Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1944

Search results for: thrust force

1944 Machinability Analysis in Drilling Flax Fiber-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Bio-Composite Laminates

Authors: Amirhossein Lotfi, Huaizhong Li, Dzung Viet Dao


Interest in natural fiber-reinforced composites (NFRC) is progressively growing both in terms of academia research and industrial applications thanks to their abundant advantages such as low cost, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and relatively good mechanical properties. However, their widespread use is still presumed as challenging because of the specificity of their non-homogeneous structure, limited knowledge on their machinability characteristics and parameter settings, to avoid defects associated with the machining process. The present work is aimed to investigate the effect of the cutting tool geometry and material on the drilling-induced delamination, thrust force and hole quality produced when drilling a fully biodegradable flax/poly (lactic acid) composite laminate. Three drills with different geometries and material were used at different drilling conditions to evaluate the machinability of the fabricated composites. The experimental results indicated that the choice of cutting tool, in terms of material and geometry, has a noticeable influence on the cutting thrust force and subsequently drilling-induced damages. The lower value of thrust force and better hole quality was observed using high-speed steel (HSS) drill, whereas Carbide drill (with point angle of 130o) resulted in the highest value of thrust force. Carbide drill presented higher wear resistance and stability in variation of thrust force with a number of holes drilled, while HSS drill showed the lower value of thrust force during the drilling process. Finally, within the selected cutting range, the delamination damage increased noticeably with feed rate and moderately with spindle speed.

Keywords: natural fiber reinforced composites, delamination, thrust force, machinability

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1943 Optimal Design of Submersible Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor Based Design of Experiment and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Xiao Zhang, Wensheng Xiao, Junguo Cui, Hongmin Wang


Submersible permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (SPMLSMs) are electromagnetic devices, which can directly drive plunger pump to obtain the crude oil. Those motors have been gradually applied in oil fields due to high thrust force density and high efficiency. Since the force performance closely depends on the concrete structural parameters, the seven different structural parameters are investigated in detail. This paper presents an optimum design of an SPMLSM to minimize the detent force and maximize the thrust by using design of experiment (DOE) and genetic algorithm (GA). The three significant structural parameters (air-gap length, slot width, pole-arc coefficient) are separately screened using 27 1/16 fractional factorial design (FFD) to investigate the significant effect of seven parameters used in this research on the force performance. Response surface methodology (RSM) is well adapted to make analytical model of thrust and detent force with constraints of corresponding significant parameters and enable objective function to be easily created, respectively. GA is performed as a searching tool to search for the Pareto-optimal solutions. By finite element analysis, the proposed PMLSM shows merits in improving thrust and reducing the detent force dramatically.

Keywords: optimization, force performance, design of experiment (DOE), genetic algorithm (GA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1942 Experimental Investigation of Cutting Forces and Temperature in Bone Drilling

Authors: Vishwanath Mali, Hemant Warhatkar, Raju Pawade


Drilling of bone has been always challenging for surgeons due to the adverse effect it may impart to bone tissues. Force has to be applied manually by the surgeon while performing conventional bone drilling which may lead to permanent death of bone tissues and nerves. During bone drilling the temperature of the bone tissues increases to higher values above 47 ⁰C that causes thermal osteonecrosis resulting into screw loosening and subsequent implant failures. An attempt has been made here to study the input drilling parameters and surgical drill bit geometry affecting bone health during bone drilling. A One Factor At a Time (OFAT) method is used to plan the experiments. Input drilling parameters studied include spindle speed and feed rate. The drill bit geometry parameter studied include point angle and helix angle. The output variables are drilling thrust force and bone temperature. The experiments were conducted on goat femur bone at room temperature 30 ⁰C. For measurement of thrust forces KISTLER cutting force dynamometer Type 9257BA was used. For continuous data acquisition of temperature NI LabVIEW software was used. Fixture was made on RPT machine for holding the bone specimen while performing drilling operation. Bone specimen were preserved in deep freezer (LABTOP make) under -40 ⁰C. In case of drilling parameters, it is observed that at constant feed rate when spindle speed increases, thrust force as well as temperature decreases and at constant spindle speed when feed rate increases thrust force as well as temperature increases. The effect of drill bit geometry shows that at constant helix angle when point angle increases thrust force as well as temperature increases and at constant point angle when helix angle increase thrust force as well as temperature decreases. Hence it is concluded that as the thrust force increases temperature increases. In case of drilling parameter, the lowest thrust force and temperature i.e. 35.55 N and 36.04 ⁰C respectively were recorded at spindle speed 2000 rpm and feed rate 0.04 mm/rev. In case of drill bit geometry parameter, the lowest thrust force and temperature i.e. 40.81 N and 34 ⁰C respectively were recorded at point angle 70⁰ and helix angle 25⁰ Hence to avoid thermal necrosis of bone it is recommended to use higher spindle speed, lower feed rate, low point angle and high helix angle. The hard nature of cortical bone contributes to a greater rise in temperature whereas a considerable drop in temperature is observed during cancellous bone drilling.

