Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3466

Search results for: explosive strength of leg muscles

3466 Interrelationship of BMI with Strength, Speed and Flexibility in Different Age Groups

Authors: Nimesh D. Chaudhari


The purpose of this study was to find out the interrelationship of BMI with strength, i.e. endurance strength of abdominal muscles and explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility which are respectively assessed by sit up, standing broad jump, 50 yard dash and sit and reach tests. 48 boys, aged 7 to 13 years as group A and 40 boys, aged 17 to 28 years asgroup B were selected as the subjects for the study. Product moment correlation coefficient test (r at 0.05 level of significance) was applied to test hypothesis. The findings of the study shows that there is significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, and flexibility whereas a negative significant relationship was found between BMI and speed in group A, i.e. aged from 7 to 13 years. However, there was no significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility in higher age group.

Keywords: body mass index, strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, flexibility of lower back and hamstring muscles

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3465 Correlation of Strength and Change in the Thickness of Back Extensor Muscles during Maximal Isometric Contraction in Healthy and Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women

Authors: Mohammad Jan-Nataj Zeinab, Kahrizi Sedighe, Bayat Noshin, Giti Torkaman


According to the importance of the back extensor muscle strength in postmenopausal women, this study aimed to determine the relationship between strength and changes in the thickness of back extensor muscles during isometric contraction in healthy and osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Strength and thickness of the muscles of 42 postmenopausal women were measured respectively, using a handheld dynamometer and ultrasonography. Also, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between the strength and thickness. The results indicated a high reproducibility dynamometer test and ultrasonography. The decrease of strength in people with osteoporosis, occurred more through changes in muscle structure such as reducing the number and size of muscle fibers than changes in the nervous system part.

Keywords: back extensor muscles, strength, thickness, osteoporosis

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3464 Effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on Isometric Strength of Shoulder Extensor and Abductor Muscles in Adult Hemiplegic

Authors: S. Abbasi, M. R. Hadian, M. Abdolvahab, M. Jalili, S. H. Jalaei


Background: Rehabilitation treatments have significant role in reducing the disabilities of Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA). Due to great role of upper limb in the function of individuals particularly in Activity of Daily Living and the effect of stability of shoulder girdle on hand function, the aim of this study was to study the effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths in adult hemiplegic. Methods: 17 adult hemiplegics patients (50-70 yrs., mean 60/52, SD7/22); with RT side dominancy and 6 months after stroke, participated in this study. All procedures were approved by ethical committee of TUMS and written consents were also taken. Patients were familiarized with the procedure and shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths were measured by dynamometer. Results: according to result to our study, shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths showed Significant differences between mean scores of pre and post intervention (P<0/05). Progressive Resistive Exercise improved 34% shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength and 27% shoulder abductor muscle isometric strength. Conclusion: Results of our research showed that progressive resistive exercise approach is a useful method for increasing the isometric strength of shoulder extensor and abductor muscles. Therefore, it might be concluded that improvement of strength of shoulder muscles could result in stability in shoulder girdle and consequently might effect on hand function in hemiplegic patients.

Keywords: shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength, shoulder abductor muscles isometric strength, hemiplegic, physical therapy

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3463 A Comprehensive Review of Yoga and Core Strength: Strengthening Core Muscles as Important Method for Injury Prevention (Lower Back Pain) and Performance Enhancement in Sports

Authors: Pintu Modak


The core strength is essential not only for athletes but also for everyone to perform everyday's household chores with ease and efficiency. Core strength means to strengthen the muscles deep within the abdomen which connect to the spine and pelvis which control the position and movement of the central portion of the body. Strengthening of core muscles is important for injury prevention (lower back pain) and performance enhancement in sports. The purpose of the study was to review the literature and findings on the effects of Yoga exercise as a part of sports training method and fitness programs. Fifteen papers were found to be relevant for this review. There are five simple yoga poses: Ardha Phalakasana (Low plank), Vasisthasana (side plank), Purvottanasana (inclined plane), Sarvangasana (shoulder stand), and Virabhadrasana (Warrior) are found to be very effective for strengthening core muscles. They are the most effective poses to build core strength and flexibility to the core muscles. The study suggests that sports and fitness trainers should include these yoga exercises in their programs to strengthen core muscles.

