Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16698

Search results for: future development trend of mechatronics in pakistan

16698 Future Trends of Mechatronics Engineering in Pakistan

Authors: Aqeela Mir, Akhtar Nawaz Malik, Javaid Iqbal

Abstract:

The paper presents a survey based approach in order to observe the level of awareness regarding Mechatronics in society of Pakistan and the factors affecting the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan. With the help of these surveys a new direction for making a Mathematical model for the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan is also suggested.

Keywords: mechatronics society survey, future development trend of mechatronics in pakistan, probability estimation, mathematical model

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16697 Analyzing the Empirical Link between Islamic Finance and Growth of Real Output: A Time Series Application to Pakistan

Authors: Nazima Ellahi, Danish Ramzan

Abstract:

There is a growing trend among development economists regarding the importance of financial sector for economic development and growth activities. The development thus introduced, helps to promote welfare effects and poverty alleviation. This study is an attempt to find the nature of link between Islamic banking financing and development of output growth for Pakistan. Time series data set has been utilized for a time period ranging from 1990 to 2010. Following the Phillip Perron (PP) and Augmented Dicky Fuller (ADF) test of unit root this study applied Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method of estimation and found encouraging results in favor of promoting the Islamic banking practices in Pakistan.

Keywords: Islamic finance, poverty alleviation, economic growth, finance, commerce

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16696 Sustainable Smart Contraction: China Eco-district Evolution Research and Future Exploration

Authors: Xincheng He, Weijun Gao, Gangwei Cai

Abstract:

In the process of rapid urbanization, large-scale industrial production, and unreasonable planning and construction have caused various ecological and environmental problems, while hindered the sustainable development of cities. The ecological district not only realizes the coordinated development of society, economy, and environment but also conforms to the trend of smart contraction of the development of cities in China from the periphery to the center. This paper reviews the development of China's ecological district, including the full life cycle process of policy, planning, implementation, and operation. Based on sorting out the concept, connotation, and development status of China’s ecological district, the relationship between the construction of the ecological district and the sustainable city is discussed. Summarizing the development trend of the ecological district, the ecological district should combine the construction of smart cities, actively respond to the digital information era, and improve the construction of the ecological district system. It proposes that the future direction of city's sustainable development needs to change from a thematic focus on ecology to the common urbanization of humanity, society, and nature. Focusing on people-oriented, ecological, and digital future communities will become an important construction method for the city's sustainable smart contraction.

Keywords: eco-district, smart contraction, sustainable development, future community

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16695 Post 2014 Afghanistan and Its Implications on Pakistan

Authors: Naad-E-Ali Sulehria

Abstract:

This paper unfolds the facts and findings of Afghan scenario particularly its implications on Pakistan. At present, the Post 2014 withdrawal of US and ISAF combat forces from Afghan land is one of the up-to-the-minute issues among analysts of international relations. Deliberating from the current situation of Afghanistan towards its future prospects and the elements vibrating Afghanistan's internal dynamics, as well as exploitation of its resources by other states and non-state actors, are discussed accordingly. Moreover, the reasons behind such a paradigm shift in US foreign policy are tried to be contemplated with first hand knowledge. It is investigated that 'what is the current image of Afghanistan in today's world?', 'what will be its future aspects?', and 'what sort of Afghanistan does Pakistan foresees' as the concerned area of discussion.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Pakistan, new great game, taliban

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16694 Impact of Solar Energy Based Power Grid for Future Prospective of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammd Usman Sardar, Mazhar Hussain Baloch, Muhammad Shahbaz Ahmad, Zahir Javed Paracha

Abstract:

Likewise other developing countries in the world, Pakistan is furthermore suffering from electrical energy deficiency as adverse well-being nominated. Its generation of electricity has become reliant onto a great range of conventional sources since the last ten of years. The foreseeable exhaustion of petroleum and conventional resources will be alarming in continued growth and development for future in Pakistan so renewable energy interchange have to be employed by interesting the majority of power grid network. Energy adding-up through solar photovoltaic based systems and projects can offset the shortfall to such an extent with this sustainable natural resources and most promising technologies. An assessment of solar energy potential for electricity generation is being presented for fulfilling the energy demands with higher level of reliability. This research study estimates the present and future approaching renewable energy resource for power generation to off-grid independent setup or energizing the existed conventional power grids of Pakistan to becoming self-sustained for its entire outfit.