Keywords: bone drilling, helix angle, point angle, thrust force, temperature, thermal necrosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1941 The Effect of Chisel Edge on Drilling-Induced Delamination

Authors: Parnian Kianfar, Navid Zarif Karimi, Giangiacomo Minak


Drilling is one of the most important machining operations as numerous holes must be drilled in order to install mechanical fasteners for assembly in composite structures. Delamination is a major problem associated with the drilling of fiber reinforced composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. In drilling, delamination is initiated when the drilling force exceeds a threshold value, particularly at the critical entry and exit locations of the drill bit. The chisel edge of twist drill is a major contributor to the thrust force which is the primary cause of delamination. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of chisel edge and pilot hole on thrust force and delamination during drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites. For this purpose, two sets of experiments, with and without pilot hole, were conducted with different drilling conditions. The results show a great reduction in the thrust force when a pilot hole is present which removes the chisel edge contribution.

Keywords: composites, chisel edge, drilling, delamination

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1940 Analysis of Delamination in Drilling of Composite Materials

Authors: Navid Zarif Karimi, Hossein Heidary, Giangiacomo Minak, Mehdi Ahmadi


In this paper analytical model based on the mechanics of oblique cutting, linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and bending plate theory has been presented to determine the critical feed rate causing delamination in drilling of composite materials. Most of the models in this area used LEFM and bending plate theory; hence, they can only determine the critical thrust force which is an incorporable parameter. In this model by adding cutting oblique mechanics to previous models, critical feed rate has been determined. Also instead of simplification in loading condition, actual thrust force induced by chisel edge and cutting lips on composite plate is modeled.

Keywords: composite material, delamination, drilling, thrust force

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
1939 Thrust Enhancement on a Two Dimensional Elliptic Airfoil in a Forward Flight

Authors: S. M. Dash, K. B. Lua, T. T. Lim


This paper presents results of numerical and experimental studies on a two-dimensional (2D) flapping elliptic airfoil in a forward flight condition at Reynolds number of 5000. The study is motivated from an earlier investigation which shows that the deterioration in thrust performance of a sinusoidal heaving and pitching 2D (NACA0012) airfoil at high flapping frequency can be recovered by changing the effective angle of attack profile to square wave, sawtooth, or cosine wave shape. To better understand why such modifications lead to superior thrust performance, we take a closer look at the transient aerodynamic force behavior of an airfoil when the effective angle of attack profile changes gradually from a generic smooth trapezoidal profile to a sinusoid shape by modifying the base length of the trapezoid. The choice of using a smooth trapezoidal profile is to avoid the infinite acceleration condition encountered in the square wave profile. Our results show that the enhancement in the time-averaged thrust performance at high flapping frequency can be attributed to the delay and reduction in the drag producing valley region in the transient thrust force coefficient when the effective angle of attack profile changes from sinusoidal to trapezoidal.

Keywords: two-dimensional flapping airfoil, thrust performance, effective angle of attack, CFD, experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1938 Numerical Study on the Flow around a Steadily Rotating Spring: Understanding the Propulsion of a Bacterial Flagellum

Authors: Won Yeol Choi, Sangmo Kang


The propulsion of a bacterial flagellum in a viscous fluid has attracted many interests in the field of biological hydrodynamics, but remains yet fully understood and thus still a challenging problem. In this study, therefore, we have numerically investigated the flow around a steadily rotating micro-sized spring to further understand such bacterial flagellum propulsion. Note that a bacterium gains thrust (propulsive force) by rotating the flagellum connected to the body through a bio motor to move forward. For the investigation, we convert the spring model from the micro scale to the macro scale using a similitude law (scale law) and perform simulations on the converted macro-scale model using a commercial software package, CFX v13 (ANSYS). To scrutinize the propulsion characteristics of the flagellum through the simulations, we make parameter studies by changing some flow parameters, such as the pitch, helical radius and rotational speed of the spring and the Reynolds number (or fluid viscosity), expected to affect the thrust force experienced by the rotating spring. Results show that the propulsion characteristics depend strongly on the parameters mentioned above. It is observed that the forward thrust increases in a linear fashion with either of the rotational speed or the fluid viscosity. In addition, the thrust is directly proportional to square of the helical radius and but the thrust force is increased and then decreased based on the peak value to the pitch. Finally, we also present the appropriate flow and pressure fields visualized to support the observations.

Keywords: fluid viscosity, hydrodynamics, similitude, propulsive force

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1937 Calculation and Comparison of a Turbofan Engine Performance Parameters with Various Definitions

Authors: O. Onal, O. Turan


In this paper, some performance parameters of a selected turbofan engine (JT9D) are analyzed. The engine is a high bypass turbofan engine which powers a wide-body aircraft and it produces 206 kN thrust force (thrust/weight ratio is 5.4). The objective parameters for the engine include calculation of power, specific fuel consumption, specific thrust, engine propulsive, thermal and overall efficiencies according to the various definitions given in the literature. Furthermore, in the case study, wasted energy from the exhaust is calculated at the maximum power setting (i.e. take off phase) for the engine.

