Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3086

Search results for: mantle cell lymphoma

3086 Plasmablastic Lymphoma a New Entity in Patients with HIV Infections

Authors: Rojith K. Balakrishnan

Abstract:

Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon, recently described B-cell derived lymphoma that is most commonly seen in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Here we report a case of PBL in a 35 year old man with HIV who presented with multiple subcutaneous swellings all over the body and oral mucosal lesions.The biopsy report was suggestive of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry was done which showed, lymphoma cells, positive for MUM1, CD 138, and VS 38. The proliferation index (MIB) was 95%. Final report was consistent with the diagnosis of Plasmablastic Lymphoma. The lesion completely regressed after treatment with systemic chemotherapy. Up to date, only a few cases of plasmablastic lymphoma have been reported from India. Increased frequency of this lymphoma in HIV patients and rarity of the tumour, along with rapid response of the same to chemotherapy, make this case a unique one. Hence the knowledge about this new entity is important for clinicians who deal with HIV patients.

Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), oral cavity lesion, plasmablastic lymphoma, subcutaneous swelling

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3085 Risk of Mortality and Spectrum of Second Primary Malignancies in Mantle Cell Lymphoma before and after Ibrutinib Approval: A Population-Based Study

Authors: Karthik Chamari, Vasudha Rudraraju, Gaurav Chaudhari

Abstract:

Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the mature B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The course of MCL is moderately aggressive and variable, and it has median overall survival of 8 to 10 years. Ibrutinib, a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration in November of 2013 for the treatment of MCL patients who have received at least one prior therapy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether there has been a change in survival and patterns of second primary malignancies (SPMs) among the MCL population in the US after ibrutinib approval. Methods: Using the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18, we conducted a retrospective study with patients diagnosed with MCL (ICD-0-3 code 9673/3) between 2007 and 2018. We divided patients into two six-year cohorts, pre-ibrutinib approval (2007-2012) and post-ibrutinib approval (2013-2018), and compared relative survival rates (RSRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPMs between cohorts. Results: We included 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL between 2007 and 2018 in the SEER-18 survival and SIR registries. Of these, 4,205 (45%) patients were included in the pre-ibrutinib cohort, and 5052 (55%) patients were included in the post-ibrutinib cohort. The median follow-up duration for the pre-ibrutinib cohort was 54 months (range 0 to 143 months), and the post-ibrutinib cohort was 20 months (range 0 to 71 months). There was a significant difference in the five-year RSRs between pre-ibrutinib and post-ibrutinib cohorts (57.5% vs. 62.6%, p < 0.005). Out of the 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL, 920 developed SPMs. A higher proportion of SPMs occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (63%) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (37%). Non-hematological malignancies comprised most of all SPMs. A higher incidence of non-hematological malignancies occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.56) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.14, 95% CI 1 to 1.3). There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of cancers of the respiratory tract (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.18), urinary tract (SIR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.06) when compared with other non-hematological malignancies in post-ibrutinib cohort. Conclusions: Our study results suggest the relative survival rates have increased since the approval of ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma patients. Additionally, for some unclear reasons, the incidence of SPM’s (non-hematological malignancies), mainly cancers of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, have increased in the six years following the approval of ibrutinib. Further studies should be conducted to determine the cause of these findings.

Keywords: mantle cell lymphoma, Ibrutinib, relative survival analysis, secondary primary cancers

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3084 The Clinical and Survival Differences between Primary B-cell and T/NK-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the Nasopharynx, Nasal cavity and Nasal sinus: a Population-based Study of 3839 cases in the SEER database

Authors: Jiajia Peng, Danni Cheng, Jianqing Qiu, Yufang Rao, Minzi Mao, Ke Qiu, Junhong Li, Fei Chen, Feng Liu, Jun Liu, Xiaosong Mu, Wenxin Yu, Wei Zhang, Wei Xu, Yu Zhao, Jianjun Ren

Abstract:

Background: Currently, primary B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) and T/NK-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NKT-NHL) originated fromnasal cavity (NC), nasopharynx (NP), and nasal sinus (NS) distinguished unclearly in clinic. Objective: We sought to compare the clinical and survival differences of B-NHL and NKT-NHL occurred in NC, NP, and NS, respectively. Methods: Retrospectivedata of patients diagnosed with nasal cavity lymphoma (NCL), nasopharyngeal lymphoma (NPL), and nasal sinus lymphoma (NSL) between 1975 and 2017 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were collected. We identified the B/NKT-NHL patients based on the histological type and performed univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier analyses to investigate the survival rates. Results: Of the identified 3,101 B-NHL and 738 NKT-NHL patients, those with B-NHL in NP were the majority (43%) and had better cancer-specific survival than those in NC and NS during2010 to 2017(5-year-CSS, NC vs. NP vs. NS: 81% vs. 83% vs. 82%). In contrast, most of the NKT-NHL originated from NC (68%) and had the highest CSS rate in the recent 7 years (2010-2017, 5-year-CSS: 63%). Additionally, the survival outcomes of patients with NKT-NHL-NP(HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.62-2.89, P=0.460)who had received surgery were much worse than those of patients with NKT-NHL-NC (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.75-1.52, P=0.710)and NKT-NHL-NS (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.59-2.07, P=0.740).NKT-NHL-NS patients who had radiation performed (HR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.19-0.73, P=0.004)shown the highest survival rates while chemotherapy performed (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.43-2.37, P=0.980)presented opposite results. Conclusions: AlthoughB-NHL and NKT-NHL originating from NC, NP, and NS had similar anatomical locations, their clinical characteristics, treatment therapies, and prognoses were different in this study. Our findings may suggest that B-NHL and NKT-NHL in NC, NP, and NS should be treated as different diseases in the clinic.

