Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1393

Search results for: cutting forces

1393 Parametric Study and Modelling of Orthogonal Cutting Process for AISI 4340 and Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Purnank Bhatt, Mit Shah, Pawan Nagda, Vimal Jasoliya

Abstract:

The influence of parameters like velocity and depth of cut on cutting forces is investigated for the empirical relation of the coefficient of friction derived for CRS 1018 for different materials like AISI 4340 and Ti6Al4V. For this purpose, turning tests were carried out on the above materials using coated cemented carbide tool inserts for steel grade and uncoated cemented carbide cutting tool inserts for Titanium with different chip breaker geometries. The cutting forces were measured using a Kistler dynamometer where the multiplication factor taken is 200.The effect of cutting force variation was analyzed experimentally and are compared with the analytical results.

Keywords: cutting forces, coefficient of friction, carbide tool inserts, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1392 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Ball-End Milling Process upon Residual Stresses and Cutting Forces

Authors: Belkacem Chebil Sonia, Bensalem Wacef

Abstract:

The majority of ball end milling models includes only the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut). Furthermore, this influence is studied in most of works on cutting force. Therefore, this study proposes an accurate ball end milling process modeling which includes also the influence of tool workpiece inclination. In addition, a characterization of residual stresses resulting of thermo mechanical loading in the workpiece was also presented. Moreover, the study of the influence of tool workpiece inclination and cutting parameters was made on residual stresses distribution. In order to achieve the predetermination of cutting forces and residual stresses during a milling operation, a thermo mechanical three-dimensional numerical model of ball end milling was developed. Furthermore, an experimental companion of ball end milling tests was realized on a 5-axis machining center to determine the cutting forces and characterize the residual stresses. The simulation results are compared with the experiment to validate the Finite Element Model and subsequently identify the optimum inclination angle and cutting parameters.

Keywords: ball end milling, cutting forces, cutting parameters, residual stress, tool-workpiece inclination

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1391 A Method to Determine Cutting Force Coefficients in Turning Using Mechanistic Approach

Authors: T. C. Bera, A. Bansal, D. Nema

Abstract:

During performing turning operation, cutting force plays a significant role in metal cutting process affecting tool-work piece deflection, vibration and eventually part quality. The present research work aims to develop a mechanistic cutting force model and to study the mechanistic constants used in the force model in case of turning operation. The proposed model can be used for the reliable and accurate estimation of the cutting forces establishing relationship of various force components (cutting force and feed force) with uncut chip thickness. The accurate estimation of cutting force is required to improve thin-walled part accuracy by controlling the tool-work piece deflection induced surface errors and tool-work piece vibration.

Keywords: turning, cutting forces, cutting constants, uncut chip thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
1390 Optimization of Cutting Forces in Drilling of Polimer Composites via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Eser Yarar, Fahri Vatansever, A. Tamer Erturk, Sedat Karabay

Abstract:

In this study, drilling behavior of multi-layer orthotropic polyester composites reinforced with woven polyester fiber and PTFE particle was investigated. Conventional drilling methods have low cost and ease of use. Therefore, it is one of the most preferred machining methods. The increasing range of use of composite materials in many areas has led to the investigation of the machinability performance of these materials. The drilling capability of the synthetic polymer composite material was investigated by measuring the cutting forces using different tool diameters, feed rate and high cutting speed parameters. Cutting forces were measured using a dynamometer in the experiments. In order to evaluate the results of the experiment, the Taguchi experimental design method was used. According to the results, the optimum cutting parameters were obtained for 0.1 mm/rev, 1070 rpm and 2 mm diameter drill bit. Verification tests were performed for the optimum cutting parameters obtained according to the model. Verification experiments showed the success of the established model.

Keywords: cutting force, drilling, polimer composite, Taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
1389 Machining Responce of Austempered Ductile Iron with Varying Cutting Speed and Depth of Cut

Authors: Prashant Parhad, Vinayak Dakre, Ajay Likhite, Jatin Bhatt

Abstract:

This work mainly focuses on machinability studies of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI). The Ductile Iron (DI) was austempered at 250 oC for different durations and the process window for austempering was established by studying the microstructure. The microstructural characterization of the material was done using optical microscopy, SEM and XRD. The samples austempered as per the process window were then subjected to turning using a TiAlN-coated tungsten carbide insert to study the effect of cutting parameters, namely the cutting speed and the depth of cut. The effect was investigated in terms of cutting forces required as well as the surface roughness obtained. The turning was conducted on a CNC turning machine and primary (Fx), radial (Fy) and feed (Fz) cutting forces were quantified with a three-component dynamometer. It was observed that the magnitude of radial force was more than that of primary cutting force for all cutting speed and for various depths of cut studied. It has also been seen that increasing the cutting speed improves the surface quality. The observed machinability behaviour was investigated in light of the microstructure of the material obtained under the given austempering conditions and a structure-property- co-relation was established between the two. For all cutting speed and depth of cut, the best machining response in terms of cutting forces and surface quality was obtained towards the centre of process window.

