Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: B. Santhosh

23 Quick Response(QR) Code for Vehicle Registration and Identification

Authors: S. Malarvizhi, S. Sadiq Basha, M. Santhosh Kumar, K. Saravanan, R. Sasikumar, R. Satheesh


This is a web based application which provides authorization for the vehicle identification and registration. It also provides mutual authentication between the police and users in order to avoid misusage. The QR code generation in this application overcomes the difficulty in the manual registration of the vehicle documents. This generated QR code is placed in the number plates of the vehicles. The QR code is scanned using the QR Reader installed in the smart devices. The police officials can check the vehicle details and file cases on accidents, theft and traffic rules violations using QR code. In addition to vehicle insurance payments and renewals, the renewal alert is sent to the vehicle owner about payment deadline. The non-permitted vehicles can be blocked in the next check-post by sending the alert messages.

Keywords: QR code, QR reader, registration, authentication, idenfication

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22 Herschel-Bulkley Fluid Flow through Narrow Tubes

Authors: Santhosh Nallapu, G. Radhakrishnamacharya


A two-fluid model of Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow through tubes of small diameters is studied. It is assumed that the core region consists of Herschel-Bulkley fluid and Newtonian fluid in the peripheral region. The analytical solutions for velocity, flow flux, effective viscosity, core hematocrit and mean hematocrit have been derived and the effects of various relevant parameters on these flow variables have been studied. It has been observed that the effective viscosity and mean hematocrit increase with yield stress, power-law index, hematocrit and tube radius. Further, the core hematocrit decreases with hematocrit and tube radius.

Keywords: two-layered model, non-Newtonian fluid, hematocrit, Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect, plug flow

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21 A Study on Approximate Controllability of Impulsive Integrodifferential Systems with Non Local Conditions

Authors: Anandhi Santhosh


In order to describe various real-world problems in physical and engineering sciences subject to abrupt changes at certain instants during the evolution process, impulsive differential equations has been used to describe the system model. In this article, the problem of approximate controllability for nonlinear impulsive integrodifferential equations with state-dependent delay is investigated. We study the approximate controllability for nonlinear impulsive integrodifferential system under the assumption that the corresponding linear control system is approximately controllable. Using methods of functional analysis and semigroup theory, sufficient conditions are formulated and proved. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate the proposed theory.

Keywords: approximate controllability, impulsive differential system, fixed point theorem, state-dependent delay

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20 Advanced Fuzzy Control for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator in Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Authors: Santhosh Kumat T., Priya E.


The control of a doubly fed induction generator by fuzzy is described. The active and reactive power can be controlled by rotor and grid side converters with fuzzy controller. The main objective is to maintain constant voltage and frequency at the output of the generator. However the Line Side Converter (LSC) can be controlled to supply up to 50% of the required reactive current. When the crowbar is not activated the DFIG can supply reactive power from the rotor side through the machine as well as through the LSC.

Keywords: Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Rotor Side Converter (RSC), Grid Side Converter (GSC), Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS)

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19 Integrated Location-Allocation Planning in Multi Product Multi Echelon Single Period Closed Loop Supply Chain Network Design

Authors: Santhosh Srinivasan, Vipul Garhiya, Shahul Hamid Khan


Environmental performance along with social performance is becoming vital factors for industries to achieve global standards. With a good environmental policy global industries are differentiating them from their competitors. This paper concentrates on multi stage, multi product and multi period manufacturing network. Single objective mathematical models for a total cost for the entire forward supply chain and reverse chain are considered. Here five different problems are considered by varying the number of facilities for illustration. M-MOGA, Shuffle Frog Leaping algorithm (SFLA) and CPLEX are used for finding the optimal solution for the mathematical model.

Keywords: closed loop supply chain, genetic algorithm, random search, multi period, green supply chain

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18 Bi-Criteria Objective Network Design Model for Multi Period Multi Product Green Supply Chain

Authors: Shahul Hamid Khan, S. Santhosh, Abhinav Kumar Sharma


Environmental performance along with social performance is becoming vital factors for industries to achieve global standards. With a good environmental policy global industries are differentiating them from their competitors. This paper concentrates on multi stage, multi product and multi period manufacturing network. Bi-objective mathematical models for total cost and total emission for the entire forward supply chain are considered. Here five different problems are considered by varying the number of suppliers, manufacturers, and environmental levels, for illustrating the taken mathematical model. GA, and Random search are used for finding the optimal solution. The input parameters of the optimal solution are used to find the tradeoff between the initial investment by the industry and the long term benefit of the environment.

