Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Swagatika Sahoo

40 Constraint-Based Computational Modelling of Bioenergetic Pathway Switching in Synaptic Mitochondria from Parkinson's Disease Patients

Authors: Diana C. El Assal, Fatima Monteiro, Caroline May, Peter Barbuti, Silvia Bolognin, Averina Nicolae, Hulda Haraldsdottir, Lemmer R. P. El Assal, Swagatika Sahoo, Longfei Mao, Jens Schwamborn, Rejko Kruger, Ines Thiele, Kathrin Marcus, Ronan M. T. Fleming

Abstract:

Degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons is one of the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. These neurons have a highly complex axonal arborisation and a high energy demand, so any reduction in ATP synthesis could lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, thereby impeding normal neuronal bioenergetic requirements. Synaptic mitochondria exhibit increased vulnerability to dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. After biogenesis in and transport from the cell body, synaptic mitochondria become highly dependent upon oxidative phosphorylation. We applied a systems biochemistry approach to identify the metabolic pathways used by neuronal mitochondria for energy generation. The mitochondrial component of an existing manual reconstruction of human metabolism was extended with manual curation of the biochemical literature and specialised using omics data from Parkinson's disease patients and controls, to generate reconstructions of synaptic and somal mitochondrial metabolism. These reconstructions were converted into stoichiometrically- and fluxconsistent constraint-based computational models. These models predict that Parkinson's disease is accompanied by an increase in the rate of glycolysis and a decrease in the rate of oxidative phosphorylation within synaptic mitochondria. This is consistent with independent experimental reports of a compensatory switching of bioenergetic pathways in the putamen of post-mortem Parkinson's disease patients. Ongoing work, in the context of the SysMedPD project is aimed at computational prediction of mitochondrial drug targets to slow the progression of neurodegeneration in the subset of Parkinson's disease patients with overt mitochondrial dysfunction.

Keywords: bioenergetics, mitochondria, Parkinson's disease, systems biochemistry

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39 Mechanistic Understanding of the Difference in two Strains Cholerae Causing Pathogens and Predicting Therapeutic Strategies for Cholera Patients Affected with new Strain Vibrio Cholerae El.tor. Using Constrain-based Modelling

Authors: Faiz Khan Mohammad, Saumya Ray Chaudhari, Raghunathan Rengaswamy, Swagatika Sahoo

Abstract:

Cholera caused by pathogenic gut bacteria Vibrio Cholerae (VC), is a major health problem in developing countries. Different strains of VC exhibit variable responses subject to different extracellular medium (Nag et al, Infect Immun, 2018). In this study, we present a new approach to model the variable VC responses in mono- and co-cultures, subject to continuously changing growth medium, which is otherwise difficult via simple FBA model. Nine VC strain and seven E. coli (EC) models were assembled and considered. A continuously changing medium is modelled using a new iterative-based controlled medium technique (ITC). The medium is appropriately prefixed with the VC model secretome. As the flux through the bacteria biomass increases secretes certain by-products. These products shall add-on to the medium, either deviating the nutrient potential or block certain metabolic components of the model, effectively forming a controlled feed-back loop. Different VC models were setup as monoculture of VC in glucose enriched medium, and in co-culture with VC strains and EC. Constrained to glucose enriched medium, (i) VC_Classical model resulted in higher flux through acidic secretome suggesting a pH change of the medium, leading to lowering of its biomass. This is in consonance with the literature reports. (ii) When compared for neutral secretome, flux through acetoin exchange was higher in VC_El tor than the classical models, suggesting El tor requires an acidic partner to lower its biomass. (iii) Seven of nine VC models predicted 3-methyl-2-Oxovaleric acid, mysirtic acid, folic acid, and acetate significantly affect corresponding biomass reactions. (iv) V. parhemolyticus and vulnificus were found to be phenotypically similar to VC Classical strain, across the nine VC strains. The work addresses the advantage of the ITC over regular flux balance analysis for modelling varying growth medium. Future expansion to co-cultures, potentiates the identification of novel interacting partners as effective cholera therapeutics.

Keywords: cholera, vibrio cholera El. tor, vibrio cholera classical, acetate

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38 MicroRNA-211 Regulates Oxidative Phosphorylation and Energy Metabolism in Human Vitiligoa

Authors: Anupama Sahoo, Bongyong Lee, Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal, Sanjaya K. Sahoo, Tatsuya Seki, Chunyan Wang, Soumen Das, Xianlin Han, Michael Steppie, Sudipta Seal, Alain Taieb, Ranjan J. Perera

Abstract:

Vitiligo is a common, chronic skin disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes and progressive depigmentation. Vitiligo has a complex immune, genetic, environmental, and biochemical etiology, but the exact molecular mechanisms of vitiligo development and progression, particularly those related to metabolic control, are poorly understood. Here we characterized the human vitiligo cell line PIG3V and the normal human melanocytes, HEM-l by RNA-sequencing, targeted metabolomics, and shotgun lipidomics. Melanocyte-enriched miR-211, a known metabolic switch in non-pigmented melanoma cells, was severely downregulated in vitiligo cell line PIG3V and skin biopsies from vitiligo patients, while its novel predicted targets transcriptional co-activator PGC1-α (PPARGC1A), ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2 (RRM2), and serine-threonine protein kinase TAO1 (TAOK1) were reciprocally upregulated. miR-211 binds to PGC1-α 3’UTR locus and represses it. Although mitochondrial numbers were constant, mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV and respiratory responses were defective in vitiligo cells. Nanoparticle-coated miR-211 partially augmented the oxygen consumption rate in PIG3V cells. The lower oxygen consumption rate, changes in lipid and metabolite profiles, and increased reactive oxygen species production observed in vitiligo cells appear to be partly due to abnormal regulation of miR-211 and its target genes. These genes represent potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human vitiligo.