Keywords: powergrid network, solar photovoltaic setups, solar power generation, solar energy technology

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16693 The Effects of Scientific Studies on the Future Fashion Trends

Authors: Basak Ozkendirci

Abstract:

The discovery of chemical dyes, the development of regenerated fibers, and warp knitting technology have enormous effects on the fashion world. The trends created by the information obtained in the context of various studies today shape the fashion world. Trend analysts must follow scientific developments as well as sociological events, political developments and artwork to obtain healthy data on trends. Digital printing technologies have changed the dynamics of textile printing production and also the style of printed designs. Fashion designers already have started design 3D printed accessories and garments. The research fields like the internet of things, artificial intelligence, hologram technologies, mechatronics, energy storage systems, nanotechnology are seen as the technologies that will change the social life and economy of the future. It is clear that research carried out in these areas will affect the textiles of the future and whereat the trends of fashion. The article aims to create a future vision for trend researchers and designers by giving clues about the changes to be experienced in the fashion world. In the first part of the article, information about the scientific studies that are thought to shape the future is given, and the forecasting about how the inventions that can be obtained from these studies can be adapted at the textile are presented. In the second part of the article, examples of how the new generation of innovative textiles will affect the daily life experience of the user are given.

Keywords: biotextiles, fashion trends, nanotextiles, new materials, smart textiles, techno textiles

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16692 Evolving Paradigm of Right to Development in International Human Rights Law and Its Transformation into the National Legal System: Challenges and Responses in Pakistan

Authors: Naeem Ullah Khan, Kalsoom Khan

Abstract:

No state can be progressive and prosperous in which a large number of people is deprived of their basic economic rights and freedoms. In the contemporary world of globalization, the right to development has gained a momentum force in the domain of International Development Law (IDL) and has integrated into the National Legal System (NLS) of the major developed states. The international experts on human rights argued that the right to development (RTD) is called a third-generation human right which tends to enhance the welfare and prosperity of individuals, and thus, it is a right to a process whose outcomes are human rights despite the controversy on the implications of RTD. In the Pakistan legal system, the RTD has not been expressly stated in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973. However, there are some implied constitutional provisions which reflect the concept of RTD. The jurisprudence on RTD is still an evolving paradigm in the contextual perspective of Pakistan, and the superior court of diverse jurisdiction acts as a catalyst regarding the protection and enforcement of RTD in the interest of the public at large. However, the case law explores the positive inclination of the courts in Pakistan on RTD be incorporated as an express provision in the chapters of fundamental rights; in this scenario, the high court’s of Pakistan under Article 199 and the supreme court of Pakistan under Article 184(3) have exercised jurisdiction on the enforcement of RTD. This paper inter-alia examines the national dimensions of RTD from the standpoint of state practice in Pakistan and it analyzes the experience of judiciary in the protection and enforcement of RTD. Moreover, the paper highlights the social and cultural challenges to Pakistan in the implementation of RTD and possible solution to improve the conditions of human rights in Pakistan. This paper will also highlight the steps taken by Pakistan regarding the awareness, incorporation, and propagation of RTD at the national level.

Keywords: globalization, Pakistan, RTD, third-generation right

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16691 Agricultural Extension Education for Female: A Tool for Sustainable Rural Development in Pakistan

Authors: Jahanzaib

Abstract:

The rural economy can be uplifted through agricultural extension education for female as the majority is uneducated. The present study was carried out in five districts (Bahawalpur, Lodhran, Raheem Yar Khan, Bahawalnagr, and Vehari) of southern Punjab, Pakistan. The ten females were selected from each district, poor economic background for agricultural training. The training was provided free of cost, through Punjab skills development program. After six month training, the trainees were awarded with certificates and a tool kit. After completion of training data was recorded and analyzed, the results indicate that, female trainees were in a better economic position than the females of nearby districts without training. From this study, we can conclude that agricultural education for female can not only improve the economy of the individual family but also improve the agriculture of Pakistan on the sustainable basis as the majority of workers are female in rural areas of Pakistan.

