Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4842

Search results for: metal matrix composite (MMC)

4842 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites

Authors: M. E. Turan, H. Zengin, E. Cevik, Y. Sun, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci


In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.

Keywords: magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration, SEM, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
4841 Studying the Influence of Stir Cast Parameters on Properties of Al6061/Al2O3 Composite

Authors: Anuj Suhag, Rahul Dayal


Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of metal matrix composites that are lightweight but high performance aluminum centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibers, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions. Properties of AMCs can be altered to the requirements of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. This work focuses on the fabrication of aluminum alloy (Al6061) matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with 5 and 3 wt% Al2O3 particulates of 45µm using stir casting route. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of process parameters, determined by design of experiments, on microhardness, microstructure, Charpy impact strength, surface roughness and tensile properties of the AMC.

Keywords: aluminium matrix composite, Charpy impact strength test, composite materials, matrix, metal matrix composite, surface roughness, reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
4840 Effect of Al Particles on Corrosion Resistance of Electrodeposited Ni-Al Composite Coatings

Authors: M. Adabi, A. Amadeh


Electrodeposition is known as a relatively economical and simple technique commonly used for preparation of metallic and composite coatings. Electrodeposited composite coatings produced by dispersion of particles into the metal matrix show better properties than pure metallic coatings. In recent years, many researches were carried out on Ni matrix coatings reinforced by ceramic particles such as Ni-SiC, Ni-Al2O3, Ni-WC, Ni-CeO2, Ni-ZrO2, Ni-TiO2 to improve their corrosion and wear resistance. However, little effort has been made on incorporation of metal particles into Ni matrix. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce Ni–Al composite coating on 6061 aluminum alloy by pulse plating and to investigate the effects of electrodeposition parameters, e.g. concentration Al particles in the electrolyte and current density, on composition and corrosion resistance of the composite coatings. The morphology and corrosion behavior of the coated 6061 Al alloys were studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and potentiodynamic polarization method, respectively. The results indicated that the addition of Al particles up to 50 g L-1 increased the amount of co-deposited Al particles in nickel matrix. It is also observed that the incorporation of Al particles decreased with increasing current density. Meanwhile, the corrosion resistance of the coatings shows an increment by increasing the content of Al particles into nickel matrix.

Keywords: Ni-Al composite coating, current density, corrosion resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
4839 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites

Authors: V. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Garewal


Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.

Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
4838 Investigation on the Properties of Particulate Reinforced AA2014 Metal Matrix Composite Materials Produced by Vacuum Infiltration Method

Authors: Isil Kerti, Onur Okur, Sibel Daglilar, Recep Calin


Particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites have gained more importance in automotive, aeronautical and defense industries due to their specific properties like as low density, high strength and stiffness, good fatigue strength, dimensional stability at high temperature and acceptable tribological properties. In this study, 2014 Aluminium alloy used as a matrix material and B₄C and SiC were selected as reinforcements components. For production of composites materials, vacuum infiltration method was used. In the experimental studies, the reinforcement volume ratios were defined by mixing as totally 10% B₄C and SiC. Aging treatment (T6) was applied to the specimens. The effect of T6 treatment on hardness was determined by using Brinell hardness test method. The effects of the aging treatment on microstructure and chemical structure were analysed by making XRD, SEM and EDS analysis on the specimens.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, vacumm infiltration method, aluminum metal matrix, mechanical feature

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4837 Production of (V-B) Reinforced Fe Matrix Composites

Authors: Kerim Emre Öksüz, Mehmet Çevik, A. Enbiya Bozdağ, Ali Özer, Mehmet Şimşir


Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have gained a considerable interest in the last three decades. Conventional powder metallurgy production route often involves the addition of reinforcing phases into the metal matrix directly, which leads to poor wetting behavior between ceramic phase and metal matrix and the segregation of reinforcements. The commonly used elements for ceramic phase formation in iron based MMCs are Ti, Nb, Mo, W, V and C, B. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the effect of sintering temperature and V-B addition on densification, phase development, microstructure, and hardness of Fe–V-B composites (Fe-(5-10) wt. %B – 25 wt. %V alloys) prepared by powder metallurgy process. Metal powder mixes were pressed uniaxial and sintered at different temperatures (ranging from 1300 to 1400ºC) for 1h. The microstructure of the (V, B) Fe composites was studied with the help of high magnification optical microscope and XRD. Experimental results show that (V, B) Fe composites can be produced by conventional powder metallurgy route.

