphoviridae. Each phages were infective to four strains of seven V. corallilyticus strains tested. When oyster larvae were pre-treated with the phage before bacterial challenge, mortality of the treated oyster larvae was lower than that in the untreated control. This result suggests that each phages have the potential to be used as therapeutic agent for controlling V. corallilyticus infection in marine bivalve hatchery.

Keywords: bacteriophage, Vibrio coralliilyticus, Oyster larvae, mortality

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47 Foodborne Outbreak Calendar: Application of Time Series Analysis

Authors: Ryan B. Simpson, Margaret A. Waskow, Aishwarya Venkat, Elena N. Naumova

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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 31 known foodborne pathogens cause 9.4 million cases of these illnesses annually in US. Over 90% of these illnesses are associated with exposure to Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, Shiga-Toxin Producing E.Coli (STEC), Vibrio, and Yersinia. Contaminated products contain parasites typically causing an intestinal illness manifested by diarrhea, stomach cramping, nausea, weight loss, fatigue and may result in deaths in fragile populations. Since 1998, the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) has allowed for routine collection of suspected and laboratory-confirmed cases of food poisoning. While retrospective analyses have revealed common pathogen-specific seasonal patterns, little is known concerning the stability of those patterns over time and whether they can be used for preventative forecasting. The objective of this study is to construct a calendar of foodborne outbreaks of nine infections based on the peak timing of outbreak incidence in the US from 1996 to 2017. Reported cases were abstracted from FoodNet for Salmonella (135115), Campylobacter (121099), Shigella (48520), Cryptosporidium (21701), STEC (18022), Yersinia (3602), Vibrio (3000), Listeria (2543), and Cyclospora (758). Monthly counts were compiled for each agent, seasonal peak timing and peak intensity were estimated, and the stability of seasonal peaks and synchronization of infections was examined. Negative Binomial harmonic regression models with the delta-method were applied to derive confidence intervals for the peak timing for each year and overall study period estimates. Preliminary results indicate that five infections continue to lead as major causes of outbreaks, exhibiting steady upward trends with annual increases in cases ranging from 2.71% (95%CI: [2.38, 3.05]) in Campylobacter, 4.78% (95%CI: [4.14, 5.41]) in Salmonella, 7.09% (95%CI: [6.38, 7.82]) in E.Coli, 7.71% (95%CI: [6.94, 8.49]) in Cryptosporidium, and 8.67% (95%CI: [7.55, 9.80]) in Vibrio. Strong synchronization of summer outbreaks were observed, caused by Campylobacter, Vibrio, E.Coli and Salmonella, peaking at 7.57 ± 0.33, 7.84 ± 0.47, 7.85 ± 0.37, and 7.82 ± 0.14 calendar months, respectively, with the serial cross-correlation ranging 0.81-0.88 (p < 0.001). Over 21 years, Listeria and Cryptosporidium peaks (8.43 ± 0.77 and 8.52 ± 0.45 months, respectively) have a tendency to arrive 1-2 weeks earlier, while Vibrio peaks (7.8 ± 0.47) delay by 2-3 weeks. These findings will be incorporated in the forecast models to predict common paths of the spread, long-term trends, and the synchronization of outbreaks across etiological agents. The predictive modeling of foodborne outbreaks should consider long-term changes in seasonal timing, spatiotemporal trends, and sources of contamination.

Keywords: foodborne outbreak, national outbreak reporting system, predictive modeling, seasonality

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46 Prospects of Milk Protein as a Potential Alternative of Natural Antibiotic