Keywords: turbofan, power, efficiency, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1936 Complementary Mathematical Model for Underwater Vehicles under Load Variation Test Conditions

Authors: Erim koyun


This paper aim to construct a mathematical model for Underwater vehicles under load variation test conditions. Propeller effects on underwater vehicle are investigated. Body with counter rotating propeller model is analyzed by CFD methods, thus forces and moment are obtained. Propeller effects of vehicle’s hydrodynamic performance under load variation conditions will be investigated. Additionally, pressure contour is examined for differences between different load conditions. Axial force equation is established using hydrodynamic coefficients, which contains resistance, thrust, and additional coefficients occurs due to load variations. Additional coefficients helps to express completely axial force on underwater vehicle. When the vehicle accelerates, additional force occurs besides thrust force increment. This is propeller effect on the body. Hence, mathematical model cover this effect. For CFD analysis, the incompressible, three-dimensional, and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations will be used Numerical results is verified with experimental results for verification. The overall goal of this study is to present complementary mathematical model for body with counter rotating propeller.

Keywords: counter rotating propeller, CFD, hydrodynamic mathematic model, hydrodynamics analysis, thrust deduction

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1935 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis and Optimization of the Coanda Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform

Authors: Nigel Q. Kelly, Zaid Siddiqi, Jin W. Lee


It is known that using Coanda aerosurfaces can drastically augment the lift forces when applied to an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform. However, Coanda saucer UAVs, which commonly use a dish-like, radially-extending structure, have shown no significant increases in thrust/lift force and therefore have never been commercially successful: the additional thrust/lift generated by the Coanda surface diminishes since the airstreams emerging from the rotor compartment expand radially causing serious loss of momentums and therefore a net loss of total thrust/lift. To overcome this technical weakness, we propose to examine a Coanda surface of straight, cylindrical design and optimize its geometry for highest thrust/lift utilizing computational fluid dynamics software ANSYS Fluent®. The results of this study reveal that a Coanda UAV configured with 4 sides of straight, cylindrical Coanda surface achieve an overall 45% increase in lift compared to conventional Coanda Saucer UAV configurations. This venture integrates with an ongoing research project where a Coanda prototype is being assembled. Additionally, a custom thrust-stand has been constructed for thrust/lift measurement.

Keywords: CFD, Coanda, lift, UAV

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1934 Design and Analysis of a Clustered Nozzle Configuration and Comparison of Its Thrust

Authors: Abdul Hadi Butt, Asfandyar Arshad


The purpose of this paper is to study the thrust variation in different configurations of clustered nozzles. It involves the design and analysis of clustered configuration of nozzles using Ansys fluent. Clustered nozzles with different configurations are simulated and compared on basis of effective exhaust thrust. Mixing length for the flow interaction is also calculated. Further clustered configurations are analyzed over different altitudes. An optimum value of the thrust among different configurations is proposed at the end of comparisons.

Keywords: CD nozzle, cluster, thrust, fluent, ANSYS

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1933 Analysis of Drilling Parameters for Al-Mg2-Si Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: S. Jahangir, S. H. I. Jaffery, M. Khan, Z. Zareef, A. Yar, A. Mubashir, S. Butt, L. Ali


In this work, drilling responses and behavior of MMC was investigated in Al-Mg2Si composites. For the purpose Al-15% wt. Mg2Si, was selected from the hypereutectic region of Al- Mg2Si phase diagram. Based on hardness and tensile strength, drill bit of appropriate material and morphology was selected. The performance of different drill bits of different morphology and material was studied and analysed using experimental data. For theoretical calculations of axial thrust force and required power calculation, material factor “K” was obtained from different data charts and at the same time cutting forces (drilling forces) were practically obtained using a Peizo electric force dynamometer. These results show the role of reinforcement particles on the machinability of MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control and optimized drilling parameters for the drilling process. Furthermore, in this work, comparison of MMC with non -reinforced Aluminum Alloy regarding drilling operation was also studied.

Keywords: drilling, metal matrix composite (MMC), cutting forces, thrust force

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
1932 Simulating Drilling Using a CAD System

Authors: Panagiotis Kyratsis, Konstantinos Kakoulis


Nowadays, the rapid development of CAD systems’ programming environments results in the creation of multiple downstream applications, which are developed and becoming increasingly available. CAD based manufacturing simulations is gradually following the same trend. Drilling is the most popular hole-making process used in a variety of industries. A specially built piece of software that deals with the drilling kinematics is presented. The cutting forces are calculated based on the tool geometry, the cutting conditions and the tool/work piece materials. The results are verified by experimental work. Finally, the response surface methodology (RSM) is applied and mathematical models of the total thrust force and the thrust force developed because of the main cutting edges are proposed.

Keywords: CAD, application programming interface, response surface methodology, drilling, RSM

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1931 Development of an Advanced Power Ultrasonic-Assisted Drilling System

Authors: M. A. Moghaddas, M. Short, N. Wiley, A. Y. Yi, K. F. Graff


The application of ultrasonic vibrations to machining processes has a long history, ranging from slurry-based systems able to drill brittle materials, to more recent developments involving low power ultrasonics for high precision machining, with many of these at the research and laboratory stages. The focus of this development is the application of high levels of ultrasonic power (1,000’s of watts) to standard, heavy duty machine tools – drilling being the immediate focus, with developments in milling in progress – with the objective of dramatically increasing system productivity through faster feed rates, this benefit arising from the thrust force reductions obtained by power ultrasonic vibrations. The presentation will describe development of an advanced drilling system based on a special, acoustically designed, rugged drill module capable of functioning under heavy duty production conditions, and making use of standard tool holder means, and able to obtain thrust force reductions while maintaining or improving surface finish and drilling accuracy. The characterization of the system performance will be described, and results obtained in drilling several materials (Aluminum, Stainless steel, Titanium) presented.