Keywords: hardness, metal matrix composite (MMC), microstructure, powder metallurgy

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4836 In-situ Fabrication of a Metal-Intermetallic Composite: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Response

Authors: Monireh Azimi, Mohammad Reza Toroghinejad, Leo A. I. Kestens


The role of different metallic and intermetallic reinforcements on the microstructure and the associated mechanical response of a composite is of crucial importance. To investigate this issue, a multiphase metal-intermetallic composite was in-situ fabricated through reactive annealing and accumulative roll bonding (ARB) processes. EBSD results indicated that the lamellar grain structure of the Al matrix after the first cycle has evolved with increasing strain to a mixed structure consisting of equiaxed and lamellar grains, whereby the steady-state did not occur after the 3rd (last) cycle—applying a strain of 6.1 in the Al phase, the length and thickness of the grains reduced by 92.2% and 97.3%, respectively, compared to the annealed state. Intermetallic phases together with the metallic reinforcement of Ni influence grain fragmentation of the Al matrix and give rise to a specific texture evolution by creating heterogeneity in the strain and flow patterns. Mechanical properties of the multiphase composite demonstrated the yield and ultimate tensile strengths of 217.9 MPa and 340.1 MPa, respectively, compared to 48.7 MPa and 55.4 MPa in the metal-intermetallic laminated (MIL) sandwich before applying the ARB process, which corresponds to an increase of 347% and 514% of yield and tensile strength, respectively.

Keywords: accumulative roll bonding, mechanical properties, metal-intermetallic composite, severe plastic deformation, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
4835 Production and Characterization of Al-BN Composite Materials by Using Powder Metallurgy

Authors: Ahmet Yonetken, Ayhan Erol


Aluminum matrix composites containing 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% BN has been fabricated by conventional microwave sintering at 550°C temperature. Compounds formation between Al and BN powders is observed after sintering under Ar shroud. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), mechanical testing and measurements were employed to characterize the properties of Al + BN composite. Experimental results suggest that the best properties as hardness 42,62 HV were obtained for Al+12% BN composite. In this study, the powder metallurgy method was used. It is aimed to produce a light composite with Al matrix BN powders. It has been increased in strength and hardness besides its lightness. Ceramic powders are added to improve mechanical properties.

Keywords: ceramic-metal composites, proporties, powder metallurgy, sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
4834 Optimization of Machining Parameters in AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material by TiN Coating Insert

Authors: Nurul Na'imy Wan, Mohamad Sazali Said, Jaharah Ab. Ghani, Rusli Othman


This paper presents the surface roughness of the aluminium silicon alloy (AlSi) matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN). Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to a standard orthogonal array L27 of Taguchi method using TiN coating tool of insert. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance are applied to study the characteristic performance of cutting speeds, feed rates and depths of cut in measuring the surface roughness during the milling operation. The surface roughness was observed using Mitutoyo Formtracer CS-500 and analyzed using the Taguchi method. From the Taguchi analysis, it was found that cutting speed of 230 m/min, feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth, depth of cut of 0.3 mm were the optimum machining parameters using TiN coating insert.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN metal matrix composite (MMC), surface roughness, Taguchi method, machining parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
4833 Computational Study of Composite Films

Authors: Rudolf Hrach, Stanislav Novak, Vera Hrachova


Composite and nanocomposite films represent the class of promising materials and are often objects of the study due to their mechanical, electrical and other properties. The most interesting ones are probably the composite metal/dielectric structures consisting of a metal component embedded in an oxide or polymer matrix. Behaviour of composite films varies with the amount of the metal component inside what is called filling factor. The structures contain individual metal particles or nanoparticles completely insulated by the dielectric matrix for small filling factors and the films have more or less dielectric properties. The conductivity of the films increases with increasing filling factor and finally a transition into metallic state occurs. The behaviour of composite films near a percolation threshold, where the change of charge transport mechanism from a thermally-activated tunnelling between individual metal objects to an ohmic conductivity is observed, is especially important. Physical properties of composite films are given not only by the concentration of metal component but also by the spatial and size distributions of metal objects which are influenced by a technology used. In our contribution, a study of composite structures with the help of methods of computational physics was performed. The study consists of two parts: -Generation of simulated composite and nanocomposite films. The techniques based on hard-sphere or soft-sphere models as well as on atomic modelling are used here. Characterizations of prepared composite structures by image analysis of their sections or projections follow then. However, the analysis of various morphological methods must be performed as the standard algorithms based on the theory of mathematical morphology lose their sensitivity when applied to composite films. -The charge transport in the composites was studied by the kinetic Monte Carlo method as there is a close connection between structural and electric properties of composite and nanocomposite films. It was found that near the percolation threshold the paths of tunnel current forms so-called fuzzy clusters. The main aim of the present study was to establish the correlation between morphological properties of composites/nanocomposites and structures of conducting paths in them in the dependence on the technology of composite films.