Keywords: closed loop supply chain, genetic algorithm, random search, green supply chain

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17 Diabatic Flow of Sub-Cooled R-600a Inside a Capillary Tube: Concentric Configuration

Authors: Ravi Kumar, Santhosh Kumar Dubba


This paper presents an experimental study of a diabatic flow of R-600a through a concentric configured capillary tube suction line heat exchanger. The details of experimental facility for testing the diabatic capillary tube with different inlet sub-cooling degree and pressure are discussed. The effect of coil diameter, capillary length, capillary tube diameter, sub-cooling degree and inlet pressure on mass flow rate are presented. The degree of sub-cooling at the inlet of capillary tube is varied from 3-20°C. The refrigerant mass flow rate is scattered up with rising of pressure. A semi-empirical correlation to predict the mass flow rate of R-600a flowing through a diabatic capillary tube is proposed for sub-cooled inlet conditions. The proposed correlation predicts measured data with an error band of ±20 percent.

Keywords: diabatic, capillary tube, concentric, R-600a

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16 Flexural Analysis of Palm Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Matrix Composite

Authors: G.Venkatachalam, Gautham Shankar, Dasarath Raghav, Krishna Kuar, Santhosh Kiran, Bhargav Mahesh


Uncertainty in the availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment-friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as a reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

Keywords: Adhesion, CNSL, Flexural Analysis, Hybrid Matrix Composite, Palm Fiber

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15 Diagnostic Investigation of Aircraft Performance at Different Winglet Cant Angles

Authors: M. Dinesh, V. Kenny Mark, Dharni Vasudhevan Venkatesan, B. Santhosh Kumar, R. Sree Radesh, V. R. Sanal Kumar


Comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out to examine the best aerodynamic performance of subsonic aircraft at different winglet cant angles using a validated 3D k-ω SST model. In the parametric analytical studies, NACA series of airfoils are selected. Basic design of the winglet is selected from the literature and flow features of the entire wing including the winglet tip effects have been examined with different cant angles varying from 150 to 600 at different angles of attack up to 140. We have observed, among the cases considered in this study that a case with 150 cant angle the aerodynamics performance of the subsonic aircraft during takeoff was found better up to an angle of attack of 2.80 and further its performance got diminished at higher angles of attack. Analyses further revealed that increasing the winglet cant angle from 150 to 600 at higher angles of attack could negate the performance deterioration and additionally it could enhance the peak CL/CD on the order of 3.5%. The investigated concept of variable-cant-angle winglets appears to be a promising alternative for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamic efficiency, cant angle, drag reduction, flexible winglets

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14 Efficient Monolithic FEM for Compressible Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

Authors: Santhosh A. K.


This work presents an efficient monolithic finite element strategy for solving thermo-fluid-structure interaction problems involving compressible fluids and linear-elastic structure. This formulation uses displacement variables for structure and velocity variables for the fluid, with no additional variables required to ensure traction, velocity, temperature, and heat flux continuity at the fluid-structure interface. Rate of convergence in each time step is quadratic, which is achieved in this formulation by deriving an exact tangent stiffness matrix. The robustness and good performance of the method is ascertained by applying the proposed strategy on a wide spectrum of problems taken from the literature pertaining to steady, transient, two dimensional, axisymmetric, and three dimensional fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer. It is shown that the current formulation gives excellent results on all the case studies conducted, which includes problems involving compressibility effects as well as problems where fluid can be treated as incompressible.

Keywords: linear thermoelasticity, compressible flow, conjugate heat transfer, monolithic FEM

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13 Intelligent Irrigation Control System Using Wireless Sensors and Android Application

Authors: Rajeshwari Madli, Santhosh Hebbar, Vishwanath Heddoori, G. V. Prasad


Agriculture is the major occupation in India and forms the backbone of Indian economy in which irrigation plays a crucial role for increasing the quality and quantity of crop yield. In spite of many revolutionary advancements in agriculture, there has not been a dramatic increase in agricultural performance. Lack of irrigation infrastructure and agricultural knowledge are the critical factors influencing agricultural performance. However, by using advanced agricultural equipment, the effect of these factors can be curtailed.  The presented system aims at increasing the yield of crops by using an intelligent irrigation controller that makes use of wireless sensors. Sensors are used to monitor primary parameters such as soil moisture, soil pH, temperature and humidity. Irrigation decisions are taken based on the sensed data and the type of crop being grown. The system provides a mobile application in which farmers can remotely monitor and control the irrigation system. Also, the water pump is protected against damages due to voltage variations and dry running.