Keywords: metabolism, microRNA, mitochondria, vitiligo

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37 Mentoring Writing Skills: A Classroom Friendly Approach

Authors: Pradeep Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

Facilitating writing skill among the young techies seems a bit challenging. Various factors may owe to this difficulty. Inappropriate syllabus, inadequate infrastructure, to some extent, untrained faculty members and above all the background of learners may be treated as the components that make the process challenging. In order to convert/create/prepare writing skill friendly, the focused items will have to be different from the classroom the present day traditional classroom situation. This paper focuses on the multiple contemporary strategies for approaching a wide range of typical problems that the writers face in a specific technical university of Odisha.

Keywords: background of learners, classroom friendly approach, inappropriate syllabus, traditional classroom situation

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36 Effect of III-V Nitrides on Performance of Graphene-Gold SPR Biosensor

Authors: Bijaya Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

The effect of III-V nitride semiconductors on performance of a graphene-on-gold surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor has been investigated theoretically. III-V nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) have been grown between gold (Au) and graphene layers. The sensitivity and performance of the biosensor have been computed for with and without semiconductors. Due to superior electronic and optical properties, III-V nitrides demonstrate high sensitivity and performance over Si and Ge. The enhancement of evanescent electric field due to III-V nitrides have been computed and found highest for InN. The analysis shows that for a high-sensitive imaging biosensor the required optimal thickness of gold, InN and graphene are respectively 49 nm, 11 nm and 0.34 nm for the light of wavelength =633 nm (red He-Ne laser). This study suggests that InN would be a better choice for fabrication of new imaging SPR biosensors.

Keywords: SPR biosensor, optical properties, III-V nitrides, sensitivity, enhancement of electric field, performance of graphene gold SPR biosensor

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35 Design and Development of Novel Anion Selective Chemosensors Derived from Vitamin B6 Cofactors

Authors: Darshna Sharma, Suban K. Sahoo

Abstract:

The detection of intracellular fluoride in human cancer cell HeLa was achieved by chemosensors derived from vitamin B6 cofactors using fluorescence imaging technique. These sensors were first synthesized by condensation of pyridoxal/pyridoxal phosphate with 2-amino(thio)phenol. The anion recognition ability was explored by experimental (UV-VIS, fluorescence and 1H NMR) and theoretical DFT [(B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)] methods in DMSO and mixed DMSO-H2O system. All the developed sensors showed both naked-eye detectable color change and remarkable fluorescence enhancement in the presence of F- and AcO-. The anion recognition was occurred through the formation of hydrogen bonded complexes between these anions and sensor, followed by the partial deprotonation of sensor. The detection limit of these sensors were down to micro(nano) molar level of F- and AcO-.

Keywords: chemosensors, fluoride, acetate, turn-on, live cells imaging, DFT

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34 Phase Stability and Grain Growth Kinetics of Oxide Dispersed CoCrFeMnNi

Authors: Prangya P. Sahoo, B. S. Murty

Abstract:

The present study deals with phase evolution of oxide dispersed CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy as a function of amount of added Y2O3 during mechanical alloying and analysis of grain growth kinetics of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy without and with oxide dispersion. Mechanical alloying of CoCrFeMnNi resulted in a single FCC phase. However, evolution of chromium carbide was observed after heat treatment between 1073 and 1473 K. Comparison of grain growth time exponents and activation energy barrier is also reported. Micro structural investigations, using electron microscopy and EBSD techniques, were carried out to confirm the enhanced grain growth resistance which is attributed to the presence oxide dispersoids.

Keywords: grain growth kinetics, mechanical alloying, oxide dispersion, phase evolution

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33 Effect of Catalyst on Castor Oil Based Polyurethane with Different Hard/Soft Segment Ratio

Authors: Swarnalata Sahoo, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak

Abstract:

Environmentally friendly Polyurethane(PU) synthesis from Castor oil(CO) has been studied extensively. Probably due to high proportion of fatty hydroxy acids and unsaturated bond, CO showed better performance than other oil, can be easily utilized as commercial applications. In this work, cured PU polymers having different –NCO/OH ratio with and without catalyst were synthesized by using partially biobased Isocyanate with castor oil (CO). Curing time has been studied by observing at the time of reaction, which can be confirmed by AT-FTIR. DSC has been studied to monitor the reaction between CO & Isocyanates using non Isothermal process. Curing kinetics have also been studied to investigate the catalytic effect of the NCO / OH ratio of Polyurethane. Adhesion properties were evaluated from Lapshear test. Tg of the PU polymer was evaluated by DSC which can be compared by DMA. Surface Properties were studied by contact angle measurement. Improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the nonpolar surface of Aluminum substrate and the polar adhesive has been studied by modifying surface.