Keywords: composite films, computer modelling, image analysis, nanocomposite films

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4832 Effect of Chilling on Soundness, Micro Hardness, Ultimate Tensile Strength, and Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Alloy-Fused Silica Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: G. Purushotham, Joel Hemanth


An investigation has been carried out to fabricate and evaluate the strength and soundness of chilled composites consisting of nickel matrix and fused silica particles (size 40–150 μm) in the matrix. The dispersoid added ranged from 3 to 12 wt. % in steps of 3%. The resulting composites cast in moulds containing metallic and non-metallic chill blocks (MS, SiC, and Cu) were tested for their microstructure and mechanical properties. The main objective of the present research is to obtain fine grain Ni/SiO2 chilled sound composite having very good mechanical properties. Results of the investigation reveal the following: (1) Strength of the composite developed is highly dependent on the location of the casting from where the test specimens are taken and also on the dispersoid content of the composite. (2) Chill thickness and chill material, however, does significantly affect the strength and soundness of the composite. (3) Soundness of the composite developed is highly dependent on the chilling rate as well as the dispersoid content. An introduction of chilling and increase in the dispersoid content of the material both result in an increase in the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the material. The temperature gradient developed during solidification and volumetric heat capacity (VHC) of the chill used is the important parameters controlling the soundness of the composite. (4) Thermal properties of the end chills are used to determine the magnitude of the temperature gradient developed along the length of the casting solidifying under the influence of chills.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, nickel alloy, fused silica, chills

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4831 Production of Metal Matrix Composites with Diamond for Abrasive Cutting Resistance by Gas Infiltration Casting

Authors: Haydar S. Al Shabbani, M. Marshall, R. Goodall


Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been explored for many applications for many decades. Recently, this includes investigations for thermal applications associated with electronics, such as in heat sinks. Here, to promote thermal conductivity, composites of a metal matrix with diamond particles are used. However, this class of composites has not yet been extensively examined for mechanical and tribological behavior, especially for applications that require extreme mechanical and tribological strength, such as the resistance to abrasive cutting. Therefore, this research seeks to develop a composite material with metal matrix and diamond particles which resist abrasive and cutting forces. The development progresses through a series of steps, exploring methods to process the material, understanding the mechanics of abrasive behavior and optimizing the composite structure to resist abrasive cutting. In processing, infiltration casting under gas pressure has been applied to molten aluminum to obtain a significant penetration of the metal into a preform of diamond particles. Different diamond particle sizes were used with different surface modifications (coated/uncoated), and to compare resulting composites with the same particle sizes. Al-1 wt.% Mg as a matrix alloy was utilised to investigate the possible effect of Mg on bonding phases during the infiltration process. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials produced have been characterised. These tests showed that the surface modification of the diamond particles with a reactive material (Ti-coating) has an important role for enhancing the bonding between the aluminium matrix and diamond reinforcement as apparent under SEM observation. The effect of this improved bond is seen in the cutting resistance of the material.

Keywords: aluminium, composites, diamond, Ti-coated, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
4830 Tool Wear of Metal Matrix Composite 10wt% AlN Reinforcement Using TiB2 Cutting Tool

Authors: M. S. Said, J. A. Ghani, C. H. Che Hassan, N. N. Wan, M. A. Selamat, R. Othman


Metal Matrix Composite (MMCs) have attracted considerable attention as a result of their ability to provide high strength, high modulus, high toughness, high impact properties, improved wear resistance and good corrosion resistance than unreinforced alloy. Aluminium Silicon (Al/Si) alloys Metal Matrix composite (MMC) has been widely used in various industrial sectors such as transportation, domestic equipment, aerospace, military, construction, etc. Aluminium silicon alloy is MMC reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN) particle and becomes a new generation material for automotive and aerospace applications. The AlN material is one of the advanced materials with light weight, high strength, high hardness and stiffness qualities which have good future prospects. However, the high degree of ceramic particles reinforcement and the irregular nature of the particles along the matrix material that contribute to its low density, is the main problem that leads to the machining difficulties. This paper examines tool wear when milling AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite using a TiB2 coated carbide cutting tool. The volume of the AlN reinforced particle was 10%. The milling process was carried out under dry cutting condition. The TiB2 coated carbide insert parameters used were the cutting speed of (230 m/min, feed rate 0.4mm tooth, DOC 0.5mm, 300 m/min, feed rate 0.8mm/tooth, DOC 0.5mm and 370 m/min, feed rate 0.8, DOC 0.4m). The Sometech SV-35 video microscope system was used for tool wear measurements respectively. The results have revealed that the tool life increases with the cutting speed (370 m/min, feed rate 0.8 mm/tooth and depth of cut 0.4mm) constituted the optimum condition for longer tool life which is 123.2 min. While at medium cutting speed, it is found that the cutting speed of 300m/min, feed rate 0.8 mm/tooth and depth of cut 0.5mm only 119.86 min for tool wear mean while the low cutting speed give 119.66 min. The high cutting speed gives the best parameter for cutting AlSi/AlN MMCs materials. The result will help manufacture to machining the AlSi/AlN MMCs materials.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite milling process, tool wear, TiB2 coated carbide tool, manufacturing engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
4829 Surface Roughness of AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Nurul Na'imy Wan, Mohamad Sazali Said, Jaharah Ab. Ghani, Mohd Asri Selamat