Authors: Syeda Fahria Hoque Mimmi

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Many new and promising treatments for reducing or diminishing the adverse effects of microorganisms are being discovered day by day. On the other hand, the dairy industry is accelerating the economic wheel of Bangladesh. Considering all these facts, new thoughts were developed to isolate milk proteins by the present experiment for opening up a new era of developing natural antibiotics from milk. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein with multifunctional properties, is crucial to strengthening the immune system and also useful for commercial applications. The protein’s iron-binding capacity makes it undoubtedly advantageous to immune system modulation and different bacterial strains. For fulfilling the purpose, 4 of raw and 17 of commercially available milk samples were collected from different farms and stores in Bangladesh (Dhaka, Chittagong, and Cox’s Bazar). Protein quantification by nanodrop technology has confirmed that raw milk samples have better quantities of protein than the commercial ones. All the samples were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 18 pathogens, where raw milk samples showed a higher percentage of antibacterial activity. In addition to this, SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate–Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) was performed to identify lactoferrin in the milk samples. Lactoferrin was detected in 9 samples from which 4 were raw milk samples. Interestingly, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, and enterotoxigenic E. coli significantly displayed sensitivity against lactoferrin collected from raw milk. Only Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis, and ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) were susceptible to lactoferrin obtained from a commercial one. This study suggested that lactoferrin might be used as the potential alternative of antibiotics for many diseases and also can be used to reduce microbial deterioration in the food and feed industry.

Keywords: alternative of antibiotics, commercially available milk, lactoferrin, nanodrop technology, pathogens, raw milk

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45 The Making of a Male: Narrative Analysis of the Protagonist in Cholera District

Authors: Behre O. Ozalp

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Cinema is a reflection of the society, as much as it captures the social codes. These codes are learned within the society; and through movies these practices of the gender order are reproduced as well. One of the best examples engendering these codes is a modern classic of Turkish cinema, Cholera District (1997), originally Ağır Roman in Turkish. It is a coming of age movie of a teenage boy in an old neighborhood of Istanbul, where he learns to be a 'man' through the hegemonic masculinity codes of the society. The corporal and verbal practices that are used in the representation of the male protagonist's portrayal is based on his performativity. This paper, through narrative analysis of the aforementioned movie, reviews how gender and narrative are intertwined within the context of queer theory. The methodology follows the protagonist's object of desire while evaluating his heterosexuality which requires affirmative performances. The framework of the study firstly focuses on the protagonist's own life and his interactions with the males of his kinship. Later, the focus gravitates towards his interactions with the female object of desire while evaluating how this relationship shapes his status in society. Lastly, the study focuses on the relationship between the protagonist and non-relative males of the neighborhood. The journey of a young male becoming a man by copying the other males delivers a clear representation of how heterosexuality is favored in terms of gender order.

Keywords: hegemonic masculinity, performativity, queer theory, Turkish cinema

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44 Rescaling Global Health and International Relations: Globalization of Health in a Low Security Environment

Authors: F. Argurio, F. G. Vaccaro

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In a global environment defined by ever-increasing health issues, in spite of the progress made by modern medicine, this paper seeks to readdress the question of global health in an international relations perspective. The research hypothesis is: the lower the security environment, the higher the spread of communicable diseases. This question will be channeled by re-scaling the connotation of 'global' and 'international' dimension through the theoretical lens of glocalization, a theory by Bauman that starts its analysis from simple systems to get to the most complex ones. Glocalization theory will be operationalized by analyzing health in an armed-conflict context. In this respect, the independent variable 'low security environment' translates into the cases of Syria and Yemen, which provide a clear example of the all-encompassing nature of conflict on national health and the effects on regional development. In fact, Syria and Yemen have been affected by poliomyelitis and cholera outbreaks respectively. The dependent variable will be constructed on said communicable diseases which belong to the families of sanitation-related and vaccine-preventable diseases. The research will be both qualitative and quantitative, based on primary (interviews) and secondary (WHO and other NGO’s reports) sources. The methodology is based on the assessment of the vaccine coverage and case-analysis in time and space using epidemiological data. Moreover, local health facilities’ functioning and efficiency will be studied. The article posits that the intervention and cooperation of international organizations with the local authorities becomes crucial to provide the local populations with their primary health needs. In Yemen, the majority of fatal cholera cases were in the regions controlled by the Houthi rebels, not officially accredited by the International Community. Similarly, the polio outbreak in Syria primarily affected the areas not controlled by the Syrian Arab Republic forces, recognized as the leading interlocutor by the WHO. The jeopardized possibilities to access these countries have been pivotal to the determining the problem in controlling sanitation-related and vaccine preventable diseases. This represents a potential threat to global health.

