Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3617

Search results for: strength of abdominal muscles

3617 Interrelationship of BMI with Strength, Speed and Flexibility in Different Age Groups

Authors: Nimesh D. Chaudhari

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to find out the interrelationship of BMI with strength, i.e. endurance strength of abdominal muscles and explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility which are respectively assessed by sit up, standing broad jump, 50 yard dash and sit and reach tests. 48 boys, aged 7 to 13 years as group A and 40 boys, aged 17 to 28 years asgroup B were selected as the subjects for the study. Product moment correlation coefficient test (r at 0.05 level of significance) was applied to test hypothesis. The findings of the study shows that there is significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, and flexibility whereas a negative significant relationship was found between BMI and speed in group A, i.e. aged from 7 to 13 years. However, there was no significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility in higher age group.

Keywords: body mass index, strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, flexibility of lower back and hamstring muscles

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3616 Correlation of Strength and Change in the Thickness of Back Extensor Muscles during Maximal Isometric Contraction in Healthy and Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women

Authors: Mohammad Jan-Nataj Zeinab, Kahrizi Sedighe, Bayat Noshin, Giti Torkaman

Abstract:

According to the importance of the back extensor muscle strength in postmenopausal women, this study aimed to determine the relationship between strength and changes in the thickness of back extensor muscles during isometric contraction in healthy and osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Strength and thickness of the muscles of 42 postmenopausal women were measured respectively, using a handheld dynamometer and ultrasonography. Also, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between the strength and thickness. The results indicated a high reproducibility dynamometer test and ultrasonography. The decrease of strength in people with osteoporosis, occurred more through changes in muscle structure such as reducing the number and size of muscle fibers than changes in the nervous system part.

Keywords: back extensor muscles, strength, thickness, osteoporosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3615 Effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on Isometric Strength of Shoulder Extensor and Abductor Muscles in Adult Hemiplegic

Authors: S. Abbasi, M. R. Hadian, M. Abdolvahab, M. Jalili, S. H. Jalaei

Abstract:

Background: Rehabilitation treatments have significant role in reducing the disabilities of Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA). Due to great role of upper limb in the function of individuals particularly in Activity of Daily Living and the effect of stability of shoulder girdle on hand function, the aim of this study was to study the effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths in adult hemiplegic. Methods: 17 adult hemiplegics patients (50-70 yrs., mean 60/52, SD7/22); with RT side dominancy and 6 months after stroke, participated in this study. All procedures were approved by ethical committee of TUMS and written consents were also taken. Patients were familiarized with the procedure and shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths were measured by dynamometer. Results: according to result to our study, shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths showed Significant differences between mean scores of pre and post intervention (P<0/05). Progressive Resistive Exercise improved 34% shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength and 27% shoulder abductor muscle isometric strength. Conclusion: Results of our research showed that progressive resistive exercise approach is a useful method for increasing the isometric strength of shoulder extensor and abductor muscles. Therefore, it might be concluded that improvement of strength of shoulder muscles could result in stability in shoulder girdle and consequently might effect on hand function in hemiplegic patients.

Keywords: shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength, shoulder abductor muscles isometric strength, hemiplegic, physical therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3614 Effect of Concurrent Training and Detraining on Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

Authors: Kaveh Azadeh, Saeid Fazelifar

Abstract:

The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 12 weeks (3 days/week) concurrent training followed by 4 weeks detraining on insulin resistance in obese boys without dietary intervention. Methods: 24 obese children boys (body mass index> 28, age= 11- 13year old) voluntarily participated in the study. Biochemical factors, body composition, and functional physical fitness were assessed in three stages [baseline, after 12 week’s combined endurance and resistance training and 4 week’s detraining in the experimental group (n=12); baseline and after 12 weeks in control group (n=12)]. Results: Indepented - Sample T test revealed that in experimental group after 12weeks trainings the insulin resistance, and body fat mass were significantly declined, whereas endurance and strength of abdominal muscles significantly increased compared to control group (p<0/05). One-way ANOVA for three different periods showed that insulin resistance, body fat mass, strength of abdominal muscles after 12week training was significantly improved in the experimental group compared with the baseline. Following 4weeks detraining insulin resistance again significantly increased (p<0/05). After detraining disturbances of physiological adaptation in obese children have more rapid course in comparison with those anthropological and functional indices. Conclusion: Results showed that participation in the regular concurrent trainings provides a decrease of insulin resistance in obese children. It may serve as a strategy in treatment of obesity and management on insulin resistance, as well as to increase endurance and strength muscles in obese children. Adaptations resulting from regular exercises following detraining are reversible.

