Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 101

Search results for: UK museums and art galleries

101 The Governance of UK Museums and Art Galleries: Implications for Accountability

Authors: Aminah Abdullah, Iqbal Khadaroo

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This paper investigates to what ends, how and by whom museums and art galleries in the UK are governed, and to whom they provide accounts to justify their behavior and activities. A theoretical framework is developed by drawing from the governance and accountability literature and is fleshed out by using empirical data from secondary sources. The findings show that the governance model used, informed by the new public management (NPM) philosophy, and has created tensions between the managerial and social forms of accountability. Museums and art galleries have adopted a managerial culture of getting done what gets measured.

Keywords: governance, accountability, UK museums and art galleries, public sector

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100 The Pedagogical Functions of Arts and Cultural-Heritage Education with ICTs in Museums – A Case Study of FINNA and Google Art

Authors: Pei Zhao, Sara Sintonen, Heikki Kynäslahti

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Digital museums and arts galleries have become popular in museum education and management. Museum and arts galleries website is one of the most effective and efficient ways. Google, a corporation specializing in Internet-related services and projects, not only puts high-resolution arts images online, but also uses augmented-reality in digital art gallery. The Google Art Project, Google’s production, provides users a platform in appreciating and learning arts. After Google Art Project, more and more countries released their own museum and arts gallery websites, like British Paining in BBC, and FINNA in Finland. Pedagogical function in these websites is one of the most important functions. In this paper, we use Google Art Project and FINNA as the case studies to investigate what kinds of pedagogical functions exist in these websites. Finally, this paper will give the recommendation to digital museums and websites development, especially the pedagogical functions development, in the future.

Keywords: arts education, cultural-heritage education, education with ICTs, pedagogical functions

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99 Modes of Seeing in Interactive Exhibitions: A Study on How Technology Can Affect the Viewer and Transform the Exhibition Spaces

Authors: Renata P. Lopes

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The current art exhibit scenario presents a multitude of visualization features deployed in experiences that instigate a process of art production and design. The exhibition design through multimedia devices - from the audiovisual to the touch screen - has become a medium from which art can be understood and contemplated. Artistic practices articulated, during the modern period, the spectator's perception in the exhibition space, often challenging the architecture of museums and galleries. In turn, the museum institution seeks to respond to the challenge of welcoming the viewer whose experience is mediated by technological artifacts. When the beholder, together with the technology, interacts with the exhibition space, important displacements happen. In this work, we will analyze the migrations of the exhibition space to the digital environment through mobile devices triggered by the viewer. Based not on technological determinism, but on the conditions of the appearance of this spectator, this work is developed, with the aim of apprehending the way in which technology demarcates the differences between what the spectator was and what becomes in the contemporary atmosphere of the museums and galleries. These notions, we believe, will contribute to the formation of an exhibition design space in conformity with this participant.

Keywords: exhibition, museum, exhibition design, digital media

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98 An Era of Arts: Examining Intersection of Technology and Museums

Authors: Vivian Li

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With the rapid development of technology, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are becoming increasingly prominent in our lives. Museums have led the way in digitization, offering their collections to the wider public through the open internet, which is dramatically changing our experience of art. Technology is also being implemented into our physical art-viewing experience, enabling museums to capture historical sites while creating a more immersive experience for patrons. This study takes a qualitative approach, examining secondary sources and synthesizing information from interviews with field professionals to answer the question: to what extent is the contemporary perception of art transformed by the digitization of art museums? The findings establish that museums are becoming increasingly open with their collections, utilizing digitization to spread their intellectual content to people worldwide and to diversify their audiences. The use of VR and AR is also enabling museums to preserve and showcase historical artifacts and sites in a more interactive and user-focused way. Technology is also crafting new forms of art and art museums. Ultimately, the intersection of technology and museums is not changing the definition of art but rather offering new modes for the public to experience and learn about arts and history.

Keywords: art, augmented reality, digitization, museums, technology, virtual reality

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97 An Exploratory Study Applied to the Accessibility of Museums in the UK

Authors: Sifan Guo, Xuesen Zheng

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Visitors as the vital research group have been mentioned in high frequency in the field of museum studies. With the rise of the New Museology Movement, new challenges in the museum appeared, ranging from how to eliminate the cliché class prejudices in museums to how to make visitor-oriented museums more welcome. In line with this new situation, to create a successful visiting experience is the focus of museums in today. National museums as tourist attractions always attract flooded attention, however the local museums may have the different situations. The residents could be one of the main visitors to the local museums how to attract them returned should be considered here. There are various people with different cultural, education and religion backgrounds, it is necessary to keep the balance of the education and entertainment to reach visitors’ expectations. Regarding these questions, a mixed methods research approach has been adopted: observations, tracking and questionnaires. Based on analysing some museums’ cases in the UK, it can be argued that: 1) Audiences’ accessibility support their options and judgments during the visiting. 2) Highly inclusive architecture and narrative expressions could encourage the visitors to proceed deeply understanding and alleviate conflicts. In addition, the main characteristics of the local museums and the interlinks between museums and urban renaissance will be clarified. The conclusion informs not only practical suggestions for reachable characteristic design, but also potential future research subjects.