Keywords: process window, cutting speed, depth of cut, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1388 Effects of Milling Process Parameters on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness When Finishing Ti6al4v Produced by Electron Beam Melting

Authors: Abdulmajeed Dabwan, Saqib Anwar, Ali Al-Samhan

Abstract:

Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a metal powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, which uses computer-controlled electron beams to create fully dense three-dimensional near-net-shaped parts from metal powder. It gives the ability to produce any complex parts directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) model without tools and dies, and with a variety of materials. However, the quality of the surface finish in EBM process has limitations to meeting the performance requirements of additively manufactured components. The aim of this study is to investigate the cutting forces induced during milling Ti6Al4V produced by EBM as well as the surface quality of the milled surfaces. The effects of cutting speed and radial depth of cut on the cutting forces, surface roughness, and surface morphology were investigated. The results indicated that the cutting speed was found to be proportional to the resultant cutting force at any cutting conditions while the surface roughness improved significantly with the increase in cutting speed and radial depth of cut.

Keywords: electron beam melting, additive manufacturing, Ti6Al4V, surface morphology

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1387 Experimental Studies on the Effect of Rake Angle on Turning Ti-6Al-4V with TiAlN Coated Carbides

Authors: Satyanarayana Kosaraju, Venu Gopal Anne, Sateesh Nagari

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of cutting speed, feedrate and rake angle in tool geometry on cutting forces and temperature generated on the tool tip in turning were investigated. The data used for the investigation derived from experiments conducted on precision lathe according to the full factorial design to observe the effect of each factor level on the process performance. During the tests, depth of cut were kept constant and each test was conducted with a sharp coated tool insert. Ti-6Al-4V was used as the workpiece material. The effects of cutting parameters and tool geometry on cutting forces and tool tip temperature were analyzed. The main cutting force was observed to have a decreasing trend and temperature found to be increasing trend as the rake angle increased.

Keywords: cutting force, tool tip temperature, rake angle, machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
1386 Chip Morphology and Cutting Forces Investigation in Dry High Speed Orthogonal Turning of Titanium Alloy

Authors: M. Benghersallah, L. Boulanouar, G. List, G. Sutter

Abstract:

The present work is an experimental study on the dry high speed turning of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The objective of this study is to see for high cutting speeds, how wear occurs on the face of insert and how to evolve cutting forces and chip formation. Cutting speeds tested is 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 m / min in orthogonal turning with a carbide insert tool H13A uncoated on a cylindrical titanium alloy part. Investigation on the wear inserts with 3D scanning microscope revered the crater formation is instantaneous and a chip adhesion (welded chip) causes detachment of carbide particles. In these experiments, the chip shape was systematically investigated at each cutting conditions using optical microscopy. The chips produced were collected and polished to measure the thicknesses t2max and t2min, dch the distance between each segments and ɸseg the inclination angle As described in the introduction part, the shear angle f and the inclination angle of a segment ɸseg are differentiated. The angle ɸseg is actually measured on the collected chips while the shear angle f cannot be. The angle ɸ represents the initial shear similar to the one that describes the formation of a continuous chip in the primary shear zone. Cutting forces increase and stabilize before removing the tool. The chip reaches a very high temperature.

Keywords: dry high speed, orthogonal turning, chip formation, cutting speed, cutting forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
1385 Neural Network Monitoring Strategy of Cutting Tool Wear of Horizontal High Speed Milling

Authors: Kious Mecheri, Hadjadj Abdechafik, Ameur Aissa

Abstract:

The wear of cutting tool degrades the quality of the product in the manufacturing processes. The online monitoring of the cutting tool wear level is very necessary to prevent the deterioration of the quality of machining. Unfortunately there is not a direct manner to measure the cutting tool wear online. Consequently we must adopt an indirect method where wear will be estimated from the measurement of one or more physical parameters appearing during the machining process such as the cutting force, the vibrations, or the acoustic emission etc. In this work, a neural network system is elaborated in order to estimate the flank wear from the cutting force measurement and the cutting conditions.