Keywords: health in conflict-affected areas, cholera, polio, Yemen, Syria, glocalization

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43 Description of Reported Foodborne Diseases in Selected Communities within the Greater Accra Region-Ghana: Epidemiological Review of Surveillance Data

Authors: Benjamin Osei-Tutu, Henrietta Awewole Kolson

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Background: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the frequently reported Out-Patient Department (OPD) cases. However, the causative pathogens of these cases are rarely identified at the OPD due to delay in laboratory results or failure to obtain specimens before antibiotics is administered. Method: A retrospective review of surveillance data from the Adentan Municipality, Accra, Ghana that were recorded in the National foodborne disease surveillance system of Ghana, was conducted with the main aim of describing the epidemiology and food practice of cases reported from the Adentan Municipality. The study involved a retrospective review of surveillance data kept on patients who visited health facilities that are involved in foodborne disease surveillance in Ghana, from January 2015 to December 2016. Results: A total of 375 cases were reviewed and these were classified as viral hepatitis (hepatitis A and E), cholera (Vibrio cholerae), dysentery (Shigella sp.), typhoid fever (Salmonella sp.) or gastroenteritis. Cases recorded were all suspected case and the average cases recorded per week was 3. Typhoid fever and dysentery were the two main clinically diagnosed foodborne illnesses. The highest number of cases were observed during the late dry season (Feb to April), which marks the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. Relatively high number of cases was also observed during the late wet seasons (Jul to Oct) when the rainfall is the heaviest. Home-made food and street vended food were the major sources of suspected etiological food, recording 49.01% and 34.87% of the cases respectively. Conclusion: Majority of cases recorded were classified as gastroenteritis due to the absence of laboratory confirmation. Few cases were classified as typhoid fever and dysentery based on clinical symptoms presented. Patients reporting with foodborne diseases were found to consume home meal and street vended foods as their predominant source of food.

Keywords: accra, etiologic food, food poisoning, gastroenteritis, illness, surveillance

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42 Dietary Effect of Probiotic Bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 Isolate from Jeju Island`s Traditional Fermented Food, on Innate Immune Response of Oplegnathus fasciatus Challenged with Vibrio anguillarum

Authors: Dong Hwi Kim, Dharaneedharan Subramanian, So Hyun Park, Ha-Ri Choi, Ji-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hoon Lee, Moon Soo Heo

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The present study was performed to evaluate the use of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 isolated from a traditional fermented sea food, as probiotic bacteria in the diets for Rock-bream, Oplegnathus faciatus. A total of 180 fish (187.4 ± 2.7 g) were divided into two groups, control (C) and probiotic (P) group (90 fish per group) in triplicate. C group was fed with basal diet without probiotic, while P group was fed with B. amyloliquefaciens spores at concentration of 1.4 x 106 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of feed. After two months of feeding experiments, P group fish showed significant improvements in body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) compared with C group. Also, bi-weekly assessment of serum protein, glucose, fatty acid profile showed a significant increase in probiotic fed fish than that of control fish group. Similar increase in serum antioxidant and lysozyme activity was found in probiotic fed fish group. Twenty days challenge experiment shows decrease mortality in probiotic fed fish group when compared with that of control group. Hence, these results indicate that the use of B. amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 as a feed supplement, is beneficial to improve the health status of Oplegnathus fasciatus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Oplegnathus fasciatus, probiotic feed, rock bream

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41 Weighing the Economic Cost of Illness Due to Dysentery and Cholera Triggered by Poor Sanitation in Rural Faisalabad, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Asif Ali Naqvi, Muhammad Azeem Tufail