Keywords: core strength, yoga, injuries, lower back

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3462 Effect of Hand Grip Strength on Shoulder Muscles Activity in Patients with Subacromial Impingement

Authors: Mohamed E. Abdelrahamn, Mahmoud Aly Hassan, Mohamed Sarhan


Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is a common shoulder disorder. Patients often complain from a decrease in electromyography (EMG) activity of the rotator cuff muscles especially the supraspinatus muscle during glenohumeral elevation. Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the effect of applying 50% of maximum voluntary contraction of hand grip strength on the EMG activity of the shoulder muscles in patients with SIS. Methods: Thirty male and female patients participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 25 to 40 years. EMG activity of supraspinatus muscle and middle deltoid muscle was assessed without and with applying 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Results: A significant difference was found for both supraspinatus and middle deltoid muscles, indicating that the gripping resulted in increasing muscle activity. Conclusion: Applying 50% MVC of hand grip strength could increase the supraspinatus and middle deltoid muscles activity in patients of SIS. This might be useful in the development and monitoring of shoulder rehabilitation strategies.

Keywords: electromyography, supraspinatus muscle, deltoid muscle, subacromial impingement syndrome

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3461 Relation of Electromyography, Strength and Fatigue During Ramp Isometric Contractions

Authors: Cesar Ferreira Amorim, Tamotsu Hirata, Runer Augusto Marson


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of strength ramp isometric contraction on changes in surface electromyography (sEMG) signal characteristics of the hamstrings muscles. All measurements were obtained from 20 healthy well trained healthy adults (age 19.5 ± 0.8 yrs, body mass 63.4 ± 1.5 kg, height: 1.65 ± 0.05 m). Subjects had to perform isometric ramp contractions in knee flexion with the force gradually increasing from 0 to 40% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in a 20s period. The root mean square (RMS) amplitude of sEMG signals obtained from the biceps femoris (caput longum) were calculated at four different strength levels (10, 20, 30, and 40% MVC) from the ramp isometric contractions (5s during the 20s task %MVC). The main results were a more pronounced increase non-linear in sEMG-RMS amplitude for the muscles. The protocol described here may provide a useful index for measuring of strength neuromuscular fatigue.

Keywords: biosignal, surface electromyography, ramp contractions, strength

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3460 The Effects of Total Resistance Exercises Suspension Exercises Program on Physical Performance in Healthy Individuals

Authors: P. Cavlan, B. Kırmızıgil


Introduction: Each exercise in suspension exercises offer the use of gravity and body weight; and is thought to develop the equilibrium, flexibility and body stability necessary for daily life activities and sports, in addition to creating the correct functional force. Suspension exercises based on body weight focus the human body as an integrated system. Total Resistance Exercises (TRX) suspension training that physiotherapists, athletic health clinics, exercise centers of hospitals and chiropractic clinics now use for rehabilitation purposes. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of TRX suspension exercises on physical performance in healthy individuals. Method: Healthy subjects divided into two groups; the study group and the control group with 40 individuals for each, between ages 20 to 45 with similar gender distributions. Study group had 2 sessions of suspension exercises per week for 8 weeks and control group had no exercises during this period. All the participants were given explosive strength, flexibility, strength and endurance tests before and after the 8 week period. The tests used for evaluation were respectively; standing long jump test and single leg (left and right) long jump tests, sit and reach test, sit up and back extension tests. Results: In the study group a statistically significant difference was found between prior- and final-tests in all evaluations, including explosive strength, flexibility, core strength and endurance of the group performing TRX exercises. These values were higher than the control groups’ values. The final test results were found to be statistically different between the study and control groups. Study group showed development in all values. Conclusions: In this study, which was conducted with the aim of investigating and comparing the effects of TRX suspension exercises on physical performance, the results of the prior-tests of both groups were similar. There was no significant difference between the prior and the final values in the control group. It was observed that in the study group, explosive strength, flexibility, strength, and endurance development was achieved after 8 weeks. According to these results, it was shown that TRX suspension exercise program improved explosive strength, flexibility, especially core strength and endurance; therefore the physical performance. Based on the results of our study, it was determined that the physical performance, an indispensable requirement of our life, was developed by the TRX suspension system. We concluded that TRX suspension exercises can be used to improve the explosive strength and flexibility in healthy individuals, as well as developing the muscle strength and endurance of the core region. The specific investigations could be done in this area so that programs that emphasize the TRX's physical performance features could be created.