Keywords: flank wear, cutting forces, high speed milling, signal processing, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
1384 Analysis of Rock Cutting Progress with a New Axe-Shaped PDC Cutter to Improve PDC Bit Performance in Elastoplastic Formation

Authors: Fangyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have occupied a large market of unconventional oil and gas drilling. The application of PDC bits benefits from the efficient rock breaking of PDC cutters. In response to increasingly complex formations, many shaped cutters have been invited, but many of them have not been solved by the mechanism of rock breaking. In this paper, two kinds of PDC cutters: a new axe-shaped (NAS) cutter and cylindrical cutter (benchmark) were studied by laboratory experiments. NAS cutter is obtained by optimizing two sides of axe-shaped cutter with curved surfaces. All the cutters were put on a vertical turret lathe (VTL) in the laboratory for cutting tests. According to the cutting distance, the VTL tests can be divided into two modes: single-turn rotary cutting and continuous cutting. The cutting depth of cutting (DOC) was set at 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm in the former mode. The later mode includes a dry VTL test for thermal stability and a wet VTL test for wear resistance. Load cell and 3D optical profiler were used to obtain the value of cutting forces and wear area, respectively. Based on the findings of the single-turn rotary cutting VTL tests, the performance of A NAS cutter was better than the benchmark cutter on elastoplastic material cutting. The cutting forces (normal forces, tangential force, and radial force) and special mechanical energy (MSE) of a NAS cutter were lower than that of the benchmark cutter under the same condition. It meant that a NAS cutter was more efficient on elastoplastic material breaking. However, the wear resistance of a new axe-shaped cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The results of the dry VTL test showed that the thermal stability of a NAS cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The cutting efficiency can be improved by optimizing the geometric structure of the PDC cutter. The change of thermal stability may be caused by the decrease of the contact area between cutter and rock at given DOC. The conclusions of this paper can be used as an important reference for PDC cutters designers.

Keywords: axe-shaped cutter, PDC cutter, rotary cutting test, vertical turret lathe

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1383 Spectral Coherence Analysis between Grinding Interaction Forces and the Relative Motion of the Workpiece and the Cutting Tool

Authors: Abdulhamit Donder, Erhan Ilhan Konukseven

Abstract:

Grinding operation is performed in order to obtain desired surfaces precisely in machining process. The needed relative motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece is generally created either by the movement of the cutting tool or by the movement of the workpiece or by the movement of both of them as in our case. For all these cases, the coherence level between the movements and the interaction forces is a key influential parameter for efficient grinding. Therefore, in this work, spectral coherence analysis has been performed to investigate the coherence level between grinding interaction forces and the movement of the workpiece on our robotic-grinding experimental setup in METU Mechatronics Laboratory.

Keywords: coherence analysis, correlation, FFT, grinding, hanning window, machining, Piezo actuator, reverse arrangements test, spectral analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
1382 Performance Evaluation and Economic Analysis of Minimum Quantity Lubrication with Pressurized/Non-Pressurized Air and Nanofluid Mixture

Authors: M. Amrita, R. R. Srikant, A. V. Sita Rama Raju

Abstract:

Water miscible cutting fluids are conventionally used to lubricate and cool the machining zone. But issues related to health hazards, maintenance and disposal costs have limited their usage, leading to application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL). To increase the effectiveness of MQL, nanocutting fluids are proposed. In the present work, water miscible nanographite cutting fluids of varying concentration are applied at cutting zone by two systems A and B. System A utilizes high pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 1ml/min. System B uses low pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 5ml/min. Their performance in machining is evaluated by measuring cutting temperatures, tool wear, cutting forces and surface roughness and compared with dry machining and flood machining. Application of nano cutting fluid using both systems showed better performance than dry machining. Cutting temperatures and cutting forces obtained by both techniques are more than flood machining. But tool wear and surface roughness showed improvement compared to flood machining. Economic analysis has been carried out in all the cases to decide the applicability of the techniques.

Keywords: economic analysis, machining, minimum quantity lubrication, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1381 Dry High Speed Orthogonal Turning of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

Authors: M. Benghersallah, G. List, G. Sutter

Abstract:

The present work is an experimental study on the dry high speed turning of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The objective of this study is to see for high cutting speeds, how wear occurs on the face of insert and how to evolve cutting forces and chip formation. Cutting speeds tested is 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 m/min in orthogonal turning with a carbide insert tool H13A uncoated on a cylindrical titanium alloy part. Investigation on the wear inserts with 3D scanning microscope revered the crater formation is instantaneous and a chip adhesion (welded chip) causes detachment of carbide particles. Cutting forces increase and stabilize before removing the tool. The chip reaches a very high temperature.