Keywords: nasopharyngeal lymphoma, nasal cavity lymphoma, nasal sinus lymphoma, B-cell non-hodgkin lymphoma, T/NK-cell non-hodgkin lymphoma

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3083 Physiological Normoxia and Cellular Adhesion of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Primary Cells: Real-Time PCR and Immunohistochemistry Study

Authors: Kamila Duś-Szachniewicz, Kinga M. Walaszek, Paweł Skiba, Paweł Kołodziej, Piotr Ziółkowski

Abstract:

Cell adhesion is of fundamental importance in the cell communication, signaling, and motility, and its dysfunction occurs prevalently during cancer progression. The knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes involved in abnormalities in cancer cells adhesion has greatly increased, and it has been focused mainly on cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) and tumor microenvironment. Unfortunately, most of the data regarding CAMs expression relates to study on cells maintained in standard oxygen condition of 21%, while the emerging evidence suggests that culturing cells in ambient air is far from physiological. In fact, oxygen in human tissues ranges from 1 to 11%. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physiological lymph node normoxia (5% O2), and hyperoxia (21% O2) on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells (DLBCL) isolated from 10 lymphoma patients. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm the differential expression of several CAMs, including ICAM, CD83, CD81, CD44, depending on the level of oxygen. Our findings also suggest that DLBCL cells maintained at ambient O2 (21%) exhibit reduced growth rate and migration ability compared to the cells growing in normoxia conditions. Taking into account all the observations, we emphasize the need to identify the optimal human cell culture conditions mimicking the physiological aspects of tumor growth and differentiation.

Keywords: adhesion molecules, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, physiological normoxia, quantitative RT-PCR

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3082 Granulomatous Mycoses Fungoides: A Case Report

Authors: Girum Tedla Assefa

Abstract:

Background: Granulomatous mycosis fungoides is an extremely rare type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (<55 cases reported worldwide). Case report: A 36-year-old female presented with soft tissue atrophy of right lower limb (dermis + hypodermis) of 22 years and plaques over trunk of 3 years duration. Histological examination of a biopsy taken from the atrophied tissue showed a granulomatous reaction with epidermotropic atypical lymphocytes. However, in other areas there were only findings of conventional MF without granuloma. Conclusion: The diagnosis of a granulomatous mycosis fungoides depends exclusively on the histological demonstration of granulomas. Distinct clinical characteristics are not present. This case highlights the importance of thorough investigation of lipoatrophic skin changes in the adult to exclude underlying causes, including MF.

Keywords: cutaneous lymphoma, granulomatous skin lymphoma, mycoses fungoides, skin atrophy

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3081 Differential Infection of Primary Human B-Cells and EBV Positive B-Lymphoma Cell Lines by Recombinant AAV Serotypes

Authors: Elham Ahmadi, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Joyce Fingeroth, Mazyar Ziyaeyan, Rajesh Panigrahi, Jun Xie, Gao Guangping

Abstract:

B-cell proliferative disorders often occur among persons that are T-cell compromised. These disorders are primarily EBV+ and can first present with a focal lesion. Direct introduction of oncolytic viruses into localized tumors provides theoretical advantages over chemotherapy and immunotherapy by reducing systemic toxicity, to which the immunocompromised host is most vulnerable. Widely studied as a vehicle for gene therapy, AAV has only rarely been applied to treat cancer. As a prelude to development of a therapeutic vehicle, we assessed the ability of 15 distinct recombinant AAV serotypes (rAAV1, rAAV2, rAAV3b, rAAV4, rAAV5, rAAV6, rAAV6.2, rAAV6TM, rAAV7, rAAV8, rAAVrh8, rAAV9, rAAVrh10, rAAV39, rAAV43) bearing eGFP to infect human B-cell tumor lines compared with primary B-cells in vitro. Enhanced infection of tumor lines by AAV 6.2 was demonstrated by flow cytometry. EBV superinfection of EBV negative B-cell tumor lines increased susceptibility to AAV6.2 infection. As proof of concept, AAV6.2 bearing HSV-1 thymidine kinase in place of eGFP eliminated tumor cells upon exposure to ganciclovir.

Keywords: AAV, gene therapy, lymphoma, malignancy, tropism

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3080 Oxidative Antioxidative Status and DNA Damage Profile Induced by Chemotherapy in Algerian Children with Lymphoma

Authors: Assia Galleze, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Nacira Cherif, Nidel Benhalilou, Nabila Attal, Chafia Touil Boukkoffa, Rachida Raache

Abstract:

Introduction and aims: Chemotherapeutic agents used to inhibit cell division and reduce tumor growth, increase reactive oxygen species levels, which contributes to their genotoxicity [1]. The comet assay is an inexpensive and rapid method to detect the damage at cellular levels and has been used in various cancer populations undergoing chemotherapy [2,3]. The present study aim to assess the oxidative stress and the genotoxicity induced by chemotherapy by the determination of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level, protein carbonyl (PC) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and lymphocyte DNA damage in Algerian children with lymphoma. Materials and Methods: For our study, we selected thirty children with lymphoma treated in university hospital of Beni Messous, Algeria, and fifty unrelated subjects as controls, after obtaining the informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964). Plasma levels of MDA, PC and SOD activity were spectrophotometrically measured, while DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood leukocytes. Results and Discussion: Plasma MDA, PC levels and lymphocyte DNA damage, were found to be significantly higher in lymphoma patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Whereas, SOD activity in lymphoma patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). There were significant positive correlations between DNA damage, MDA and PC in patients (r = 0.96, p < 0.001, r = 0.97, p < 0.001, respectively), and negative correlation with SOD (r = 0.87, p < 0.01). Conclusion and Perspective: Our results indicated that, leukocytes DNA damage and oxidative stress were significantly higher in lymphoma patients, suggesting that the direct effect of chemotherapy and the alteration of the redox balance may influence oxidative/antioxidative status.

Keywords: chemotherapy, comet assay, DNA damage, lymphoma

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3079 Lymphomas as Estrogen-Regulated Cancers

Authors: M. S. Hasni, J. Guan, K. Yakimchuk, M. Berglund, B. Sander, G. Enblad, R. M. Amini, S. Okret

Abstract:

Lymphomas are generally not considered as endocrine-related cancers. However, most lymphoid malignancies show gender differences in incidence and show prognosis with males being more affected. Furthermore, some epidemiological data indicate a protective role of estrogens against Non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recent studies have demonstrated estrogen receptor β (ERβ) to be the major ER expressed in normal and malignant cells of lymphoid origin. We have analyzed the effects of estradiol and selective ERα and ERβ agonists on lymphoma growth in culture and in vivo. Treating lymphoma cells with estradiol or ERα selective agonist had minor or no effect on cell growth while selective ERβ agonist treatment showed an antiproliferative effect. When grafting mice with murine T lymphoma cells, male mice developed larger tumors compared to female mice, a difference that was abolished following ovariectomy, demonstrating estrogen-dependent growth in vivo. When subcutaneously grafting lymphoma cells to mice, so far growth of all tested human B lymphoma tumors (Raji and Ramos Burkitt lymphoma, SU.DHL4 (GC) and U2932 (ABC) DLBCL, Granta-519, Maver1 and Z138 MCL cells), were reduced following treatment with ERβ selective agonist (ref. 2 and unpublished). Moreover, the number and size of liver foci of disseminating Raji cells was reduced. We have identified target genes and mechanism that could explain the above effects of ERβ agonists. This included effects on angio and lymphangiogenesis. Now we have further analyzed effects of ERβ agonists on Ibrutinib-sensitive and -insensitive MCL cells in xenograft experiments as well as ERβ expression in primary lymphoma material (DLBCL). Preliminary statistical analysis has been done correlating ERβ expression to other biomarkers and clinical data.

Keywords: lymphomas, estrogen receptors, cancer, liver foci

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3078 Design and Synthesis of Some Pyrimidine Derivatives as Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Hematologic Malignancies

Authors: Ibrahim M. Labouta, Gina N. Tageldin, Salwa M. Fahmy, Hayam M. Ashour, Mounir A. Khalil, Tamer M. Ibrahim, Nefertiti A. El-Nikhely

Abstract:

Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical effector molecule in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling transduction. It regulates B cell proliferation, development and survival. Since BTK is widely expressed in many B cell leukaemias and lymphomas, targeting BTK by small molecules inhibitors became an attractive idea as new treatment modalities for B cell mediated hematologic malignancies. Ibrutinib is the 1st generation BTK inhibitor, approved by FDA for treatment of relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It binds irreversibly to the unique cysteine (Cys481) within the ATP-binding pocket of BTK. Besides ibrutinib, many irreversible covalent BTK inhibitors comprising pyrimidine nucleus such as spebrutinib (phase IIb) showed high selectivity and potency when compared to it. In this study, the designed compounds were based on 5-cyano-2-methylsulfanyl pyrimidine core and decorated with electrophilic warheads which are essential for the optimal activity for targeted covalent inhibition (TCI). However, modifications at pyrimidine C4 or C6 were made by introduction of substituted amines which are provided to behave differently. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their anticancer activity in leukemia cell lines (e.g. THP-1). Results showed that, some derivatives exhibited antiproliferative activity with IC50 ranged from 5-50 μM, The in vitro enzymatic inhibitory assay for these compounds against BTK is still under investigation. Nevertheless, we could conclude from the initial biological screening that, the synthesized 4 or 6-subsitituted aminopyrimidines represent promising and novel antileukemic agents. Meanwhile, further studies are still needed to attribute this activity through targeting BTK enzyme and inhibition of BCR signaling pathway.

Keywords: BTK inhibitors, hematologic malignancies, structure based drug design (SBDD), targeted covalent inhibitors (TCI)

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3077 Non-AIDS Related Multiple Brain and Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Meningioma: A Case Report

Authors: Eghosa Morgan, Bourtarbouch Mahjouba, Heida El Ouahabi, Poluyi Edward, Diawarra Seylan

Abstract:

Non-AIDS lymphoma, a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is an uncommon aggressive infiltrative malignant tumour involving several sites in the central nervous system, such as the periventricular region and leptomeninges. In this article, the authors presented a 26-year old man with painless progressive right exophthalmos and scalp swelling with no symptoms and signs of intracranial hypertension and hyperthyroidism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done revealed isointense masses with brilliant homogenous enhancement on contrast administration resembling a meningioma, with a dura tail – like attachment as seen in meningioma. He had surgery for the right orbital tumour and histopathological diagnosis confirmed our suspicion of lymphoma (B type). Steroid was given in the post-operative period which led to significant regression of the tumours, hence its description as ‘vanishing tumour’. He is presently receiving methotrexate-based chemotherapy and subsequently planned for radiotherapy.