Keywords: endurance and resistance trainings, detraining, insulin resistance, obese children

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3613 A Comprehensive Review of Yoga and Core Strength: Strengthening Core Muscles as Important Method for Injury Prevention (Lower Back Pain) and Performance Enhancement in Sports

Authors: Pintu Modak

Abstract:

The core strength is essential not only for athletes but also for everyone to perform everyday's household chores with ease and efficiency. Core strength means to strengthen the muscles deep within the abdomen which connect to the spine and pelvis which control the position and movement of the central portion of the body. Strengthening of core muscles is important for injury prevention (lower back pain) and performance enhancement in sports. The purpose of the study was to review the literature and findings on the effects of Yoga exercise as a part of sports training method and fitness programs. Fifteen papers were found to be relevant for this review. There are five simple yoga poses: Ardha Phalakasana (Low plank), Vasisthasana (side plank), Purvottanasana (inclined plane), Sarvangasana (shoulder stand), and Virabhadrasana (Warrior) are found to be very effective for strengthening core muscles. They are the most effective poses to build core strength and flexibility to the core muscles. The study suggests that sports and fitness trainers should include these yoga exercises in their programs to strengthen core muscles.

Keywords: core strength, yoga, injuries, lower back

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3612 Effect of Hand Grip Strength on Shoulder Muscles Activity in Patients with Subacromial Impingement

Authors: Mohamed E. Abdelrahamn, Mahmoud Aly Hassan, Mohamed Sarhan

Abstract:

Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is a common shoulder disorder. Patients often complain from a decrease in electromyography (EMG) activity of the rotator cuff muscles especially the supraspinatus muscle during glenohumeral elevation. Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the effect of applying 50% of maximum voluntary contraction of hand grip strength on the EMG activity of the shoulder muscles in patients with SIS. Methods: Thirty male and female patients participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 25 to 40 years. EMG activity of supraspinatus muscle and middle deltoid muscle was assessed without and with applying 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Results: A significant difference was found for both supraspinatus and middle deltoid muscles, indicating that the gripping resulted in increasing muscle activity. Conclusion: Applying 50% MVC of hand grip strength could increase the supraspinatus and middle deltoid muscles activity in patients of SIS. This might be useful in the development and monitoring of shoulder rehabilitation strategies.

Keywords: electromyography, supraspinatus muscle, deltoid muscle, subacromial impingement syndrome

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3611 Relation of Electromyography, Strength and Fatigue During Ramp Isometric Contractions

Authors: Cesar Ferreira Amorim, Tamotsu Hirata, Runer Augusto Marson

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of strength ramp isometric contraction on changes in surface electromyography (sEMG) signal characteristics of the hamstrings muscles. All measurements were obtained from 20 healthy well trained healthy adults (age 19.5 ± 0.8 yrs, body mass 63.4 ± 1.5 kg, height: 1.65 ± 0.05 m). Subjects had to perform isometric ramp contractions in knee flexion with the force gradually increasing from 0 to 40% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in a 20s period. The root mean square (RMS) amplitude of sEMG signals obtained from the biceps femoris (caput longum) were calculated at four different strength levels (10, 20, 30, and 40% MVC) from the ramp isometric contractions (5s during the 20s task %MVC). The main results were a more pronounced increase non-linear in sEMG-RMS amplitude for the muscles. The protocol described here may provide a useful index for measuring of strength neuromuscular fatigue.

Keywords: biosignal, surface electromyography, ramp contractions, strength

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3610 Comparative Efficacy of Prolene and Polyester Mesh for the Repair of Abdominal Wall Defect in Pigeons (Columba livia)

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Ali, Hamad Bin Rashid, Muhammad Arif Khan, Abdul Basit, Hafiz Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