Keywords: titanium alloy, dry hjgh speed turning, wear insert, MQL technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
1380 Prediction of Cutting Tool Life in Drilling of Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Composite Using a Fuzzy Method

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh

Abstract:

Machining of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) is very significant process and has been a main problem that draws many researchers to investigate the characteristics of MMCs during different machining process. The poor machining properties of hard particles reinforced MMCs make drilling process a rather interesting task. Unlike drilling of conventional materials, many problems can be seriously encountered during drilling of MMCs, such as tool wear and cutting forces. Cutting tool wear is a very significant concern in industries. Cutting tool wear not only influences the quality of the drilled hole, but also affects the cutting tool life. Prediction the cutting tool life during drilling is essential for optimizing the cutting conditions. However, the relationship between tool life and cutting conditions, tool geometrical factors and workpiece material properties has not yet been established by any machining theory. In this research work, fuzzy subtractive clustering system has been used to model the cutting tool life in drilling of Al2O3 particle reinforced aluminum alloy composite to investigate of the effect of cutting conditions on cutting tool life. This investigation can help in controlling and optimizing of cutting conditions when the process parameters are adjusted. The built model for prediction the tool life is identified by using drill diameter, cutting speed, and cutting feed rate as input data. The validity of the model was confirmed by the examinations under various cutting conditions. Experimental results have shown the efficiency of the model to predict cutting tool life.

Keywords: composite, fuzzy, tool life, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
1379 Investigation of the Possibility of Using Carbon Onion Nanolubrication with DLC Cutting Tool to Reduce the Machining Power Consumption

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, M. Sayuti, M. Hamdi

Abstract:

Due to rapid consumption of world's fossil fuel resources and impracticality of large-scale application and production of renewable energy, the significance of energy efficiency improvement of current available energy modes has been widely realized by both industry and academia. In the CNC machining field, the key solution for this issue is by increasing the effectiveness of the existing lubrication systems as it could reduce the power required to overcome the friction component in machining process. For more improvement, introducing the nanolubrication could produce much less power consumption as the rolling action of billions units of nanoparticle in the tool chip interface could reduce the cutting forces significantly. In this research, the possibility of using carbon onion nanolubrication with DLC cutting tool is investigated to reduce the machining power consumption. Carbon onion nanolubrication has been successfully developed with high tribology performance and mixed with ordinary mineral oil. The proper sonification method is used to provide a way to mix and suspend the particles thoroughly and efficiently. Furthermore, Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) cutting tool is used and expected to play significant role in reducing friction and cutting forces and increasing abrasion resistance. The results showed significant reduction of the cutting force and the working power compared with the other conditions of using carbon black and normal lubrication systems.

Keywords: carbon onion, nanolubrication, machining power consumption, DLC cutting tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
1378 Mechanical Characterization and CNC Rotary Ultrasonic Grinding of Crystal Glass

Authors: Ricardo Torcato, Helder Morais

Abstract:

The manufacture of crystal glass parts is based on obtaining the rough geometry by blowing and/or injection, generally followed by a set of manual finishing operations using cutting and grinding tools. The forming techniques used do not allow the obtainment, with repeatability, of parts with complex shapes and the finishing operations use intensive specialized labor resulting in high cycle times and production costs. This work aims to explore the digital manufacture of crystal glass parts by investigating new subtractive techniques for the automated, flexible finishing of these parts. Finishing operations are essential to respond to customer demands in terms of crystal feel and shine. It is intended to investigate the applicability of different computerized finishing technologies, namely milling and grinding in a CNC machining center with or without ultrasonic assistance, to crystal processing. Research in the field of grinding hard and brittle materials, despite not being extensive, has increased in recent years, and scientific knowledge about the machinability of crystal glass is still very limited. However, it can be said that the unique properties of glass, such as high hardness and very low toughness, make any glass machining technology a very challenging process. This work will measure the performance improvement brought about by the use of ultrasound compared to conventional crystal grinding. This presentation is focused on the mechanical characterization and analysis of the cutting forces in CNC machining of superior crystal glass (Pb ≥ 30%). For the mechanical characterization, the Vickers hardness test provides an estimate of the material hardness (Hv) and the fracture toughness based on cracks that appear in the indentation. Mechanical impulse excitation test estimates the Young’s Modulus, shear modulus and Poisson ratio of the material. For the cutting forces, it a dynamometer was used to measure the forces in the face grinding process. The tests were made based on the Taguchi method to correlate the input parameters (feed rate, tool rotation speed and depth of cut) with the output parameters (surface roughness and cutting forces) to optimize the process (better roughness using the cutting forces that do not compromise the material structure and the tool life) using ANOVA. This study was conducted for conventional grinding and for the ultrasonic grinding process with the same cutting tools. It was possible to determine the optimum cutting parameters for minimum cutting forces and for minimum surface roughness in both grinding processes. Ultrasonic-assisted grinding provides a better surface roughness than conventional grinding.