Keywords: polyurethane, partially bio-based isocyanate, castor oil, catalyst

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32 Pyroelectric Effect on Thermoelectricity of AlInN/GaN Heterostructures

Authors: B. K. Sahoo

Abstract:

Superior thermoelectric (TE) efficiency of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN /GaN heterostructure (HS) requires a minimum value of thermal conductivity (k). A smaller k would lead to even further increase of TE figure of merit (ZT). The built-in polarization (BIP) electric field of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN /GaN HS enhances S, and σ of the HS, however, the effect of BIP field on k of the HS has not been explored. Study of thermal conductivities (k: without BIP and kp: including BIP) vs temperature predicts pyroelectric behavior of HS. Both k and kp show crossover at a temperature Tp. The result shows that below Tp, kp < k due to negative thermal expansion coefficient (TEC). However, above Tp, kp > k. Above Tp, piezoelectric polarization dominates over spontaneous polarization due to positive TEC. This generates more lattice mismatch resulting in the significant contribution of BIP field to thermal conductivity. Thus, Tp can be considered as primary pyroelectric transition temperature of the material as above Tp thermal expansion takes place which is the reason for the secondary pyroelectric effect. It is found that below Tp, kp is decreased; thus enhancing TE efficiency. For x=0.1, 0.2 and 0.3; Tp are close to 200, 210 and 260 K, respectively. Thus, k of the HS can be modified as per requirement by tailoring the Al composition; making it suitable simultaneously for the design of high-temperature pyroelectric sensors and TE module for maximum power production.

Keywords: AlₓIn₁₋ₓN/GaN heterostructure, built in polarization, pyroelectric behavior, thermoelectric efficiency

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31 Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on Physiochemical Properties of Spherical Agglomerates of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride

Authors: S. V. Patil , S. K. Sahoo, K. Y. Chougule, S. S. Patil

Abstract:

Spherically agglomerated crystals of Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGH) with improved flowability and compactibility were successfully prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method. Plane agglomerates and agglomerates with additives: polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and β cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared using methanol, chloroform and water as good solvent, bridging liquid and poor solvent respectively. Particle size, flowability, compactibility and packability of plane, PEG and β-CD agglomerates were preferably improved for direct tableting compared with raw crystals and PVP agglomerates of PGH. These improved properties of spherically agglomerated crystals were due to their large and spherical shape and enhanced fragmentation during compaction which was well supported by increased tensile strength and less elastic recovery of its compact. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry study were indicated polymorphic transition of PGH from form II to I during recrystallization but not associated with chemical transition indicated by fourier transforms infrared spectra.

Keywords: spherical crystallization, pioglitazone hydrochloride, compactibility, packability

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30 Treatment of Industrial Effluents by Using Polyethersulfone/Chitosan Membrane Derived from Fishery Waste

Authors: Suneeta Kumari, Abanti Sahoo

Abstract:

Industrial effluents treatment is a major problem in the world. All wastewater treatment methods have some problems in the environment. Due to this reason, today many natural biopolymers are being used in the waste water treatment because those are safe for our environment. In this study, synthesis and characterization of polyethersulfone/chitosan membranes (Thin film composite membrane) are carried out. Fish scales are used as raw materials. Different characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) are analysed for the synthesized membrane. The performance of membranes such as flux, rejection, and pore size are also checked. The synthesized membrane is used for the treatment of steel industry waste water where Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, colour, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Turbidity aspects are analysed.

Keywords: fish scale, membrane synthesis, treatment of industrial effluents, chitosan

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29 Effectiveness of Lean Manufacturing Technologies on Improving Business Performance: A Study of Indian Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Saumyaranjan Sahoo, Sudhir Yadav

Abstract:

Indian manufacturing firms operating in rapidly changing and highly competitive market, over the last few decades, have embraced organization-wide transformation to achieve cultural and operational excellence. In recent years, numerous approaches have been proposed to improve business and manufacturing performance. Lean practices in particular, Total Productive Management (TPM) and Total Quality Management (TQM) have received considerable attention, as they being adopted and adapted for raising the performance standard of Indian manufacturing firms to world class levels. The complementary nature of TPM and TQM is being practiced in many companies to achieve synergy. Specifically, this research investigates whether joint TPM-TQM implementation contribute to higher business performance when compared to individual implementation. Data from 160 manufacturing firms were analyzed that demonstrate synergetic implementation of both TPM-TQM practices over a reasonable period of time, contributed in delivering better business performance as compared to individual implementation strategy.