This paper presents the surface roughness of the Aluminium silicon alloy (AlSi) matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN), with three types of carbide inserts. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to the Taguchi method, using a standard orthogonal array L27 (34). The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance are applied to study the characteristic performance of machining parameters in measuring the surface roughness during the milling operation. The analysis of results, using the Taguchi method concluded that a combination of low feed rate, medium depth of cut, low cutting speed, and insert TiB2 give a better value of surface roughness. From Taguchi method, it was found that cutting speed of 230m/min, feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth, depth of cut of 0.5mm and type of insert of TiB2 were the optimal machining parameters that gave the optimal value of surface roughness.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), surface roughness, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
4828 Studying the Effect of Different Sizes of Carbon Fiber on Locally Developed Copper Based Composites

Authors: Tahir Ahmad, Abubaker Khan, Muhammad Kamran, Muhammad Umer Manzoor, Muhammad Taqi Zahid Butt


Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) is a class of weight efficient structural materials that are becoming popular in engineering applications especially in electronic, aerospace, aircraft, packaging and various other industries. This study focuses on the development of carbon fiber reinforced copper matrix composite. Keeping in view the vast applications of metal matrix composites,this specific material is produced for its unique mechanical and thermal properties i.e. high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion at elevated temperatures. The carbon fibers were not pretreated but coated with copper by electroless plating in order to increase the wettability of carbon fiber with the copper matrix. Casting is chosen as the manufacturing route for the C-Cu composite. Four different compositions of the composite were developed by varying the amount of carbon fibers by 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt. % of the copper. The effect of varying carbon fiber content and sizes on the mechanical properties of the C-Cu composite is studied in this work. The tensile test was performed on the tensile specimens. The yield strength decreases with increasing fiber content while the ultimate tensile strength increases with increasing fiber content. Rockwell hardness test was also performed and the result followed the increasing trend for increasing carbon fibers and the hardness numbers are 30.2, 37.2, 39.9 and 42.5 for sample 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The microstructures of the specimens were also examined under the optical microscope. Wear test and SEM also done for checking characteristic of C-Cu marix composite. Through casting may be a route for the production of the C-Cu matrix composite but still powder metallurgy is better to follow as the wettability of carbon fiber with matrix, in that case, would be better.

Keywords: copper based composites, mechanical properties, wear properties, microstructure

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4827 Corrosion Characterization of Al6061, Quartz Metal Matrix Composites in Alkali Medium

Authors: Radha H. R., Krupakara P. V.


Metal matrix composites are attracting today's manufacturers of many automobile parts so that they lost longer and their properties can be tailored according to the requirement. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the corrosion characteristics of Aluminium 6061 / quartz metal matrix composites in alkali medium like sodium hydroxide solutions. Metal matrix composites are heterogeneous mixtures of a matrix and reinforcement. In this work the matrix selected is Aluminium 6061 alloy which is commercially available and the reinforcement selected is quartz particulates of 50-80 micron size which is available in plenty in and around Bangalore district, India. Composites containing Aluminium 6061 with 2, 4 and 6 weight percent of quartz are manufactured by liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Corrosion tests like static weight loss and open circuit potential tests are conducted in different concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide. To compare the results the matrix Aluminium 6061 is also casted in the same way. Specimens for the test are prepared according to ASTM standards. In all the tests the metal matrix composites showed better corrosion resistance than matrix alloy.