Keywords: android application, Bluetooth, wireless sensors, irrigation, temperature, soil pH

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12 Identification and Characterization of Nuclear Envelope Protein Interactions

Authors: Mohammed Hakim Jafferali, Balaje Vijayaraghavan, Ricardo A. Figueroa, Ellinor Crafoord, Veronica J. Larsson, Einar Hallberg, Santhosh Gudise


The nuclear envelope which surrounds the chromatin of eukaryotic cells contains more than a hundred transmembrane proteins. Mutations in some genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins give rise to human diseases including neurological disorders. The function of many nuclear envelope proteins is not well established. This is partly because nuclear envelope proteins and their interactions are difficult to study due to the inherent resistance to extraction of nuclear envelope proteins. We have developed a novel method called MCLIP, to identify interacting partners of nuclear envelope proteins in live cells. Using MCLIP, we found three new binding partners of the inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1: the intermediate filament protein Lamin B1, the LINC complex protein Sun1 and the G-protein Ran. Furthermore, using in vitro studies, we show that Samp1 binds both Emerin and Ran directly. We have also studied the interaction between Samp1 and Ran in detail. The results show that the Samp1 binds stronger to RanGTP than RanGDP. Samp1 is the first transmembrane protein known to bind Ran and it is tempting to speculate that Samp1 may provide local binding sites for RanGTP at membranes.

Keywords: MCLIP, nuclear envelope, ran, Samp1

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11 Impact of Green Roofs on Hot and Humid Climate-Vijayawada

Authors: Santhosh Kumar Sathi


In India, Growth and spread of cities lead to the reduction of forests and green areas of the urban center with built structures. This is one of the reasons for increasing temperature about 2-5% in an urban environment and consequently also one of the key causes of urban heat island effects. Green roofs are one option that can reduce the negative impact of urban development providing numerous environmental benefits. In this paper, Vijayawada city is taken as case to study as it is experiencing rapid urbanization because of new capital Amaravati. That has resulted in remarkable urban heat island; which once recorded a highest temperature of 49°c. This paper focuses on the change in quality of the local environment with the introduction of green roofs. An in-depth study has to be carried out to understand the distribution of land surface temperature and land use of Vijayawada. Delineation of an area which has the highest temperature has been selected to adopt green roof retrofitting. Latest technologies of green roof retrofitting have to be implemented in the selected region. The results of the study indicate a significant temperature reduction in the local environment of that region, confirming the potential of green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategy.

Keywords: energy consumption, green roofs, retrofitting, urban heat island

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10 The Relationship of the Dentate Nucleus with the Pyramid of Vermis: A Microneurosurgical Anatomical Study

Authors: Santhosh K. S. Annayappa, Nupur Pruthi


The region of dentate nucleus is a common site for various pathologies like hematomas, tumours, etc. We aimed to study in detail the relationship of this region with the vermis, especially the pyramid using microscopic fibre dissection technique. To achieve this aim, 20 cerebellar hemispheres were studied from the 11 cerebellums. Dissection was performed using wooden spatulas and micro dissectors under a microscope following Klingler’s preservation technique. The relationship between the pyramid of vermis and the dentate nucleus was studied in detail. A similar relationship was studied on the MRI of randomly selected trigeminal neuralgia patients and correlated with anatomical findings. Results show the mean distance of the lateral margin of the dentate nucleus from the midline on anatomic specimens was 21.4 ± 1.8 mm (19-25 mm) and 23.4 ± 3.4 mm (15-29 mm) on right and left side, respectively. Similar measurements made on the MRI were 22.97 ± 2.0 mm (20.03-26.15 mm) on the right side and 23.98 ± 2.1 mm (21.47-27.67 mm) on the left side. The amount of white matter dissection required to reach the dentate nucleus at the pyramidal attachment area was 7.3 ± 1.0 mm (6-9 mm) on the right side and 6.8 ± 1.4 mm (5-10 mm) on the left side. It was concluded that the pyramid of vermis has a constant relationship with the dentate nucleus and can be used as an excellent landmark during surgery to localise the dentate nucleus on the suboccipital surface.