Abdominal defects are very common in pigeons. A new technique is known as intraabdominal mesh transplant that give better protection for herniorrhaphy. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of hernia mesh. In this study, an efficacy of two synthetic hernia mesh implants viz. conventional Prolene and a lightweight mesh monofilament polyester were assessed for the abdominal wall repair in pigeons. Twenty four healthy pigeons were selected and randomly distributed into three groups, A, B and C (n=8). In all groups, experimental laparotomy was performed; thereafter, abdominal muscles and peritoneum were sutured together, while, a 2 x 2 cm defect was created in the abdominal muscles. For onlay hernioplasty, the hernia mesh (Prolene mesh: group A; Polyester mesh: group B) was implanted over the external oblique muscles of the abdomen. In group C (control), the mesh was not implanted; instead, the laparotomy incision was closed after a herniorrhaphy. Post-operative pain wound healing, adhesion formation, histopathological findings and formation of hematoma, abscess and seroma were assessed as short-term complications. Post-operatively, pain at surgical site was significantly less (P < 0.001) in group B (Polyester mesh); wound healing was also significantly better and rapid in group B (P < 0.05) than in group A (Prolene mesh). Group B (Polyester mesh) also depicted less than 25% adhesions when assessed on the basis of a Quantitative Modified Diamond scale; a Qualitative Adhesion Tenacity scale also depicted either no adhesions or flimsy adhesions (n=2) in group B (Polyester mesh), in contrast to group A (Prolene), which manifested greater adhesion formation and presence of dense adhesions requiring blunt dissection. There were observed hematoma, seroma and abscess formations in birds treated by Prolene mesh only. Conclusively, the polyester mesh proved superior to the Prolene mesh regarding lesser adhesion, better in wound healing, and no short-term follow-up complications.

Keywords: adhesion, mesh, polyester, prolene

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3609 Effects of the Amount of Static Stretching on the Knee Isokinetic Muscle Strength

Authors: Chungyu Chen, Hui-Ju Chang, Pei-Shan Guo, Huei-Ling Jhan, Yi-Ping Lin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the amount of acutely static stretching on muscular strength and power. There were 15 males, and 7 females recruited voluntarily as the participants in the study. The mean age, body height, and weight of participants were 23.4 ± 2.8 years old, 171.0 ± 7.2 cm, and 65.7 ± 8.7 kg, respectively. Participants were repeated to stretch hamstring muscles 2 or 6 30-s bouts randomly on a separate day spaced 5-7 days apart in a passive, static, sit-and-reach stretching exercise. Before and after acutely static stretching, the Biodex System 4 Pro was used to acquire the peak torque, power, total work, and range of motion for right knee under the loading of 180 deg/s. The 2 (test-retest) × 2 (number of stretches) repeated measures two-way analysis of variance were used to compare the parameters of muscular strength/power (α = .05). The results showed that the peak torque, power, and total work increased significantly after acutely passive static stretching (ps < .05) in flexor and extensor of knee. But there were no significant differences found between the 2 and 6 30-s bouts hamstring muscles stretching (ps > .05). It indicated that the performance of muscular strength and power in knee flexion and extension do not inhibit following the increase of amount of stretching.

Keywords: knee, power, flexibility, strength

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3608 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz

Abstract:

Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.

Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fats

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3607 The Effects of Dynamic Training Shoes Exercises on Isokinetic Strength Performance

Authors: Bergun Meric Bingul, Yezdan Cinel, Murat Son, Cigdem Bulgan, Mensure Aydin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determination of the effects of knee and hip isokinetic performance during the training with the special designed roller-shoes. 30 soccer players participated as subjects and these subjects were divided into 3 groups randomly. Training groups were; with the dynamic training shoes group, without the dynamic training shoes group and control group. Subjects were trained speed strength trainings during 8 weeks (3 days a week and 1 hour a day). 6 exercises were focused on the knee flexors and extensors, also hip adductor and abductor muscles were chosen and performed in 3x30secs at each sets. Control group was not paticipated to the training program. Before and after the training programs knee flexor and extensor muscles and hip abductor and adductor muscles’ peak torques were measured by Biodex III isokinetic dynamometer. Isokinetic strength data were analyzed by using SPSS program. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences among the peak torque values for three groups. The results indicated that soccer players’ peak torque values that the group of using the dynamic training shoes, were found higher. Also, hip adductor and abductor peak torques that the group of using the dynamic training shoes, were obtained better than the other groups. In conclusion, the ground friction forces are an important role of increasing strength. With these shoes, using rollers, soccer players were able to move easily because of the friction forces were reduced and created more range of motion. So, exercises were performed faster than before and strength movements in all angles, it ensured that the active state. This was resulted in a better use of force.