Keywords: core strength, endurance, explosive strength, flexibility, physical performance, suspension exercises

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3459 Effects of the Amount of Static Stretching on the Knee Isokinetic Muscle Strength

Authors: Chungyu Chen, Hui-Ju Chang, Pei-Shan Guo, Huei-Ling Jhan, Yi-Ping Lin


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the amount of acutely static stretching on muscular strength and power. There were 15 males, and 7 females recruited voluntarily as the participants in the study. The mean age, body height, and weight of participants were 23.4 ± 2.8 years old, 171.0 ± 7.2 cm, and 65.7 ± 8.7 kg, respectively. Participants were repeated to stretch hamstring muscles 2 or 6 30-s bouts randomly on a separate day spaced 5-7 days apart in a passive, static, sit-and-reach stretching exercise. Before and after acutely static stretching, the Biodex System 4 Pro was used to acquire the peak torque, power, total work, and range of motion for right knee under the loading of 180 deg/s. The 2 (test-retest) × 2 (number of stretches) repeated measures two-way analysis of variance were used to compare the parameters of muscular strength/power (α = .05). The results showed that the peak torque, power, and total work increased significantly after acutely passive static stretching (ps < .05) in flexor and extensor of knee. But there were no significant differences found between the 2 and 6 30-s bouts hamstring muscles stretching (ps > .05). It indicated that the performance of muscular strength and power in knee flexion and extension do not inhibit following the increase of amount of stretching.

Keywords: knee, power, flexibility, strength

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3458 Comparison of Whole-Body Vibration and Plyometric Exercises on Explosive Power in Non-Athlete Girl Students

Authors: Fereshteh Zarei, Mahdi Kohandel


The aim of this study was investigate and compare plyometric and vibration exercises on muscle explosive power in non-athlete female students. For this purpose, 45 female students from non-athletes selected target then divided in to the three groups, two experimental and one control groups. From all groups were getting pre-tested. Experimental A did whole-body vibration exercises involved standing on one of machine vibration with frequency 30 Hz, amplitude 10 mm and in 5 different postures. Training for each position was 40 seconds with 60 seconds rest between it, and each season 5 seconds was added to duration of each body condition, until time up to 2 minutes for each postures. Exercises were done three times a week for 2 month. Experimental group B did plyometric exercises that include jumping, such as horizontal, vertical, and skipping .They included 10 times repeat for 5 set in each season. Intensity with increasing repetitions and sets were added. At this time, asked from control group that keep a daily activity and avoided strength training, explosive power and. after do exercises by groups we measured factors again. One-way analysis of variance and paired t statistical methods were used to analyze the data. There was significant difference in the amount of explosive power between the control and vibration groups (p=0/048) there was significant difference between the control and plyometric groups (019/0 = p). But between vibration and plyometric groups didn't observe significant difference in the amount of explosive power.

Keywords: vibration, plyometric, exercises, explosive power, non-athlete

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3457 Behaviour of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures

Authors: Lenka Bodnárová, Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertová, Iveta Nováková


This paper is concerning the issues of behaviour of lightweight expanded clay aggregates concrete exposed to high temperature. Lightweight aggregates from expanded clay are produced by firing of row material up to temperature 1050°C. Lightweight aggregates have suitable properties in terms of volume stability, when exposed to temperatures up to 1050°C, which could indicate their suitability for construction applications with higher risk of fire. The test samples were exposed to heat by using the standard temperature-time curve ISO 834. Negative changes in resulting mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength were evaluated. Also visual evaluation of the specimen was performed. On specimen exposed to excessive heat, an explosive spalling could be observed, due to evaporation of considerable amount of unbounded water from the inner structure of the concrete.

Keywords: expanded clay aggregate, explosive spalling, high temperature, lightweight concrete, temperature-time curve ISO 834

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3456 The Effects of Dynamic Training Shoes Exercises on Isokinetic Strength Performance

Authors: Bergun Meric Bingul, Yezdan Cinel, Murat Son, Cigdem Bulgan, Mensure Aydin


The aim of this study was to determination of the effects of knee and hip isokinetic performance during the training with the special designed roller-shoes. 30 soccer players participated as subjects and these subjects were divided into 3 groups randomly. Training groups were; with the dynamic training shoes group, without the dynamic training shoes group and control group. Subjects were trained speed strength trainings during 8 weeks (3 days a week and 1 hour a day). 6 exercises were focused on the knee flexors and extensors, also hip adductor and abductor muscles were chosen and performed in 3x30secs at each sets. Control group was not paticipated to the training program. Before and after the training programs knee flexor and extensor muscles and hip abductor and adductor muscles’ peak torques were measured by Biodex III isokinetic dynamometer. Isokinetic strength data were analyzed by using SPSS program. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences among the peak torque values for three groups. The results indicated that soccer players’ peak torque values that the group of using the dynamic training shoes, were found higher. Also, hip adductor and abductor peak torques that the group of using the dynamic training shoes, were obtained better than the other groups. In conclusion, the ground friction forces are an important role of increasing strength. With these shoes, using rollers, soccer players were able to move easily because of the friction forces were reduced and created more range of motion. So, exercises were performed faster than before and strength movements in all angles, it ensured that the active state. This was resulted in a better use of force.