Keywords: fiber dissection, micro neurosurgery, the dentate nucleus of cerebellum, the pyramid of vermis

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9 Strength Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks with Fly Ash and Glass Powder

Authors: Joel Santhosh, N. Bhavani Shankar Rao


Problems associated with construction site have been known for many years. Construction industry has to support a world of continuing population growth and economic development. The rising costs of construction materials and the need to adhere to sustainability, alternative construction techniques and materials are being sought. To increase the applications of concrete paving blocks, greater understanding of products produced with locally available materials and indigenously produced mineral admixtures is essential. In the present investigation, concrete paving blocks may be produced with locally available aggregates, cement, fly ash and waste glass powder as the mineral admixture. The ultimate aim of this work is to ascertain the performance of concrete paving blocks containing fly ash and glass powder and compare it with the performance of conventional concrete paving blocks. Mix design is carried out to form M40 grade of concrete by using IS: 10262: 2009 and specification given by IRC: SP: 63: 2004. The paving blocks are tested in accordance to IS: 15658: 2006. It showed that the partial replacement of cement by fly ash and waste glass powder satisfies the minimum requirement as specified by the Indian standard IS: 15658: 2006 for concrete paving blocks to be used in non traffic, light traffic and medium-heavy traffic areas. The study indicated that fly ash and waste glass powder can effectively be used as cement replacement without substantial change in strength.

Keywords: paving block, fly ash, glass powder, strength, abrasion resistance, durability

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8 A.T.O.M.- Artificial Intelligent Omnipresent Machine

Authors: R. Kanthavel, R. Yogesh Kumar, T. Narendrakumar, B. Santhosh, S. Surya Prakash


This paper primarily focuses on developing an affordable personal assistant and the implementation of it in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to create a virtual assistant/friend. The problem in existing home automation techniques is that it requires the usage of exact command words present in the database to execute the corresponding task. Our proposed work is ATOM a.k.a ‘Artificial intelligence Talking Omnipresent Machine’. Our inspiration came from an unlikely source- the movie ‘Iron Man’ in which a character called J.A.R.V.I.S has omnipresence, and device controlling capability. This device can control household devices in real time and send the live information to the user. This device does not require the user to utter the exact commands specified in the database as it can capture the keywords from the uttered commands, correlates the obtained keywords and perform the specified task. This ability to compare and correlate the keywords gives the user the liberty to give commands which are not necessarily the exact words provided in the database. The proposed work has a higher flexibility (due to its keyword extracting ability from the user input) comparing to the existing work Intelligent Home automation System (IHAS), is more accurate, and is much more affordable as it makes use of WI-FI module and raspberry pi 2 instead of ZigBee and a computer respectively.

Keywords: home automation, speech recognition, voice control, personal assistant, artificial intelligence

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7 Magnetic Structure and Transitions in 45% Mn Substituted HoFeO₃: A Neutron Diffraction Study

Authors: Karthika Chandran, Pulkit Prakash, Amitabh Das, Santhosh P. N.


Rare earth orthoferrites (RFeO₃) exhibit interesting and useful magnetic properties like multiferroicity, magnetodielectric coupling, spin reorientation (SR) and exchange bias. B site doped RFeO₃ are attracting attention due to the complex and tuneable magnetic transitions. In this work, 45% Mn-doped HoFeO₃ polycrystalline sample (HoFe₀.₅₅Mn₀.₄₅O₃) was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The magnetic structure and transitions were studied by magnetization measurements and neutron powder diffraction methods. The neutron diffraction patterns were taken at 13 different temperatures from 7°K to 300°K (7°K and 25°K to 300°K in 25°K intervals). The Rietveld refinement was carried out by using a FULLPROF suite. The magnetic space groups and the irreducible representations were obtained by SARAh module. The room temperature neutron diffraction refinement results indicate that the sample crystallizes in an orthorhombic perovskite structure with Pnma space group with lattice parameters a = 5.6626(3) Ǻ, b = 7.5241(3) Ǻ and c = 5.2704(2) Ǻ. The temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) studies indicate the presence of two magnetic transitions in the system ( TN Fe/Mn~330°K and TSR Fe/Mn ~290°K). The inverse susceptibility vs. temperature curve shows a linear behavior above 330°K. The Curie-Weiss fit in this region gives negative Curie constant (-34.9°K) indicating the antiferromagnetic nature of the transition. The neutron diffraction refinement results indicate the presence of mixed magnetic phases Γ₄(AₓFᵧG