Keywords: isokinetic, soccer, dynamic training shoes, training

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3606 Validation of Two Field Base Dynamic Balance Tests in the Activation of Selected Hip and Knee Stabilizer Muscles

Authors: Mariam A. Abu-Alim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to validate muscle activation amplitudes of two field base dynamic balance tests that are used as strengthen and motor control exercises too in the activation of selected hip and knee stabilizer muscles. Methods: Eighteen college-age females students (21±2 years; 65.6± 8.7 kg; 169.7±8.1 cm) who participated at least for 30 minutes in physical activity most days of the week volunteered. The wireless BIOPAC (MP150, BIOPAC System. Inc, California, USA) surface electromyography system was used to validate the activation of the Gluteus Medius and the Adductor Magnus of hip stabilizer muscles; and the Hamstrings, Quadriceps, and the Gastrocnemius of the knee stabilizer muscles. Surface electrodes (EL 503, BIOPAC, System. Inc) connected to dual wireless EMG BioNormadix Transmitters were place on selected muscles of participants dominate side. Manual muscle testing was performed to obtain the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in which all collected muscle activity data during the three reaching direction: anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the Y-balance Test (YBT) data could be normalized. All participants performed three trials for each reaching direction of the SEBT and the YBT. The domanial leg trial for each participant was selected for analysis which was also the standing leg. Results: the selected hip stabilizer muscles (Gluteus Medius, Adductor Magnus) were both greater than 100%MVIC during the performance of the SEBT and in all three directions. Whereas, selected knee stabilizer muscles had greater activation 0f 100% MVIC and were significantly more activated during the performance of the YBT test in all three reaching directions. The results showed that the posterolateral and the postmedial reaching directions for both dynamic balance tests had greater activation levels and greater than 200%MVIC for all tested muscles expect of the hamstrings. Conclusion: the results of this study showed that the SEBT and the YBT had validated high levels of muscular activity for the hip and the knee stabilizer muscles; which can be used to represent the improvement, strength, control and the decreasing in the injury levels. Since these selected hip and knee stabilizer muscles, represent 35% of all athletic injuries depending on the type of sport.

Keywords: dynamic balance tests, electromyography, hip stabilizer muscles, nee stabilizer muscles

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3605 Study Concerning the Energy-to-Mass Ratio in Pneumatic Muscles

Authors: Tudor Deaconescu, Andrea Deaconescu

Abstract:

The utilization of pneumatic muscles in the actuation of industrial systems is still in its early stages, hence studies on the constructive solutions which include an assessment of their functional performance with a focus on one of the most important characteristics-energy efficiency are required. A quality indicator that adequately reflects the energy efficiency of an actuator is the energy-to-mass ratio. This ratio is computed in the paper for various types and sizes of pneumatic muscles manufactured by Festo, and is subsequently compared to the similar ratios determined for two categories of pneumatic cylinders.

Keywords: pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic muscles, energy-to-mass ratio, muscle stroke

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3604 Effectiveness of Impairment Specified Muscle Strengthening Programme in a Group of Disabled Athletes

Authors: A. L. I. Prasanna, E. Liyanage, S. A. Rajaratne, K. P. A. P. Kariyawasam, A. A. J. Rajaratne

Abstract:

Maintaining or improving the muscle strength of the injured body part is essential to optimize performance among disabled athletes. General conditioning and strengthening exercises might be ineffective if not sufficiently intense enough or targeted for each participant’s specific impairment. Specific strengthening programme, targeted to the affected body part, are essential to improve the strength of impaired muscles and increase in strength will help reducing the impact of disability. Methods: The muscle strength of hip, knee and ankle joints was assessed in a group of randomly selected disabled athletes, using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading. Those having muscle strength of grade 4 or less were selected for this study (24 in number) and were given and a custom made exercise program designed to strengthen their hip, knee or ankle joint musculature, according to the muscle or group of muscles affected. Effectiveness of the strengthening program was assessed after a period of 3 months. Results: Statistical analysis was done using the Minitab 16 statistical software. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the strength of muscle group before and after exercise programme. A significant difference was observed after the three month strengthening program for knee flexors (Left and Right) (P =0.0889, 0.0312) hip flexors (left and right) (P=0.0312, 0.0466), hip extensors (Left and Right) (P=0.0478, 0.0513), ankle plantar flexors (Left and Right) (P=0.0466, 0.0423) and right ankle dorsiflexors (P= 0.0337). No significant difference of strength was observed after the strengthening program in the knee extensors (left and right), hip abductors (left and right) and left ankle dorsiflexors. Conclusion: Impairment specific exercise programme appear to be beneficial for disabled athletes to significantly improve the muscle strength of the affected joints.