Keywords: CNC machining, crystal glass, cutting forces, hardness

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1377 Effect of Vegetable Oil Based Nanofluids on Machining Performance: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Krishna Mohana Rao Gurram, R. Padmini, P. Vamsi Krishna

Abstract:

As a part of extensive research for ecologically safe and operator friendly cutting fluids, this paper presents the experimental investigations on the performance of eco-friendly vegetable oil based nanofluids in turning operation. In order to assess the quality of nano cutting fluids used during machining, cutting temperatures, cutting forces and surface roughness under constant cutting conditions are measured. The influence of two types of nanofluids prepared from nano boric acid and CNT particles mixed separately with coconut oil, on machining performance during turning operation is examined. Comparative analysis of the results obtained is done under dry and lubricant environments. Results obtained using cutting fluids prepared from vegetable oil based nanofluids are encouraging and more pronouncing by the application of CCCNT at machining zone. The extent of improvement in reduction of cutting temperatures, main cutting force, tool wear and surface roughness is tracked to be 13%, 37.5%, 44% and 40% respectively by the application of CCCNT compared to dry machining.

Keywords: nanoparticles, vegetable oil, machining, MQL, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1376 Effect of Microstructure on Wear Resistance of Polycrystalline Diamond Composite Cutter of Bit

Authors: Fanyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond composite (PDC) cutter is made of diamond powder as raw material, cobalt metal or non-metallic elements as a binder, mixed with WC cemented carbide matrix assembly, through high temperature and high-pressure sintering. PDC bits with PDC cutters are widely used in oil and gas drilling because of their high hardness, good wear resistance and excellent impact toughness. And PDC cutter is the main cutting tool of bit, which seriously affects the service of the PDC bit. The wear resistance of the PDC cutter is measured by cutting granite with a vertical turret lathe (VTL). This experiment can achieve long-distance cutting to obtain the relationship between the wear resistance of the PDC cutter and cutting distance, which is more closely to the real drilling situation. Load cell and 3D optical profiler were used to obtain the value of cutting forces and wear area, respectively, which can also characterize the damage and wear of the PDC cutter. PDC cutters were cut via electrical discharge machining (EDM) and then flattened and polished. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the distribution of binder cobalt and the size of diamond particles in a diamond PDC cutter. The cutting experimental results show that the wear area of the PDC cutter has a good linear relationship with the cutting distance. Simultaneously, the larger the wear area is and the greater the cutting forces are required to maintain the same cutting state. The size and distribution of diamond particles in the polycrystalline diamond layer have a great influence on the wear resistance of the diamond layer. And PDC cutter with fine diamond grains shows more wear resistance than that with coarse grains. The deep leaching process is helpful to reduce the effect of binder cobalt on the wear resistance of the polycrystalline diamond layer. The experimental study can provide an important basis for the application of PDC cutters in oil and gas drilling.

Keywords: polycrystalline diamond compact, scanning electron microscope, wear resistance, cutting distance

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1375 Analysis of Hard Turning Process of AISI D3-Thermal Aspects

Authors: B. Varaprasad, C. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

In the manufacturing sector, hard turning has emerged as vital machining process for cutting hardened steels. Besides many advantages of hard turning operation, one has to implement to achieve close tolerances in terms of surface finish, high product quality, reduced machining time, low operating cost and environmentally friendly characteristics. In the present study, three-dimensional CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) based simulation of  hard turning by using commercial software DEFORM 3D has been compared to experimental results of  stresses, temperatures and tool forces in machining of AISI D3 steel using mixed Ceramic inserts (CC6050). In the present analysis, orthogonal cutting models are proposed, considering several processing parameters such as cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. An exhaustive friction modeling at the tool-work interfaces is carried out. Work material flow around the cutting edge is carefully modeled with adaptive re-meshing simulation capability. In process simulations, feed rate and cutting speed are constant (i.e.,. 0.075 mm/rev and 155 m/min), and analysis is focused on stresses, forces, and temperatures during machining. Close agreement is observed between CAE simulation and experimental values.