Keywords: aluminium 6061, corrosion, quartz, vortex

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4826 Corrosion Characterization of Al6061 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites in Acid Medium

Authors: P. V. Krupakara


This paper deals with the high corrosion resistance developed by the hybrid metal matrix composites when compared with that of matrix alloy. Matrix selected is Al6061. Reinforcements selected are graphite and red mud particulates. The composites are prepared using liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Metal matrix composites containing 2 percent graphite and 2 percent red mud, 2 percent graphite and 4 percent red mud, 2 percent graphite and 6 percent of red mud are prepared. Bar castings are cut into cylindrical discs of 20mm diameter and 20mm thickness. Corrosion tests were conducted at room temperature (230 °C) using conventional weight loss method according to ASTM G69-80. The corrodents used for the test were hydrochloric acid solution of different concentrations. Specimens were tested for every 24 hours interval up to 96 hours. Four specimens for each condition and time were immersed in corrodent. In each case the corrosion rate decreases with increase in exposure time for matrix and metal matrix composites whatever may be the concentration of hydrochloric acid. This may be due to aluminium, which may induce passivation due to development of non-porous layer. As red mud content increases the composites become corrosion resistant due to insulating nature of ceramic material red mud and less exposure of matrix alloy in those metal matrix composites.

Keywords: Al6061, graphite, passivation, red mud, vortex

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4825 Cladding Technology for Metal-Hybrid Composites with Network-Structure

Authors: Ha-Guk Jeong, Jong-Beom Lee


Cladding process is very typical technology for manufacturing composite materials by the hydrostatic extrusion. Because there is no friction between the metal and the container, it can be easily obtained in uniform flow during the deformation. The general manufacturing process for a metal-matrix composite in the solid state, mixing metal powders and ceramic powders with a suited volume ratio, prior to be compressed or extruded at the cold or hot condition in a can. Since through a plurality of unit processing steps of dispersing the materials having a large difference in their characteristics and physical mixing, the process is complicated and leads to non-uniform dispersion of ceramics. It is difficult and hard to reach a uniform ideal property in the coherence problems at the interface between the metal and the ceramic reinforcements. Metal hybrid composites, which presented in this report, are manufactured through the traditional plastic deformation processes like hydrostatic extrusion, caliber-rolling, and drawing. By the previous process, the realization of uniform macro and microstructure is surely possible. In this study, as a constituent material, aluminum, copper, and titanium have been used, according to the component ratio, excellent characteristics of each material were possible to produce a metal hybrid composite that appears to maximize. MgB₂ superconductor wire also fabricated via the same process. It will be introduced to their unique artistic and thermal characteristics.

Keywords: cladding process, metal-hybrid composites, hydrostatic extrusion, electronic/thermal characteristics

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4824 ED Machining of Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu, Ajay Batish, Sanjeev Kumar


This paper reports the optimal process conditions for machining of three different types of metal matrix composites (MMCs): 65vol%SiC/A356.2; 10vol%SiC-5vol%quartz/Al and 30vol%SiC/A359 using PMEDM process. Metal removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), surface roughness (SR) and surface integrity (SI) were evaluated after each trial and contributing process parameters were identified. The four responses were then collectively optimized using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and optimal process conditions were identified for each type of MMCS. The density of reinforced particles shields the matrix material from spark energy hence the high MRR and SR was observed with lowest reinforced particle. TWR was highest with Cu-Gr electrode due to disintegration of the weakly bonded particles in the composite electrode. Each workpiece was examined for surface integrity and ranked as per severity of surface defects observed and their rankings were used for arriving at the most optimal process settings for each workpiece.

Keywords: metal matrix composites (MMCS), metal removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), surface integrity (SI), tool wear rate (TWR), technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS)

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4823 Production and Investigation of Ceramic-Metal Composite from Electroless Ni Plated AlN and Al Powders

Authors: Ahmet Yönetken


Al metal matrix composites reinforced with AlN have been fabricated by Tube furnace sintering at various temperatures. A uniform nickel layer on Al(%1AlN)%19Ni, Al(%2AlN)%18Ni, Al(%3AlN)%17Ni, Al(%4AlN)%16Ni, Al(%5AlN)%15Ni powders were deposited prior to sintering using electroless plating technique, allowing closer surface contact than can be achieved using conventional methods such as mechanical alloying. A composite consisting of quaternary additions, a ceramic phase, AlN, within a matrix of Al, AlN, Ni has been prepared at the temperature range between 550°C and 650°C under Ar shroud. X-Ray diffraction, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) density, and hardness measurements were employed to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for 650°C suggest that the best properties as comprehension strength σmax and hardness 681.51(HV) were obtained at 650°C, and the tube furnace sintering of electroless Al plated (%5AlN)%15Ni powders is a promising technique to produce ceramic reinforced Al (%5AlN)%15Ni composites.