Keywords: isokinetic, soccer, dynamic training shoes, training

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3455 Validation of Two Field Base Dynamic Balance Tests in the Activation of Selected Hip and Knee Stabilizer Muscles

Authors: Mariam A. Abu-Alim


The purpose of this study was to validate muscle activation amplitudes of two field base dynamic balance tests that are used as strengthen and motor control exercises too in the activation of selected hip and knee stabilizer muscles. Methods: Eighteen college-age females students (21±2 years; 65.6± 8.7 kg; 169.7±8.1 cm) who participated at least for 30 minutes in physical activity most days of the week volunteered. The wireless BIOPAC (MP150, BIOPAC System. Inc, California, USA) surface electromyography system was used to validate the activation of the Gluteus Medius and the Adductor Magnus of hip stabilizer muscles; and the Hamstrings, Quadriceps, and the Gastrocnemius of the knee stabilizer muscles. Surface electrodes (EL 503, BIOPAC, System. Inc) connected to dual wireless EMG BioNormadix Transmitters were place on selected muscles of participants dominate side. Manual muscle testing was performed to obtain the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in which all collected muscle activity data during the three reaching direction: anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the Y-balance Test (YBT) data could be normalized. All participants performed three trials for each reaching direction of the SEBT and the YBT. The domanial leg trial for each participant was selected for analysis which was also the standing leg. Results: the selected hip stabilizer muscles (Gluteus Medius, Adductor Magnus) were both greater than 100%MVIC during the performance of the SEBT and in all three directions. Whereas, selected knee stabilizer muscles had greater activation 0f 100% MVIC and were significantly more activated during the performance of the YBT test in all three reaching directions. The results showed that the posterolateral and the postmedial reaching directions for both dynamic balance tests had greater activation levels and greater than 200%MVIC for all tested muscles expect of the hamstrings. Conclusion: the results of this study showed that the SEBT and the YBT had validated high levels of muscular activity for the hip and the knee stabilizer muscles; which can be used to represent the improvement, strength, control and the decreasing in the injury levels. Since these selected hip and knee stabilizer muscles, represent 35% of all athletic injuries depending on the type of sport.

Keywords: dynamic balance tests, electromyography, hip stabilizer muscles, nee stabilizer muscles

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3454 Study Concerning the Energy-to-Mass Ratio in Pneumatic Muscles

Authors: Tudor Deaconescu, Andrea Deaconescu


The utilization of pneumatic muscles in the actuation of industrial systems is still in its early stages, hence studies on the constructive solutions which include an assessment of their functional performance with a focus on one of the most important characteristics-energy efficiency are required. A quality indicator that adequately reflects the energy efficiency of an actuator is the energy-to-mass ratio. This ratio is computed in the paper for various types and sizes of pneumatic muscles manufactured by Festo, and is subsequently compared to the similar ratios determined for two categories of pneumatic cylinders.

Keywords: pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic muscles, energy-to-mass ratio, muscle stroke

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3453 Effectiveness of Impairment Specified Muscle Strengthening Programme in a Group of Disabled Athletes

Authors: A. L. I. Prasanna, E. Liyanage, S. A. Rajaratne, K. P. A. P. Kariyawasam, A. A. J. Rajaratne


Maintaining or improving the muscle strength of the injured body part is essential to optimize performance among disabled athletes. General conditioning and strengthening exercises might be ineffective if not sufficiently intense enough or targeted for each participant’s specific impairment. Specific strengthening programme, targeted to the affected body part, are essential to improve the strength of impaired muscles and increase in strength will help reducing the impact of disability. Methods: The muscle strength of hip, knee and ankle joints was assessed in a group of randomly selected disabled athletes, using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading. Those having muscle strength of grade 4 or less were selected for this study (24 in number) and were given and a custom made exercise program designed to strengthen their hip, knee or ankle joint musculature, according to the muscle or group of muscles affected. Effectiveness of the strengthening program was assessed after a period of 3 months. Results: Statistical analysis was done using the Minitab 16 statistical software. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the strength of muscle group before and after exercise programme. A significant difference was observed after the three month strengthening program for knee flexors (Left and Right) (P =0.0889, 0.0312) hip flexors (left and right) (P=0.0312, 0.0466), hip extensors (Left and Right) (P=0.0478, 0.0513), ankle plantar flexors (Left and Right) (P=0.0466, 0.0423) and right ankle dorsiflexors (P= 0.0337). No significant difference of strength was observed after the strengthening program in the knee extensors (left and right), hip abductors (left and right) and left ankle dorsiflexors. Conclusion: Impairment specific exercise programme appear to be beneficial for disabled athletes to significantly improve the muscle strength of the affected joints.