Keywords: accessibility, challenging visitors, new museology movement, visiting experience

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96 Factors That Affect the Diffusion of Innovation in Greek Archaeological Museums

Authors: Maria Boile, Eirini Sifaki

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This study, based on desktop research and the analysis of questionnaires completed by a representative sample of museums, adopts the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory of Everett Rogers as a theoretical basis to figure out the perceived benefits that occur for any organization after the adoption of an official website, and identify the factors that affect its diffusion process. The most important conclusion is that Greek archaeological museums are far away from involving such technologies in their strategies, mainly because of the bureaucracy, the lack of necessary funds, and the lack of personnel.

Keywords: dDiffusion of innovation, websites, archaeological museums, economic crisis

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95 A Critical Evaluation of the Factors that Influence Visitor Engagement with U.K. Slavery Heritage Museums: A Passive Symbolic Netnographic Study

Authors: Shemroy Roberts

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Despite minor theoretical contributions in slavery heritage tourism research that have commented on the demand-side perspective, visitor behavior and engagement with slavery heritage attractions remain unexplored. Thus, there is a need for empirical studies and theoretical knowledge to understand visitor engagement with slavery heritage attractions, particularly U.K. slavery heritage museums. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the factors that influence visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums. This qualitative research utilizes a passive symbolic ethnographic methodology. Seven U.K. slavery heritage museums will be used to collect data through unobtrusive internet-mediated observations of TripAdvisor reviews and online semi-structured interviews with managers and curators. Preliminary findings indicate that social media, prior knowledge, multiple motivations, cultural capital, and the design and layout of exhibits influence visitor engagement with slavery heritage museums. This research contributes to an understanding of visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums. The findings of this paper will provide insights into the factors that influence visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums to managers, curators, and decision-makers responsible for designing and managing those attractions. Therefore, the results of this paper will enable museum professionals to better manage visitor engagement with slavery heritage museums.

Keywords: museums, netnography, slavery, visitor engagement

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94 Adequacy of Museums' Internet Resources to Infantile and Young Public

Authors: Myriam Ferreira

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Websites and social networks allow museums to divulge their works by new and attractive means. Besides, these technologies provide tools to generate a new history of art’s contents and promote visits to their installations. At the same time, museums are proposing more and more activities to families, children and young people. However, these activities usually take place in the museum’s physical installations, while websites and social networks seem to be mainly targeted to adults. The problem is that being children and young people digital natives, they feel apart from museums, so they need a presence of museums in digital means to feel attracted to them. Some institutions are making efforts to fill this vacuum. In this paper, resources designed specifically for children and teenagers have been selected from websites and social networks of five Spanish Museums: Prado Museum, Thyssen Museum, Guggenheim Museum, America Museum and Cerralbo Museum. After that, we have carried out an investigation in a school with children and teenagers between 11 and 15 years old. Those young people have been asked about their valuation of those web pages and social networks, with quantitative-qualitative questions. The results show that the least rated resources were videos and social networks because they were considered ‘too serious’, while the most rated were games and augmented reality. These ratings confirm theoretical papers that affirm that the future of technologies applied to museums is edutainment and interaction.

Keywords: children, museums, social networks, teenagers, websites

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93 The Need for the Inclusion of Museum Studies at All Levels of Education in Nigeria

Authors: Stephany Inalegwu

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Museums play a very critical role in understanding the cultural values and the history of any given society in Nigeria and the world at large. The role of Museums as an avenue through which artefacts are collected, preserved and exhibited cannot be over emphasized as they are now seen as not only with the above stated aims but also as a creator of employment and revenue generation if properly harnessed. Interestingly, despite its importance, museum studies have been limited to University curriculum alone causing a dearth of information for the younger generation up until they attain the University age. It is against this background that this paper carefully analyses the definitions of museums, the state of museums and museum studies in Nigeria today and the need to include its studies at all the levels of Education in Nigeria from the primary, to secondary and tertiary levels. It should reflect a study of all ages, as this is vital in the development of individuals. It concludes by harping on the need for a better appreciation of the Nigerian culture ranging from the famous Nok Terracotta, Benin Bronze works etc and its importance of museums as an avenue to display the rich Nigerian cultural heritage.