Keywords: electroless nickel plating, ceramic-metal composites, powder metallurgy, sintering

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4822 Investigation of Mechanical and Tribological Property of Graphene Reinforced SS-316L Matrix Composite Prepared by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Ajay Mandal, Jitendar Kumar Tiwari, N. Sathish, A. K. Srivastava


A fundamental investigation is performed on the development of graphene (Gr) reinforced stainless steel 316L (SS 316L) metal matrix composite via selective laser melting (SLM) in order to improve specific strength and wear resistance property of SS 316L. Firstly, SS 316L powder and graphene were mixed in a fixed ratio using low energy planetary ball milling. The milled powder is then subjected to the SLM process to fabricate composite samples at a laser power of 320 W and exposure time of 100 µs. The prepared composite was mechanically tested (hardness and tensile test) at ambient temperature, and obtained results indicate that the properties of the composite increased significantly with the addition of 0.2 wt. % Gr. Increment of about 25% (from 194 to 242 HV) and 70% (from 502 to 850 MPa) is obtained in hardness and yield strength of composite, respectively. Raman mapping and XRD were performed to see the distribution of Gr in the matrix and its effect on the formation of carbide, respectively. Results of Raman mapping show the uniform distribution of graphene inside the matrix. Electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) map of the prepared composite was analyzed under FESEM in order to understand the microstructure and grain orientation. Due to thermal gradient, elongated grains were observed along the building direction, and grains get finer with the addition of Gr. Most of the mechanical components are subjected to several types of wear conditions. Therefore, it is very necessary to improve the wear property of the component, and hence apart from strength and hardness, a tribological property of composite was also measured under dry sliding condition. Solid lubrication property of Gr plays an important role during the sliding process due to which the wear rate of composite reduces up to 58%. Also, the surface roughness of worn surface reduces up to 70% as measured by 3D surface profilometry. Finally, it can be concluded that SLM is an efficient method of fabricating cutting edge metal matrix nano-composite having Gr like reinforcement, which was very difficult to fabricate through conventional manufacturing techniques. Prepared composite has superior mechanical and tribological properties and can be used for a wide variety of engineering applications. However, due to the unavailability of a considerable amount of literature in a similar domain, more experimental works need to perform, such as thermal property analysis, and is a part of ongoing study.

Keywords: selective laser melting, graphene, composite, mechanical property, tribological property

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4821 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Aluminum Composite Reinforced with Carbon Nano Tube Dispersion via Ultrasonic and Ball Mill Attrition after Sever Plastic Deformation

Authors: Hassan Zare, Mohammad Jahedi, Mohammad Reza Toroghinejad, Mahmoud Meratian, Marko Knezevic


In this study, the carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced Al matrix nanocomposites were fabricated by ECAP. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) process is one of the most important methods for powder densification due to the presence of shear strain. This method samples with variety passes (one, two, four and eight passes) in C route were prepared at room temperature. A few study about metal matrix nanocomposite reinforced carbon nanotube done, the reaction intersection of interface and carbon nanotube cause to reduce the efficiency of nanocomposite. In this paper, we checked mechanical and physical properties of aluminum-CNT composite that manufactured by ECAP when the composite is deformed. The non-agglomerated CNTs were distributed homogeneously with 2% consolidation in the Aluminum matrix. The ECAP process was performed on the both monolithic and composite with distributed CNT samples for 8 passes.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, ball mill attrition, ultrasonic, consolidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
4820 Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Wear Parameters on Al/Sic/Gr: Metal Matrix Hybrid Composite by Taguchi Method

Authors: Rachit Marwaha, Rahul Dev Gupta, Vivek Jain, Krishan Kant Sharma


Metal matrix hybrid composites (MMHCs) are now gaining their usage in aerospace, automotive and other industries because of their inherent properties like high strength to weight ratio, hardness and wear resistance, good creep behaviour, light weight, design flexibility and low wear rate etc. Al alloy base matrix reinforced with silicon carbide (10%) and graphite (5%) particles was fabricated by stir casting process. The wear and frictional properties of metal matrix hybrid composites were studied by performing dry sliding wear test using pin on disc wear test apparatus. Experiments were conducted based on the plan of experiments generated through Taguchi’s technique. A L9 Orthogonal array was selected for analysis of data. Investigation to find the influence of applied load, sliding speed and track diameter on wear rate as well as coefficient of friction during wearing process was carried out using ANOVA. Objective of the model was chosen as smaller the better characteristics to analyse the dry sliding wear resistance. Results show that track diameter has highest influence followed by load and sliding speed.