Keywords: hard turning, computer aided engineering, computational machining, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
1374 Milling Simulations with a 3-DOF Flexible Planar Robot

Authors: Hoai Nam Huynh, Edouard Rivière-Lorphèvre, Olivier Verlinden

Abstract:

Manufacturing technologies are becoming continuously more diversified over the years. The increasing use of robots for various applications such as assembling, painting, welding has also affected the field of machining. Machining robots can deal with larger workspaces than conventional machine-tools at a lower cost and thus represent a very promising alternative for machining applications. Furthermore, their inherent structure ensures them a great flexibility of motion to reach any location on the workpiece with the desired orientation. Nevertheless, machining robots suffer from a lack of stiffness at their joints restricting their use to applications involving low cutting forces especially finishing operations. Vibratory instabilities may also happen while machining and deteriorate the precision leading to scrap parts. Some researchers are therefore concerned with the identification of optimal parameters in robotic machining. This paper continues the development of a virtual robotic machining simulator in order to find optimized cutting parameters in terms of depth of cut or feed per tooth for example. The simulation environment combines an in-house milling routine (DyStaMill) achieving the computation of cutting forces and material removal with an in-house multibody library (EasyDyn) which is used to build a dynamic model of a 3-DOF planar robot with flexible links. The position of the robot end-effector submitted to milling forces is controlled through an inverse kinematics scheme while controlling the position of its joints separately. Each joint is actuated through a servomotor for which the transfer function has been computed in order to tune the corresponding controller. The output results feature the evolution of the cutting forces when the robot structure is deformable or not and the tracking errors of the end-effector. Illustrations of the resulting machined surfaces are also presented. The consideration of the links flexibility has highlighted an increase of the cutting forces magnitude. This proof of concept will aim to enrich the database of results in robotic machining for potential improvements in production.

Keywords: control, milling, multibody, robotic, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
1373 Investigations in Machining of Hot Work Tool Steel with Mixed Ceramic Tool

Authors: B. Varaprasad, C. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Hard turning has been explored as an alternative to the conventional one used for manufacture of Parts using tool steels. In the present study, the effects of cutting speed, feed rate and Depth of Cut (DOC) on cutting forces, specific cutting force, power and surface roughness in the hard turning are experimentally investigated. Experiments are carried out using mixed ceramic(Al2O3+TiC) cutting tool of corner radius 0.8mm, in turning operations on AISI H13 tool steel, heat treated to a hardness of 62 HRC. Based on Design of Experiments (DOE), a total of 20 tests are carried out. The range of each one of the three parameters is set at three different levels, viz, low, medium and high. The validity of the model is checked by Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Predicted models are derived from regression analysis. Comparison of experimental and predicted values of specific cutting force, power and surface roughness shows that good agreement has been achieved between them. Therefore, the developed model may be recommended to be used for predicting specific cutting force, power and surface roughness in hard turning of tool steel that is AISI H13 steel.

Keywords: hard turning, specific cutting force, power, surface roughness, AISI H13, mixed ceramic

Procedia PDF Downloads 613
1372 Effect on the Performance of the Nano-Particulate Graphite Lubricant in the Turning of AISI 1040 Steel under Variable Machining Conditions

Authors: S. Srikiran, Dharmala Venkata Padmaja, P. N. L. Pavani, R. Pola Rao, K. Ramji

Abstract:

Technological advancements in the development of cutting tools and coolant/lubricant chemistry have enhanced the machining capabilities of hard materials under higher machining conditions. Generation of high temperatures at the cutting zone during machining is one of the most important and pertinent problems which adversely affect the tool life and surface finish of the machined components. Generally, cutting fluids and solid lubricants are used to overcome the problem of heat generation, which is not effectively addressing the problems. With technological advancements in the field of tribology, nano-level particulate solid lubricants are being used nowadays in machining operations, especially in the areas of turning and grinding. The present investigation analyses the effect of using nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant in the turning of AISI 1040 steel under variable machining conditions and to study its effect on cutting forces, tool temperature and surface roughness of the machined component. Experiments revealed that the increase in cutting forces and tool temperature resulting in the decrease of surface quality with the decrease in the size of nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant.