Keywords: total productive management, total quality management, Indian manufacturing firms, business performance

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28 A Study of Indoor Radon, Thoron, Their Progeny Concentration Levels and Inhalation Dose in Dwellings of Different Districts of Punjab State, India

Authors: Komal Saini, B. K. Sahoo, B.S. Bajwa

Abstract:

In the present study, indoor radon and thoron concentrations have been estimated using newly developed twin cup based pin hole dosimeter with single entry face in some areas of Punjab state, India. The equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) of radon and thoron has also been estimated directly by using progeny sensors, fabricated by BARC, India. Observed radon and thoron concentrations varied from 38.7±5.79 to 98.7±13.11 Bq/m3 and 25.38±6.56 to 126.56±14.23 Bq/m3 with an average value of 61.59±8.11 & 70.89±9.52 Bq/m3 respectively. Average equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon and thoron was 27.98±4.66 & 2.24±0.61 Bq/m3. Calculated equilibrium factor for radon and thoron was 0.467 and 0.034 in the present study. Annual inhalation dose calculated from the present observed concentrations, varied from 1.80 to 3.60 mSv/year with an average value of 2.52 mSv/year, which is well within reference level. It has been observed from the present study that thoron is a significant contributor to the inhalation dose which is about 25% of the total inhalation dose.

Keywords: radon, thoron, pin hole cup dosimeter, DTPS/DRPS, annual inhalation dose

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27 Critical Appraisal of Different Drought Indices of Drought Predection and Their Application in KBK Districts of Odisha

Authors: Bibhuti Bhusan Sahoo, Ramakar Jha

Abstract:

Mapping of the extreme events (droughts) is one of the adaptation strategies to consequences of increasing climatic inconsistency and climate alterations. There is no operational practice to forecast the drought. One of the suggestions is to update mapping of drought prone areas for developmental planning. Drought indices play a significant role in drought mitigation. Many scientists have worked on different statistical analysis in drought and other climatological hazards. Many researchers have studied droughts individually for different sub-divisions or for India. Very few workers have studied district wise probabilities over large scale. In the present study, district wise drought probabilities over KBK (Kalahandi-Balangir-Koraput) districts of Odisha, India, Which are seriously prone to droughts, has been established using Hydrological drought index and Meteorological drought index along with the remote sensing drought indices to develop a multidirectional approach in the field of drought mitigation. Mapping for moderate and severe drought probabilities for KBK districts has been done and regions belonging different class intervals of probabilities of drought have been demarcated. Such type of information would be a good tool for planning purposes, for input in modelling and better promising results can be achieved.

Keywords: drought indices, KBK districts, proposed drought severity index, SPI

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26 Assessment of Non-Timber Forest Products from Community Managed Forest of Thenzawl Forest Division, Mizoram, Northeast India

Authors: K. Lalhmingsangi, U. K. Sahoo

Abstract:

Non-Timber Forest Products represent one of the key sources of income and subsistence to the fringe communities living in rural areas. A study was conducted for the assessment of NTFP within the community forest of five villages under Thenzawl forest division. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), questionnaire, field exercise, discussion and interview with the first hand NTFP exploiter and sellers was adopted for the field study. Fuel wood, medicinal plants, fodder, wild vegetables, fruits, broom grass, thatch grass, bamboo pole and cane species are the main NTFP harvested from the community forest. Among all the NTFPs, the highest percentage of household involvement was found in fuel wood, i.e. 53% of household and least in medicinal plants 5%. They harvest for their own consumption as well as for selling to the market to meet their needs. Edible food and fruits are sold to the market and it was estimated that 300 (Rs/hh/yr) was earned by each household through the selling of this NTFP from the community forest alone. No marketing channels are linked with fuelwood, medicinal plants and fodder since they harvest only for their own consumption.

Keywords: community forest, subsistence, non-timber forest products, Thenzawl Forest Division

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25 Premature Menopause among Women in India: Evidence from National Family Health Survey-IV

Authors: Trupti Meher, Harihar Sahoo

Abstract:

Premature menopause refers to the occurrence of menopause before the age of 40 years. Women who experience premature menopause either due to biological or induced reasons have a longer duration of exposure to severe symptoms and adverse health consequences when compared to those who undergo menopause at a later age, despite the fact that premature menopause has a profound effect on the health of women. This study attempted to determine the prevalence and predictors of premature menopause among women aged 25-39 years, using data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) conducted during 2015–16 in India. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were used to carry out the result. The results revealed that the prevalence of premature menopause in India was 3.7 percent. Out of which, 2.1 percent of women had experienced natural premature menopause, whereas 1.7 percent had premature surgical menopause. The prevalence of premature menopause was highest in the southern region of India. Further, results of the multivariate model indicated that rural women, women with higher parity, early age at childbearing and women with smoking habits were at a greater risk of premature menopause. A sizeable proportion of women in India are attaining menopause prematurely. Unless due attention is given to this matter, it will emerge as a major problem in India in the future. The study also emphasized the need for further research to enhance knowledge on the problems of premature menopausal women in different socio-cultural settings in India.