Keywords: muscle strengthening programme, disabled athletes, physiotherapy, rehabilitation sciences

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3452 Flow-Oriented Incentive Spirometry in the Reversal of Diaphragmatic Dysfunction in Bariatric Surgery Postoperative Period

Authors: Eli Maria Forti-Pazzianotto, Carolina Moraes Da Costa, Daniela Faleiros Berteli Merino, Maura Rigoldi Simões Da Rocha, Irineu Rasera-Junior


There is no conclusive evidence to support the use of one type or brand of incentive espirometry over others. The decision as to which equipment is best, have being based on empirical assessment of patient acceptance, ease of use, and cost. The aim was to evaluate the effects of use of two methodologies of breathing exercises, performed by flow-oriented incentive spirometry, in the reversal of diaphragmatic dysfunction in postoperative bariatric surgery. 38 morbid obese women were selected. Respiratory muscle strength was evaluated through the nasal inspiratory pressure (NIP), and the respiratory muscles endurance, through incremental test by measurement of sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SMIP). They were randomized in 2 groups: 1- Respiron® Classic (RC) the inspirations were slow, deep and sustained for as long as possible (5 sec). 2- Respiron® Athletic1 (RA1) - the inspirations were explosive, quick and intense, raising balls by the explosive way. 6 sets of 15 repetitions with intervals of 30 to 60 seconds were performed in groups. At the end of the intervention program (second PO), the volunteers were reevaluated. The groups were homogeneous with regard to initial assessment. However on reevaluating there was a significant decline of the variable PIN (p= < 0.0001) and SMIP (p=0.0004) in RC. In the RA1 group there was a maintenance of SMIP (p=0.5076) after surgery. The use of the Respiron Athletic 1, as well as the methodology of application used, can contribute positively to preserve the inspiratory muscle endurance and improve the diaphragmatic dysfunction in postoperative period.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, incentive spirometry, respiratory muscle, physiotherapy

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3451 Effect of Concurrent Training and Detraining on Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

Authors: Kaveh Azadeh, Saeid Fazelifar


The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 12 weeks (3 days/week) concurrent training followed by 4 weeks detraining on insulin resistance in obese boys without dietary intervention. Methods: 24 obese children boys (body mass index> 28, age= 11- 13year old) voluntarily participated in the study. Biochemical factors, body composition, and functional physical fitness were assessed in three stages [baseline, after 12 week’s combined endurance and resistance training and 4 week’s detraining in the experimental group (n=12); baseline and after 12 weeks in control group (n=12)]. Results: Indepented - Sample T test revealed that in experimental group after 12weeks trainings the insulin resistance, and body fat mass were significantly declined, whereas endurance and strength of abdominal muscles significantly increased compared to control group (p<0/05). One-way ANOVA for three different periods showed that insulin resistance, body fat mass, strength of abdominal muscles after 12week training was significantly improved in the experimental group compared with the baseline. Following 4weeks detraining insulin resistance again significantly increased (p<0/05). After detraining disturbances of physiological adaptation in obese children have more rapid course in comparison with those anthropological and functional indices. Conclusion: Results showed that participation in the regular concurrent trainings provides a decrease of insulin resistance in obese children. It may serve as a strategy in treatment of obesity and management on insulin resistance, as well as to increase endurance and strength muscles in obese children. Adaptations resulting from regular exercises following detraining are reversible.

Keywords: endurance and resistance trainings, detraining, insulin resistance, obese children

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3450 Effects of Varied Packages of Plyometric Traning on Leg Explosive Power and VO2 Max Among College Men Students

Authors: Nisithkumar Datta, Rakesh Bharti


The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of varied packages of plyometric training on leg explosive power and VO2 max among college men students. Sixty male students were selected and divided into four equal groups. Group I underwent low-intensity plyometric training, Group II underwent medium intensity plyometric training and Group III underwent high-intensity plyometric training for three days per week for twelve weeks. Group IV acted as control group. The variables namely leg explosive power and VO2 max were selected as dependent variables. The analysis of covariance was used to analyze the significant difference. The 0.05 level of confidence was fixed as the level of significance to test the ‘F’ ratio obtained by the analysis of covariance. The result of the study indicates due to varied packages of plyometric training, the leg explosive power and VO2 max has been improved significantly.