Keywords: muscle strengthening programme, disabled athletes, physiotherapy, rehabilitation sciences

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3603 Effectiveness of Imagery Compared with Exercise Training on Hip Abductor Strength and EMG Production in Healthy Adults

Authors: Majid Manawer Alenezi, Gavin Lawrence, Hans-Peter Kubis

Abstract:

Imagery training could be an important treatment for muscle function improvements in patients who are facing limitations in exercise training by pain or other adverse symptoms. However, recent studies are mostly limited to small muscle groups and are often contradictory. Moreover, a possible bilateral transfer effect of imagery training has not been examined. We, therefore, investigated the effectiveness of unilateral imagery training in comparison with exercise training on hip abductor muscle strength and EMG. Additionally, both limbs were assessed to investigate bilateral transfer effects. Healthy individuals took part in an imagery or exercise training intervention for two weeks and were assesses pre and post training. Participants (n=30), after randomization into an imagery and an exercise group, trained 5 times a week under supervision with additional self-performed training on the weekends. The training consisted of performing, or to imagine, 5 maximal isometric hip abductor contractions (= one set), repeating the set 7 times. All measurements and trainings were performed laying on the side on a dynamometer table. The imagery script combined kinesthetic and visual imagery with internal perspective for producing imagined maximal hip abduction contractions. The exercise group performed the same number of tasks but performing the maximal hip abductor contractions. Maximal hip abduction strength and EMG amplitudes were measured of right and left limbs pre- and post-training period. Additionally, handgrip strength and right shoulder abduction (Strength and EMG) were measured. Using mixed model ANOVA (strength measures) and Wilcoxen-tests (EMGs), data revealed a significant increase in hip abductor strength production in the imagery group on the trained right limb (~6%). However, this was not reported for the exercise group. Additionally, the left hip abduction strength (not used for training) did not show a main effect in strength, however, there was a significant interaction of group and time revealing that the strength increased in the imagery group while it remained constant in the exercise group. EMG recordings supported the strength findings showing significant elevation of EMG amplitudes after imagery training on right and left side, while the exercise training group did not show any changes. Moreover, measures of handgrip strength and shoulder abduction showed no effects over time and no interactions in both groups. Experiments showed that imagery training is a suitable method for effectively increasing functional parameters of larger limb muscles (strength and EMG) which were enhanced on both sides (trained and untrained) confirming a bilateral transfer effect. Indeed, exercise training did not reveal any increases in the parameters above omitting functional improvements. The healthy individuals tested might not easily achieve benefits from exercise training within the time tested. However, it is evident that imagery training is effective in increasing the central motor command towards the muscles and that the effect seems to be segmental (no increase in handgrip strength and shoulder abduction parameters) and affects both sides (trained and untrained). In conclusion, imagery training was effective in functional improvements in limb muscles and produced a bilateral transfer on strength and EMG measures.

Keywords: imagery, exercise, physiotherapy, motor imagery

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3602 Investigation of Surface Electromyograph Signal Acquired from the around Shoulder Muscles of Upper Limb Amputees

Authors: Amanpreet Kaur, Ravinder Agarwal, Amod Kumar

Abstract:

Surface electromyography is a strategy to measure the muscle activity of the skin. Sensors placed on the skin recognize the electrical current or signal generated by active muscles. A lot of the research has focussed on the detection of signal from upper limb amputee with activity of triceps and biceps muscles. The purpose of this study was to correlate phantom movement and sEMG activity in residual stump muscles of transhumeral amputee from the shoulder muscles. Eight non- amputee and seven right hand amputees were recruited for this study. sEMG data were collected for the trapezius, pectoralis and teres muscles for elevation, protraction and retraction of shoulder. Contrast between the amputees and non-amputees muscles action have been investigated. Subsequently, to investigate the impact of class separability for different motions of shoulder, analysis of variance for experimental recorded data was carried out. Results were analyzed to recognize different shoulder movements and represent a step towards the surface electromyography controlled system for amputees. Difference in F ratio (p < 0.05) values indicates the distinction in mean therefore these analysis helps to determine the independent motion. The identified signal would be used to design more accurate and efficient controllers for the upper-limb amputee for researchers.