Keywords: India, natural menopause, premature menopause, surgical menopause

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24 Dielectric Study of Lead-Free Double Perovskite Structured Polycrystalline BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 Material

Authors: Vijay Khopkar, Balaram Sahoo

Abstract:

Material with high value of dielectric constant has application in the electronics devices. Existing lead based materials have issues such as toxicity and problem with synthesis procedure. Double perovskite structured barium iron niobate (BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3, BFN) is the lead-free material, showing a high value of dielectric constant. Origin of high value of the dielectric constant in BFN is not clear. We studied the dielectric behavior of polycrystalline BFN sample over wide temperature and frequency range. A BFN sample synthesis by conventional solid states reaction method and phase pure dens pellet was used for dielectric study. The SEM and TEM study shows the presence of grain and grain boundary region. The dielectric measurement was done between frequency range of 40 Hz to 5 MHz and temperature between 20 K to 500 K. At 500 K temperature and lower frequency, there observed high value of dielectric constant which decreases with increase in frequency. The dipolar relaxation follows non-Debye type polarization with relaxation straight of 3560 at room temperature (300 K). Activation energy calculated from the dielectric and modulus formalism found to be 17.26 meV and 2.74 meV corresponds to the energy required for the motion of Fe3+ and Nb5+ ions within the oxygen octahedra. Our study shows that BFN is the order disorder type ferroelectric material.

Keywords: barium iron niobate, dielectric, ferroelectric, non-Debye

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23 Ion Beam Induced 2D Mesophase Patterning of Nanocrystallites in Polymer

Authors: Srutirekha Giri, Manoranjan Sahoo, Anuradha Das, Pravanjan Mallick, Biswajit Mallick

Abstract:

Ion Beam (IB) technique is a very powerful experimental technique for both material synthesis and material modifications. In this work, 3MeV proton beam was generated using the 3MV Tandem machine of the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar and extracted into air for the irradiation-induced modification purpose[1]. The polymeric material can be modeled for a three-phase system viz. crystalline(I), amorphous(II) and mesomorphic(III). So far, our knowledge is concerned. There are only few techniques reported for the synthesis of this third-phase(III) of polymer. The IB induced technique is one of them and has been reported very recently [2-4]. It was observed that by irradiating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber at very low proton fluence, 10¹⁰ - 10¹² p/s, possess 2D mesophase structure. This was confirmed using X-ray diffraction technique. A low-intensity broad peak was observed at small angle of about 2θ =6º, when the fiber axis was mounted parallel to the X-ray direction. Such peak vanished in the diffraction spectrum when the fiber axis was mounted perpendicular to the beam direction. The appearance of this extra peak in a particular orientation confirms that the phase is 2-dimensionally oriented (mesophase). It is well known that the mesophase is a 2-dimensionally ordered structure but 3-dimensionally disordered. Again, the crystallite of the mesophase peak particle was measured about 3nm. The MeV proton-induced 2D mesophase patterning of nanocrystallites (3nm) of PET due to irradiation was observed within the above low fluence range and failed in high proton fluence. This is mainly due to the breaking of crystallites, radiation-induced thermal degradation, etc.

Keywords: Ion irradiation, mesophase, nanocrystallites, polymer

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22 Modulated Bioavailability of an Anti HIV Drug through a Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System

Authors: Sunit Kumar Sahoo, Prakash Chandra Senapati

Abstract:

The main drawback to design drug delivery systems with BCS class II drugs is their low bioavailabilty due to their inherent low permeability characteristics. So the present investigation aspire to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of BCS class II anti HIV drug efavirenz (EFZ) using mixtures of non-ionic surfactant mixtures with the main objective to improve the oral bioavailability of said drug. Results obtained from solubility studies of EFZ in various expients utilized for construction of the pseudo ternary phase diagram containing surfactant mixtures. Surfactants in 1:1 combination are used with different co-surfactants in different ratio to delineate the area of monophasic region of the pseudo ternary phase diagram. The formulations which offered positive results in different thermodynamic stability studies were considered for percentage transmittance and turbidity analysis. The various characterization studies like the TEM analysis of post diluted SNEDDS formulations r confirmed the size in nanometric range (below 50 nm) and FT-IR studies confirmed the intactness of the drug the in the preconcentrate. The in vitro dissolution profile of SNEDDS showed that 80% drug was released within 30 min in case of optimized SNEDDS while it was approximately 18.3 % in the case of plain drug powder.. The Pharmacokinetic study using rat model revealed a 2.63 fold increase in AUC (0-∞) in comparison to plain EFZ suspension. The designed delivery system illustrated the confidence in creating a formulation of EFZ with enhanced bioavailability for better HIV treatment.

Keywords: efavirenz, self-nanoemulsifying, surfactant mixture, bioavailability

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21 Efficient Wind Fragility Analysis of Concrete Chimney under Stochastic Extreme Wind Incorporating Temperature Effects

Authors: Soumya Bhattacharjya, Avinandan Sahoo, Gaurav Datta

Abstract:

Wind fragility analysis of chimney is often carried out disregarding temperature effect. However, the combined effect of wind and temperature is the most critical limit state for chimney design. Hence, in the present paper, an efficient fragility analysis for concrete chimney is explored under combined wind and temperature effect. Wind time histories are generated by Davenports Power Spectral Density Function and using Weighed Amplitude Wave Superposition Technique. Fragility analysis is often carried out in full Monte Carlo Simulation framework, which requires extensive computational time. Thus, in the present paper, an efficient adaptive metamodelling technique is adopted to judiciously approximate limit state function, which will be subsequently used in the simulation framework. This will save substantial computational time and make the approach computationally efficient. Uncertainty in wind speed, wind load related parameters, and resistance-related parameters is considered. The results by the full simulation approach, conventional metamodelling approach and proposed adaptive metamodelling approach will be compared. Effect of disregarding temperature in wind fragility analysis will be highlighted.