Keywords: culture, curriculum, education, museum

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92 Museums: The Roles of Lighting in Design

Authors: Fernanda S. Oliveira

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The architectural science of lighting has been mainly concerned with technical aspects and has tended to ignore the psychophysical. There is a growing evidence that adopting passive design solutions may contribute to higher satisfaction. This is even more important in countries with higher solar radiation, which should take advantage of favourable daylighting conditions. However, in art museums, the same light that stimulates vision can also cause permanent damage to the exhibits. Not only the visitors want to see the objects, but also to understand their nature and the artist’s intentions. This paper examines the hypothesis that the more varied and exciting the lighting (and particularly the daylight) in museums rooms, over space and time, the more likely it is that visitors will stay longer, enjoy their experience and be willing to return. This question is not often considered in museums that privilege artificial lighting neglecting the various qualities of daylight other than its capacity to illuminate spaces. The findings of this paper show that daylight plays an important role in museum design, affecting how visitors perceive the exhibition space, as well as contributing to their overall enjoyment in the museum. Rooms with high luminance means were considered more pleasant (r=.311, p<.05) and cheerful (r=.349, p<.05). Lighting conditions also have a direct effect on the phenomenon of museum fatigue with the overall room quality showing an effect on how tired visitors reported to be (r=.421, p<.01). The control and distribution of daylight in museums can therefore contribute to create pleasant conditions for learning, entertainment and amusement, so that visitors are willing to return.

Keywords: daylight, comfort, museums, luminance, visitor

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91 Applying Audience Development Programs in Museums for Raising Community Awareness towards Cultural Heritage Preservation: A Case Study of Alexandria National Museum

Authors: Samar F. Elkasrawy

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Museums play a significant role in their communities with respect to culture, history, environment, and social development. They are considered as important sites for families, tourists, school groups, cultural visitors and individuals, looking to enjoy, learn and expand their horizons. Aim of audience development programs is to support individuals and organizations to work together to deliver messages that will raise museums' profile for both existing and potential visitors. They recognize the particular role that museums play for communities, the audiences they seek to reach, the experience they seek to offer and the extent and nature of their collections. This study aims at using both the qualitative and quantitative approach to explore the important role that audience development programs in museums can play in raising awareness in their communities concerning cultural heritage preservation and tourism. The Alexandria National Museum is considered as a valuable case study. In depth interviews with museum managers and staff was conducted as well as an online questionnaire. The study also includes suggestions and guidelines for applying audience development programs in Egyptian museums.

Keywords: Alexandria National Museum, audience development programs, cultural heritage, tourism and preservation awareness

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90 Microwave Security System in Museums: Design and Implementation

Authors: Dalia Elsheakh, Hala Elsadek

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The objective of this paper is to propose a competitive microwave security system that can be applied with reasonable price at museums in Egypt, considering the priceless elements in 23 Egyptian museums countrywide and the lack of good recent security systems even in big ones. The system main goal is to detect valuable targets to ensure their presence in the pre-defined positions in order to protect them from being stolen. The system is based on real time microwave scanning for the required space volume through transmitting RF waves at consecutive angles and detecting the back scattered waves from required objects to detect their existence at pre-specified locations.

Keywords: microwave security system, object locating system, real time locating system (RTLS), antenna array, array electronic scanning

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89 Analyzing Strategic Alliances of Museums: The Case of Girona (Spain)

Authors: Raquel Camprubí

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Cultural tourism has been postulated as relevant motivation for tourist over the world during the last decades. In this context, museums are the main attraction for cultural tourists who are seeking to connect with the history and culture of the visited place. From the point of view of an urban destination, museums and other cultural resources are essential to have a strong tourist supply at the destination, in order to be capable of catching attention and interest of cultural tourists. In particular, museums’ challenge is to be prepared to offer the best experience to their visitors without to forget their mission-based mainly on protection of its collection and other social goals. Thus, museums individually want to be competitive and have good positioning to achieve their strategic goals. The life cycle of the destination and the level of maturity of its tourism product influence the need of tourism agents to cooperate and collaborate among them, in order to rejuvenate their product and become more competitive as a destination. Additionally, prior studies have considered an approach of different models of a public and private partnership, and collaborative and cooperative relations developed among the agents of a tourism destination. However, there are no studies that pay special attention to museums and the strategic alliances developed to obtain mutual benefits. Considering this background, the purpose of this study is to analyze in what extent museums of a given urban destination have established strategic links and relations among them, in order to improve their competitive position at both individual and destination level. In order to achieve the aim of this study, the city of Girona (Spain) and the museums located in this city are taken as a case study. Data collection was conducted using in-depth interviews, in order to collect all the qualitative data related to nature, strengthen and purpose of the relational ties established among the museums of the city or other relevant tourism agents of the city. To conduct data analysis, a Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach was taken using UCINET software. Position of the agents in the network and structure of the network was analyzed, and qualitative data from interviews were used to interpret SNA results. Finding reveals the existence of strong ties among some of the museums of the city, particularly to create and promote joint products. Nevertheless, there were detected outsiders who have an individual strategy, without collaboration and cooperation with other museums or agents of the city. Results also show that some relational ties have an institutional origin, while others are the result of a long process of cooperation with common projects. Conclusions put in evidence that collaboration and cooperation of museums had been positive to increase the attractiveness of the museum and the city as a cultural destination. Future research and managerial implications are also mentioned.