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Inadequate sanitation causes direct costs of treating illnesses and loss of income through reduced productivity. This study estimated the economic cost of health (ECH) due to poor sanitation and factors determining the lack of access to latrine for the rural, backward hamlets and slums of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. Cross sectional data were collected and analyzed for the study. As the population under study was homogenous in nature, it is why a simple random sampling technique was used for the collection of data. Data of 440 households from 4 tehsils were gathered. The ordinary least square (OLS) model was used for health cost analysis, and the Probit regression model was employed for determining the factors responsible for inaccess to toilets. The results of the study showed that condition of toilets, situation of sewerage system, access to adequate sanitation, Cholera, diarrhea and dysentery, Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA) maintenance, source of medical treatment can plausibly have a significant connection with the dependent variable. Outcomes of the second model showed that the variables of education, family system, age, and type of dwelling have positive and significant sway with the dependent variable. Variable of age depicted an insignificant association with access to toilets. Variable of monetary expenses would negatively influence the dependent variable. Findings revealed the fact, health risks are often exacerbated by inadequate sanitation, and ultimately, the cost on health also surges. Public and community toilets for youths and social campaigning are suggested for public policy.

Keywords: sanitation, toilet, economic cost of health, water, Punjab

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40 Evaluation of Immunostimulant Potential of Proteoliposomes Derived from Vibrio anguillarum Administered by Immersion in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Authors: M. Caruffo, P. Navarrete, C. G. Feijoo, L. Sáenz

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Disease prevention through the use of vaccines has been crucial to achieve the current level of production in the salmon industry. However, vaccines have been developed based largely on inactivated bacterial formulations, using the whole pathogen. These formulations have demonstrated excellent efficacy against extracellular bacterial pathogens. However diseases with the greatest economic impacts correspond to intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens, vaccines based on these types of agents have shown a discrete effectiveness. It is for these reasons that the development of subunit vaccines based on defined antigens offers a promising solution. The main problem is that subunit vaccines offer a low immunogenicity, since they lack immunostimulatory elements, so that the development of new adjuvants platforms becomes an important challenge for this type of formulations. We evaluate the effect of a formulation based on proteoliposomes of Vibrio anguillarum administered by immersion as a new adjuvant strategy, allowing efficient stimulation of the innate immune system. Proteoliposomes physicochemical properties were evaluated in its ability to produce an inflammatory process. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae as a model species and the transgenic line (Tg(mpx: GFP)i114) allowed us to track the neutrophil migration in real time. Additionally we evaluated the gene expression of some molecular markers involved in the development of the innate immune response characterizing the adjuvant capacity of the formulation.

Keywords: adjuvants, vaccine development, zebrafish, innate immunity

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39 Detection and Quantification of Viable but Not Culturable Vibrio Parahaemolyticus in Frozen Bivalve Molluscs

Authors: Eleonora Di Salvo, Antonio Panebianco, Graziella Ziino

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Background: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a human pathogen that is widely distributed in marine environments. It is frequently isolated from raw seafood, particularly shellfish. Consumption of raw or undercooked seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus may lead to acute gastroenteritis. Vibrio spp. has excellent resistance to low temperatures so it can be found in frozen products for a long time. Recently, the viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of bacteria has attracted great attention, and more than 85 species of bacteria have been demonstrated to be capable of entering this state. VBNC cells cannot grow in conventional culture medium but are viable and maintain metabolic activity, which may constitute an unrecognized source of food contamination and infection. Also V. parahaemolyticus could exist in VBNC state under nutrient starvation or low-temperature conditions. Aim: The aim of the present study was to optimize methods and investigate V. parahaemolyticus VBNC cells and their presence in frozen bivalve molluscs, regularly marketed. Materials and Methods: propidium monoazide (PMA) was integrated with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting the tl gene to detect and quantify V. parahaemolyticus in the VBNC state. PMA-qPCR resulted highly specific to V. parahaemolyticus with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10-1 log CFU/mL in pure bacterial culture. A standard curve for V. parahaemolyticus cell concentrations was established with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999 at the linear range of 1.0 to 8.0 log CFU/mL. A total of 77 samples of frozen bivalve molluscs (35 mussels; 42 clams) were subsequently subjected to the qualitative (on alkaline phosphate buffer solution) and quantitative research of V. parahaemolyticus on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar (DIFCO) NaCl 2.5%, and incubation at 30°C for 24-48 hours. Real-time PCR was conducted on homogenate samples, in duplicate, with and without propidium monoazide (PMA) dye, and exposed for 45 min under halogen lights (650 W). Total DNA was extracted from cell suspension in homogenate samples according to bolliture protocol. The Real-time PCR was conducted with species-specific primers for V. parahaemolitycus. The RT-PCR was performed in a final volume of 20 µL, containing 10 µL of SYBR Green Mixture (Applied Biosystems), 2 µL of template DNA, 2 µL of each primer (final concentration 0.6 mM), and H2O 4 µL. The qPCR was carried out on CFX96 TouchTM (Bio-Rad, USA). Results: All samples were negative both to the quantitative and qualitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus by the classical culturing technique. The PMA-qPCR let us individuating VBNC V. parahaemolyticus in the 20,78% of the samples evaluated with a value between the Log 10-1 and Log 10-3 CFU/g. Only clams samples were positive for PMA-qPCR detection. Conclusion: The present research is the first evaluating PMA-qPCR assay for detection of VBNC V. parahaemolyticus in bivalve molluscs samples, and the used method was applicable to the rapid control of marketed bivalve molluscs. We strongly recommend to use of PMA-qPCR in order to identify VBNC forms, undetectable by the classic microbiological methods. A precise knowledge of the V.parahaemolyticus in a VBNC form is fundamental for the correct risk assessment not only in bivalve molluscs but also in other seafood.