Keywords: Taguchi method, orthogonal array, ANOVA, metal matrix hybrid composites

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4819 Properties Modification of Fiber Metal Laminates by Nanofillers

Authors: R. Eslami-Farsani, S. M. S. Mousavi Bafrouyi


During past decades, increasing demand of modified Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) has stimulated a strong trend towards the development of these structures. FMLs contain several thin layers of metal bonded with composite materials. Characteristics of FMLs such as low specific mass, high bearing strength, impact resistance, corrosion resistance and high fatigue life are attractive. Nowadays, increasing development can be observed to promote the properties of polymer-based composites by nanofillers. By dispersing strong, nanofillers in polymer matrix, modified composites can be developed and tailored to individual applications. On the other hand, the synergic effects of nanoparticles such as graphene and carbon nanotube can significantly improve the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites. In present paper, the modifying of FMLs by nanofillers and the dispersing of nanoparticles in the polymers matrix are discussed. The evaluations have revealed that this approach is acceptable. Finally, a prospect is presented. This paper will lead to further work on these modified FML species.

Keywords: fiber metal laminate, nanofiller, polymer matrix, property modification

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4818 Analysis of Drilling Parameters for Al-Mg2-Si Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: S. Jahangir, S. H. I. Jaffery, M. Khan, Z. Zareef, A. Yar, A. Mubashir, S. Butt, L. Ali


In this work, drilling responses and behavior of MMC was investigated in Al-Mg2Si composites. For the purpose Al-15% wt. Mg2Si, was selected from the hypereutectic region of Al- Mg2Si phase diagram. Based on hardness and tensile strength, drill bit of appropriate material and morphology was selected. The performance of different drill bits of different morphology and material was studied and analysed using experimental data. For theoretical calculations of axial thrust force and required power calculation, material factor “K” was obtained from different data charts and at the same time cutting forces (drilling forces) were practically obtained using a Peizo electric force dynamometer. These results show the role of reinforcement particles on the machinability of MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control and optimized drilling parameters for the drilling process. Furthermore, in this work, comparison of MMC with non -reinforced Aluminum Alloy regarding drilling operation was also studied.

Keywords: drilling, metal matrix composite (MMC), cutting forces, thrust force

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
4817 Corrosion Characterization of ZA-27 Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: H. V. Jayaprakash, P. V. Krupakara


This paper deals with the high corrosion resistance developed by the metal matrix composites when compared with that of matrix alloy by open circuit potential test. Matrix selected is ZA-27 and reinforcement selected is red mud particulates, which is a ceramic material. The composites are prepared using liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Preheated but uncoated red mud particulates are added to the melt. Metal matrix composites containing 2, 4 and 6 weight percentage of red mud are casted. Matrix was also casted in the same way for comparison. Specimen are fabricated according to ASTM standards. The corrodents used for the tests were 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 molar sodium hydroxide solutions. They are subjected to Open Circuit Potential studies and weight loss corrosion tests. Corrosion rate was found to be decreased with increase in exposure time in both experiments. Effect of exposure time and presence of increased percentage of reinforcement red mud is discussed in detail.

Keywords: composites, vortex, particulates, red mud

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
4816 Comparative Study of Tensile Properties of Cast and Hot Forged Alumina Nanoparticle Reinforced Composites

Authors: S. Ghanaraja, Subrata Ray, S. K. Nath


Particle reinforced Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) succeeds in synergizing the metallic matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements to result in improved strength, particularly at elevated temperatures, but adversely it affects the ductility of the matrix because of agglomeration and porosity. The present study investigates the outcome of tensile properties in a cast and hot forged composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. Nano-sized alumina particles have been generated by milling mixture of aluminum and manganese dioxide powders. Milled particles after drying are added to molten metal and the resulting slurry is cast. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably. Delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress is due to reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of the nanoparticles. However, higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit results in deterioration of mechanical properties, possibly due to clustering of nanoparticles. The porosity in cast composite generally increases with the increasing addition of powder mix as observed during process and on forging it has got reduced. The base alloy and nanocomposites show improvement in flow stress which could be attributed to lowering of porosity and grain refinement as a consequence of forging.