Keywords: leg explosive power, plyometric exercise, VO2 max, men students

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3449 Effectiveness of Imagery Compared with Exercise Training on Hip Abductor Strength and EMG Production in Healthy Adults

Authors: Majid Manawer Alenezi, Gavin Lawrence, Hans-Peter Kubis


Imagery training could be an important treatment for muscle function improvements in patients who are facing limitations in exercise training by pain or other adverse symptoms. However, recent studies are mostly limited to small muscle groups and are often contradictory. Moreover, a possible bilateral transfer effect of imagery training has not been examined. We, therefore, investigated the effectiveness of unilateral imagery training in comparison with exercise training on hip abductor muscle strength and EMG. Additionally, both limbs were assessed to investigate bilateral transfer effects. Healthy individuals took part in an imagery or exercise training intervention for two weeks and were assesses pre and post training. Participants (n=30), after randomization into an imagery and an exercise group, trained 5 times a week under supervision with additional self-performed training on the weekends. The training consisted of performing, or to imagine, 5 maximal isometric hip abductor contractions (= one set), repeating the set 7 times. All measurements and trainings were performed laying on the side on a dynamometer table. The imagery script combined kinesthetic and visual imagery with internal perspective for producing imagined maximal hip abduction contractions. The exercise group performed the same number of tasks but performing the maximal hip abductor contractions. Maximal hip abduction strength and EMG amplitudes were measured of right and left limbs pre- and post-training period. Additionally, handgrip strength and right shoulder abduction (Strength and EMG) were measured. Using mixed model ANOVA (strength measures) and Wilcoxen-tests (EMGs), data revealed a significant increase in hip abductor strength production in the imagery group on the trained right limb (~6%). However, this was not reported for the exercise group. Additionally, the left hip abduction strength (not used for training) did not show a main effect in strength, however, there was a significant interaction of group and time revealing that the strength increased in the imagery group while it remained constant in the exercise group. EMG recordings supported the strength findings showing significant elevation of EMG amplitudes after imagery training on right and left side, while the exercise training group did not show any changes. Moreover, measures of handgrip strength and shoulder abduction showed no effects over time and no interactions in both groups. Experiments showed that imagery training is a suitable method for effectively increasing functional parameters of larger limb muscles (strength and EMG) which were enhanced on both sides (trained and untrained) confirming a bilateral transfer effect. Indeed, exercise training did not reveal any increases in the parameters above omitting functional improvements. The healthy individuals tested might not easily achieve benefits from exercise training within the time tested. However, it is evident that imagery training is effective in increasing the central motor command towards the muscles and that the effect seems to be segmental (no increase in handgrip strength and shoulder abduction parameters) and affects both sides (trained and untrained). In conclusion, imagery training was effective in functional improvements in limb muscles and produced a bilateral transfer on strength and EMG measures.

Keywords: imagery, exercise, physiotherapy, motor imagery

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3448 Investigation of Surface Electromyograph Signal Acquired from the around Shoulder Muscles of Upper Limb Amputees

Authors: Amanpreet Kaur, Ravinder Agarwal, Amod Kumar


Surface electromyography is a strategy to measure the muscle activity of the skin. Sensors placed on the skin recognize the electrical current or signal generated by active muscles. A lot of the research has focussed on the detection of signal from upper limb amputee with activity of triceps and biceps muscles. The purpose of this study was to correlate phantom movement and sEMG activity in residual stump muscles of transhumeral amputee from the shoulder muscles. Eight non- amputee and seven right hand amputees were recruited for this study. sEMG data were collected for the trapezius, pectoralis and teres muscles for elevation, protraction and retraction of shoulder. Contrast between the amputees and non-amputees muscles action have been investigated. Subsequently, to investigate the impact of class separability for different motions of shoulder, analysis of variance for experimental recorded data was carried out. Results were analyzed to recognize different shoulder movements and represent a step towards the surface electromyography controlled system for amputees. Difference in F ratio (p < 0.05) values indicates the distinction in mean therefore these analysis helps to determine the independent motion. The identified signal would be used to design more accurate and efficient controllers for the upper-limb amputee for researchers.

Keywords: around shoulder amputation, surface electromyography, analysis of variance, features

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3447 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A. Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

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3446 Multi-Tooled Robotic Hand for Tele-Operation of Explosive Devices

Authors: Faik Derya Ince, Ugur Topgul, Alp Gunay, Can Bayoglu, Dante J. Dorantes-Gonzalez


Explosive attacks are arguably the most lethal threat that may occur in terrorist attacks. In order to counteract this issue, explosive ordnance disposal operators put their lives on the line to dispose of a possible improvised explosive device. Robots can make the disposal process more accurately and saving human lives. For this purpose, there is a demand for more accurate and dexterous manipulating robotic hands that can be teleoperated from a distance. The aim of this project is to design a robotic hand that contains two active and two passive DOF for each finger, as well as a minimum set of tools for mechanical cutting and screw driving within the same robotic hand. Both hand and toolset, are teleoperated from a distance from a haptic robotic glove in order to manipulate dangerous objects such as improvised explosive devices. SolidWorks® Computer-Aided Design, computerized dynamic simulation, and MATLAB® kinematic and static analysis were used for the robotic hand and toolset design. Novel, dexterous and robust solutions for the fingers were obtained, and six servo motors are used in total to remotely control the multi-tooled robotic hand. This project is still undergoing and presents currents results. Future research steps are also presented.