Keywords: food safety, frozen bivalve molluscs, PMA dye, Real-time PCR, VBNC state, Vibrio parahaemolyticus

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38 Development of a Bioprocess Technology for the Production of Vibrio midae, a Probiotic for Use in Abalone Aquaculture

Authors: Ghaneshree Moonsamy, Nodumo N. Zulu, Rajesh Lalloo, Suren Singh, Santosh O. Ramchuran

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The abalone industry of South Africa is under severe pressure due to illegal harvesting and poaching of this seafood delicacy. These abalones are harvested excessively; as a result, these animals do not have a chance to replace themselves in their habitats, ensuing in a drastic decrease in natural stocks of abalone. Abalone has an extremely slow growth rate and takes approximately four years to reach a size that is market acceptable; therefore, it was imperative to investigate methods to boost the overall growth rate and immunity of the animal. The University of Cape Town (UCT) began to research, which resulted in the isolation of two microorganisms, a yeast isolate Debaryomyces hansenii and a bacterial isolate Vibrio midae, from the gut of the abalone and characterised them for their probiotic abilities. This work resulted in an internationally competitive concept technology that was patented. The next stage of research was to develop a suitable bioprocess to enable commercial production. Numerous steps were taken to develop an efficient production process for V. midae, one of the isolates found by UCT. The initial stages of research involved the development of a stable and robust inoculum and the optimization of physiological growth parameters such as temperature and pH. A range of temperature and pH conditions were evaluated, and data obtained revealed an optimum growth temperature of 30ᵒC and a pH of 6.5. Once these critical growth parameters were established further media optimization studies were performed. Corn steep liquor (CSL) and high test molasses (HTM) were selected as suitable alternatives to more expensive, conventionally used growth medium additives. The optimization of CSL (6.4 g.l⁻¹) and HTM (24 g.l⁻¹) concentrations in the growth medium resulted in a 180% increase in cell concentration, a 5716-fold increase in cell productivity and a 97.2% decrease in the material cost of production in comparison to conventional growth conditions and parameters used at the onset of the study. In addition, a stable market-ready liquid probiotic product, encompassing the viable but not culturable (VBNC) state of Vibrio midae cells, was developed during the downstream processing aspect of the study. The demonstration of this technology at a full manufacturing scale has further enhanced the attractiveness and commercial feasibility of this production process.