Keywords: solid lubricant, graphite, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), nano–particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1371 Analysis of Drilling Parameters for Al-Mg2-Si Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: S. Jahangir, S. H. I. Jaffery, M. Khan, Z. Zareef, A. Yar, A. Mubashir, S. Butt, L. Ali

Abstract:

In this work, drilling responses and behavior of MMC was investigated in Al-Mg2Si composites. For the purpose Al-15% wt. Mg2Si, was selected from the hypereutectic region of Al- Mg2Si phase diagram. Based on hardness and tensile strength, drill bit of appropriate material and morphology was selected. The performance of different drill bits of different morphology and material was studied and analysed using experimental data. For theoretical calculations of axial thrust force and required power calculation, material factor “K” was obtained from different data charts and at the same time cutting forces (drilling forces) were practically obtained using a Peizo electric force dynamometer. These results show the role of reinforcement particles on the machinability of MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control and optimized drilling parameters for the drilling process. Furthermore, in this work, comparison of MMC with non -reinforced Aluminum Alloy regarding drilling operation was also studied.

Keywords: drilling, metal matrix composite (MMC), cutting forces, thrust force

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
1370 Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Hard Material Machining

Authors: Rajaram Kr. Gupta, Bhupendra Kumar, T. V. K. Gupta, D. S. Ramteke

Abstract:

Machining of hard materials is a recent technology for direct production of work-pieces. The primary challenge in machining these materials is selection of cutting tool inserts which facilitates an extended tool life and high-precision machining of the component. These materials are widely for making precision parts for the aerospace industry. Nickel-based alloys are typically used in extreme environment applications where a combination of strength, corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance material characteristics are required. The present paper reports the theoretical and experimental investigations carried out to understand the influence of machining parameters on the response parameters. Considering the basic machining parameters (speed, feed and depth of cut) a study has been conducted to observe their influence on material removal rate, surface roughness, cutting forces and corresponding tool wear. Experiments are designed and conducted with the help of Central Composite Rotatable Design technique. The results reveals that for a given range of process parameters, material removal rate is favorable for higher depths of cut and low feed rate for cutting forces. Low feed rates and high values of rotational speeds are suitable for better finish and higher tool life.

Keywords: speed, feed, depth of cut, roughness, cutting force, flank wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
1369 Intelligent Production Machine

Authors: A. Şahinoğlu, R. Gürbüz, A. Güllü, M. Karhan

Abstract:

This study in production machines, it is aimed that machine will automatically perceive cutting data and alter cutting parameters. The two most important parameters have to be checked in machine control unit are progress feed rate and speeds. These parameters are aimed to be controlled by sounds of machine. Optimum sound’s features introduced to computer. During process, real time data is received and converted by Matlab software. Data is converted into numerical values. According to them progress and speeds decreases/increases at a certain rate and thus optimum sound is acquired. Cutting process is made in respect of optimum cutting parameters. During chip remove progress, features of cutting tools, kind of cut material, cutting parameters and used machine; affects on various parameters. Instead of required parameters need to be measured such as temperature, vibration, and tool wear that emerged during cutting process; detailed analysis of the sound emerged during cutting process will provide detection of various data that included in the cutting process by the much more easy and economic way. The relation between cutting parameters and sound is being identified.

Keywords: cutting process, sound processing, intelligent late, sound analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1368 Life Prediction of Cutting Tool by the Workpiece Cutting Condition

Authors: Noemia Gomes de Mattos de Mesquita, José Eduardo Ferreira de Oliveira, Arimatea Quaresma Ferraz

Abstract:

Stops to exchange cutting tool, to set up again the tool in a turning operation with CNC or to measure the workpiece dimensions have a direct influence on production. The premature removal of the cutting tool results in high cost of machining since the parcel relating to the cost of the cutting tool increases. On the other hand, the late exchange of cutting tool also increases the cost of production because getting parts out of the preset tolerances may require rework for its use when it does not cause bigger problems such as breaking of cutting tools or the loss of the part. Therefore, the right time to exchange the tool should be well defined when wanted to minimize production costs. When the flank wear is the limiting tool life, the time predetermination that a cutting tool must be used for the machining occurs within the limits of tolerance can be done without difficulty. This paper aims to show how the life of the cutting tool can be calculated taking into account the cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut), workpiece material, power of the machine, the dimensional tolerance of the part, the finishing surface, the geometry of the cutting tool and operating conditions of the machine tool, once known the parameters of Taylor algebraic structure. These parameters were raised for the ABNT 1038 steel machined with cutting tools of hard metal.