Keywords: neutron powder diffraction, rare earth orthoferrites, Rietveld analysis, spin reorientation

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6 Health Care using Queuing Theory

Authors: S. Vadivukkarasi, K. Karthi, M. Karthick, C. Dinesh, S. Santhosh, A. Yogaraj


The appointment system was designed to minimize patient’s idle time overlooking patients waiting time in hospitals. This is no longer valid in today’s consumer oriented society. Long waiting times for treatment in the outpatient department followed by short consultations has long been a complaint. Nowadays, customers use waiting time as a decisive factor in choosing a service provider. Queuing theory constitutes a very powerful tool because queuing models require relatively little data and are simple and fast to use. Because of this simplicity and speed, modelers can be used to quickly evaluate and compare various alternatives for providing service. The application of queuing models in the analysis of health care systems is increasingly accepted by health care decision makers. Timely access to care is a key component of high-quality health care. However, patient delays are prevalent throughout health care systems, resulting in dissatisfaction and adverse clinical consequences for patients as well as potentially higher costs and wasted capacity for providers. Arguably, the most critical delays for health care are the ones associated with health care emergencies. The allocation of resources can be divided into three general areas: bed management, staff management, and room facility management. Effective and efficient patient flow is indicated by high patient throughput, low patient waiting times, a short length of stay at the hospital and overtime, while simultaneously maintaining adequate staff utilization rates and low patient’s idle times.

Keywords: appointment system, patient scheduling, bed management, queueing calculation, system analysis

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5 Visualization Tool for EEG Signal Segmentation

Authors: Sweeti, Anoop Kant Godiyal, Neha Singh, Sneh Anand, B. K. Panigrahi, Jayasree Santhosh


This work is about developing a tool for visualization and segmentation of Electroencephalograph (EEG) signals based on frequency domain features. Change in the frequency domain characteristics are correlated with change in mental state of the subject under study. Proposed algorithm provides a way to represent the change in the mental states using the different frequency band powers in form of segmented EEG signal. Many segmentation algorithms have been suggested in literature having application in brain computer interface, epilepsy and cognition studies that have been used for data classification. But the proposed method focusses mainly on the better presentation of signal and that’s why it could be a good utilization tool for clinician. Algorithm performs the basic filtering using band pass and notch filters in the range of 0.1-45 Hz. Advanced filtering is then performed by principal component analysis and wavelet transform based de-noising method. Frequency domain features are used for segmentation; considering the fact that the spectrum power of different frequency bands describes the mental state of the subject. Two sliding windows are further used for segmentation; one provides the time scale and other assigns the segmentation rule. The segmented data is displayed second by second successively with different color codes. Segment’s length can be selected as per need of the objective. Proposed algorithm has been tested on the EEG data set obtained from University of California in San Diego’s online data repository. Proposed tool gives a better visualization of the signal in form of segmented epochs of desired length representing the power spectrum variation in data. The algorithm is designed in such a way that it takes the data points with respect to the sampling frequency for each time frame and so it can be improved to use in real time visualization with desired epoch length.

Keywords: de-noising, multi-channel data, PCA, power spectra, segmentation

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4 Authentication and Traceability of Meat Products from South Indian Market by Species-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: J. U. Santhosh Kumar, V. Krishna, Sebin Sebastian, G. S. Seethapathy, G. Ravikanth, R. Uma Shaanker


Food is one of the basic needs of human beings. It requires the normal function of the body part and a healthy growth. Recently, food adulteration increases day by day to increase the quantity and make more benefit. Animal source foods can provide a variety of micronutrients that are difficult to obtain in adequate quantities from plant source foods alone. Particularly in the meat industry, products from animals are susceptible targets for fraudulent labeling due to the economic profit that results from selling cheaper meat as meat from more profitable and desirable species. This work presents an overview of the main PCR-based techniques applied to date to verify the authenticity of beef meat and meat products from beef species. We were analyzed 25 market beef samples in South India. We examined PCR methods based on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene for source species identification. We found all sample were sold as beef meat as Bos Taurus. However, interestingly Male meats are more valuable high price compare to female meat, due to this reason most of the markets samples are susceptible. We were used sex determination gene of cattle like TSPY(Y-encoded, testis-specific protein TSPY is a Y-specific gene). TSPY homologs exist in several mammalian species, including humans, horses, and cattle. This gene is Y coded testis protein genes, which only amplify the male. We used multiple PCR products form species-specific “fingerprints” on gel electrophoresis, which may be useful for meat authentication. Amplicons were obtained only by the Cattle -specific PCR. We found 13 market meat samples sold as female beef samples. These results suggest that the species-specific PCR methods established in this study would be useful for simple and easy detection of adulteration of meat products.

