Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: M. Yaseen

14 Differential Transform Method: Some Important Examples

Authors: M. Jamil Amir, Rabia Iqbal, M. Yaseen

Abstract:

In this paper, we solve some differential equations analytically by using differential transform method. For this purpose, we consider four models of Laplace equation with two Dirichlet and two Neumann boundary conditions and K(2,2) equation and obtain the corresponding exact solutions. The obtained results show the simplicity of the method and massive reduction in calculations when one compares it with other iterative methods, available in literature. It is worth mentioning that here only a few number of iterations are required to reach the closed form solutions as series expansions of some known functions.

Keywords: differential transform method, laplace equation, Dirichlet boundary conditions, Neumann boundary conditions

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13 New Method for the Synthesis of Different Pyrroloquinazolinoquinolin Alkaloids

Authors: Abdulkareem M. Hamid, Yaseen Elhebshi, Adam Daïch

Abstract:

Luotonins and its derivatives (Isoluotonins) are alkaloids from the aerial parts of Peganum nigellastrum Bunge that display three major skeleton types. Luotonins A, B, and E are pyrroloquinazolinoquinoline alkaloids. A few methods were known for the sysnthesis of Isoluotonin. All luotonins have shown promising cytotoxicities towards selected human cancer cell lines, especially against leukemia P-388 cells. Luotonin A is the most active one, with its activity stemming from topoisomerase I-dependent DNA-cleavage. Such intriguing biological activities and unique structures have led not only to the development of synthetic methods for the efficient synthesis of these compounds, but also to interest in structural modifications for improving the biological properties. Recent progress in the study of luotonins is covered.

Keywords: luotonin A, isoluotonin, pyrroloquiolines, alkaloids

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12 Synthesis and Characterization of Amino-Functionalized Polystyrene Nanoparticles as Reactive Filler

Authors: Yaseen Elhebshi, Abdulkareem Hamid, Nureddin Bin Issa, Xiaonong Chen

Abstract:

A convenient method of preparing ultrafine polystyrene latex nano-particles with amino groups on the surface is developed. Polystyrene latexes in the size range 50–400 nm were prepared via emulsion polymerization, using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Polystyrene with amino groups on the surface will be fine to use as organic filler to modify rubber. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silicon dioxide and functionalized polystyrene nano-particles. The nature of bonding between the polymer and the reactive groups on the filler surfaces was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the filler surface.

Keywords: reactive filler, emulsion polymerization, particle size, polystyrene nanoparticles

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11 A Survey on Countermeasures of Cache-Timing Attack on AES Systems

Authors: Settana M. Abdulh, Naila A. Sadalla, Yaseen H. Taha, Howaida Elshoush

Abstract:

Side channel attacks are based on side channel information, which is information that is leaked from encryption systems. This includes timing information, power consumption as well as electromagnetic or even sound leaking which can exploited by an attacker. Implementing side channel attacks are possible if and only if an attacker has access to a cryptosystem. In this case, the attacker can exploit bad implementation in software or hardware which is not controlled by encryption implementer. Thus, he/she will represent a real threat to the security system. Several countermeasures have been proposed to eliminate side channel information vulnerability.Cache timing attack is a special type of side channel attack. Here, timing information is collected and analyzed by an attacker to guess sensitive information such as encryption key or plaintext. This paper reviews the technique applied in this attack and surveys the countermeasures against it, evaluating the feasibility and usability of each. Based on this evaluation, finally we pose several recommendations about using these countermeasures.

Keywords: AES algorithm, side channel attack, cache timing attack, cache timing countermeasure

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10 Numerical Investigation of Cavitation on Different Venturi Shapes by Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sedat Yayla, Mehmet Oruc, Shakhwan Yaseen

Abstract:

Cavitation phenomena might rigorously impair machine parts such as pumps, propellers and impellers or devices as the pressure in the fluid declines under the liquid's saturation pressure. To evaluate the influence of cavitation, in this research two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) venturi models with variety of inlet pressure values, throat lengths and vapor fluid contents were applied. In this research three different vapor contents (0%, 5% 10%), four inlet pressures (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 atm) and two venturi models were employed at different throat lengths ( 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm) for discovering the impact of each parameter on the cavitation number. It is uncovered that there is a positive correlation between pressure inlet and vapor fluid content and cavitation number. Furthermore, it is unveiled that velocity remains almost constant at the inlet pressures of 6, 8,10atm, nevertheless increasing the length of throat results in the substantial escalation in the velocity of the throat at inlet pressures of 2 and 4 atm. Furthermore, velocity and cavitation number were negatively correlated. The results of the cavitation number varied between 0.092 and 0.495 depending upon the velocity values of the throat.