Keywords: cultural tourism, competitiveness, museums, Social Network analysis

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88 From Modern to Contemporary Art: Transformations of Art Market in Istanbul

Authors: Cem Ozatalay, Senem Ornek

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The Artprice Contemporary Art Market Annual Report 2014 notices that Istanbul, with its art market volume of $3.6 million has become the first city of the Middle East and North Africa region and the 14th city of the World. Indeed, the period 2004–2014 has been significant in terms of the growth of the art market, during which the majority of contemporary art galleries and museums in Istanbul was inaugurated. This boom means that with the joining of new agents, the structure of the art market has dramatically changed. To use Nathalie Heinich’s terminology, in the current art field, three art genres – namely classical art, modern art and contemporary art – coexist, but in the case of Istanbul, such as many art cities in the world, the latter genre has become increasingly dominant. This presentation aims to show how the power shifts away from the classical art agents to contemporary art agents, and the effects produced by the conflicts between the old and new agents of current art field. Based on the data obtained from an ongoing field research in Istanbul among the art market agents such as art dealers, curators, art critics and artists, it will be shown that even if the agents of different art genres are in conflict with each other, there is, at the same time, a continuum between the three art worlds.

Keywords: contemporary art market, economic sociology of art, Istanbul art market, structure of the art field in Istanbul

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87 The Effect of Gas Pollutants on Museum Environment: Case Study of an Oil Paintings in Ethnographic Museum, Egypt

Authors: Hagar Ezzat, Mostafa Attia, Ahmed Bedeir, Abdelrazek Elnagger, Matija Strlic

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Ethnographic Museum in Cairo- Egypt is a place of valuable collections (manuscripts, paintings, textiles and other ethnographic materials), the museum experiences serious neglecting with unacceptable display and storage conditions, the museum is located in Tahrir sq., which consider a high traffic area where pollution levels exceed the acceptable levels in museums. The materials used in manufacturing the display cases are expected to be source of many pollutants which affecting the sensitive oil paintings objects in the galleries. 24 diffusion tubes (12 No2, So2 & 12 O3) have been used in "winter 2014 and spring 2014" for monitoring museum environment with three cases "outdoor & indoor and in the gallery display". A series of analytical techniques with scientific tools: Ion Chromatography have been used to assess measurements and effects of gas pollutants on the museum which help us to make good assessment for the damage of oil paintings objects and the condition of the museum and understand the effect of the museum environment on the deterioration of the sensitive oil paintings.

Keywords: environment, museum, paintings, ethnographic, conservation

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86 Digitizing Masterpieces in Italian Museums: Techniques, Challenges and Consequences from Giotto to Caravaggio

Authors: Ginevra Addis

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The possibility of reproducing physical artifacts in a digital format is one of the opportunities offered by the technological advancements in information and communication most frequently promoted by museums. Indeed, the study and conservation of our cultural heritage have seen significant advancement due to the three-dimensional acquisition and modeling technology. A variety of laser scanning systems has been developed, based either on optical triangulation or on time-of-flight measurement, capable of producing digital 3D images of complex structures with high resolution and accuracy. It is necessary, however, to explore the challenges and opportunities that this practice brings within museums. The purpose of this paper is to understand what change is introduced by digital techniques in those museums that are hosting digital masterpieces. The methodology used will investigate three distinguished Italian exhibitions, related to the territory of Milan, trying to analyze the following issues about museum practices: 1) how digitizing art masterpieces increases the number of visitors; 2) what the need that calls for the digitization of artworks; 3) which techniques are most used; 4) what the setting is; 5) the consequences of a non-publication of hard copies of catalogues; 6) envision of these practices in the future. Findings will show how interconnection plays an important role in rebuilding a collection spread all over the world. Secondly how digital artwork duplication and extension of reality entail new forms of accessibility. Thirdly, that collection and preservation through digitization of images have both a social and educational mission. Fourthly, that convergence of the properties of different media (such as web, radio) is key to encourage people to get actively involved in digital exhibitions. The present analysis will suggest further research that should create museum models and interaction spaces that act as catalysts for innovation.