Keywords: aluminium, alumina, nano-particle reinforced composites, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
4815 Processing and Characterization of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced with Amorphous Zr₃₇.₅Cu₁₈.₆₇Al₄₃.₉₈ Phase

Authors: P. Abachi, S. Karami, K. Purazrang


The amorphous reinforcements (metallic glasses) can be considered as promising options for reinforcing light-weight aluminum and its alloys. By using the proper type of reinforcement, one can overcome to drawbacks such as interfacial de-cohesion and undesirable reactions which can be created at ceramic particle and metallic matrix interface. In this work, the Zr-based amorphous phase was produced via mechanical milling of elemental powders. Based on Miedema semi-empirical Model and diagrams for formation enthalpies and/or Gibbs free energies of Zr-Cu amorphous phase in comparison with the crystalline phase, the glass formability range was predicted. The composite was produced using the powder mixture of the aluminum and metallic glass and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at the temperature slightly above the glass transition Tg of the metallic glass particles. The selected temperature and rapid sintering route were suitable for consolidation of an aluminum matrix without crystallization of amorphous phase. To characterize amorphous phase formation, X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analyses were performed on powder mixture after specified intervals of milling. The microstructure of the composite was studied by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on composite specimens with the dimension of 4 mm long and a cross-section of 2 ˟ 2mm2. The micrographs indicated an appropriate reinforcement distribution in the metallic matrix. The comparison of stress–strain curves of the consolidated composite and the non-reinforced Al matrix alloy in compression showed that the enhancement of yield strength and mechanical strength are combined with an appreciable plastic strain at fracture. It can be concluded that metallic glasses (amorphous phases) are alternative reinforcement material for lightweight metal matrix composites capable of producing high strength and adequate ductility. However, this is in the expense of minor density increase.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composite, amorphous phase, mechanical alloying, spark plasma sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
4814 Reagentless Detection of Urea Based on ZnO-CuO Composite Thin Film

Authors: Neha Batra Bali, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta


A reagentless biosensor for detection of urea based on ZnO-CuO composite thin film is presented in following work. Biosensors have immense potential for varied applications ranging from environmental to clinical testing, health care, and cell analysis. Immense growth in the field of biosensors is due to the huge requirement in today’s world to develop techniques which are both cost effective and accurate for prevention of disease manifestation. The human body comprises of numerous biomolecules which in their optimum levels are essential for functioning. However mismanaged levels of these biomolecules result in major health issues. Urea is one of the key biomolecules of interest. Its estimation is of paramount significance not only for healthcare sector but also from environmental perspectives. If level of urea in human blood/serum is abnormal, i.e., above or below physiological range (15-40mg/dl)), it may lead to diseases like renal failure, hepatic failure, nephritic syndrome, cachexia, urinary tract obstruction, dehydration, shock, burns and gastrointestinal, etc. Various metal nanoparticles, conducting polymer, metal oxide thin films, etc. have been exploited to act as matrix to immobilize urease to fabricate urea biosensor. Amongst them, Zinc Oxide (ZnO), a semiconductor metal oxide with a wide band gap is of immense interest as an efficient matrix in biosensors by virtue of its natural abundance, biocompatibility, good electron communication feature and high isoelectric point (9.5). In spite of being such an attractive candidate, ZnO does not possess a redox couple of its own which necessitates the use of electroactive mediators for electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode, thereby causing hindrance in realization of integrated and implantable biosensor. In the present work, an effort has been made to fabricate a matrix based on ZnO-CuO composite prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique in order to incorporate redox properties in ZnO matrix and to utilize the same for reagentless biosensing applications. The prepared bioelectrode Urs/(ZnO-CuO)/ITO/glass exhibits high sensitivity (70µAmM⁻¹cm⁻²) for detection of urea (5-200 mg/dl) with high stability (shelf life ˃ 10 weeks) and good selectivity (interference ˂ 4%). The enhanced sensing response obtained for composite matrix is attributed to the efficient electron exchange between ZnO-CuO matrix and immobilized enzymes, and subsequently fast transfer of generated electrons to the electrode via matrix. The response is encouraging for fabricating reagentless urea biosensor based on ZnO-CuO matrix.

Keywords: biosensor, reagentless, urea, ZnO-CuO composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
4813 Investigation on Mechanical Properties of a Composite Material of Olive Flour Wood with a Polymer Matrix

Authors: Slim Souissi, Mohamed Ben Amar, Nesrine Bouhamed, Pierre Marechal


The bio-composites development from biodegradable materials and natural fibers has a growing interest in the science of composite materials. The present work was conducted as part of a cooperation project between the Sfax University and the Havre University. This work consists in developing and monitoring the properties of a composite material of olive flour wood with a polymer matrix (urea formaldehyde). For this, ultrasonic non-destructive and destructive methods of characterization were used to optimize the mechanical and acoustic properties of the studied material based on the elaboration parameters.

Keywords: bio-composite, olive flour wood, polymer matrix, ultrasonic methods, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 406