Keywords: around shoulder amputation, surface electromyography, analysis of variance, features

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3601 The First Trocar Placement After Multiple Open Abdominal Surgeries in Children: A Preliminary Report

Authors: Öykü Barutçu, Mehmet Özgür Kuzdan

Abstract:

Aim: Laparoscopy is very risky in patients undergoing, multiple open abdominal surgeries. The aim of this study, to define a safe method for the first trocar placement in children with a history of multiple open abdominal surgeries. Methods: Children who underwent laparoscopic surgery between March 2019 and April 2020 with a history of three or more open abdominal surgeries were included in the retrospective study. Patient information was obtained from the hospital automation system. Ultrasonography was used to determine the location of adhesions preoperatively. The first trocar was placed according to ultrasonography findings, using the Hasson technique to create an air pocket with finger dissection. The patient's preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative findings are reported. Results: A total of 10 patients were included in the study. The median number of operations before laparoscopy was three. The most common site for the first trocar entry was Palmer's point (40%). No mortality or morbidity was observed amongst any patients. The average number of adhesions detected by USG and observed on laparoscopy were significantly positively correlated. Conclusion: In children with a history of multiple abdominal surgeries, abdominal wall ultrasonography for visualization of adhesions and finger dissection for the formation of an air pocket appears to be a safe method for the first trocar insertion.

Keywords: abdominal wall, child, laparoscopy, ultrasonography

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3600 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A. Abdul Malik

Abstract:

This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

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3599 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A Abdul Malik

Abstract:

This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

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3598 The Effect of Isokinetic Fatigue of Ankle, Knee, and Hip Muscles on the Dynamic Postural Stability Index

Authors: Masoumeh Shojaei, Natalie Gedayloo, Amir Sarshin

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Isokinetic fatigue of muscles around the ankle, knee, and hip on the indicators of dynamic postural stability. Therefore, 15 female university students (age 19.7± 0.6 years old, weight 54.6± 9.4 kg, and height 163.9± 5.6 cm) participated in within-subjects design for 5 different days. In the first session, the postural stability indices (time to stabilization after jump-landing) without fatigue were assessed by force plate and in each next sessions, one of muscle groups of the lower limb including the muscles around ankles, knees, and hip was randomly exhausted by Biodex Isokinetic dynamometer and the indices were assessed immediately after the fatigue of each muscle group. The method involved landing on a force plate from a dynamic state, and transitioning balance into a static state. Results of ANOVA with repeated measures indicated that there was no significant difference between the time to stabilization (TTS) before and after Isokinetic fatigue of the muscles around the ankle, knee and hip in medial – lateral direction (p > 0.05), but in the anterior – posterior (AP) direction, the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Least Significant Difference (LSD) post hoc test results also showed that there was significant difference between TTS in knee and hip muscles before and after isokinetic fatigue in AP direction. In the other hand knee and hip muscles group were affected by isokinetic fatigue only in AP surface (p < 0.05).

Keywords: dynamic balance, fatigue, lower limb muscles, postural control

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3597 Optimal Mother Wavelet Function for Shoulder Muscles of Upper Limb Amputees

Authors: Amanpreet Kaur

Abstract:

Wavelet transform (WT) is a powerful statistical tool used in applied mathematics for signal and image processing. The different mother, wavelet basis function, has been compared to select the optimal wavelet function that represents the electromyogram signal characteristics of upper limb amputees. Four different EMG electrode has placed on different location of shoulder muscles. Twenty one wavelet functions from different wavelet families were investigated. These functions included Daubechies (db1-db10), Symlets (sym1-sym5), Coiflets (coif1-coif5) and Discrete Meyer. Using mean square error value, the significance of the mother wavelet functions has been determined for teres, pectorals, and infraspinatus around shoulder muscles. The results show that the best mother wavelet is the db3 from the Daubechies family for efficient classification of the signal.

Keywords: Daubechies, upper limb amputation, shoulder muscles, Symlets, Coiflets

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3596 The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material

Authors: Mirna Febriani

Abstract:

Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.