Keywords: machining, productions, cutting condition, design, manufacturing, measurement

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1367 Simulating Drilling Using a CAD System

Authors: Panagiotis Kyratsis, Konstantinos Kakoulis

Abstract:

Nowadays, the rapid development of CAD systems’ programming environments results in the creation of multiple downstream applications, which are developed and becoming increasingly available. CAD based manufacturing simulations is gradually following the same trend. Drilling is the most popular hole-making process used in a variety of industries. A specially built piece of software that deals with the drilling kinematics is presented. The cutting forces are calculated based on the tool geometry, the cutting conditions and the tool/work piece materials. The results are verified by experimental work. Finally, the response surface methodology (RSM) is applied and mathematical models of the total thrust force and the thrust force developed because of the main cutting edges are proposed.

Keywords: CAD, application programming interface, response surface methodology, drilling, RSM

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1366 Optimization of Cutting Parameters on Delamination Using Taguchi Method during Drilling of GFRP Composites

Authors: Vimanyu Chadha, Ranganath M. Singari

Abstract:

Drilling composite materials is a frequently practiced machining process during assembling in various industries such as automotive and aerospace. However, drilling of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites is significantly affected by damage tendency of these materials under cutting forces such as thrust force and torque. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the various cutting parameters such as cutting speed and feed rate; subsequently also to study the influence of number of layers on delamination produced while drilling a GFRP composite. A plan of experiments, based on Taguchi techniques, was instituted considering drilling with prefixed cutting parameters in a hand lay-up GFRP material. The damage induced associated with drilling GFRP composites were measured. Moreover, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed to obtain minimization of delamination influenced by drilling parameters and number layers. The optimum drilling factor combination was obtained by using the analysis of signal-to-noise ratio. The conclusion revealed that feed rate was the most influential factor on the delamination. The best results of the delamination were obtained with composites with a greater number of layers at lower cutting speeds and feed rates.

Keywords: analysis of variance, delamination, design optimization, drilling, glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, Taguchi method

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1365 Orthogonal Metal Cutting Simulation of Steel AISI 1045 via Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Method

Authors: Seyed Hamed Hashemi Sohi, Gerald Jo Denoga

Abstract:

Machining or metal cutting is one of the most widely used production processes in industry. The quality of the process and the resulting machined product depends on parameters like tool geometry, material, and cutting conditions. However, the relationships of these parameters to the cutting process are often based mostly on empirical knowledge. In this study, computer modeling and simulation using LS-DYNA software and a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) methodology, was performed on the orthogonal metal cutting process to analyze three-dimensional deformation of AISI 1045 medium carbon steel during machining. The simulation was performed using the following constitutive models: the Power Law model, the Johnson-Cook model, and the Zerilli-Armstrong models (Z-A). The outcomes were compared against the simulated results obtained by Cenk Kiliçaslan using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the empirical results of Jaspers and Filice. The analysis shows that the SPH method combined with the Zerilli-Armstrong constitutive model is a viable alternative to simulating the metal cutting process. The tangential force was overestimated by 7%, and the normal force was underestimated by 16% when compared with empirical values. The simulation values for flow stress versus strain at various temperatures were also validated against empirical values. The SPH method using the Z-A model has also proven to be robust against issues of time-scaling. Experimental work was also done to investigate the effects of friction, rake angle and tool tip radius on the simulation.

Keywords: metal cutting, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, constitutive models, experimental, cutting forces analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
1364 Effect of Composite Material on Damping Capacity Improvement of Cutting Tool in Machining Operation Using Taguchi Approach

Authors: Siamak Ghorbani, Nikolay Ivanovich Polushin

Abstract:

Chatter vibrations, occurring during cutting process, cause vibration between the cutting tool and workpiece, which deteriorates surface roughness and reduces tool life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters and tool construction on surface roughness and vibration in turning of aluminum alloy AA2024. A new design of cutting tool is proposed, which is filled up with epoxy granite in order to improve damping capacity of the tool. Experiments were performed at the lathe using carbide cutting insert coated with TiC and two different cutting tools made of AISI 5140 steel. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was applied to design of experiment and to optimize cutting conditions. By the help of signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance the optimal cutting condition and the effect of the cutting parameters on surface roughness and vibration were determined. Effectiveness of Taguchi method was verified by confirmation test. It was revealed that new cutting tool with epoxy granite has reduced vibration and surface roughness due to high damping properties of epoxy granite in toolholder.

Keywords: ANOVA, damping capacity, surface roughness, Taguchi method, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 206