Keywords: agricultural extension education, sustainable rural development, agriculture, rural development in Pakistan

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16690 Environmental Education and Climate Change Resilience Development in Schools of Pakistan

Authors: Mehak Masood

Abstract:

Education is critical for promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity of people to address environment and development issues. It is also critical for achieving environmental and ethical awareness, values and attitudes, skills and behaviour consistent with sustainable development and for effective public participation in decision-making. In this regard, The British Council Pakistan have conducted a need assessment study conducted during the training sessions with three different groups of educationists belonging to both government and public sectors on the topic of Climate Change and Environmental Education (CCEE). This study aims to review perceptions about climate change and environmental education and analyze its need and importance according to educationists of Pakistan.

Keywords: environmental education, climate change, resilience development, awareness

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16689 Adaptation of Requirement Engineering Practices in Pakistan

Authors: Waqas Ali, Nadeem Majeed

Abstract:

Requirement engineering is an essence of software development life cycle. The more time we spend on requirement engineering, higher the probability of success. Effective requirement engineering ensures and predicts successful software product. This paper presents the adaptation of requirement engineering practices in small and medium size companies of Pakistan. The study is conducted by questionnaires to show how much of requirement engineering models and practices are followed in Pakistan.

Keywords: requirement engineering, Pakistan, models, practices, organizations

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16688 Tourism Industry in Pakistan: Challenges Faced and Future Prospects

Authors: Misbah Shaheen, Anam Qureshi

Abstract:

In this work we will discuss the challenges faced by tourism industry in Pakistan. Tourism plays vital role in the socio-economic growth of a country. The countries of world, with less tourism opportunities are lagging behind from other nations of the world. Pakistan is one of those countries which rich in historical places, natural beauty, and uniqueness in handmade items and also of green forests. Present study will discuss the challenges being faced by tourism industry with special focus on hotel industry and law and order situation.

Keywords: Pakistan, tourism, handmade items, hotel industry

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16687 Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Economic Growth of Pakistan

Authors: Nayyra Zeb, Fu Qiang, Sundas Rauf

Abstract:

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is often seen as a significant factor of economic development in developing countries like Pakistan. The aim of this article is to investigate the effect of FDI on Pakistan’s economic growth during 1972–2012. Besides FDI, three other variables such as trade openness, political instability and terrorist attacks are also used in this study. The least square method has been applied to check the effect of these variables on GDP of Pakistan. The results show that FDI has a positive significant effect on economic growth of Pakistan.

Keywords: FDI inflows, trade openness, political instability, terrorist attacks

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16686 Indo-Pak Relationship: Understanding the Past to Make Sense of the Future

Authors: Aneri Mehta, Krunal Mehta

Abstract:

The unpredictable and vacillating relationship between India and Pakistan since days of Independence struggle is known world over. And this instability has never lost its magnitude to decrease the tensions between the two countries. Since India aspires to run for the race of future superpower and Pakistan struggles to remove the tag of a highly fickle and under developed economy; ruined largely not by the outsiders, but its own people and systems; it becomes really important to gauge what steps would these neighbors take in years to come. The progress and stability of both countries heavily relies on the favorable equations between the two nations. Therefore the paper tries to trace some roots of their faltering relationship and attempts to predict their future in a multidimensional perspective.

Keywords: economy, faltering relationship, multidimensional perspective, international relations

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16685 Regime under Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement 1994 and Its Impacts on Health in Pakistan: A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Patents

Authors: Muhammad Danyal Khan

Abstract:

The standards of patentability are drawing a great impact upon medicine industry of Pakistan which is indirectly troubling the right to health of ordinary citizen. Globalization of intellectual property laws is directly impacting access to medicine for population in Pakistan. Pakistan has enacted Patent Ordinance 2000 to develop the standards of Patent laws in consonance with international commitments. Moreover, Pakistan is signatory to UN Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015), and three of them directly put stress upon the health standards. This article will provide a critical brief about implications of TRIPS Agreement on standards of health in Pakistan and will also propose a futuristic approach for the pharmaceutical industry. This paper will define the paradox of globalization and national preparedness on pharmaceutical patents utilizing industry statistics and case laws from Pakistan. Moreover, this work will contribute towards debate on access to medicine at legislative and interpretative levels that will further help development of equilibrium between pharmaceutical patents and right to health.