Keywords: central nervous system (CNS), meningioma, non-aids lymphoma, orbital

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3076 Incidence of Lymphoma and Gonorrhea Infection: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Diya Kohli, Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Jose Garcia, Lokesh Manjani, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Gonorrhea is the second most common sexually transmitted disease (STDs) in the United States of America. Gonorrhea affects the urethra, rectum, or throat and the cervix in females. Lymphoma is a cancer of the immune network called the lymphatic system that includes the lymph nodes/glands, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow. Lymphoma can affect many organs in the body. When a lymphocyte develops a genetic mutation, it signals other cells into rapid proliferation that causes many mutated lymphocytes. Multiple studies have explored the incidence of cancer in people infected with STDs such as Gonorrhea. For instance, the studies conducted by Wang Y-C and Co., as well as Caini, S and Co. established a direct co-relationship between Gonorrhea infection and incidence of prostate cancer. We hypothesize that Gonorrhea infection also increases the incidence of Lymphoma in patients. This research study aimed to evaluate the correlation between Gonorrhea infection and the incidence of Lymphoma. The data for the research was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database. This database was utilized to evaluate patients infected with Gonorrhea versus the ones who were not infected to establish a correlation with the prevalence of Lymphoma using ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes. Access to the database was granted by the Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for academic research. Standard statistical methods were applied throughout. Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 254 and 808 patients in both the infected and control group, respectively. The two groups were matched by Age Range and CCI score. The incidence of Lymphoma was 0.998% (254 patients out of 25455) in the Gonorrhea group (patients infected with Gonorrhea that was Lymphoma Positive) compared to 3.174% and 808 patients in the control group (Patients negative for Gonorrhea but with Lymphoma). This was statistically significant by a p-value < 2.210-16 with an OR= 0.431 (95% CI 0.381-0.487). The patients were then matched by antibiotic treatment to avoid treatment bias. The incidence of Lymphoma was 1.215% (82 patients out of 6,748) in the Gonorrhea group compared to 2.949% (199 patients out of 6748) in the control group. This was statistically significant by a p-value <5.410-10 with an OR= 0.468 (95% CI 0.367-0.596). The study shows a statistically significant correlation between Gonorrhea and a reduced incidence of Lymphoma. Further evaluation is recommended to assess the potential of Gonorrhea in reducing Lymphoma.

Keywords: gonorrhea, lymphoma, STDs, cancer, ICD

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3075 The Role Previous Cytomegalovirus Infection in Subsequent Lymphoma Develompment

Authors: Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Divesh Manjani, Gabriela Santizo, Maximillian Guerra, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a widespread infection affecting between 60-70% of people in industrialized countries. CMV has been previously correlated with a higher incidence of Hodgkin Lymphoma compared to noninfected persons. Research regarding prior CMV infection and subsequent lymphoma development is still controversial. With limited evidence, further research is needed in order to understand the relationship between previous CMV infection and subsequent lymphoma development. This study assessed the effect of CMV infection and the incidence of lymphoma afterward. Methods: A retrospective cohort study (2010-2019) was conducted through a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database and conducted using International Classification of Disease (ICD) 9th,10th codes, and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. These were used to identify lymphoma diagnosis in a previously CMV infected population. Patients were matched for age range and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). A chi-squared test was used to assess statistical significance. Results: A total number of 14,303 patients was obtained in the CMV infected group as well as in the control population (matched by age range and CCI score). Subsequent lymphoma development was seen at a rate of 11.44% (1,637) in the CMV group and 5.74% (822) in the control group, respectively. The difference was statistically significant by p= 2.2x10-16, odds ratio = 2.696 (95% CI 2.483- 2.927). In an attempt to stratify the population by antiviral medication exposure, the outcomes were limited by the decreased number of members exposed to antiviral medication in the control population. Conclusion: This study shows a statistically significant correlation between prior CMV infection and an increased incidence of lymphoma afterward. Further exploration is needed to identify the potential carcinogenic mechanism of CMV and whether the results are attributed to a confounding bias.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, lymphoma, cancer, microbiology

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3074 Giant Cancer Cell Formation: A Link between Cell Survival and Morphological Changes in Cancer Cells

Authors: Rostyslav Horbay, Nick Korolis, Vahid Anvari, Rostyslav Stoika

Abstract:

Introduction: Giant cancer cells (GCC) are common in all types of cancer, especially after poor therapy. Some specific features of such cells include ~10-fold enlargement, drug resistance, and the ability to propagate similar daughter cells. We used murine NK/Ly lymphoma, an aggressive and fast growing lymphoma model that has already shown drastic changes in GCC comparing to parental cells (chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, tighter OXPHOS/cellular respiration coupling, multidrug resistance). Materials and methods: In this study, we compared morpho-functional changes of GCC that predominantly show either a cytostatic or a cytotoxic effect after treatment with drugs. We studied the effect of a combined cytostatic/cytotoxic drug treatment to determine the correlation of drug efficiency and GCC formation. Doses of G1/S-specific drug paclitaxel/PTX (G2/M-specific, 50 mg/mouse), vinblastine/VBL (50 mg/mouse), and DNA-targeting agents doxorubicin/DOX (125 ng/mouse) and cisplatin/CP (225 ng/mouse) on C57 black mice. Several tests were chosen to estimate morphological and physiological state (propidium iodide, Rhodamine-123, DAPI, JC-1, Janus Green, Giemsa staining and other), which included cell integrity, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation, mitochondrial activity, and others. A single and double factor ANOVA analysis were performed to determine correlation between the criteria of applied drugs and cytomorphological changes. Results: In all cases of treatment, several morphological changes were observed (intracellular vacuolization, membrane blebbing, and interconnected mitochondrial network). A lower gain in ascites (49.97% comparing to control group) and longest lifespan (22+9 days) after tumor injection was obtained with single VBL and single DOX injections. Such ascites contained the highest number of GCC (83.7%+9.2%), lowest cell count number (72.7+31.0 mln/ml), and a strong correlation coefficient between increased mitochondrial activity and percentage of giant NK/Ly cells. A high number of viable GCC (82.1+9.2%) was observed compared to the parental forms (15.4+11.9%) indicating that GCC are more drug resistant than the parental cells. All this indicates that the giant cell formation and its ability to obtain drug resistance is an expanding field in cancer research.

Keywords: ANOVA, cisplatin, doxorubicin, drug resistance, giant cancer cells, NK/Ly lymphoma, paclitaxel, vinblastine

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3073 Comparison with Two Clinical Cases of Plasma Cell Neoplasm by Using the Method of Capillary Electrophoresis

Authors: Kai Pai Huang

Abstract:

Background: There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms including multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are found in our lab. Today, we want to compare with two cases using the method of capillary electrophoresis. Method: Serum is prepared and electrophoresis is performed at alkaline PH in a capillary using the Sebia® Capillary 2. Albumin and globulins are detected by the detector which is located in the cathode of the capillary and the signals are transformed to peaks. Serum was treated with beta-mercaptoethanol which reducing the polymerized immunoglobulin to monomer immunoglobulin to clarify two M-protein are secreted from the same plasma cell clone in bone marrow. Result: Case 1: A 78-year-old female presenting dysuria, oliguria and leg edema for several months. Laboratory data showed proteinuria, leukocytosis, results of high serum IgA and lambda light chain. A renal biopsy found amyloid fibrils in the glomerular mesangial area. Serum protein electrophoresis shows a major monoclonal peak in the β region and minor small peak in gamma region, and the immunotyping studies for serum showed two IgA/λ type. Case 2: A 55-year-old male presenting abdominal distension and low back pain for more than one month. Laboratory data showed T12 T8 compression fracture, results of high serum IgM and kappa light chain. Bone marrow aspiration showed the cells from the bone marrow are B cells with monotypic kappa chain expression. Bone marrow biopsy found this is lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenstrom macroglobulin). Serum protein electrophoresis shows a monoclonal peak in the β region and the immunotyping studies for serum showed IgM/κ type. Conclusion: Plasma cell neoplasm can be diagnosed by many examinations. Among them, using capillary electrophoresis by a lab can separate several types of gammopathy and the quantification of a monoclonal peak can be used to evaluate the patients’ prognosis or treatment.

Keywords: plasma cell neoplasm, capillary electrophoresis, serum protein electrophoresis, immunotyping

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3072 Assessment of Isatin as Surface Recognition Group: Design, Synthesis and Anticancer Evaluation of Hydroxamates as Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

Authors: Harish Rajak, Kamlesh Raghuwanshi

Abstract:

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) are promising target for cancer treatment. The panobinostat (Farydak; Novartis; approved by USFDA in 2015) and chidamide (Epidaza; Chipscreen Biosciences; approved by China FDA in 2014) are the novel HDAC inhibitors ratified for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma and peripheral T cell lymphoma, respectively. On the other hand, two other HDAC inhibitors, Vorinostat (SAHA; approved by USFDA in 2006) and Romidepsin (FK228; approved by USFDA in 2009) are already in market for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Several hydroxamic acid based HDAC inhibitors i.e., belinostat, givinostat, PCI24781 and JNJ26481585 are in clinical trials. HDAC inhibitors consist of three pharmacophoric features - an aromatic cap group, zinc binding group (ZBG) and a linker chain connecting cap group to ZBG. Herein, we report synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of HDAC inhibitors possessing substituted isatin moiety as cap group which recognize the surface of active enzyme pocket and thiosemicarbazide moiety incorporated as linker group responsible for connecting cap group to ZBG (hydroxamic acid). Several analogues were found to inhibit HDAC and cellular proliferation of Hela cervical cancer cells with GI50 values in the micro molar range. Some of the compounds exhibited promising results in vitro antiproliferative studies. Attempts were also made to establish the structure activity relationship among synthesized HDAC inhibitors.