Keywords: compressive strength, tear strength, Cassava starch, alginate

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3595 Autopsy-Based Study of Abdominal Traffic Trauma Death after Emergency Room Arrival

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

Abstract:

We experience the autopsy cases that the deceased was alive in emergency room on arrival. Bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death after injury. This retrospective study aimed to characterize opportunities for performance improvement identified in patients who died from traffic trauma and were considered by the quality improvement of education system. The Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) education program was introduced in 2002. We focused the abdominal traffic trauma injury. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 41 post-mortems of road traffic accident between April 1999 and March 2014 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science. 16 patients (39.0%) were abdominal trauma injury. The mean period of survival after meet with accident was 13.5 hours, compared abdominal trauma death was 27.4 hours longer. In road traffic accidents, the most injured abdominal organs were liver followed by mesentery. We thought delayed treatment was associated with immediate diagnostic imaging, and so expected to expand trauma management examination.

Keywords: abdominal traffic trauma, preventable death, autopsy, emergency medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
3594 Modeling of a Pendulum Test Including Skin and Muscles under Compression

Authors: M. J. Kang, Y. N. Jo, H. H. Yoo

Abstract:

Pendulum tests were used to identify a stretch reflex and diagnose spasticity. Some researches tried to make a mathematical model to simulate the motions. Thighs are subject to compressive forces due to gravity during a pendulum test. Therefore, it affects knee trajectories. However, the most studies on the pendulum tests did not consider that conditions. We used Kelvin-Voight model as compression model of skin and muscles. In this study, we investigated viscoelastic behaviors of skin and muscles using gelatin blocks from experiments of the vibration of the compliantly supported beam. Then we calculated a dynamic stiffness and loss factors from the experiment and estimated a damping coefficient of the model. We also did pendulum tests of human lower limbs to validate the stiffness and damping coefficient of a skin model. To simulate the pendulum motion, we derive equations of motion. We used stretch reflex activation model to estimate muscle forces induced by the stretch reflex. To validate the results, we compared the activation with electromyography signals during experiments. The compression behavior of skin and muscles in this study can be applied to analyze sitting posture as wee as developing surgical techniques.

Keywords: Kelvin-Voight model, pendulum test, skin and muscles under compression, stretch reflex

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
3593 Effect of Confinement on Flexural Tensile Strength of Concrete

Authors: M. Ahmed, Javed Mallick, Mohammad Abul Hasan

Abstract:

The flexural tensile strength of concrete is an important parameter for determining cracking behavior of concrete structure and to compute deflection under flexure. Many factors have been shown to influence the flexural tensile strength, particularly the level of concrete strength, size of member, age of concrete and confinement to flexure member etc. Empirical equations have been suggested to relate the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength. Limited literature is available for relationship between flexural tensile strength and compressive strength giving consideration to the factors affecting the flexural tensile strength specially the concrete confinement factor. The concrete member such as slabs, beams and columns critical locations are under confinement effects. The paper presents the experimental study to predict the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength empirical relations using statistical procedures considering the effect of confinement and age of concrete for wide range of concrete strength (from 35 to about 100 MPa). It is concluded from study that due consideration of confinement should be given in deriving the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength proportionality equations.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, modulus of rupture, statistical procedures, concrete confinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
3592 Abdominal Organ Segmentation in CT Images Based On Watershed Transform and Mosaic Image

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid

Abstract:

Accurate Liver, spleen and kidneys segmentation in abdominal CT images is one of the most important steps for computer aided abdominal organs pathology diagnosis. In this paper, we have proposed a new semi-automatic algorithm for Liver, spleen and kidneys area extraction in abdominal CT images. Our proposed method is based on hierarchical segmentation and watershed algorithm. In our approach, a powerful technique has been designed to suppress over-segmentation based on mosaic image and on the computation of the watershed transform. The algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to improve the quality of the gradient-mosaic image. In this step, we propose a method for improving the gradient-mosaic image by applying the anisotropic diffusion filter followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter we proceed to the hierarchical segmentation of the liver, spleen and kidney. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, morphological filter, mosaic image, multi-abdominal organ segmentation, mosaic image, the watershed algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
3591 Comparing ITV Definitions From 4D CT-PET and Breath-Hold Technique with Abdominal Compression

Authors: R. D. Esposito, P. Dorado Rodriguez, D. Planes Meseguer

Abstract:

In this work, we compare the contour of Internal Target Volume (ITV), for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of a patient affected by a single liver metastasis, obtained from two different patient data acquisition techniques. The first technique consists in a free breathing Computer Tomography (CT) scan acquisition, followed by exhalation breath-hold and inhalation breath-hold CT scans, all of them applying abdominal compression while the second technique consists in a free breathing 4D CT-PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan. Results obtained with these two methods are consistent, which demonstrate that at least for this specific case, both techniques are adequate for ITV contouring in SBRT treatments.