Keywords: adaptive metamodelling technique, concrete chimney, fragility analysis, stochastic extreme wind load, temperature effect

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20 A Follow up Study on Indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and Their Decay Product Concentrations in a Mineralized Zone of Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: B. S. Bajwa, Parminder Singh, Prabhjot Singh, Surinder Singh, B. K. Sahoo, B. K. Sapra

Abstract:

A follow up study was taken up in a mineralized zone situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India to investigate high values of radon concentration reported in past studies as well to update the old radon data based on bare SSNTD technique. In the present investigation, indoor radon, thoron and their decay products concentrations have been measured using the newly developed Radon-Thoron discriminating diffusion chamber with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) respectively. The measurements have been carried out in seventy five dwellings of fourteen different villages. Houses were selected taking into consideration of the past data as well as the type of houses such as mud, concrete, brick etc. It was observed that high values of earlier reported radon concentrations were mainly because of thoron interference in the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 type II) exposed in bare mode. Now, the average concentration values and the estimated annual inhalation dose in these villages have been found to be within the reference level as recommended by the ICRP. The annual average indoor radon and thoron concentrations observed in these dwellings have been found to vary from 44±12-157±73 Bq m-3 and 44±11-240±125 Bq m-3 respectively. The equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon and thoron decay products have been observed to be in the range of 10-63 Bq m-3 and 1-5 Bq m-3 respectively.

Keywords: radon, thoron, progeny concentration, dosimeter

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19 Contextualizing Communication through Culture and Social Structure: An Exploration of Media Life

Authors: Jyoti Ranjan Sahoo

Abstract:

Communication is a social phenomenon which mediates to our everyday life and it creates, maintains, builds, circulates, and propagates for a common identity the society. The symbolic forms of communication such as aural, sounds, oral expressions, signs, and language as means of communication are being used in everyday life in helping to identify as construction of social reality. These symbolic forms of communication are treated as the social process in everyday life. Therefore, there is an intrinsic relationship between communication and culture to understand media life for village communities. Similarly, the interface of communication with social life is reflected upon it’s formulation of the notions of social structure and culture. It has been observed that there is an overlapping and new phenomenonal change of media life among marginalized communities in general and village communities in particular. Therefore, this paper is an outcome of decadal stock of literature and an empirical investigation on understanding of communication in a tribal village in India. It has examined the idea of American scientist Edward T. Hall “the culture is communication, and the communication is culture” in village society on understanding media life. Thus, the Harold Innis’s theoretical idea of “communication” has been critically examined in these contexts since author tries to explore and understand the inter-disciplinarity on understanding media life through communication and culture which is embedded in socio-cultural life bearing on epistemological and ontological implications. The paper tries to explore and understand the inter-disciplinary and historical trajectories of communication embedded with other social science disciplines; and also tries to map these studies relevant for the future directions and engagement which would have bearing on epistemological and ontological implications in the field of media and communication.

Keywords: culture, communication, history, media, oral, tradition

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18 Endeavor to Develop Immunological and Hematological Early Diagnostic Marker to Check the Conversion of Asymptomatic to Symptomatic Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Roshan Kamal Topno, Maneesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Krishna Pandey, Major Madhukar, Vidhya Nand Rabidas, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Rishikesh Kumar, Pradeep Das

Abstract:

A diagnostic marker for asymptomatic subject becomes a crucial need for advocating early prophylactic majors to control protozoal infection. The main issue in epidemiological affected regions is the presence of an asymptomatic individual that might potentially convert to a symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The epidemiological study has been conducted at highly VL endemic Moriyama village in Patna district, Bihar, India that covers total population of 1540 individuals. Here, 1104(74.02%) people had been randomly screened and only 46 (4.17%) asymptomatic individuals were found sero-positive by the rK39 test. After taking signed informed consent form, blood samples were collected from 46 asymptomatic subjects for further hematological and immunological tests. Total leukocyte count, hemoglobin (gm%), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet count and interleukin-10 (IL-10) had been included as diagnostic markers. Interestingly only 5 (10.86%) individuals showed their asymptomatic conversion into symptomatic VL patients during quarterly surveillance. In overall analysis only two markers are suggestive for disease conversion that is hemoglobin (gm%) and IL-10. In all the infected patients, both the mean decrease in hemoglobin and mean increase of IL-10 was 19.23% from its normal value. The results might suggest that hematological and immunological changes would become helpful for early diagnosis of asymptomatic to symptomatic VL conversion.