Keywords: cavitation number, computational fluid dynamics, mixture of fluid, two-phase flow, velocity of throat

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9 Attitudes of University Students toward English Language Education Policy in Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Momen Yaseen M. Amin

Abstract:

Despite widespread coverage of language policy in the literature, there has been scant research probing into English language education policy at tertiary levels in general and in the case of higher education context of Iraqi Kurdistan in particular. The present qualitative study investigated the results of a questionnaire on attitudes toward English language education policy in terms of attitudes toward the English language in general, the current English education policy, and the purposes for learning English among Kurdish EFL university students. Moreover, this study aimed to investigate this topic in light of the participants’ gender and major. To this end, an adapted version of Yang’s (2012) questionnaire was administered to university EFL students majoring in soft and hard sciences (N=300, male 34%, female 67%, four and two disciplines, respectively) at two-state and private universities in Iraqi Kurdistan. The findings revealed positive attitudes toward English as an international language in both soft and hard sciences. While strongly subscribing to the idea that all Iraqi Kurdish students should learn the English language and the courses to be offered in English as well as Kurdish, the majority of the participants expressed their readiness and enthusiasm to excel in English and considered such competency a significant academic accomplishment. However, a good number felt dissatisfied with the status quo of English education at their institutions. This paper provides some implications and recommendations for English education policies makers, administrators, and English language instructors at tertiary levels.

Keywords: attitudes, language policy, English language education, Iraqi Kurdistan

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8 Avidity and IgE versus IgG and IgM in Diagnosis of Maternal Toxoplasmosis

Authors: Ghada A. Gamea, Nabila A. Yaseen, Ahmed A. Othman, Ahmed S. Tawfik

Abstract:

Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious complications in pregnant women, leading to abortion, stillbirth, and congenital anomalies in the fetus. Definitive diagnosis of T. gondii acute infection is therefore critical for the clinical management of a mother and her fetus. This study was conducted on 250 pregnant females in the first trimester who were inpatients or outpatients at Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department at Tanta University Hospital. Screening of the selected females was done for the detection of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM), and all subjects were submitted to history taking through a questionnaire including personal data, risk factors for Toxoplasma, complaint and history of the present illness. Thirty-eight samples, including 18 IgM +ve and 20 IgM-ve cases were further investigated by the avidity and IgE ELISA tests. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was (42.8%) based on the presence of IgG antibodies in their sera. Contact with cats and consumption of raw or undercooked meat are important risk factors that were associated with toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. By serology, it could be observed that in the IgM +ve group, only one case (5.6%) showed an acute pattern by using the avidity test, though 10 (55.6%) cases were found to be acute by the IgE assay. On the other hand, in the IgM –ve group, 3 (15%) showed low avidity, but none of them was positive by using the IgE assay. In conclusion, there is no single serological test that can be used to confirm whether T. gondii infection is recent or was acquired in the distant past. A panel of tests for detection of toxoplasmosis will certainly have higher discriminatory power than any test alone.

Keywords: diagnosis, serology, seroprevalence, toxoplasmosis

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7 Catalytic Hydrodesulfurization of Dibenzothiophene Coupled with Ionic Liquids over Low Pd Incorporated [email protected]₂O₃ and [email protected]₂O₃ Catalysts at Mild Operating Conditions

Authors: Yaseen Muhammad, Zhenxia Zhao, Zhangfa Tong

Abstract:

A key problem with hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process of fuel oils is the application of severe operating conditions. In this study, we proposed the catalytic HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT) integrated with ionic liquids (ILs) application at mild temperature and pressure over low loaded (0.5 wt.%) Pd promoted [email protected]₂O₃ and [email protected]₂O₃ catalysts. Among the thirteen ILs tested, [BMIM]BF₄, [(CH₃)₄N]Cl, [EMIM]AlCl₄, and [(C₈H₁₇)(C₃H₇)₃P]Br enhanced the catalytic HDS efficiency while the latest ranked the top of activity list as confirmed by DFT studies as well. Experimental results revealed that Pd incorporation greatly enhanced the HDS activity of classical Co or Ni based catalysts. At mild optimized experimental conditions of 1 MPa H₂ pressure, 120 oC, IL:oil ratio of 1:3 and 4 h reaction time, the % DBT conversion (21 %) by [email protected]₂O₃ was enhanced to 69 % (over [email protected] Al₂O₃) using [(C₈H₁₇) (C₃H₇)₃P]Br. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized for textural properties using XPS, SEM, EDX, XRD and BET surface area techniques. An overall catalytic HDS activity followed the order of: [email protected]₂O₃ > [email protected]₂O₃ > [email protected]₂O₃ > [email protected]₂O₃. [(C₈H₁₇) (C₃H₇)₃P]Br.could be recycled four times with minimal decrease in HDS activity. Reaction products were analyzed by GC-MS which helped in proposing reaction mechanism for the IL coupled HDS process. The present approach attributed to its cost-effective nature, ease of operation with less mechanical requirements in terms of mild operating conditions, and high efficiency could be deemed as an alternative approach for the HDS of DBT on industrial level applications.

Keywords: DFT simulation, GC-MS and reaction mechanism, Ionic liquid coupled HDS of DBT, low Pd loaded catalyst, mild operating condition

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6 The Value of Serum Procalcitonin in Patients with Acute Musculoskeletal Infections

Authors: Mustafa Al-Yaseen, Haider Mohammed Mahdi, Haider Ali Al–Zahid, Nazar S. Haddad

Abstract:

Background: Early diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections is of vital importance to avoid devastating complications. There is no single laboratory marker which is sensitive and specific in diagnosing these infections accurately. White blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein are not specific as they can also be elevated in conditions other than bacterial infections. Materials Culture and sensitivity is not a true gold standard due to its varied positivity rates. Serum Procalcitonin is one of the new laboratory markers for pyogenic infections. The objective of this study is to assess the value of PCT in the diagnosis of soft tissue, bone, and joint infections. Patients and Methods: Patients of all age groups (seventy-four patients) with a diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection are prospectively included in this study. All patients were subjected to White blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum Procalcitonin measurements. A healthy non infected outpatient group (twenty-two patients) taken as a control group and underwent the same evaluation steps as the study group. Results: The study group showed mean Procalcitonin levels of 1.3 ng/ml. Procalcitonin, at 0.5 ng/ml, was (42.6%) sensitive and (95.5%) specific in diagnosing of musculoskeletal infections with (positive predictive value of 87.5% and negative predictive value of 48.3%) and (positive likelihood ratio of 9.3 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.6). Conclusion: Serum Procalcitonin, at a cut – off of 0.5 ng/ml, is a specific but not sensitive marker in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections, and it can be used effectively to rule in the diagnosis of infection but not to rule out it.

Keywords: procalcitonin, infection, labratory markers, musculoskeletal

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5 The Structure and Composition of Plant Communities in Ajluon Forest Reserve in Jordan

Authors: Maher J. Tadros, Yaseen Ananbeh

Abstract:

The study area is located in Ajluon Forest Reserve northern part of Jordan. It consists of Mediterranean hills dominated by open woodlands of oak and pistachio. The aims of the study were to investigate the positive and negative relationships between the locals and the protected area and how it can affect the long-term forest conservation. The main research objectives are to review the impact of establishing Ajloun Forest Reserve on nature conservation and on the livelihood level of local communities around the reserve. The Ajloun forest reserve plays a fundamental role in Ajloun area development. The existence of initiatives of nature conservation in the area supports various socio-economic activities around the reserve that contribute towards the development of local communities in Ajloun area. A part of this research was to conduct a survey to study the impact of Ajloun forest reserve on biodiversity composition. Also, studying the biodiversity content especially for vegetation to determine the economic impacts of Ajloun forest reserve on its surroundings was studied. In this study, several methods were used to fill the objectives including point-centered quarter method which involves selecting randomly 50 plots at the study site. The collected data from the field showed that the absolute density was (1031.24 plant per hectare). Density was recorded and found to be the highest for Quecus coccifera, and relative density of (73.7%), this was followed by Arbutus andrachne and relative density (7.1%), Pistacia palaestina and relative density (10.5%) and Crataegus azarulus (82.5 p/ha) and relative density (5.1%),