Keywords: 4D CT-PET, abdominal compression, ITV, SBRT

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
3590 Evaluation of Hand Grip Strength and EMG Signal on Visual Reaction

Authors: Sung-Wook Shin, Sung-Taek Chung

Abstract:

Hand grip strength has been utilized as an indicator to evaluate the motor ability of hands, responsible for performing multiple body functions. It is, however, difficult to evaluate other factors (other than hand muscular strength) utilizing the hand grip strength only. In this study, we analyzed the motor ability of hands using EMG and the hand grip strength, simultaneously in order to evaluate concentration, muscular strength reaction time, instantaneous muscular strength change, and agility in response to visual reaction. In results, the average time (and their standard deviations) of muscular strength reaction EMG signal and hand grip strength was found to be 209.6 ± 56.2 ms and 354.3 ± 54.6 ms, respectively. In addition, the onset time which represents acceleration time to reach 90% of maximum hand grip strength, was 382.9 ± 129.9 ms.

Keywords: hand grip strength, EMG, visual reaction, endurance

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
3589 Assessment of Transverse Abdominis Activation during Three Different Exercises in Low Back Pain Patients: Measurement with Real-Time Ultrasonography

Authors: Venus Pagare, Amit Kharat, Dhaval K. Thakkar, Tushar J. Palekar

Abstract:

Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major public health problem and is the leading musculoskeletal cause of disability. Altered neuromuscular control of core muscles, particulary transverses abdominis (TrA) is thought to be a contributing factor for the development of CLBP. Therefore, various exercises targeting the TrA are commonly incorporated into the rehabilitation. Objectives: To investigate the effects of 3 different core exercises on activation capacity of TrA muscle in individuals with CLBP as compared with healthy controls. Methodology: Thickness of TrA muscle was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 patients with CLBP and 30 healthy controls. Measurements were taken during 3 different TrA activation exercises i.e Abdominal drawing in maneuver (ADIM), Abdominal drawing in with straight leg raise (ADSLR) and breathe hold at maximum expiration (ME). Thickness of the muscle at rest (at the end of normal tidal expiration) was taken as a baseline measure. Results: There was a significant difference between the healthy subjects and patients with low back pain with regard to the thickness of TrA at rest and thickness during contraction. ADIM produced a significant increase in the thickness of TrA compared to ADSLR and ME (p<0.001). Also, increase in thickness of TrA was more in the control group than patients with low back pain. Conclusion: CLBP patients exhibited atrophy of TrA muscle with delayed activation. Also, of the various core exercises, ADIM can be an effective method for activation of TrA.

Keywords: LBP, CLBP, ADSLR, ADIM

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
3588 Dry Needling Treatment in 38 Cases of Chronic Sleep Disturbance

Authors: P. Gao, Z. Q. Li, Y. G. Jin

Abstract:

In the past 10 years, computers and cellphones have become one of the most important factors in our lives, and one which has a tremendously negative impact on our muscles. Muscle tension may be one of the causes of sleep disturbance. Tension in the shoulders and neck can affect blood circulation to the muscles. This research uses a dry needling treatment to reduce muscle tension in order to determine if the strain in the head and shoulders can influence sleep duration. All 38 patients taking part in the testing suffered from tinnitus and have been experiencing disturbed sleep for at least one to five years. Even after undergoing drug therapy treatments and traditional acupuncture therapies, their sleep disturbances have not shown any improvement. After five to 10 dry needling treatments, 24 of the patients reported an improvement in their sleep duration. Five patients considered themselves to be completely recovered, while 12 patients experienced no improvement. This study investigated these pathogenic and therapeutic problems. The standard treatment for sleep disturbances is drug-based therapy; the results of most standard treatments are unfortunately negative. The result of this clinical research has demonstrated that: The possible cause of sleep disturbance for a lot of patients is the result of tensions in the neck and shoulder muscles. Blood circulation to those muscles is also influenced by the duration of sleep. Hypertonic neck and shoulder muscles are considered to impact sleeping patterns and lead to disturbed sleep. Poor posture, often adopted while speaking on the phone, is one of the main causes of hypertonic neck and shoulder muscle problems. The dry needling treatment specifically focuses on the release of muscle tension.

Keywords: dry needling, muscle tension, sleep duration, hypertonic muscles

Procedia PDF Downloads 182