Keywords: asymptomatic, epidemiological, symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis, hemoglobin (gm%), interleukin-10, diagnosis

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17 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Bhawana, Roshan Kamal Topno, Maneesh Kumar, Major Madhukar, Krishna Pandey, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Surya Suman, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Rishikesh Kumar, Pradeep Das

Abstract:

Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: HSV, Rubella, seroprevalence, co-infection, ELISA, viral infectivity

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16 Effect of Built in Polarization on Thermal Properties of InGaN/GaN Heterostructures

Authors: Bijay Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

An important feature of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures is strong built-in polarization (BIP) electric field at the hetero-interface due to spontaneous (sp) and piezoelectric (pz) polarizations. The intensity of this electric field reaches several MV/cm. This field has profound impact on optical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, the effect of BIP field on thermal conductivity of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure has been investigated theoretically. The interaction between the elastic strain and built in electric field induces additional electric polarization. This additional polarization contributes to the elastic constant of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. This in turn modifies material parameters of InₓGa₁-ₓN. The BIP mechanism enhances elastic constant, phonon velocity and Debye temperature and their bowing constants in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. These enhanced thermal parameters increase phonon mean free path which boost thermal conduction process. The thermal conductivity (k) of InxGa1-xN alloy has been estimated for x=0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9. Computation finds that irrespective of In content, the room temperature k of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure is enhanced by BIP mechanism. Our analysis shows that at a certain temperature both k with and without BIP show crossover. Below this temperature k with BIP field is lower than k without BIP; however, above this temperature k with BIP field is significantly contributed by BIP mechanism leading to k with BIP field become higher than k without BIP field. The crossover temperature is primary pyroelectric transition temperature. The pyroelectric transition temperature of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy has been predicted for different x. This signature of pyroelectric nature suggests that thermal conductivity can reveal pyroelectricity in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. The composition dependent room temperature k for x=0.1 and 0.3 are in line with prior experimental studies. The result can be used to minimize the self-heating effect in InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures.

Keywords: built-in polarization, phonon relaxation time, thermal properties of InₓGa₁-ₓN /GaN heterostructure, self-heating

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15 Role of Non-Timber Forest Products in Local Livelihood and Household Economies in Resource-Rich vs. Resource Poor Forest Area of Mizoram

Authors: Uttam Kumar Sahoo, K. Lalhmingsangi, J. H. Lalremruati

Abstract:

Non-timber forest resources particularly the high-value, low volume NTFPs has drawn interest as an activity all over the world during the past three decades that could raise standards of living for the rural folks while being compatible with forest conservation. This is particularly true for the people living in and around or fringes of protected areas. However, the economics that plays between resources’ stock and its utilization by the humans is yet to be validated and evaluated logistically. A study was therefore designed to understand the linkages between resource (especially NTFPs) availability and their utilization, existing threats to this biodiversity conservation and the role of NTFPs within the livelihood systems of those households that are most directly involved in creating conservation threats. About 25% of the households were sampled from the two sites ‘resource-rich’ and ‘resource poor’ area of Dampa Tiger Reserve (Western boundary). Our preliminary findings suggest that the collection of relatively high-volume and low value NTFPs such as fuelwood, fodder has caused degradation of forest resources while the low-volume and high-value NTFPs such as wild edible mushrooms, vegetables, other specialty food products, inputs to crafts, medicinal plants have resulted into species promotion/conservation through their domestication in traditional agroforestry systems including home gardens and/or collateral protection of the Tiger Reserve. It is thus suggested that proper assessment of these biodiversities, their direct and indirect valuation, market and non-market profits etc be carried out in greater details which would result in prescribing effective management plans around the park.

Keywords: household economy, livelihood strategies, non-timber forest products, species conservation

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14 Braiding Channel Pattern Due to Variation of Discharge

Authors: Satish Kumar, Spandan Sahu, Sarjati Sahoo, K. K. Khatua

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been carried out in a tilting flume of 2 m wide, 13 m long, and 0.3 m deep to study the effect of flow on the formation of braided channel pattern. Sediment flow is recirculated through the flume, which passes from the headgate to the sediment/water collecting tank through the tailgate. Further, without altering the geometry of the sand bed channel, the discharge is varied to study the effect of the formation of the braided pattern with time. Then the flow rate is varied to study the effect of flow on the formation of the braided pattern. Sediment transport rate is highly variable and was found to be a nonlinear function of flow rate, aspect ratio, longitudinal slope, and time. Total braided intensity (BIT) for each discharge case is found to be more than the active braided intensity (BIA). Both the parameters first increase and then decrease as the time progresses following a similar pattern for all the observed discharge cases. When the flow is increased, the movement of sediment also increases since the active braided intensity is found to adjust quickly. The measurement of velocity and boundary shear helps to study the erosion and sedimentation processes in the channel and formation of small meandering channels and then the braided channel for different discharge conditions of a sediment river. Due to regime properties of rivers, both total braided Intensity and active braided intensity become stable for a given channel and flow conditions. In the present case, the trend of the ratio of BIA to BIT is found to be asymptotic against the time with a value of 0.4. After the particular time elapses off the flow, new small channels are also found to be formed with changes in the sinuosity of the active channels, thus forming the braided network. This is due to the continuous erosion and sedimentation processes occurring for the flow process for the flow and sediment conditions.