Keywords: authentication, meat products, species-specific, TSPY

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3 Raman Tweezers Spectroscopy Study of Size Dependent Silver Nanoparticles Toxicity on Erythrocytes

Authors: Surekha Barkur, Aseefhali Bankapur, Santhosh Chidangil


Raman Tweezers technique has become prevalent in single cell studies. This technique combines Raman spectroscopy which gives information about molecular vibrations, with optical tweezers which use a tightly focused laser beam for trapping the single cells. Thus Raman Tweezers enabled researchers analyze single cells and explore different applications. The applications of Raman Tweezers include studying blood cells, monitoring blood-related disorders, silver nanoparticle-induced stress, etc. There is increased interest in the toxic effect of nanoparticles with an increase in the various applications of nanoparticles. The interaction of these nanoparticles with the cells may vary with their size. We have studied the effect of silver nanoparticles of sizes 10nm, 40nm, and 100nm on erythrocytes using Raman Tweezers technique. Our aim was to investigate the size dependence of the nanoparticle effect on RBCs. We used 785nm laser (Starbright Diode Laser, Torsana Laser Tech, Denmark) for both trapping and Raman spectroscopic studies. 100 x oil immersion objectives with high numerical aperture (NA 1.3) is used to focus the laser beam into a sample cell. The back-scattered light is collected using the same microscope objective and focused into the spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Vyon iHR320 with 1200grooves/mm grating blazed at 750nm). Liquid nitrogen cooled CCD (Symphony CCD-1024x256-OPEN-1LS) was used for signal detection. Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers in vacutainer tubes and centrifuged to separate the blood components. 1.5 ml of silver nanoparticles was washed twice with distilled water leaving 0.1 ml silver nanoparticles in the bottom of the vial. The concentration of silver nanoparticles is 0.02mg/ml so the 0.03mg of nanoparticles will be present in the 0.1 ml nanoparticles obtained. The 25 ul of RBCs were diluted in 2 ml of PBS solution and then treated with 50 ul (0.015mg) of nanoparticles and incubated in CO2 incubator. Raman spectroscopic measurements were done after 24 hours and 48 hours of incubation. All the spectra were recorded with 10mW laser power (785nm diode laser), 60s of accumulation time and 2 accumulations. Major changes were observed in the peaks 565 cm-1, 1211 cm-1, 1224 cm-1, 1371 cm-1, 1638 cm-1. A decrease in intensity of 565 cm-1, increase in 1211 cm-1 with a reduction in 1224 cm-1, increase in intensity of 1371 cm-1 also peak disappearing at 1635 cm-1 indicates deoxygenation of hemoglobin. Nanoparticles with higher size were showing maximum spectral changes. Lesser changes observed in case of 10nm nanoparticle-treated erythrocyte spectra.

Keywords: erythrocytes, nanoparticle-induced toxicity, Raman tweezers, silver nanoparticles

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2 A Mathematical Model for Studying Landing Dynamics of a Typical Lunar Soft Lander