Keywords: TRIPS (Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights), patents, compulsory licensing, patent, lifesaving drugs, WTO, infringement

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16684 Stepping in Sustainability: Walkability an Upcoming Design Parameter for Transit Based Communities in Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sadaf Saeed

Abstract:

The consideration of walkability as an urban design parameter in conjunction with transit-oriented development is an established trend in the developed countries but an upcoming trend in developing countries. In Pakistan, the first Bus Rapid Transit (locally called as Metro Bus) has been introduced in the city of Lahore in 2013 where around 40 percent of the riders access to transit stations by walking. To what extent the aspect of walkability has been considered in the local scenario? To address this question, this paper presents an account of urban design parameters regarding pedestrian provisions and quality of walking environment between Metro Bus stations and users’ destination in the transit neighbourhoods (areas up to 500-meter radius). The primary and secondary data for objective and subjective walkability measurements has been used for neighbourhoods of five selected transit stations ranked against the predefined critical assessed factors (CAF). The multi-criteria approach including visual and geospatially-based parameters at street level, along with walkability index score at selected sites linked with CAF evaluation were the selected methods for this study. The acceptability of walkability as an urban design parameter for transit planning in terms of connectivity and social implications of the concept has also been analysed in the local context. The paper highlights that the aspect of walkability in Lahore is being derelict owing to the focus of government on other initiatives such as park and ride and feeder bus services for mobility of passengers. However, the pedestrian-friendly design parameters as a part of future transit planning can enhance social, liveable and interactive walking environment within transit neighbourhoods.

Keywords: walkability, sustainability, transit neighborhoods, social communities

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16683 Extracting Spatial Information Using Stereo Imageries for Mapping Slum Areas in Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Raza Mehdi, Kamran Ahmed

Abstract:

Mega-city Karachi has numerous unplanned slum areas and squatter settlements with irregular growth of building structures. Due to weak development policy and lack of development control, such settlements are increasing at a rapid pace. Mapping such areas for planning and infrastructure development requires an integrated approach of socio-spatial and technological tools. Therefore in this study, an attempt is made to create GIS information layers on complex inbound built-up areas of slums at the coastal belt of Karachi by using a stereo pair of satellite images. The outcome expected is technological application to aid planning institutions for crisis management and infrastructure development in irregularly developed slum areas of Karachi, Pakistan.

Keywords: slum, satellite imageries, GIS, Karachi, Pakistan

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16682 A Study on the Residential Estate Development and Management by Defence Housing Authority (DHA) in Lahore

Authors: Zareen Shahid

Abstract:

Rapid increase in population has resulted in uncontrolled and unplanned growth of metropolitan cities in Pakistan. Pakistan is facing unprecedented challenges of acute housing shortages, unhealthy living conditions and a non-existent or dilapidated infrastructure across the country. The government of Pakistan has also failed to devise a comprehensive and long-term strategy to cope with the problem of housing and better infrastructure development and management that has resulted in congestion, overcrowding and deterioration of environment in cities. On the other hand public has developed intense faith upon Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Lahore. This research paper is about to observe the difference in residential estate development and services provided by DHA Lahore. This paper attempts to identify the factors which are contributing towards the success of DHA and recommend measures for improvement in public sector for betterment.

Keywords: residential estate, development and management, defence housing authority

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16681 Pre-Service Teacher Education Reforms in India and Pakistan: Challenges and Possibilities

Authors: Jyoti Sharma

Abstract:

India and Pakistan are two strategically important neighboring countries in Asia-Pacific region. Since independence of more than six decades, both, India and Pakistan have transverse different paths, India as a Sovereign, Democratic, Republic Country and Pakistan as Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The advent of democracy in India and Islamic republic in Pakistan resulted in new hopes, aspirations and demands on education. During the six decades after Independence, teacher education in both countries has come a long way from its initial bleak stature to gain an identity as a complex network of institutions and programs. The present paper takes a close look into the paradigm shift in teacher education programs in India and Pakistan and how much the shift is influenced by constitutional frameworks of each country.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, teacher education reforms, India, Pakistan

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16680 Differences in Motivations for the Use of Facebook between Males and Females

Authors: Arti Bakhshi, Remia Mahajan

Abstract:

Social networking sites have evolved with great pace and India has been no exception. Facebook is the top most rated social networking site (SNS) in India. Though this site is mostly used by younger generations, the popularity of this site is increasing among all masses and classes. The current paper explores gender differences in motivations for the use of Facebook. Of the sample (N=556), 229 male and 327 female Facebook users from India were asked to rate the motivations for the use of Facebook from ‘most preferred’ to ‘least preferred’. The five motivations studied were- time passing, information, relationship development, relationship maintenance and trend following. The cross tab chi square analyses revealed significant differences in three out of five motivations between male and female Facebook users, namely time passing, relationship development and trend following. Female Facebook users rated ‘time passing’ as a more preferred motivation in comparison to male Facebook users, while male users rated ‘relationship development’ and ‘trend following’ motivations as more preferred in comparison to female Facebook users. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: facebook, gender, motivations, social networking sites