Keywords: HDAC inhibitors, hydroxamic acid derivatives, isatin derivatives, antiproliferative activity, docking

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3071 Principle Component Analysis on Colon Cancer Detection

Authors: N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Rita Magdalena, R. D. Atmaja, Sofia Saidah, Ocky Tiaramukti

Abstract:

Colon cancer or colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that attacks the last part of the human digestive system. Lymphoma and carcinoma are types of cancer that attack human’s colon. Colon cancer causes deaths about half a million people every year. In Indonesia, colon cancer is the third largest cancer case for women and second in men. Unhealthy lifestyles such as minimum consumption of fiber, rarely exercising and lack of awareness for early detection are factors that cause high cases of colon cancer. The aim of this project is to produce a system that can detect and classify images into type of colon cancer lymphoma, carcinoma, or normal. The designed system used 198 data colon cancer tissue pathology, consist of 66 images for Lymphoma cancer, 66 images for carcinoma cancer and 66 for normal / healthy colon condition. This system will classify colon cancer starting from image preprocessing, feature extraction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification using K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) method. Several stages in preprocessing are resize, convert RGB image to grayscale, edge detection and last, histogram equalization. Tests will be done by trying some K-NN input parameter setting. The result of this project is an image processing system that can detect and classify the type of colon cancer with high accuracy and low computation time.

Keywords: carcinoma, colorectal cancer, k-nearest neighbor, lymphoma, principle component analysis

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3070 Bcl-2: A Molecule to Detect Oral Cancer and Precancer

Authors: Vandana Singh, Subash Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes like Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/ leukemia -2 genes. Objectives: An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer and to assess possible correlation between Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression and clinicopathological features of oral precancer and cancer. Material and Methods: This is a selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination is correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein is performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method. To visualize the reaction, 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is used. Results: Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66 %, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00 %), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33 %), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33 %)] oral cancer cases and in 14 [87.50 %, low expression 8 (50 %), moderate expression 6 (37.50 %)] precancer cases. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of our study we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. Relevance: It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. It can be used for revealing progression of epithelial dysplasia to malignancy and as a prognostic marker in oral precancer and cancer.

Keywords: BcL-2, immunohistochemistry, oral cancer, oral precancer

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3069 Cell Patterns and Tissue Metamorphoses Based on Cell Surface Mechanism

Authors: Reyhane Hamed Kamran

Abstract:

Early stage morphogenesis requires the execution of complex systems that direct the nearby conduct of gatherings of cells. The organization of such instruments has been, for the most part, deciphered through the recognizable proof of moderated groups of flagging pathways that spatially and transiently control cell conduct. In any case, how this data is handled to control cell shape and cell elements is an open territory of examination. The structure that rises up out of differing controls, for example, cell science, material science, and formative science, focuses to bond and cortical actin arranges as controllers of cell surface mechanics. In this specific circumstance, a scope of formative marvels can be clarified by the guideline of cell surface pressure.

Keywords: cell, tissue damage, morphogenesis, cell conduct

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3068 An Unbiased Profiling of Immune Repertoire via Sequencing and Analyzing T-Cell Receptor Genes

Authors: Yi-Lin Chen, Sheng-Jou Hung, Tsunglin Liu

Abstract:

Adaptive immune system recognizes a wide range of antigens via expressing a large number of structurally distinct T cell and B cell receptor genes. The distinct receptor genes arise from complex rearrangements called V(D)J recombination, and constitute the immune repertoire. A common method of profiling immune repertoire is via amplifying recombined receptor genes using multiple primers and high-throughput sequencing. This multiplex-PCR approach is efficient; however, the resulting repertoire can be distorted because of primer bias. To eliminate primer bias, 5’ RACE is an alternative amplification approach. However, the application of RACE approach is limited by its low efficiency (i.e., the majority of data are non-regular receptor sequences, e.g., containing intronic segments) and lack of the convenient tool for analysis. We propose a computational tool that can correctly identify non-regular receptor sequences in RACE data via aligning receptor sequences against the whole gene instead of only the exon regions as done in all other tools. Using our tool, the remaining regular data allow for an accurate profiling of immune repertoire. In addition, a RACE approach is improved to yield a higher fraction of regular T-cell receptor sequences. Finally, we quantify the degree of primer bias of a multiplex-PCR approach via comparing it to the RACE approach. The results reveal significant differences in frequency of VJ combination by the two approaches. Together, we provide a new experimental and computation pipeline for an unbiased profiling of immune repertoire. As immune repertoire profiling has many applications, e.g., tracing bacterial and viral infection, detection of T cell lymphoma and minimal residual disease, monitoring cancer immunotherapy, etc., our work should benefit scientists who are interested in the applications.

Keywords: immune repertoire, T-cell receptor, 5' RACE, high-throughput sequencing, sequence alignment

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3067 Triassic Magmatism in Southern Beishan Orogen, Northwest China: Zircon U–Pb Geochronology, Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications

Authors: Zengda Li

Abstract:

The tectonic evolution of the Beishan orogen, which forms part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, remains debated. This study reports the identification of three Triassic granitic plutons representing two distinct stages of magmatism in southern Beishan orogen. Zircon U–Pb dating constrains the early stage as 238–237 Ma and the late stage as 229–227 Ma. The granitoids belong to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic series and exhibit alkalic-calcic and calc-alkalic features, and are weakly peraluminous rocks. Most of these granitoids are highly fractionated I-type and A-type granites. They have relatively high Isr values (0.7049–0.7086) and weak negative εNd(t) values of −1.5 to −2.1, with young Nd model ages of 1.04–0.91 Ga, indicating a crustal contribution. They also show markedly positive zircon εHf(t) values (+3.4 to +11.8) and two-stage Hf model ages of 1.06–0.69 Ga, indicating a mixture of mantle and crustal components. The lithospheric mantle beneath this region incorporating older subducted materials was metasomatized by fluids or melts. Partial melting of the metasomatized lithospheric mantle resulted in underplated magmas, which provided the heat and material input to generate the granitoids. The Middle Triassic granitic plutons show moderate negative Eu anomalies, enrichment of LILEs and depletion in Nb, Ta, and Ti suggesting partial melting of crustal components in response to the underplated mantle-derived magmas, probably linked to lithospheric delamination and asthenospheric upwelling. The Late Triassic granitic plutons show characteristics of post-orogenic granite with strong negative anomalies of Eu, Ba, Nb, Sr, P, and Ti, indicating fractional crystallization and crustal contamination during the emplacement process.