Keywords: digital masterpieces, education, interconnection, Italian museums, preservation

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85 Speaking of Genocide: Lithuanian 'Occupation’ Museums and Foucault's Discursive Formation

Authors: Craig Wight

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Tourism visits to sites associated to varying degrees with death and dying have for some time inspired academic debate and research into what has come to be popularly described as ‘dark tourism’. Research to date has been based on the mobilisation of various social scientific methodologies to understand issues such as the motivations of visitors to consume dark tourism experiences and visitor interpretations of the various narratives that are part of the consumption experience. This thesis offers an alternative conceptual perspective for carrying out research into dark tourism by presenting a discourse analysis of Lithuanian occupation-themed museums using Foucault’s concept of ‘discursive formation’ from ‘Archaeology of Knowledge’. A constructivist methodology is therefore applied to locate the rhetorical representations of Lithuanian and Jewish subject positions and to identify the objects of discourse that are produced in five museums that interpret a historical era defined by occupation, the persecution of people and genocide. The discourses and consequent cultural function of these museums are examined, and the key finding of the research proposes that they authorise a particular Lithuanian individualism which marginalises the Jewish subject position and its related objects of discourse into abstraction. The thesis suggests that these museums create the possibility to undermine the ontological stability of Holocaust and the Jewish-Lithuanian subject which is produced as an anomalous, ‘non-Lithuanian’ cultural reference point. As with any Foucauldian archaeological research, it cannot be offered as something that is ‘complete’ since it captures only a partial field, or snapshot of knowledge, bound to a specific temporal and spatial context. The discourses that have been identified are perhaps part of a more elusive ‘positivity’ which is salient across a number of cultural and political surfaces which are ripe for a similar analytical approach in future. It is hoped that the study will motivate others to follow a discourse-analytical approach to research in order to further understand the critical role of museums in public culture when it comes to shaping knowledge about ‘inconvenient’ pasts.

Keywords: genocide heritage, foucault, Lithuanian tourism, discursive formatoin

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84 Deterrents in Tourism Development in Pakistan: A Case Study of Northern Areas

Authors: Qurat Ul Ain Bashir

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Since the inception of Pakistan Tourism industry was not on developed level but afterwards 9/11 the tourism has declined rapidly in the country. Despite Northern areas full potential, rich historical and cultural heritage, natural beauty, museums, art galleries, hiking tracks, tourism is not getting that response in Pakistan, which it deserves. In fact Pakistan has been blessed with all the features that could make her a tourist destination. On the other side the attitude of the local people, socio-political condition, lack of facilities of international standards, media’s way of reporting about country, governments’ negligence etc has more adversely affected the international tourism than domestic tourism. From 2013 onward some developments in the said industry has been shown but that is not much encouraging. In 2017 approximately two million tourist visited Pakistan in comparison to 1.75 million in 2016. In the light of above debate the paper attempts to diagnose the causes which are not allowing the reasonable growth of tourism in Pakistan and suggests steps which must be taken to develop the industry through a large scale campaign and long term planning. The methodology about this research is quantitative with reference to description, analysis and recommendations. The material would be collected from the government publications, articles, surveys, tourist accounts, books, internet, magazines.

Keywords: tourism, terrorism, barriers, infrastructure, culture, northern areas

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83 Study on Biodeterioration of Proteinous Objects in Museums and Toxic Efficacy of Myristica Fragrans and Syzygium Aromaticum Oils against the Larvae of Anthrenus verbasci

Authors: Fatma Faheem, K. Abduraheem

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Museums are custodians of natural and cultural heritage. Objects like tribal dresses, headgears, weapons, musical instruments, manuscripts and other ethnocultural materials housed in museums are prized possessions of intellectual and cultural property of people. Tropical countries like India have a favorable climatic condition for biodeterioration. Organic materials such as leather and parchment objects which form a substantial part of natural history collections of museums across the world are promptly infested by insects like dermestid beetles, tenebrionides, silver fishes, cockroaches and other micro-organisms. The environmental problems caused due to the overuse of pesticides and other non-degradable chemicals have been the matter of serious concern for both the scientists and public in recent years. Synthetic pesticides are very expensive and also highly toxic for humans and its environment. Due to its high health risk factor government has taken severe initiatives on policy of banning it. In order to overcome the problems of biodeterioration, natural biocides should be applied. In this paper, comparative study has been done to investigate the toxic efficacy of Myristica fragrans and Syzygium aromaticum oil in variation with contact and stomach toxicity against larvae of Anthrenus verbasci.