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16679 Governance of Clean Energy in Rural Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Inayatullah Jan, Sidra Pervez

Abstract:

Effective institutional arrangements at local and national levels are quintessential for promotion of renewable energy in a country. This study attempts to examine the institutional arrangements for development of domestic renewable energy in rural northwest Pakistan. The study describes that very limited number of public and private organizations were working on clean development in the area. Surprisingly, no institutional arrangements exclusively meant for domestic clean energy promotion were observed in the area. The study concludes that the objectives of Kyoto Protocol in Pakistan can be achieved only if the government and non-governmental organizations work together to launch cost-effective renewable energy interventions, particularly in rural areas. The need is to have a coordinated, consistent, and focused cooperation of all stakeholders involved in promotion of domestic renewable energy at all levels. This will not only improve the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in the local context, but will play a key role in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals(MDGs).

Keywords: governance, clean energy, greenhouse gases, CDM, Northwest Pakistan

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16678 The Nexus between Renewable Energy, Urbanization, Industrialization and Economic Growth in Pakistan

Authors: Zubda Zia, Zainab Masood

Abstract:

This study has investigated the relationship between renewable energy, urbanization, industrialization, and economic growth in Pakistan, through the years 1990-2016. All the three explanatory variables play a pivotal role in their contribution to growth in any economy, especially a developing one such as Pakistan. Auto-regressive distributive lag (ARDL) model has been used to determine the co-integration and relationship between the variables. The empirical results indicate that there exists a positive and significant relationship between all the three variables and economic growth and that there is a stable, long-run relationship among them. Policy suggestions that incorporate the results include having a larger share of renewable energy in the energy sector, using urbanization as a means to remove the big city trend and move towards, smaller sustainable cities, etc.

Keywords: economic growth, energy crisis, industrialization, renewable energy, SGDs, urbanization

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16677 Comparative Study of Traditional Classroom Learning and Distance Learning in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Afzal Malik

Abstract:

Traditional Learning & Distance based learning are the two systems prevailing in Pakistan. These systems affect the level of education standard. The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional classroom learning and distance learning in Pakistan: (a) To explore the effectiveness of the traditional to Distance learning in Pakistan; (b) To identify the factors that affect traditional and distance learning. This review found that, on average, students in traditional classroom conditions performed better than those receiving education in and distance learning. The difference between student outcomes for traditional Classroom and distance learning classes —measured as the difference between treatment and control means, divided by the pooled standard deviation— was larger in those studies contrasting conditions that blended elements of online and face-to-face instruction with conditions taught entirely face-to-face. This research was conducted to highlight the impact of distance learning education system on education standard. The education standards were institutional support, course development, learning process, student support, faculty support, evaluation and assessment. A well developed questionnaire was administered and distributed among 26 faculty members of GCET, H-9 and Virtual University of Pakistan from each. Data was analyzed through correlation and regression analysis. Results confirmed that there is a significant relationship and impact of DLE system on education standards. This will also provide baseline for future research. It will add value to the existing body of knowledge.

Keywords: distance learning education, higher education, education standards, student performance

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16676 The Operation Strategy and Public Relations Trend for Public Relations Strategies Development in Thailand

Authors: Kanyapat U. Tapao

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the operation strategy strategies and public relations trend for public relations strategies development in public television station in Thailand. This study is a qualitative approach by indent interview from the 6 key informants that are managers of Voice TV and Thairath TV Channel. The results showed that both TV stations have to do research before making a release on the operation strategy policy such as a slogan, segmentation, integrated marketing communication and PR activity and also in term of Public Relations trend are including online media, online content and online training before opening the station and start promoting. By the way, we found the PR strategy for both TV station should be including application on mobile, online content, CRM activity, online banner, special event, and brand ambassador in order to bring a very reliable way.