Authors: Johns Paul, Santhosh J. Nalluveettil, P. Purushothaman, M. Premdas


Lunar landing is one of the most critical phases of lunar mission. The lander is provided with a soft landing system to prevent structural damage of lunar module by absorbing the landing shock and also assure stability during landing. Presently available software are not capable to simulate the rigid body dynamics coupled with contact simulation and elastic/plastic deformation analysis. Hence a separate mathematical model has been generated for studying the dynamics of a typical lunar soft lander. Parameters used in the analysis includes lunar surface slope, coefficient of friction, initial touchdown velocity (vertical and horizontal), mass and moment of inertia of lander, crushing force due to energy absorbing material in the legs, number of legs and geometry of lander. The mathematical model is capable to simulate plastic and elastic deformation of honey comb, frictional force between landing leg and lunar soil, surface contact simulation, lunar gravitational force, rigid body dynamics and linkage dynamics of inverted tripod landing gear. The non linear differential equations generated for studying the dynamics of lunar lander is solved by numerical method. Matlab programme has been used as a computer tool for solving the numerical equations. The position of each kinematic joint is defined by mathematical equations for the generation of equation of motion. All hinged locations are defined by position vectors with respect to body fixed coordinate. The vehicle rigid body rotations and motions about body coordinate are only due to the external forces and moments arise from footpad reaction force due to impact, footpad frictional force and weight of vehicle. All these force are mathematically simulated for the generation of equation of motion. The validation of mathematical model is done by two different phases. First phase is the validation of plastic deformation of crushable elements by employing conservation of energy principle. The second phase is the validation of rigid body dynamics of model by simulating a lander model in ADAMS software after replacing the crushable elements to elastic spring element. Simulation of plastic deformation along with rigid body dynamics and contact force cannot be modeled in ADAMS. Hence plastic element of primary strut is replaced with a spring element and analysis is carried out in ADAMS software. The same analysis is also carried out using the mathematical model where the simulation of honeycomb crushing is replaced by elastic spring deformation and compared the results with ADAMS analysis. The rotational motion of linkages and 6 degree of freedom motion of lunar Lander about its CG can be validated by ADAMS software by replacing crushing element to spring element. The model is also validated by the drop test results of 4 leg lunar lander. This paper presents the details of mathematical model generated and its validation.

Keywords: honeycomb, landing leg tripod, lunar lander, primary link, secondary link

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1 Organic Tuber Production Fosters Food Security and Soil Health: A Decade of Evidence from India

Authors: G. Suja, J. Sreekumar, A. N. Jyothi, V. S. Santhosh Mithra


Worldwide concerns regarding food safety, environmental degradation and threats to human health have generated interest in alternative systems like organic farming. Tropical tuber crops, cassava, sweet potato, yams, and aroids are food-cum-nutritional security-cum climate resilient crops. These form stable or subsidiary food for about 500 million global population. Cassava, yams (white yam, greater yam, and lesser yam) and edible aroids (elephant foot yam, taro, and tannia) are high energy tuberous vegetables with good taste and nutritive value. Seven on-station field experiments at ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, India and seventeen on-farm trials in three districts of Kerala, were conducted over a decade (2004-2015) to compare the varietal response, yield, quality and soil properties under organic vs conventional system in these crops and to develop a learning system based on the data generated. The industrial, as well as domestic varieties of cassava, the elite and local varieties of elephant foot yam and taro and the three species of Dioscorea (yams), were on a par under both systems. Organic management promoted yield by 8%, 20%, 9%, 11% and 7% over conventional practice in cassava, elephant foot yam, white yam, greater yam and lesser yam respectively. Elephant foot yam was the most responsive to organic management followed by yams and cassava. In taro, slight yield reduction (5%) was noticed under organic farming with almost similar tuber quality. The tuber quality was improved with higher dry matter, starch, crude protein, K, Ca and Mg contents. The anti-nutritional factors, oxalate content in elephant foot yam and cyanogenic glucoside content in cassava were lowered by 21 and 12.4% respectively. Organic plots had significantly higher water holding capacity, pH, available K, Fe, Mn and Cu, higher soil organic matter, available N, P, exchangeable Ca and Mg, dehydrogenase enzyme activity and microbial count. Organic farming scored significantly higher soil quality index (1.93) than conventional practice (1.46). The soil quality index was driven by water holding capacity, pH and available Zn followed by soil organic matter. Organic management enhanced net profit by 20-40% over chemical farming. A case in point is the cost-benefit analysis in elephant foot yam which indicated that the net profit was 28% higher and additional income of Rs. 47,716 ha-1 was obtained due to organic farming. Cost-effective technologies were field validated. The on-station technologies developed were validated and popularized through on-farm trials in 10 sites (5 ha) under National Horticulture Mission funded programme in elephant foot yam and seven sites in yams and taro. The technologies are included in the Package of Practices Recommendations for crops of Kerala Agricultural University. A learning system developed using artificial neural networks (ANN) predicted the performance of elephant foot yam organic system. Use of organically produced seed materials, seed treatment in cow-dung, neem cake, bio-inoculant slurry, farmyard manure incubated with bio-inoculants, green manuring, use of neem cake, bio-fertilizers and ash formed the strategies for organic production. Organic farming is an eco-friendly management strategy that enables 10-20% higher yield, quality tubers and maintenance of soil health in tuber crops.

Keywords: eco-agriculture, quality, root crops, healthy soil, yield

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