Keywords: biodeterioration, contact toxicity, cultural heritage, natural biocides, natural heritage, stomach toxicity

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82 RE:SOUNDING a 2000-Year-Old Vietnamese Dong Son Bronze Drum; Artist-Led Collaborations outside the Museum to Challenge the Impasse of Repatriating and Rematriating Cultural Instruments

Authors: H. A. J. Nguyen, V. A. Pham

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RE:SOUNDING is an ongoing research project and artwork seeking to return the sound and knowledge of Dong Son bronze drums back to contemporary musicians. Colonial collections of ethnographic instruments are problematic in how they commit acts of conceptual, cultural, and acoustic silencing. The collection (or more honestly), the plagiarism, and pillaging of these instruments have systemically separated them from living and breathing cultures. This includes diasporic communities, who have come to resettle in close proximity - but still have little access - to the museums and galleries that display their cultural objects. Despite recent attempts to 'open up' and 'recognise' the tensions and violence of these ethnographic collections, many museums continue to structurally organize and reproduce knowledge with the same procedural distance and limitations of imperial condescension. Impatient with the slowness of these museums, our diaspora led collaborations participated in the opaque economy of the auction market to gain access and begin the process of digitally recording and archiving the actual sounds of the ancient Dong Son drum. This self-directed, self-initiated artwork not only acoustically reinvigorated an ancient instrument but redistributed these sonic materials back to contemporary musicians, composers, and their diasporic communities throughout Vietnam, South East Asia, and Australia. Our methodologies not only highlight the persistent inflexibility of museum infrastructures but demand that museums refrain from their paternalistic practice of risk-averse ownership, to seriously engage with new technologies and political formations that require all public institutions to be held accountable for the ethical and intellectual viability of their colonial collections. The integrated and practical resolve of diasporic artists and their communities are more than capable of working with new technologies to reclaim and reinvigorate what is culturally and spiritually theirs. The motivation to rematriate – as opposed to merely repatriate – the acoustic legacies of these instruments to contemporary musicians and artists is a new model for decolonial and restorative practices. Exposing the inadequacies of western scholarship that continues to treat these instruments as discreet, disembodied, and detached artifacts, these collaborative strategies have thus far produced a wealth of new knowledge – new to the west perhaps – but not that new to these, our own communities. This includes the little-acknowledged fact that the Dong Son drum were political instruments of war and technology, rather than their simplistic description in the museum and western academia as agrarian instruments of fertility and harvest. Through the collective and continued sharing of knowledge and sound materials produced from this research, these drums are gaining a contemporary relevance beyond the cultural silencing of the museum display cabinet. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge the Wurundjeri and Boon Wurrung of the Kulin Nation and the Gadigal of the Eora Nation where we began this project. We pay our respects to the Peoples, Lands, Traditional Custodians, Practices, and Creator Ancestors of these Great Nations, as well as those First Nations peoples throughout Australia, Vietnam, and Indonesia, where this research continues, and upon whose stolen lands and waterways were never ceded.

Keywords: acoustic archaeology, decolonisation, museum collections, rematriation, repatriation, Dong Son, experimental music, digital recording

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81 Four Decades of Greek Artistic Presence in Paris (1970-2010): Theory and Interpretation

Authors: Sapfo A. Mortaki

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This article examines the presence of Greek immigrant artists (painters and sculptors) in Paris during 1970-2010. The aim is to highlight their presence in the French capital through archival research in the daily and periodical press as well as present the impact of their artistic activity on the French intellectual life and society. At the same time, their contribution to the development of cultural life in Greece becomes apparent. The integration of those migrant artists into an environment of cultural coexistence and the understanding of the social phenomenon of their migration, in the context of postmodernity, are being investigated. The cultural relations between the two countries are studied in the context of support mechanisms, such as the Greek community, cultural institutions, museums and galleries. The recognition of the Greek artists by the French society and the social dimension in the context of their activity in Paris, are discussed in terms of the assimilation theory. Since the 1970s, and especially since the fall of the dictatorship in Greece, in opposition to the prior situation, artists' contacts with their homeland have been significantly enhanced, with most of them now travelling to Paris, while others work in parallel in both countries. As a result, not only do the stages of the development of their work through their pursuits become visible, but, most importantly, the artistic world becomes informed about the multifaceted expression of art through the succession of various contemporary currents. Thus, the participation of Greek artists in the international cultural landscape is demonstrated.