Keywords: dimensional accuracy, machine tool, productivity, surface roughness, thrust force, ultrasonic vibrations, ultrasonic-assisted drilling

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1930 Design & Development of a Static-Thrust Test-Bench for Aviation/UAV Based Piston Engines

Authors: Syed Muhammad Basit Ali, Usama Saleem, Irtiza Ali


Internal combustion engines have been pioneers in the aviation industry, use of piston engines for aircraft propulsion, from propeller-driven bi-planes to turbo-prop, commercial, and cargo airliners. To provide an adequate amount of thrust piston engine rotates the propeller at a specific rpm, allowing enough mass airflow. Thrust is the only forward-acting force of an aircraft that helps heavier than air bodies to fly, depending on the mathematical model and variables included in that with the correct measurement. Test-benches have been a bench-mark in the aerospace industry to analyse the results before a flight, having paramount significance in reliability and safety engineering, depending on the mathematical model and variables included in that with the correct measurement. Calculation of thrust from a piston engine also depends on environmental changes, the diameter of the propeller, and the density of air. The project would be centered on piston engines used in the aviation industry for light aircraft and UAVs. A static thrust test bench involves various units, each performing a designed purpose to monitor and display. Static thrust tests are performed on the ground, and safety concerns hold paramount importance. The execution of this study involves research, design, manufacturing, and results based on reverse engineering initiating from virtual design, analytical analysis, and simulations. The final evaluation of results gathered from various methods such as co-relation between conventional mass-spring and digital loadcell. On average, we received 17.5kg of thrust (25+ engine run-ups – around 40 hours of engine run), only 10% deviation from analytically calculated thrust –providing 90% accuracy.

Keywords: aviation, aeronautics, static thrust, test bench, aircraft maintenance

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1929 Coupling Time-Domain Analysis for Dynamic Positioning during S-Lay Installation

Authors: Sun Li-Ping, Zhu Jian-Xun, Liu Sheng-Nan


In order to study the performance of dynamic positioning system during S-lay operations, dynamic positioning system is simulated with the hull-stinger-pipe coupling effect. The roller of stinger is simulated by the generalized elastic contact theory. The stinger is composed of Morrison members. Force on pipe is calculated by lumped mass method. Time domain of fully coupled barge model is analyzed combining with PID controller, Kalman filter and allocation of thrust using Sequential Quadratic Programming method. It is also analyzed that the effect of hull wave frequency motion on pipe-stinger coupling force and dynamic positioning system. Besides, it is studied that how S-lay operations affect the dynamic positioning accuracy. The simulation results are proved to be available by checking pipe stress with API criterion. The effect of heave and yaw motion cannot be ignored on hull-stinger-pipe coupling force and dynamic positioning system. It is important to decrease the barge’s pitch motion and lay pipe in head sea in order to improve safety of the S-lay installation and dynamic positioning.

Keywords: S-lay operation, dynamic positioning, coupling motion, time domain, allocation of thrust

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1928 Thrust Vectoring Control of Supersonic Flow through an Orifice Injector

Authors: I. Mnafeg, A. Abichou, L. Beji


Traditional mechanical control systems in thrust vectoring are efficient in rocket thrust guidance but their costs and their weights are excessive. The fluidic injection in the nozzle divergent constitutes an alternative procedure to achieve the goal. In this paper, we present a 3D analytical model for fluidic injection in a supersonic nozzle integrating an orifice. The fluidic vectoring uses a sonic secondary injection in the divergent. As a result, the flow and interaction between the main and secondary jet has built in order to express the pressure fields from which the forces and thrust vectoring are deduced. Under various separation criteria, the present analytical model results are compared with the existing numerical and experimental data from the literature.

Keywords: flow separation, fluidic thrust vectoring, nozzle, secondary jet, shock wave

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1927 High Thrust Upper Stage Solar Hydrogen Rocket Design

Authors: Maged Assem Soliman Mossallam


The conversion of solar thruster model to an upper stage hydrogen rocket is considered. Solar thruster categorization limits its capabilities to low and moderate thrust system with high specific impulse. The current study proposes a different concept for such systems by increasing the thrust which enables using as an upper stage rocket and for future launching purposes. A computational model for the thruster is discussed for solar thruster subsystems. The first module depends on ray tracing technique to determine the intercepted solar power by the hydrogen combustion chamber. The cavity receiver is modeled using finite volume technique. The final module imports the heated hydrogen properties to the nozzle using quasi one dimensional simulation. The probability of shock waves formulation inside the nozzle is almost diminished as the outlet pressure in space environment tends to zero. The computational model relates the high thrust hydrogen rocket conversion to the design parameters and operating conditions of the thruster. Three different designs for solar thruster systems are discussed. The first design is a low thrust high specific impulse design that produces about 10 Newton of thrust .The second one output thrust is about 250 Newton and the third design produces about 1000 Newton.