Keywords: Triassic, magmatism, geochronology, petrogenesis, Beishan orogen

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3066 Global Analysis of HIV Virus Models with Cell-to-Cell

Authors: Hossein Pourbashash

Abstract:

Recent experimental studies have shown that HIV can be transmitted directly from cell to cell when structures called virological synapses form during interactions between T cells. In this article, we describe a new within-host model of HIV infection that incorporates two mechanisms: infection by free virions and the direct cell-to-cell transmission. We conduct the local and global stability analysis of the model. We show that if the basic reproduction number R0 1, the virus is cleared and the disease dies out; if R0 > 1, the virus persists in the host. We also prove that the unique positive equilibrium attracts all positive solutions under additional assumptions on the parameters.

Keywords: HIV virus model, cell-to-cell transmission, global stability, Lyapunov function, second compound matrices

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3065 Organochlorine Residues in Cuttlefish from the Arabian Gulf

Authors: A. El-Gendy, S. Al-Farraj, S. Al Kahtani, M. El-Hedeny

Abstract:

Contaminations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as, dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and chlordane (CHLs) were examined in the edible mantle tissues of the commercial cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg 1831, collected from the marine water of the Arabian Gulf. The mean concentrations of DDT, CHLs and HCH were in the ranges of 29.4 - 56 ng/g, 47.4 - 100 ng/g and 1 - 4 ng/g, respectively. Among the POPs analyzed, HCH showed the lowest concentrations ranging between 1 to 5 ng/g lipid wt. However, concentrations of DDT, CHLs and HCH, detected in this study, were generally comparable or lower than those found in studies of similar cephalopod species from other areas subject to a high anthropogenic impact. Relationships between total body lengths and/or dorsal mantle lengths of the organisms and the concentration values of the studied POPs were also considered. Compared with recommendations of the international organizations, there are no potential risks associated with consuming the studied cuttlefish species.

Keywords: cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, organochlorine, DDT, CHLs, HCH, Arabian Gulf

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3064 Single-Cell Visualization with Minimum Volume Embedding

Authors: Zhenqiu Liu

Abstract:

Visualizing the heterogeneity within cell-populations for single-cell RNA-seq data is crucial for studying the functional diversity of a cell. However, because of the high level of noises, outlier, and dropouts, it is very challenging to measure the cell-to-cell similarity (distance), visualize and cluster the data in a low-dimension. Minimum volume embedding (MVE) projects the data into a lower-dimensional space and is a promising tool for data visualization. However, it is computationally inefficient to solve a semi-definite programming (SDP) when the sample size is large. Therefore, it is not applicable to single-cell RNA-seq data with thousands of samples. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm with an accelerated proximal gradient method and visualize the single-cell RNA-seq data efficiently. We demonstrate that the proposed approach separates known subpopulations more accurately in single-cell data sets than other existing dimension reduction methods.

Keywords: single-cell RNA-seq, minimum volume embedding, visualization, accelerated proximal gradient method

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3063 Earthquake Forecasting Procedure Due to Diurnal Stress Transfer by the Core to the Crust

Authors: Hassan Gholibeigian, Kazem Gholibeigian

Abstract:

In this paper, our goal is determination of loading versus time in crust. For this goal, we present a computational procedure to propose a cumulative strain energy time profile which can be used to predict the approximate location and time of the next major earthquake (M > 4.5) along a specific fault, which we believe, is more accurate than many of the methods presently in use. In the coming pages, after a short review of the research works presently going on in the area of earthquake analysis and prediction, earthquake mechanisms in both the jerk and sequence earthquake direction is discussed, then our computational procedure is presented using differential equations of equilibrium which govern the nonlinear dynamic response of a system of finite elements, modified with an extra term to account for the jerk produced during the quake. We then employ Von Mises developed model for the stress strain relationship in our calculations, modified with the addition of an extra term to account for thermal effects. For calculation of the strain energy the idea of Pulsating Mantle Hypothesis (PMH) is used. This hypothesis, in brief, states that the mantle is under diurnal cyclic pulsating loads due to unbalanced gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon. A brief discussion is done on the Denali fault as a case study. The cumulative strain energy is then graphically represented versus time. At the end, based on some hypothetic earthquake data, the final results are verified.