Keywords: online banner, operation strategy, public relations trend, public relations strategies development

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16675 Usage the Point Analysis Algorithm (SANN) on Drought Analysis

Authors: Khosro Shafie Motlaghi, Amir Reza Salemian

Abstract:

In arid and semi-arid regions like our country Evapotranspiration is the greatestportion of water resource. Therefor knowlege of its changing and other climate parameters plays an important role for planning, development, and management of water resource. In this search the Trend of long changing of Evapotranspiration (ET0), average temprature, monthly rainfall were tested. To dose, all synoptic station s in iran were divided according to the climate with Domarton climate. The present research was done in semi-arid climate of Iran, and in which 14 synoptic with 30 years period of statistics were investigated with 3 methods of minimum square error, Mann Kendoll, and Vald-Volfoytz Evapotranspiration was calculated by using the method of FAO-Penman. The results of investigation in periods of statistic has shown that the process Evapotranspiration parameter of 24 percent of stations is positive, and for 2 percent is negative, and for 47 percent. It was without any Trend. Similary for 22 percent of stations was positive the Trend of parameter of temperature for 19 percent , the trend was negative and for 64 percent, it was without any Trend. The results of rainfall trend has shown that the amount of rainfall in most stations was not considered as a meaningful trend. The result of Mann-kendoll method similar to minimum square error method. regarding the acquired result was can admit that in future years Some regions will face increase of temperature and Evapotranspiration.

Keywords: analysis, algorithm, SANN, ET0

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16674 Factors behind Success of Nascent Social Enterprises in Pakistan: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

Authors: Abida Zanib

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship is an attention-grabbing area to meet social needs. Stakeholders in the social sector of Pakistan, particularly investors, development activists and policy makers are considering it as an engine to economic growth and powerful tool to address social issues in inventive ways. However, absence of specific policy and legitimacy issues create hurdles in the way of success for emerging start-ups. The review of the literature reveals that research in this emerging phenomenon particularly in the case of Pakistan is inadequate. To fill this gap in the literature, this study aims to scrutinize characteristics of nascent social enterprises. The study collects data from 65-emerging social enterprises using questionnaire. The results of factor analysis highlight optimistic and driving qualities of Pakistani social entrepreneurs, which help them to survive and grow in the business world. Moreover, the study identifies several areas for improvements such as information disclosure, networking, corporate governance, mentorship programs, and trainings. The study notes that despite the absence of specific policy, dynamic entrepreneurial culture is fostering in Pakistan and recommends re-framing the education policy to support the development of social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: emerging, entrepreneurs, Pakistan, social, start-ups

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16673 Self-Medicating Behavior of Urban Pakistani Population toward Psychotropic Agents and Its Correlates

Authors: M. Umar Hafeez, Furqan Khursheed Hashmi, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Shahzad Ali, Muzammil Ali

Abstract:

The trend of self-medication is increasing due to various factors and is associated with a large number of complications. A cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate self-medication trend in an urban community and its correlates such as level of education, gender and behavior of using psychoactive medicines. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from different locations of Lahore, provincial capital of Punjab, Pakistan. The trend of self-medication was noted in reference to difference in educational level and in gender. This study showed that total 110 respondents, all literate,were found to be self-medicating, and their educational status was as 73.13% primary, 63.15% secondary, 61.12% higher secondary and 62.15% university going. In this sample 74.99% were males and 48.00%were females. Twenty nine (26.36%) of the total sample were found to be using psychoactive agents without consulting the physician. The trend of self-medication was 10% higher in individuals having primary level education, whereas there was not much difference of self-medication trend in other levels of education. The main reasons involved in self-medication trend were socio-economic status, medicine accessibility, religious and cultural beliefs, lack of awareness about risks associated with medicine, non-prescription sale of medicines and previous medication experience. The trend of self-medication of psychotropic agents is quite significant.

Keywords: self-medication, educated community, psychotropic drugs, education levels

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16672 Growth Pattern Analysis of Khagrachari Pourashava

Authors: Kutub Uddin Chisty, Md. Kamrul Islam, Md. Ashraful Islam

Abstract:

Growth pattern is an important factor for a city because it can help to predict future growth trend and development of a city. Khagrachari District is one of the three hill tracts districts in Bangladesh. It is bordered by the Indian State of Tripura on the north, Rangamati and Chittagong districts on the south, Rangamati district on the east, Chittagong district and the Indian State of Tripura on the west. Khagrachari Pourashava is surrounded by hills and waterways. The Pourashava area is mostly inhibited by non-tribal population, while tribal population lives in hilly regions within and around the Pourashava area. The hilly area growth is different. Based on questioners and expert opinions survey, growth pattern of Khagrachari is evaluated. Different culture, history, tribal people, non-tribal people enrich the hilly heritages. In our study, we analyse the city growth pattern and identify the prominent factors that influence the city growth. Thus, it can help us to identify growth trend of the city.