Keywords: space propulsion, hydrogen rocket, thrust, specific impulse

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
1926 Performance of Constant Load Feed Machining for Robotic Drilling

Authors: Youji Miyake


In aircraft assembly, a large number of preparatory holes are required for screw and rivet joints. Currently, many holes are drilled manually because it is difficult to machine the holes using conventional computerized numerical control(CNC) machines. The application of industrial robots to drill the hole has been considered as an alternative to the CNC machines. However, the rigidity of robot arms is so low that vibration is likely to occur during drilling. In this study, it is proposed constant-load feed machining as a method to perform high-precision drilling while minimizing the thrust force, which is considered to be the cause of vibration. In this method, the drill feed is realized by a constant load applied onto the tool so that the thrust force is theoretically kept below the applied load. The performance of the proposed method was experimentally examined through the deep hole drilling of plastic and simultaneous drilling of metal/plastic stack plates. It was confirmed that the deep hole drilling and simultaneous drilling could be performed without generating vibration by controlling the tool feed rate in the appropriate range.

Keywords: constant load feed machining, robotic drilling, deep hole, simultaneous drilling

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1925 Drilling Quantification and Bioactivity of Machinable Hydroxyapatite : Yttrium phosphate Bioceramic Composite

Authors: Rupita Ghosh, Ritwik Sarkar, Sumit K. Pal, Soumitra Paul


The use of Hydroxyapatite bioceramics as restorative implants is widely known. These materials can be manufactured by pressing and sintering route to a particular shape. However machining processes are still a basic requirement to give a near net shape to those implants for ensuring dimensional and geometrical accuracy. In this context, optimising the machining parameters is an important factor to understand the machinability of the materials and to reduce the production cost. In the present study a method has been optimized to produce true particulate drilled composite of Hydroxyapatite Yttrium Phosphate. The phosphates are used in varying ratio for a comparative study on the effect of flexural strength, hardness, machining (drilling) parameters and bioactivity.. The maximum flexural strength and hardness of the composite that could be attained are 46.07 MPa and 1.02 GPa respectively. Drilling is done with a conventional radial drilling machine aided with dynamometer with high speed steel (HSS) and solid carbide (SC) drills. The effect of variation in drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed), cutting tool, batch composition on torque, thrust force and tool wear are studied. It is observed that the thrust force and torque varies greatly with the increase in the speed, feed and yttrium phosphate content in the composite. Significant differences in the thrust and torque are noticed due to the change of the drills as well. Bioactivity study is done in simulated body fluid (SBF) upto 28 days. The growth of the bone like apatite has become denser with the increase in the number of days for all the composition of the composites and it is comparable to that of the pure hydroxyapatite.

Keywords: Bioactivity, Drilling, Hydroxyapatite, Yttrium Phosphate

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1924 An Introduction to the Radiation-Thrust Based on Alpha Decay and Spontaneous Fission

Authors: Shiyi He, Yan Xia, Xiaoping Ouyang, Liang Chen, Zhongbing Zhang, Jinlu Ruan


As the key system of the spacecraft, various propelling system have been developing rapidly, including ion thrust, laser thrust, solar sail and other micro-thrusters. However, there still are some shortages in these systems. The ion thruster requires the high-voltage or magnetic field to accelerate, resulting in extra system, heavy quantity and large volume. The laser thrust now is mostly ground-based and providing pulse thrust, restraint by the station distribution and the capacity of laser. The thrust direction of solar sail is limited to its relative position with the Sun, so it is hard to propel toward the Sun or adjust in the shadow.In this paper, a novel nuclear thruster based on alpha decay and spontaneous fission is proposed and the principle of this radiation-thrust with alpha particle has been expounded. Radioactive materials with different released energy, such as 210Po with 5.4MeV and 238Pu with 5.29MeV, attached to a metal film will provides various thrust among 0.02-5uN/cm2. With this repulsive force, radiation is able to be a power source. With the advantages of low system quantity, high accuracy and long active time, the radiation thrust is promising in the field of space debris removal, orbit control of nano-satellite array and deep space exploration. To do further study, a formula lead to the amplitude and direction of thrust by the released energy and decay coefficient is set up. With the initial formula, the alpha radiation elements with the half life period longer than a hundred days are calculated and listed. As the alpha particles emit continuously, the residual charge in metal film grows and affects the emitting energy distribution of alpha particles. With the residual charge or extra electromagnetic field, the emitting of alpha particles performs differently and is analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, three more complex situations are discussed. Radiation element generating alpha particles with several energies in different intensity, mixture of various radiation elements, and cascaded alpha decay are studied respectively. In combined way, it is more efficient and flexible to adjust the thrust amplitude. The propelling model of the spontaneous fission is similar with the one of alpha decay, which has a more complex angular distribution. A new quasi-sphere space propelling system based on the radiation-thrust has been introduced, as well as the collecting and processing system of excess charge and reaction heat. The energy and spatial angular distribution of emitting alpha particles on unit area and certain propelling system have been studied. As the alpha particles are easily losing energy and self-absorb, the distribution is not the simple stacking of each nuclide. With the change of the amplitude and angel of radiation-thrust, orbital variation strategy on space debris removal is shown and optimized.