Keywords: artistic migration, cultural impact, Greek artists, postmodernity, theory of assimilation

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80 Reflection of Development of Production Relations in Museums: Case of Gobustan Museum

Authors: Fikrat Abdullayev, Narmin Huseynli

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Archaeology is a science that learns ancient people’s life and household on the basis of samples of material culture. The key research object of this science is artefacts, which are acquired during archaeological excavations. These artefacts can be seen in museums. Museums are the main institutions that give impressions of daily life and household of people in ancient times. Therefore, systematization, exhibition and presentation of archaeological items in museums should be adapted to trace the development of productive forces and its reflection on the household of people. In Gobustan museum which was commissioned in 2011, you can get information about the life and household, as well as religious beliefs, of people at all stages of history from the end of the Upper Palaeolith to the Middle Ages through archaeological items, rock inscriptions and modern technologies. The main idea of museum exposition is to give an idea to visitors about the environment, society and production relations during the Stone and Metal Age. Stimulation of development of production factors and production relationships of environmental factors that are influenced by natural forces can be easily seen through exhibits of Gobustan Museum. At the same time, creating of new ideological attributes in the changing society and the process of transforming people into a dominant position in a belief system can be seen in the substitution of motives of rock carvings in the chronological context. The historical and cultural essence of rock carvings in Gobustan Museum is demonstrated through modern technological means and traditional museum concepts. In addition, Gobustan Preserve is one of the rare places where visitors can directly contact with rock carvings.

Keywords: Gobustan, rock art, museum, productive forces

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79 Developing a Performance Measurement System for Arts-Based Initiatives: Action Research on Italian Corporate Museums

Authors: Eleonora Carloni, Michela Arnaboldi

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In academia, the investigation of the relationship between cultural heritage and corporations is ubiquitous in several fields of studies. In practice corporations are more and more integrating arts and cultural heritage in their strategies for disparate benefits, such as: to foster customer’s purchase intention with authentic and aesthetic experiences, to improve their reputation towards local communities, and to motivate employees with creative thinking. There are diverse forms under which corporations set these artistic interventions, from sponsorships to arts-based training centers for employees, but scholars agree that the maximum expression of this cultural trend are corporate museums, growing in number and relevance. Corporate museums are museum-like settings, hosting artworks of corporations’ history and interests. In academia they have been ascribed as strategic asset and they have been associated with diverse uses for corporations’ benefits, from place for preservation of cultural heritage, to tools for public relations and cultural flagship stores. Previous studies have thus extensively but fragmentally studied the diverse benefits of corporate museum opening to corporations, with a lack of comprehensive approach and a digression on how to evaluate and report corporate museum’s performances. Stepping forward, the present study aims to investigate: 1) what are the key performance measures corporate museums need to report to the associated corporations; 2) how are the key performance measures reported to the concerned corporations. This direction of study is not only suggested as future direction in academia but it has solid basis in practice, aiming to answer to the need of corporate museums’ directors to account for corporate museum’s activities to the concerned corporation. Coherently, at an empirical level the study relies on action research method, whose distinctive feature is to develop practical knowledge through a participatory process. This paper indeed relies on the experience of a collaborative project between the researchers and a set of corporate museums in Italy, aimed at co-developing a performance measurement system. The project involved two steps: a first step, in which researchers derived the potential performance measures from literature along with exploratory interviews; a second step, in which researchers supported the pool of corporate museums’ directors in co-developing a set of key performance indicators for reporting. Preliminary empirical findings show that while scholars insist on corporate museums’ capability to develop networking relations, directors insist on the role of museums as internal supplier of knowledge for innovation goals. Moreover, directors stress museums’ cultural mission and outcomes as potential benefits for corporation, by remarking to include both cultural and business measures in the final tool. In addition, they give relevant attention to the wording used in humanistic terms while struggling to express all measures in economic terms. The paper aims to contribute to corporate museums’ and more broadly to arts-based initiatives’ literature in two directions. Firstly, it elaborates key performance measures with related indicators to report on cultural initiatives for corporations. Secondly, it provides evidence of challenges and practices to handle reporting on these initiatives, because of tensions arising from the co-existence of diverse perspectives, namely arts and business worlds.

Keywords: arts-based initiative, corporate museum, hybrid organization, performance measurement

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78 Architecture of Contemporary Museums Located in the Historic Center of Cracow: One City, One Architect, Three Projects

Authors: A. Brach

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The architecture of modern museums in the historical center should refer to a place in a cultural, historical, urban and architectural sense, using adequate and contemporary forms of architecture. The research and architectural analysis of selected museums in Cracow were conducted to illustrate which elements were decisive for the choice of architectural form. The evaluation of selected objects took into the consideration the following aspects: continuation of the historical form, contemporary form referring to the place, the individual-author form omitting the cultural aspect of the place. The presented projects showed the compromise as positive solutions rejecting both the direct imitation or 'historical continuation' as well as an individual form focused on an abstract form. In order to carry out research and confirm the thesis, three designs of Assoc. Prof. Eng. Arch. Krzysztof Ingarden in the historic city of Cracow were selected. Despite being constructed in one city, the neighborhood and cultural contexts of the locations are completely different. The neighborhood of the historical Royal Road and gothic church with unique decorations from the Polish Art Nouveau, artist Stanislaw Wyspianski (Wyspianski Pavilion), the bend of the Vistula hosting the Japanese culture (Museum of Japanese Art and Technology Manggha) and finally the old area of a horse riding school from the Austrian Empire times (Malopolska Garden of Art). All three buildings are dedicated to the culture of Japan, Polish artist Stanislaw Wyspianski, contemporary achievements and the promotion of art at its widest sense. Important fact for this research is that there is one author of all presented projects.