Keywords: probiotics, abalone aquaculture, bioprocess technology, manufacturing scale technology development

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37 Impact of Flooding on Food Calorie Intake and Health Outcomes among Small Holder Farm Households in Koton Karfe Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Cornelius Michael Ekenta, Aderonke Bashirat Mohammed, Sefi Ahmed

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The research examined the impact of flooding on food calorie intake and health challenges among smallholder farm households in Koton Karfe Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select 130 farm households in selected villages in the area. Primary data were generated through the administration of a well-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Double Difference Estimator (DDE), Calorie Intake Estimation Function, t-test, and multiple regressions. The result shows that farm households lost an average of 132, 950kg of selected crops amounting to about N20m ($56, 542) loose in income. Food daily calorie intake indicates a loss of an average of 715.18Kcal, showing a significant difference in calorie intake before and after flooding (t = 2.0629) at 5% probability. Furthermore, the health challenges most prevalent during flooding were malaria fever, typhoid fever, cholera, and dysentery. The determinants of daily calorie intake were age, household size, level of income, flooding, health challenges, and food price. The study concluded that flooding had negative impacts on crop output and income, daily food calorie intact, and health challenges of a farm household in the study area. It was recommended that the State Government should make adequate and proper arrangements to relocate residents of the area at the warning of possible flooding by the National Metrological Centre and should, through the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA), provide relieve items to the residents to cushion the effects of the flooding.

Keywords: calorie, cholera, flooding, health challenges, impact

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36 Toxicity and Biodegradability of Veterinary Antibiotic Tiamulin

Authors: Gabriela Kalcikova, Igor Bosevski, Ula Rozman, Andreja Zgajnar Gotvajn

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Antibiotics are extensively used in human medicine and also in animal husbandry to prevent or control infections. Recently, a lot of attention has been put on veterinary antibiotics, because their global consumption is increasing and it is expected to be 106.600 tons in 2030. Most of veterinary antibiotics are introduced into the environment via animal manure, which is used as fertilizer. One of such veterinary antibiotics is tiamulin. It is used the form of fumarate for treatment of pig and poultry. It is used against prophylaxis of dysentery, pneumonia and mycroplasmal infections, but its environmental impact is practically unknown. Tiamulin has been found very persistent in animal manure and thus it is expected that can be, during rainfalls, transported into the aquatic environment and affect various organisms. For assessment of its environmental impact, it is necessary to evaluate its biodegradability and toxicity to various organisms from different levels of a food chain. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate ready biodegradability and toxicity of tiamulin fumarate to various organisms. Bioassay used included luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri heterotrophic and nitrifying microorganisms of activated sludge, water flea Daphnia magna and duckweed Lemna minor. For each species, EC₅₀ values were calculated. Biodegradability test was used for determination of ready biodegradability and it provides information about biodegradability of tiamulin under the most common environmental conditions. Results of our study showed that tiamulin differently affects selected organisms. The most sensitive organisms were water fleas with 48hEC₅₀ = 14.2 ± 4.8 mg/L and duckweed with 168hEC₅₀ = 22.6 ± 0.8 mg/L. Higher concentrations of tiamulin (from 10 mg/L) significantly affected photosynthetic pigments content in duckweed and concentrations above 80 mg/L cause visible chlorosis. It is in agreement with previous studies showing significant effect of tiamulin on green algae and cyanobacteria. Tiamuline has a low effect on microorganisms. The lower toxicity was observed for heterotrophic microorganisms (30minEC₅₀ = 1656 ± 296 mg/L), than Vibrio fisheri (30minEC₅₀ = 492 ± 21) and the most sensitive organisms were nitrifying microorganisms (30minEC₅₀ = 183 ± 127 mg/L). The reason is most probably the mode of action of tiamulin being effective to gram-positive bacteria while gram-negative (e.g., Vibrio fisheri) are more tolerant to tiamulin. Biodegradation of tiamulin was very slow with a long lag-phase being 20 days. The maximal degradation reached 40 ± 2 % in 43 days of the test and tiamulin as other antibiotics (e.g. ciprofloxacin) are not easily biodegradable. Tiamulin is widely used antibiotic in veterinary medicine and thus present in the environment. According to our results, tiamulin can have negative effect on water fleas and duckweeds, but the concentrations are several magnitudes higher than that found in any environmental compartment. Tiamulin is low toxic to tested microorganisms, but it is very low biodegradable and thus possibly persistent in the environment.

Keywords: antibiotics, biodegradability, tiamulin, toxicity

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