Keywords: alpha decay, angular distribution, emitting energy, orbital variation, radiation-thruster

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1923 Hybrid Reusable Launch Vehicle for Space Application A Naval Approach

Authors: Rajasekar Elangopandian, Anand Shanmugam


In order to reduce the cost of launching satellite and payloads to the orbit this project envisages some immense combined technology. This new technology in space odyssey contains literally four concepts. The first mode in this innovation is flight mission characteristics which, says how the mission will induct. The conventional technique of magnetic levitation will help us to produce the initial thrust. The name states reusable launch vehicle shows its viability of reuseness. The flight consists miniature rocket which produces the required thrust and the two JATO (jet assisted takeoff) boosters which gives the initial boost for the vehicle. The vehicle ostensibly looks like an airplane design and will be located on the super conducting rail track. When the high power electric current given to the rail track, the vehicle starts floating as per the principle of magnetic levitation. If the flight reaches the particular takeoff distance the two boosters gets starts and will give the 48KN thrust each. Obviously it`ll follow the vertical path up to the atmosphere end/start to space. As soon as it gets its speed the two boosters will cutoff. Once it reaches the space the inbuilt spacecraft keep the satellite in the desired orbit. When the work finishes, the apogee motors gives the initial kick to the vehicle to come in to the earth’s atmosphere with 22N thrust and automatically comes to the ground by following the free fall, the help of gravitational force. After the flying region it makes the spiral flight mode then gets landing where the super conducting levitated rail track located. It will catch up the vehicle and keep it by changing the poles of magnets and varying the current. Initial cost for making this vehicle might be high but for the frequent usage this will reduce the launch cost exactly half than the now-a-days technology. The incorporation of such a mechanism gives `hybrid` and the reusability gives `reusable launch vehicle` and ultimately Hybrid reusable launch vehicle.

Keywords: the two JATO (jet assisted takeoff) boosters, magnetic levitation, 48KN thrust each, 22N thrust and automatically comes to the ground

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1922 The Immediate Effects of Thrust Manipulation for Thoracic Hyperkyphosis

Authors: Betul Taspinar, Eda O. Okur, Ismail Saracoglu, Ismail Okur, Ferruh Taspinar


Thoracic hyperkyphosis, is a well-known spinal phenomenon, refers to an excessive curvature (> 40 degrees) of the thoracic spine. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of thrust manipulation on thoracic spine alignment. 31 young adults with hyperkyphosis diagnosed with Spinal Mouse® device were randomly assigned either thrust manipulation group (n=16, 11 female, 5 male) or sham manipulation group (n=15, 8 female, 7 male). Thrust and sham manipulations were performed by a blinded physiotherapist who is a certificated expert in musculoskeletal physiotherapy. Thoracic kyphosis degree was measured after the interventions via Spinal Mouse®. Wilcoxon test was used to analyse the data obtained before and after the manipulation for each group, whereas Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the groups. The mean of baseline thoracic kyphosis degrees in thrust and sham groups were 50.69 o ± 7.73 and 48.27o ± 6.43, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of initial thoracic kyphosis degrees (p=0.51). After the interventions, the mean of thoracic kyphosis degree in thrust and sham groups were measured as 44.06o ± 6.99 and 48.93o ± 6.57 respectively (p=0.03). There was no statistically significant difference between before and after interventions in sham group (p=0.33), while the mean of thoracic kyphosis degree in thrust group decreased significantly (p=0.00). Thrust manipulation can attenuate thoracic hyperkyphosis immediately in young adults by not using placebo effect. Manipulation might provide accurate proprioceptive (sensory) input to the spine joints and reduce kyphosis by restoring normal segment mobility. Therefore thoracic manipulation might be included in the physiotherapy programs to treat hyperkyphosis.

Keywords: hyperkyphosis, manual therapy, spinal mouse, physiotherapy

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1921 Unsteadiness Effects on Variable Thrust Nozzle Performance

Authors: A. M. Tahsini, S. Tadayon Mousavi


The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the flow unsteady behavior for moving plug in convergent-divergent variable thrust nozzle. Compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations are used to study this physical phenomenon. Different velocities are set for plug to investigate the effect of plug movement on flow unsteadiness. Variation of mass flow rate and thrust are compared under two conditions: First, the plug is placed at different positions and flow is simulated to reach the steady state (quasi steady simulation) and second, the plug is moved with assigned velocity and flow simulation is coupled with plug movement (unsteady simulation). If plug speed is high enough and its movement time scale is at the same order of the flow time scale, variation of the mass flow rate and thrust level versus plug position demonstrate a vital discrepancy under the quasi steady and unsteady conditions. This phenomenon should be considered especially from response time viewpoints in thrusters design.