Keywords: Explosive Manipulation, Robotic Hand, Tele-Operation, Tool Integration

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3445 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

Procedia PDF Downloads 589
3444 The Effect of Isokinetic Fatigue of Ankle, Knee, and Hip Muscles on the Dynamic Postural Stability Index

Authors: Masoumeh Shojaei, Natalie Gedayloo, Amir Sarshin


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Isokinetic fatigue of muscles around the ankle, knee, and hip on the indicators of dynamic postural stability. Therefore, 15 female university students (age 19.7± 0.6 years old, weight 54.6± 9.4 kg, and height 163.9± 5.6 cm) participated in within-subjects design for 5 different days. In the first session, the postural stability indices (time to stabilization after jump-landing) without fatigue were assessed by force plate and in each next sessions, one of muscle groups of the lower limb including the muscles around ankles, knees, and hip was randomly exhausted by Biodex Isokinetic dynamometer and the indices were assessed immediately after the fatigue of each muscle group. The method involved landing on a force plate from a dynamic state, and transitioning balance into a static state. Results of ANOVA with repeated measures indicated that there was no significant difference between the time to stabilization (TTS) before and after Isokinetic fatigue of the muscles around the ankle, knee and hip in medial – lateral direction (p > 0.05), but in the anterior – posterior (AP) direction, the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Least Significant Difference (LSD) post hoc test results also showed that there was significant difference between TTS in knee and hip muscles before and after isokinetic fatigue in AP direction. In the other hand knee and hip muscles group were affected by isokinetic fatigue only in AP surface (p < 0.05).

Keywords: dynamic balance, fatigue, lower limb muscles, postural control

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
3443 Optimal Mother Wavelet Function for Shoulder Muscles of Upper Limb Amputees

Authors: Amanpreet Kaur


Wavelet transform (WT) is a powerful statistical tool used in applied mathematics for signal and image processing. The different mother, wavelet basis function, has been compared to select the optimal wavelet function that represents the electromyogram signal characteristics of upper limb amputees. Four different EMG electrode has placed on different location of shoulder muscles. Twenty one wavelet functions from different wavelet families were investigated. These functions included Daubechies (db1-db10), Symlets (sym1-sym5), Coiflets (coif1-coif5) and Discrete Meyer. Using mean square error value, the significance of the mother wavelet functions has been determined for teres, pectorals, and infraspinatus around shoulder muscles. The results show that the best mother wavelet is the db3 from the Daubechies family for efficient classification of the signal.

Keywords: Daubechies, upper limb amputation, shoulder muscles, Symlets, Coiflets

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3442 Evolution of Bombings against Transportation Infrastructure

Authors: Jonathan K. Hill


The transportation networks throughout Africa remain the only transportation infrastructure system in the world that is attacked by terrorists at a high frequency, so the international community can learn from each attack. The targeting of transportation should be recognized as a direct attack against a civilian population, so the international community should work to better understand the types of attacks utilized, the types of improvised explosive device designs adapted to transportation targets, and the ways the various modes of transportation have been attacked throughout the continent. Some countries have seen grenade attacks that have resulted in only injuries, while some countries have experienced large vehicle bombings that have resulted in hundreds of injuries and numerous deaths. With insurgencies, explosive devices have been small, complex, and generally target an enemy of the insurgency. With terrorist bombings, the explosive devices have been large, brazen, and targeted at civilian populations. And, these civilian populations are easily targeted within the transportation system. The presentation provided by Assess Africa LLC is titled ‘Evolution of Bombings Against Transportation Infrastructure’ and covers improvised explosive device characteristics, how improvised explosive devices have been adapted to transportation targets in Africa, analyses recent incidents, and provides some advice for effective protective measures. A main component of the improvised explosive device characteristics portion of the presentation focuses on the link between explosive device components, the intelligence network, and the bomb-builder’s network. By understanding the components, how the use of various components can be linked to a terrorist group’s capabilities, and how the bomb-builder acquires materials, the analysis of improvised explosive device attacks takes on a new direction – one that focuses on defeating the network instead of merely reviewing incidents of the past.

Keywords: Africa, bombings, critical infrastructure protection, transportation security

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
3441 The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material

Authors: Mirna Febriani


Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.