Keywords: composition, density, frequency, importance value, point-centered quarter, structure, tree cover

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4 Utility of CK7, CK20 and CDX-2 as a Potential Panel in Differentiating Primary Ovarian Surface Epithelial Tumors from Metastatic Adenocarcinoma to the Ovary

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Ghadeer Aldoobi, Salwa Almalk, Abrar Alshareef, Eman Al-khairi, Eman Yaseen

Abstract:

Background: In Saudi Arabia, ovarian cancer ranked seventh among female population and is the most common female genital tract malignancy after endometrial cancer. A slight increase in the incidence of ovarian cancer was observed from 2001–2008. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases (1). Differentiating metastatic adenocarcinomas from primary ovarian carcinomas, especially those of endometrioid and mucinous type is clinically significant and a challenge for clinicians and pathologists, yet the distinction has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. Aim: To clarify the most important histopathological criteria to differentiate between primary ovarian surface epithelial tumors especially mucinous and endometrioid subtypes, and metastatic adenocarcinoma and to evaluate the value of a panel of antibodies consisting of CK7, CK20, and CDX-2 in the distinction between primary ovarian surface epithelial tumors and metastatic adenocarcinoma. Material and methods: This study was carried out on 26 cases of primary ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms and 14 cases of metastatic ovarian adenocarcinoma. All cases were studied immunohistochemically using CK7, CK20, and CDX-2. Results: All cases of primary ovarian adenocarcinoma were positive for CK7. 25% and 58% of mucinous borderline mucinous tumor and mucinous carcinoma respectively were positive for CK20. Only 42% of mucinous carcinoma were positive for CDX-2. All cases of endometrioid carcinomas were negative for both CK20 and CDX-2. All cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma from the colon were negative for CK7 and positive for CK20 and CDX-2. Conclusions: CK7 is an important positive marker for primary ovarian tumors, while CK20 and CDX-2 are useful markers for colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the ovary. Caution should be taken as primary ovarian mucinous tumors may stain positive for CK20, CDX-2, or both, however, they usually exhibit a focal pattern of reactivity.

Keywords: adenoma, endometrioid, malignancy, ovarian

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3 Nutritional Profile and Food Intake Trends amongst Hospital Dieted Diabetic Eye Disease Patients of India

Authors: Parmeet Kaur, Nighat Yaseen Sofi, Shakti Kumar Gupta, Veena Pandey, Rajvaedhan Azad

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Nutritional status and prevailing blood glucose level trends amongst hospitalized patients has been linked to clinical outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess hospitalized Diabetic Eye Disease (DED) patients' anthropometric and dietary intake trends. DED patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes > 20 years were enrolled. Actual food intake was determined by weighed food record method. Mifflin St Joer predictive equation multiplied by a combined stress and activity factor of 1.3 was applied to estimate caloric needs. A questionnaire was further administered to obtain reasons of inadequate dietary intake. Results indicated validity of joint analyses of body mass index in combination with waist circumference for clinical risk prediction. Dietary data showed a significant difference (p < 0.0005) between average daily caloric and carbohydrate intake and actual daily caloric and carbohydrate needs. Mean fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose levels were 150.71 ± 72.200 mg/dL and 219.76 ± 97.365 mg/dL, respectively. Improvement in food delivery systems and nutrition educations were indicated for reducing plate waste and to enable better understanding of dietary aspects of diabetes management. A team approach of nurses, physicians and other health care providers is required besides the expertise of dietetics professional. To conclude, findings of the present study will be useful in planning nutritional care process (NCP) for optimizing glucose control as a component of quality medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in hospitalized DED patients.