Keywords: nozzle, numerical study, unsteady, variable thrust

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1920 Engine Thrust Estimation by Strain Gauging of Engine Mount Assembly

Authors: Rohit Vashistha, Amit Kumar Gupta, G. P. Ravishankar, Mahesh P. Padwale


Accurate thrust measurement is required for aircraft during takeoff and after ski-jump. In a developmental aircraft, takeoff from ship is extremely critical and thrust produced by the engine should be known to the pilot before takeoff so that if thrust produced is not sufficient then take-off can be aborted and accident can be avoided. After ski-jump, thrust produced by engine is required because the horizontal speed of aircraft is less than the normal takeoff speed. Engine should be able to produce enough thrust to provide nominal horizontal takeoff speed to the airframe within prescribed time limit. The contemporary low bypass gas turbine engines generally have three mounts where the two side mounts transfer the engine thrust to the airframe. The third mount only takes the weight component. It does not take any thrust component. In the present method of thrust estimation, the strain gauging of the two side mounts is carried out. The strain produced at various power settings is used to estimate the thrust produced by the engine. The quarter Wheatstone bridge is used to acquire the strain data. The engine mount assembly is subjected to Universal Test Machine for determination of equivalent elasticity of assembly. This elasticity value is used in the analytical approach for estimation of engine thrust. The estimated thrust is compared with the test bed load cell thrust data. The experimental strain data is also compared with strain data obtained from FEM analysis. Experimental setup: The strain gauge is mounted on the tapered portion of the engine mount sleeve. Two strain gauges are mounted on diametrically opposite locations. Both of the strain gauges on the sleeve were in the horizontal plane. In this way, these strain gauges were not taking any strain due to the weight of the engine (except negligible strain due to material's poison's ratio) or the hoop's stress. Only the third mount strain gauge will show strain when engine is not running i.e. strain due to weight of engine. When engine starts running, all the load will be taken by the side mounts. The strain gauge on the forward side of the sleeve was showing a compressive strain and the strain gauge on the rear side of the sleeve shows a tensile strain. Results and conclusion: the analytical calculation shows that the hoop stresses dominate the bending stress. The estimated thrust by strain gauge shows good accuracy at higher power setting as compared to lower power setting. The accuracy of estimated thrust at max power setting is 99.7% whereas at lower power setting is 78%.

Keywords: engine mounts, finite elements analysis, strain gauge, stress

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1919 Design and Simulation of a Double-Stator Linear Induction Machine with Short Squirrel-Cage Mover

Authors: David Rafetseder, Walter Bauer, Florian Poltschak, Wolfgang Amrhein


A flat double-stator linear induction machine (DSLIM) with a short squirrel-cage mover is designed for high thrust force at moderate speed < 5m/s. The performance and motor parameters are determined on the basis of a 2D time-transient simulation with the finite element (FE) software Maxwell 2015. Design guidelines and transformation rules for space vector theory of the LIM are presented. Resulting thrust calculated by flux and current vectors is compared with the FE results showing good coherence and reduced noise. The parameters of the equivalent circuit model are obtained.

Keywords: equivalent circuit model, finite element model, linear induction motor, space vector theory

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1918 Study and Simulation of the Thrust Vectoring in Supersonic Nozzles

Authors: Kbab H, Hamitouche T


In recent years, significant progress has been accomplished in the field of aerospace propulsion and propulsion systems. These developments are associated with efforts to enhance the accuracy of the analysis of aerothermodynamic phenomena in the engine. This applies in particular to the flow in the nozzles used. One of the most remarkable processes in this field is thrust vectoring by means of devices able to orientate the thrust vector and control the deflection of the exit jet in the engine nozzle. In the study proposed, we are interested in the fluid thrust vectoring using a second injection in the nozzle divergence. This fluid injection causes complex phenomena, such as boundary layer separation, which generates a shock wave in the primary jet upstream of the fluid interacting zone (primary jet - secondary jet). This will cause the deviation of the main flow, and therefore of the thrust vector with reference to the axis nozzle. In the modeling of the fluidic thrust vector, various parameters can be used. The Mach number of the primary jet and the injected fluid, the total pressures ratio, the injection rate, the thickness of the upstream boundary layer, the injector position in the divergent part, and the nozzle geometry are decisive factors in this type of phenomenon. The complexity of the latter challenges researchers to understand the physical phenomena of the turbulent boundary layer encountered in supersonic nozzles, as well as the calculation of its thickness and the friction forces induced on the walls. The present study aims to numerically simulate the thrust vectoring by secondary injection using the ANSYS-FLUENT, then to analyze and validate the results and the performances obtained (angle of deflection, efficiency...), which will then be compared with those obtained by other authors.

Keywords: CD Nozzle, TVC, SVC, NPR, CFD, NPR, SPR

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1917 Numerical Studies on Bypass Thrust Augmentation Using Convective Heat Transfer in Turbofan Engine

Authors: R. Adwaith, J. Gopinath, Vasantha Kohila B., R. Chandru, Arul Prakash R.