Keywords: active braided intensity, bed load, sediment transport, shear stress, total braided intensity

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13 Impacts of Climate Change on Food Grain Yield and Its Variability across Seasons and Altitudes in Odisha

Authors: Dibakar Sahoo, Sridevi Gummadi

Abstract:

The focus of the study is to empirically analyse the climatic impacts on foodgrain yield and its variability across seasons and altitudes in Odisha, one of the most vulnerable states in India. The study uses Just-Pope Stochastic Production function by using two-step Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS): mean equation estimation and variance equation estimation. The study uses the panel data on foodgrain yield, rainfall and temperature for 13 districts during the period 1984-2013. The study considers four seasons: winter (December-February), summer (March-May), Rainy (June-September) and autumn (October-November). The districts under consideration have been categorized under three altitude regions such as low (< 70 masl), middle (153-305 masl) and high (>305 masl) altitudes. The results show that an increase in the standard deviations of monthly rainfall during rainy and autumn seasons have an adversely significant impact on the mean yield of foodgrains in Odisha. The summer temperature has beneficial effects by significantly increasing mean yield as the summer season is associated with harvesting stage of Rabi crops. The changing pattern of temperature has increasing effect on the yield variability of foodgrains during the summer season, whereas it has a decreasing effect on yield variability of foodgrains during the Rainy season. Moreover, the positive expected signs of trend variable in both mean and variance equation suggests that foodgrain yield and its variability increases with time. On the other hand, a change in mean levels of rainfall and temperature during different seasons has heterogeneous impacts either harmful or beneficial depending on the altitudes. These findings imply that adaptation strategies should be tailor-made to minimize the adverse impacts of climate change and variability for sustainable development across seasons and altitudes in Odisha agriculture.

Keywords: altitude, adaptation strategies, climate change, foodgrain

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12 Prevalence, Isolation and Identification of Feline Panleukopaenia Virus from Wild Felids in Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha

Authors: Arun Kharate, Sarata Kumar Sahu, Susen Kumar Panda, Niranjan Sahoo, H. K. Panda

Abstract:

In the present study, an attempt has been made for isolation and identification of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) from wild felids of Nandankanan zoo, Odisha, India, along with prevalence study of FPLV. Fecal samples collected from wild felids (26 tigers, 22 lions, 5 leopards, 3 hyenas, 1 jaguar, 2 foxes and 1 wild cat) were subjected to hemagglutinnation test and fluorescent antibody test. In hemagglutinnation test 13 (50%) samples from tiger, 14 (63.63%) samples from lions, 1 (20%) sample from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) samples from hyenas and 1 (100%) sample from wild cat were positive. On fluorescent antibody test (FAT), 15 (57.69%) samples from tiger, 18 (81.81%) from lions, 2 (40%) from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) from hyenas and 1 (100%) from wild cat were positive. FPLV was isolated using MDBK cell line and preliminary characterization was done on the basis of characteristic cytopathic effect. The virus samples were quantified through titration in MDBK cells. Serological confirmation of FPLV isolates was carried out by HI test, micro-SNT and indirect-ELISA. Physico-chemical characters like pH and temperature resistance along molecular identification using specific FPLV primers was carried out. Seroprevalence study of 36 serum samples employing HI test, micro SNT and indirect-ELISA revealed prevalence of 38.8, 44.4 and 72.2% respectively. During study period an adult tigress and a tiger cub died suspected of feline panleukopenia. The necropsy findings in both animals showed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The cytological examination revealed presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the intestinal epithelial cells. Spleen, mesenteric lymph node and intestine were positive for feline panleukopenia by FAT. The investigation revealed that feline panleukopenia was prevalent in wild felines of Nandankanan zoo.

Keywords: Feline panleukopenia, fluorescent antibody test, hemagglutination test, indirect-ELISA, Nandankanan zoo

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11 Biochemical Efficacy, Molecular Docking and Inhibitory Effect of 2,3-Dimethylmaleic Anhydride on Acetylcholinesterases

Authors: Kabrambam D. Singh, Dinabandhu Sahoo, Yallappa Rajashekar

Abstract:

Evolution has caused many insects to develop resistance to several synthetic insecticides. This problem along with the persisting concern regarding the health and environmental safety issues of the existing synthetic insecticides has urged the scientific fraternity to look for a new plant-based natural insecticide with inherent eco-friendly nature. Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae family) is widely grown throughout the South- East Asian Countries for its edible corms and leaves. Various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass) were used for the isolation and characterization of isolated bioactive molecule named 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione). This compound was found to be highly toxic, even at low concentration, against several storage grain pests when used as biofumigant. Experimental studies on the mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride revealed that the biofumigant act as inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in cockroach and stored grain insects. The knockdown activity of bioactive compound is concurrent with in vivo inhibition of AChE; at KD99 dosage of bioactive molecule showed more than 90% inhibition of AChE activity in test insects. The molecule proved to affect the antioxidant enzyme system; superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and also found to decrease reduced glutathione (GSH) level in the treated insects. The above results indicate involvement of inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance as the potential mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride. In addition, the study reveals computational docking programs elaborate the possible interaction of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride with enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of Periplaneta americana. Finally, the results represent that toxicity of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride might be associated with inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance.

Keywords: 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott, Biofumigant, acetylcholinesterase, antioxidant enzyme, molecular docking

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