Keywords: nutritional status, diabetic eye disease, nutrition care process, medical nutrition therapy

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2 Assessing the Impact of Quinoa Cultivation Adopted to Produce a Secure Food Crop and Poverty Reduction by Farmers in Rural Pakistan

Authors: Ejaz Ashraf, Raheel Babar, Muhammad Yaseen, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Nosheen Fatima

Abstract:

Main purpose of this study was to assess adoption level of farmers for quinoa cultivation after they had been taught through training and visit extension approach. At this time of the 21st century, population structure, climate change, food requirements and eating habits of people are changing rapidly. In this scenario, farmers must play their key role in sustainable crop development and production through adoption of new crops that may also be helpful to overcome the issue of food insecurity as well as reducing poverty in rural areas. Its cultivation in Pakistan is at the early stages and there is a need to raise awareness among farmers to grow quinoa crops. In the middle of the 2015, a training and visit extension approach was used to raise awareness and convince farmers to grow quinoa in the area. During training and visit extension program, 80 farmers were randomly selected for the training of quinoa cultivation. Later on, these farmers trained 60 more farmers living into their neighborhood. After six months, a survey was conducted with all 140 farmers to assess the impact of the training and visit program on adoption level of respondents for the quinoa crop. The survey instrument was developed with the help of literature review and other experts of the crop. Validity and reliability of the instrument were checked before complete data collection. The data were analyzed by using SPSS. Multiple regression analysis was used for interpretation of the results from the survey, which indicated that factors like information/ training, change in agronomic and plant protection practices play a key role in the adoption of quinoa cultivation by respondents. In addition, the model explains more than 50% of variation in the adoption level of respondents. It is concluded that farmers need timely information for improved knowledge of agronomic and plant protection practices to adopt cultivation of the quinoa crop in the area.

Keywords: farmers, quinoa, adoption, contact, training and visit

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1 Coping Strategies and Characterization of Vulnerability in the Perspective of Climate Change

Authors: Muhammad Umer Mehmood, Muhammad Luqman, Muhammad Yaseen, Imtiaz Hussain

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Climate change is an arduous fact, which could not be unheeded easily. It is a phenomenon which has brought a collection of challenges for the mankind. Scientists have found many of its negative impacts on the life of human being and the resources on which the life of humanity is dependent. There are many issues which are associated with the factor of prime importance in this study, 'climate change'. Whenever changes happen in nature, they strike the whole globe. Effects of these changes vary from region to region. Climate of every region of this globe is different from the other. Even within a state, country or the province has different climatic conditions. So it is mandatory that the response in that specific region and the coping strategy of this specific region should be according to the prevailing risk. In the present study, the objective was to assess the coping strategies and vulnerability of small landholders. So that a professional suggestion could be made to cope with the vulnerability factor of small farmers. The cross-sectional research design was used with the intervention of quantitative approach. The study was conducted in the Khanewal district, of Punjab, Pakistan. 120 small farmers were interviewed after randomized sampling from the population of respective area. All respondents were above the age of 15 years. A questionnaire was developed after keen observation of facts in the respective area. Content and face validity of the instrument was assessed with SPSS and experts in the field. Data were analyzed through SPSS using descriptive statistics. From the sample of 120, 81.67% of the respondents claimed that the environment is getting warmer and not fit for their present agricultural practices. 84.17% of the sample expressed serious concern that they are disturbed due to change in rainfall pattern and vulnerability towards the climatic effects. On the other hand, they expressed that they are not good at tackling the effects of climate change. Adaptation of coping strategies like change in cropping pattern, use of resistant varieties, varieties with minimum water requirement, intercropping and tree planting was low by more than half of the sample. From the sample 63.33% small farmers said that the coping strategies they adopt are not effective enough. The present study showed that subsistence farming, lack of marketing and overall infrastructure, lack of access to social security networks, limited access to agriculture extension services, inappropriate access to agrometeorological system, unawareness and access to scientific development and low crop yield are the prominent factors which are responsible for the vulnerability of small farmers. A comprehensive study should be conducted at national level so that a national policy could be formulated to cope with the dilemma in future with relevance to climate change. Mainstreaming and collaboration among the researchers and academicians could prove beneficiary in this regard the interest of national leaders’ does matter. Proper policies to avoid the vulnerability factors should be the top priority. The world is taking up this issue with full responsibility as should we, keeping in view the local situation.

Keywords: adaptation, coping strategies, climate change, Pakistan, small farmers, vulnerability

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