The turbofan engine is a type of air breathing engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion produces thrust mainly from the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core. The present research has developed an effective method numerically by increasing the thrust generated from the bypass air. This thrust increase is brought about by heating the walls of the bypass valve from the combustion chamber using convective heat transfer method. It is achieved computationally by the use external heat to enhance the velocity of bypass air of turbofan engines. The bypass valves are either heated externally using multicell tube resistor which convert electricity generated by dynamos into heat or heat is transferred from the combustion chamber. This increases the temperature of the flow in the valves and thereby increase the velocity of the flow that enters the nozzle of the engine. As a result, mass-flow of air passing the core engine for producing more thrust can be significantly reduced thereby saving considerable amount of Jet fuel. Numerical analysis has been carried out on a scaled down version of a typical turbofan bypass valve, where the valve wall temperature has been increased to 700 Kelvin. It is observed from the analysis that, the exit velocity contributing to thrust has significantly increased by 10 % due to the heating of by-pass valve. The degree of optimum increase in the temperature, and the corresponding effect in the increase of jet velocity is calculated to determine the operating temperature range for efficient increase in velocity. The technique used in the research increases the thrust by using heated by-pass air without extracting much work from the fuel and thus improve the efficiency of existing turbofan engines. Dimensional analysis has been carried to prove the accuracy of the results obtained numerically.

Keywords: turbofan engine, bypass valve, multi-cell tube, convective heat transfer, thrust

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1916 Evaluation of the Energy Performance and Emissions of an Aircraft Engine: J69 Using Fuel Blends of Jet A1 and Biodiesel

Authors: Gabriel Fernando Talero Rojas, Vladimir Silva Leal, Camilo Bayona-Roa, Juan Pava, Mauricio Lopez Gomez


The substitution of conventional aviation fuels with biomass-derived alternative fuels is an emerging field of study in the aviation transport, mainly due to its energy consumption, the contribution to the global Greenhouse Gas - GHG emissions and the fossil fuel price fluctuations. Nevertheless, several challenges remain as the biofuel production cost and its degradative effect over the fuel systems that alter the operating safety. Moreover, experimentation on full-scale aeronautic turbines are expensive and complex, leading to most of the research to the testing of small-size turbojets with a major absence of information regarding the effects in the energy performance and the emissions. The main purpose of the current study is to present the results of experimentation in a full-scale military turbojet engine J69-T-25A (presented in Fig. 1) with 640 kW of power rating and using blends of Jet A1 with oil palm biodiesel. The main findings are related to the thrust specific fuel consumption – TSFC, the engine global efficiency – η, the air/fuel ratio – AFR and the volume fractions of O2, CO2, CO, and HC. Two fuels are used in the present study: a commercial Jet A1 and a Colombian palm oil biodiesel. The experimental plan is conducted using the biodiesel volume contents - w_BD from 0 % (B0) to 50 % (B50). The engine operating regimes are set to Idle, Cruise, and Take-off conditions. The turbojet engine J69 is used by the Colombian Air Force and it is installed in a testing bench with the instrumentation that corresponds to the technical manual of the engine. The increment of w_BD from 0 % to 50 % reduces the η near 3,3 % and the thrust force in a 26,6 % at Idle regime. These variations are related to the reduction of the 〖HHV〗_ad of the fuel blend. The evolved CO and HC tend to be reduced in all the operating conditions when increasing w_BD. Furthermore, a reduction of the atomization angle is presented in Fig. 2, indicating a poor atomization in the fuel nozzle injectors when using a higher biodiesel content as the viscosity of fuel blend increases. An evolution of cloudiness is also observed during the shutdown procedure as presented in Fig. 3a, particularly after 20 % of biodiesel content in the fuel blend. This promotes the contamination of some components of the combustion chamber of the J69 engine with soot and unburned matter (Fig. 3). Thus, the substitution of biodiesel content above 20 % is not recommended in order to avoid a significant decrease of η and the thrust force. A more detail examination of the mechanical wearing of the main components of the engine is advised in further studies.

Keywords: aviation, air to fuel ratio, biodiesel, energy performance, fuel atomization, gas turbine

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1915 Development of Self-Reliant Satellite-Level Propulsion System by Using Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant

Authors: H. J. Liu, Y. A. Chan, C. K. Pai, K. C. Tseng, Y. H. Chen, Y. L. Chan, T. C. Kuo


To satisfy the mission requirement of the FORMOSAT-7 project, NSPO has initialized a self-reliant development on satellite propulsion technology. A trade-off study on different types of on-board propulsion system has been done. A green propellant, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 hereafter), is chosen in this research because it is ITAR-free, nontoxic and easy to produce. As the components designed for either cold gas or hydrazine propulsion system are not suitable for H2O2 propulsion system, the primary objective of the research is to develop the components compatible with H2O2. By cooperating with domestic research institutes and manufacturing vendors, several prototype components, including a diaphragm-type tank, pressure transducer, ball latching valve, and one-Newton thruster with catalyst bed, were manufactured, and the functional tests were performed successfully according to the mission requirements. The requisite environmental tests, including hot firing test, thermal vaccum test, vibration test and compatibility test, are prepared and will be to completed in the near future. To demonstrate the subsystem function, an Air-Bearing Thrust Stand (ABTS) and a real-time Data Acquisition & Control System (DACS) were implemented to assess the performance of the proposed H2O2 propulsion system. By measuring the distance that the thrust stand has traveled in a given time, the thrust force can be derived from the kinematics equation. To validate the feasibility of the approach, it is scheduled to assess the performance of a cold gas (N2) propulsion system prior to the H2O2 propulsion system.

Keywords: FORMOSAT-7, green propellant, Hydrogen peroxide, thruster

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