Keywords: pulsating mantle hypothesis, inner core’s dislocation, outer core’s bulge, constitutive model, transient hydro-magneto-thermo-mechanical load, diurnal stress, jerk, fault behaviour

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3062 Up-Regulation of SCUBE2 Expression in Co-Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Hirowati Ali, Aisyah Ellyanti, Dewi Rusnita, Septelia Inawati Wanandi

Abstract:

Stem cell has been known for its potency to be differentiated in many cells. Recently stem cell has been used for many treatment of degenerative medicine. It is still controversy whether stem cell can be used for therapy or these cells can activate cancer stem cell. SCUBE2 is a novel secreted and membrane-anchored protein which has been reported to its role in better prognosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our study aims to observe whether stem cell can up-regulate SCUBE2 gene in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We used in vitro study using MCF-7 cell treated with stem cell derived from placenta Wharton's jelly which has been known for its stemness and widely used. Our results showed that MCF-7 cell line grows up rapidly in 6-well culture dish. Stem cell was cultured in 6-well dish. After 50%-60% MCF-7 confluence, we co-cultured these cells with stem cells for 24 hours and 48 hours. We hypothesize SCUBE2 gene which is previously known for its higher expression in better prognosis of breast cancer, is up-regulated after stem cells addition in MCF7 culture dishes.

Keywords: breast cancer cells, inhibition of cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells, SCUBE2

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3061 Spontaneous Tumour Lysis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Rojith K. Balakrishnan

Abstract:

Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome is a constellation of electrolyte abnormalities and an acute renal failure which occurs in the setting of rapid cell turnover prior to the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. While spontaneous tumour lysis well-described in patients with Burkitt lymphoma, it is thought to occur less commonly in patients with other hematological malignancies. We present a case of forty-year-old female who presented with features of acute renal failure, on further evaluation turned out to be a newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia with spontaneous tumour lysis best of our knowledge only three cases of AML with spontaneous tumour lysis has reported world wide.

Keywords: AML, tumour lysis, renal failure, myeloid leukemia

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3060 Geochemistry of Cenozoic basaltic rocks from Jiashan County of Nushan Geopark, China: Implications for Petrogenesis and Tectonic Setting

Authors: Dixon, Lieh-Chi Su, Hsiao-Ling Yu, Ren-Yi Huang, Yung-Tan Lee

Abstract:

The present paper analyzed the major, trace elements, rare earth elements of these Cenozoic basalts and combined with Sr-Nd isotopic compositions to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts and the tectonic setting of the study area. Based on major, trace elements and fractional crystallization model we suggest that the basaltic magma has experienced olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase fractionation during its evolution. Spidergrams and REE patterns reveal that Cenozoic basalts found in the Jiashan County, Anhui Province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts(OIB) suggesting a derivation related to OIB-like mantle source. The slight positive Nb and Ti anomalies found in basaltic rocks of this study suggest the presence of Ti-bearing minerals in the mantle source and these Ti-bearing minerals had contributed to basaltic magma during partial melting, indicating a metasomatic event might have occurred before the partial melting. Based on 143Nd/144Nd vs. 87Sr/86Sr diagram we suggest that basalts of this study can be produced by MORB and EM-I components mixing and small degree of partial melting may be the major controlling factor during generation of basaltic magma. Some basaltic magma may be derived from partial melting of EM-Ⅰ heated by the upwelling asthenospheric mantle. The basalts fall within the WPB field in the discriminant plot of 2Nb-Zr/4-Y indicate that the volcanic activities in this region may be closely related to deep continental rifting process.

Keywords: geochemistry, cenozoic basalts, Anhui Province, Nushan Geopark, tectonic setting, fractionation

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3059 Efficient Pre-Processing of Single-Cell Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin with High-Throughput Sequencing Data

Authors: Fan Gao, Lior Pachter

Abstract:

The primary tool currently used to pre-process 10X Chromium single-cell ATAC-seq data is Cell Ranger, which can take very long to run on standard datasets. To facilitate rapid pre-processing that enables reproducible workflows, we present a suite of tools called scATAK for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data that is 15 to 18 times faster than Cell Ranger on mouse and human samples. Our tool can also calculate chromatin interaction potential matrices, and generate open chromatin signal and interaction traces for cell groups. We use scATAK tool to explore the chromatin regulatory landscape of a healthy adult human brain and unveil cell-type specific features, and show that it provides a convenient and computational efficient approach for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data.

Keywords: single-cell, ATAC-seq, bioinformatics, open chromatin landscape, chromatin interactome

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3058 Preparation of Gramine Nanosuspension and Protective Effect of Gramine on Human Oral Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

Authors: K. Suresh, R. Arunkumar

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of gramine nano suspension and protective effect of Gramine on the apoptosis of laryngeal cancer cells cell line (HEp-2 and KB). The growth inhibition rate of Hep-2 and KB cells in vitro were measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by, levels of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, morphological changes and flowcytometry. Based on the results, we determined the effective doses of gramine as 127.23µm/ml for 24 hr and 119.81 µm/ml for 48hr in hep-2 cell line and 147.58 µm ml for 24 hr and 123.74µm µm/ml for 48hr in KB cell line. cytotoxicity effects of gramine were confirmed by treatment of HEp-2 cell and KB cell with IC50 concentration of gramine resulted in sequences of events marked by the enhance the apoptosis accompanied by loss of cell viability, modulation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest on HEp-2 cells. Our study suggests that the nanosuspension of gramine possesses the more cytotoxic effect of cancer cells and a novel candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

Keywords: apoptosis, HEp-2 cell line, KB cell line mitochondria, gramine, nanosuspension

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3057 Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level

Authors: Jefunnie Matahum, Yu-Chi Kuo, Chao-Ming Su, Tzong-Rong Ger

Abstract:

Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, single cell, magnetophoresis, image analysis

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