Keywords: compressive strength, tear strength, Cassava starch, alginate

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
3440 Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Ability Profile of Elite and Non-Elite Boxers of Manipur

Authors: Anthropometric, Physical Fitness Ability Profile of Elite, Non-Elite Boxers of Manipur


Background: Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports where different anthropological and fitness ability parameters determine performance. It is characterized by short duration, high intensity bursts of activity. The purpose of this research was to determine anthropometric and physical fitness profile of male elite and non-elite boxers of Manipur and to compare the two groups. Materials and Methods: Nineteen subjects were selected as elite boxers and twenty-four were non-elite boxers of Manipur. A cross-sectional study was conducted on anthropometric measurements and physical fitness ability tests on 33 subjects (elite and non-elite boxers). Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistics, t-test and logistic regression with the help of SPSS version 15 software. Results: Results showed elite boxers have significantly reduced neck girth and calf girth as compare to non-elite boxers. Elite boxers have significantly lower sub scapular skin fold (SSF) and supra iliac skin fold (SISF) than their counterparts. Higher stature, larger BTB and lower percent fat are associated with higher performance in boxing. Sit ups (SU), standing Broad Jump (SBJ), Plat taping (PT), Sit and reach (SAR) and Harvard Step Test (HST) are predicted as most contributing factors enhancing performance level among the physical fitness components. Elite boxers are found to have more functional strength (sit ups), higher explosive strength (SBJ), more agility (PT), cardio-vascular endurance and flexibility (SAR) than non-elite boxers. Conclusion: In conclusion, lower fat, higher lean body mass, larger bi-trochantric breadth, high explosive strength, agility and flexibility are significantly associated with higher performance and chance of becoming elite boxers.

Keywords: anthropometry, elite and non-elite boxers, Manipur, physical fitness

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3439 Modeling of a Pendulum Test Including Skin and Muscles under Compression

Authors: M. J. Kang, Y. N. Jo, H. H. Yoo


Pendulum tests were used to identify a stretch reflex and diagnose spasticity. Some researches tried to make a mathematical model to simulate the motions. Thighs are subject to compressive forces due to gravity during a pendulum test. Therefore, it affects knee trajectories. However, the most studies on the pendulum tests did not consider that conditions. We used Kelvin-Voight model as compression model of skin and muscles. In this study, we investigated viscoelastic behaviors of skin and muscles using gelatin blocks from experiments of the vibration of the compliantly supported beam. Then we calculated a dynamic stiffness and loss factors from the experiment and estimated a damping coefficient of the model. We also did pendulum tests of human lower limbs to validate the stiffness and damping coefficient of a skin model. To simulate the pendulum motion, we derive equations of motion. We used stretch reflex activation model to estimate muscle forces induced by the stretch reflex. To validate the results, we compared the activation with electromyography signals during experiments. The compression behavior of skin and muscles in this study can be applied to analyze sitting posture as wee as developing surgical techniques.

Keywords: Kelvin-Voight model, pendulum test, skin and muscles under compression, stretch reflex

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
3438 Effect of Confinement on Flexural Tensile Strength of Concrete

Authors: M. Ahmed, Javed Mallick, Mohammad Abul Hasan


The flexural tensile strength of concrete is an important parameter for determining cracking behavior of concrete structure and to compute deflection under flexure. Many factors have been shown to influence the flexural tensile strength, particularly the level of concrete strength, size of member, age of concrete and confinement to flexure member etc. Empirical equations have been suggested to relate the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength. Limited literature is available for relationship between flexural tensile strength and compressive strength giving consideration to the factors affecting the flexural tensile strength specially the concrete confinement factor. The concrete member such as slabs, beams and columns critical locations are under confinement effects. The paper presents the experimental study to predict the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength empirical relations using statistical procedures considering the effect of confinement and age of concrete for wide range of concrete strength (from 35 to about 100 MPa). It is concluded from study that due consideration of confinement should be given in deriving the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength proportionality equations.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, modulus of rupture, statistical procedures, concrete confinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
3437 Dinitrotoluene and Trinitrotoluene Measuring in Double-Base Solid Propellants

Authors: Z. H. Safari, M. Anbia, G. H. Kouzegari, R. Amirkhani


Toluene and Nitro derivatives are widely used in industry particularly in various defense applications. Tri-nitro-toluene derivative is a powerful basic explosive material that is a basis upon which to compare equivalent explosive power of similar materials. The aim of this paper is to measure the explosive power of these hazardous substances in fuels having different shelf-life and therefore optimizing their storage and maintenance. The methodology involves measuring the amounts of di- nitro- toluene and tri-nitro-toluene in the aged samples at 90 ° C by gas chromatography. Results show no significant difference in the concentration of the TNT compound over a given time while there was a significant difference in DNT compound over the same period. The underlying reason is attributed to the simultaneous production of the material with destruction of stabilizer.

Keywords: dinitrotoluene, trinitrotoluene, double-base solid propellants, artificial aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 350