Keywords: growth pattern, growth trend, prominent factors, regional development

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16671 Current Challenges Associated with Women Education in Pakistan and the Proposed Solutions

Authors: Sanam Mujahid, Aliza Ahmad

Abstract:

Women education and empowerment has fundamental importance in the development of a civilized society however, in a developing country like Pakistan, there are serious challenges in this regard. Herein, we summarize the findings of 2012 study which revealed the key problems associated with women education and their proposed solutions. A survey tool was used to question female students and female faculty members in 20 different public sector universities of all four provinces of Pakistan. In this study, 1755 female students and 410 female faculty members responded. In addition to survey, semi-structured interview were also conducted with 25 female students and 10 female faculty members. Respondents of the survey emphasize the lack of adequate educational institutions in nearby vicinity, social exclusion including gender discrimination, shortage of female teachers, lack of resources and inefficient government policies are the major factors that influence female education. To solve these problems, the main recommendations by respondents include safe and secure learning environment for females in educational institutions, community and parental support, well qualified and sufficient number of female teachers. One of the most important proposals was the participation of females at policy level. Current study will provide a general layout to design the future educational strategies for promoting women education in all regions of Pakistan thus, developing towards modern educated society.

Keywords: women education, education strategies, developing countries, Pakistan

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16670 India, Pakistan and the US in the Afghan Imbroglio: The Way Forward

Authors: Saroj Kumar Rath

Abstract:

When insurgency erupted in Kashmir in 1989, it was quickly backed by Pakistan. Kashmir witnessed terrorism for more than a decade till 2004 when Indian forces decimated militancy. After the US pressure in 1992, terrorist training camps of Pakistan shifted to Afghanistan and al Qaeda and the Taliban had taken over training of Kashmiri militants in Afghanistan after 1997 as part of their global jihad. The Indo-Pak rivalry over Kashmir dispute had taken a new turn in the aftermath of 9/11 developments. Islamabad viewed its Afghan policy through the prism of denying India any advantage in Kabul. Pakistan was successful in refuting Indian presence in Kabul for a decade through the Taliban. After the 9/11 attacks the Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) saw Northern Alliance, supported by the Americans and all of Pakistan’s regional rivals – India, Iran, and Russia – as claiming victory in Kabul. For Pakistan’s military regime, this was a strategic disaster and prompted the ISI to give refuge to the escaping Taliban, while denying full support to Hamid Karzai. The new development in Afghanistan prompted India to establish a foothold it had lost nearly a decade earlier. India established diplomatic contacts with Afghanistan; supported the Karzai government and funded aid programs. Pakistan alleged that Indian agents are training Baloch and Sindhi dissidents in Pakistan through Afghanistan. Kabul had suddenly become the new Kashmir – the new battleground for India-Pakistan rivalry.

Keywords: Afghan imbroglio, Kashmir conflict, Indo-Pak rivalry, US policy in South Asia

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16669 Reformed Curricula for the Religious Educational Institutions in Pakistan and the Muslim World

Authors: Hafiz Khubaib Ur Rehman Awan

Abstract:

Education used to play a central role in the formation and transfiguration of society since early times, owing in part to the centrality of scripture and its study in the human circles. According to the Islamic purpose of education, its pivotal contribution in the society is to produce a balanced growth of the entire persona of an individual through training the spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings, and bodily senses such that faith is infused into the whole personality. The purpose of this study is to attempt the exploration of the development of the Islamic religious curriculum in the Islamic world with an emphasis on Pakistan because this homeland came into existence under the name of Islam. This study persists of necessary historical background on the curricular reform of religious education in Pakistan and their impact on it and the suburban countries. However, the mainstay of this paper bases on reform in the religious education curriculum and the challenges faced by Pakistan and the Islamic world. Some suggestions are positioned at the end for areas of Islamic religious education and the improvement of Islamic curricular reform, especially in Pakistan and generally in Muslim countries.

Keywords: curricula, religious educational institutions, Pakistan, Muslim world, educational, religious , curricula

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