Keywords: adaptation of existing buildings, architecture in cracow, modern architecture, museums located in historic center

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77 Slave Museums and a Site of Democratic Pedagogy: Engagement, Healing and Tolerance

Authors: Elaine Stavro

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In our present world where acts of incivility, intolerance and anger towards minority communities is on the rise, the ways museum practices cultivate ethical generosity is of interest. Democratic theorists differ as to how they believe respect can be generated through active participation. Allowing minority communities a role in determining what artifacts will be displayed and how they will be displayed has been an important step in generating respect. In addition, the rise of indigenous museums, slave museums and curators who represent these communities, contribute to the communication of their history of oppression. These institutional practices have been supplemented by the handling of objects, recognition stories and multisensory exhibitions. Psychoanalysis, object relations theorists believe that the handling of objects: amenable objects and responsive listeners will trigger the expression of anomie, alienation and traumatizing experiences. Not only memorializing but engaging with one’s lose in a very personal way can facilitate the process of mourning. Manchester Museum (UK) gathered together Somalian refugees, who in the process of handling their own objects and those offered at the museum, began to tell their stories. Democratic theorists (especially affect theorists or vital materialists or Actor Network theorists) believe that things can be social actants- material objects have agentic capacities that humans should align with. In doing so, they challenge social constructivism that attributes power to interpreted things, but like them they assume an openness or responsiveness to Otherness can be cultivated. Rich sensory experiences, corporeal engagement (devices that involve bodily movement or objects that involve handling) auditory experiences (songs) all contribute to improve one’s responsiveness and openness to Others. This paper will focus specifically on slave museums/ and exhibits in the U.K, the USA., South Africa to explore and evaluate their democratic strategies in cultivating tolerant practices via the various democratic avenues outlined above.

Keywords: democratic pedagogy, slave exhibitions, affect/emotion, object handling

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76 The Use of Knowledge Management Systems and Information Communication Technology Service Desk Management to Minimize the Digital Divide Experienced in the Museum Sector

Authors: Ruel A. Welch

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Since the introduction of ServiceNow, the UK’s Science Museum Group’s (SMG) ICT service desk portal. There has not been an analysis of the tools available to SMG staff for just-in-time knowledge acquisition (knowledge management systems) and reporting ICT incidents with a focus on an aspect of professional identity, namely, gender. This study is conducted in the milieu of UK museums, galleries, arts, academic, charitable, and cultural heritage sectors. Numerous authors suggest that males and females experience ICT usage differently. Therefore, it is important for SMG to investigate the apparent disparities so that solutions can be derived to minimize this digital divide if one exists. It is acknowledged at SMG that there are challenges with keeping up with an ever-changing digital landscape. Subsequently, this entails the rapid upskilling of staff and developing an infrastructure that supports just-in-time technological knowledge acquisition and reporting technology-related issues. This problem was addressed by analyzing ServiceNow ICT incident reports and reports from knowledge articles from a six-month period from February to July. This study found a statistically significant relationship between gender and reporting an ICT incident. There is also a significant relationship between gender and the priority level of ICT incidents. Interestingly, there is no statistically significant relationship between gender and reading knowledge articles. Additionally, there is no statistically significant relationship between gender and reporting an ICT incident related to the knowledge article that was read by staff. The knowledge acquired from this study is useful to service desk management practice as it will help to inform the creation of future knowledge articles and ICT incident reporting processes.

Keywords: digital divide, ICT service desk practice, knowledge management systems, workplace learning

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75 Using Electronic Books to Enhance the Museum Visitors' Experience

Authors: Elvin Karaaslan Klose

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Museums are important sites of informal, often semi-structured and self-paced learning. Challenged by digital alternatives and increased expectations from their visitors, museums have to adapt to the digital age by enriching their collection and educational content with additional options for interactivity. One such option lies in the concept of the electronic book, which can be used either on dedicated devices or downloaded by visitors before entering the exhibition area. These electronic books serve as an alternative or supplement to the classic audio guide and provide visitors with information about artifacts as well as background stories and factoids about the subjects of the exhibition. Bringing such interactive elements into the museum experience has been shown to increase information retention and enjoyment among young aged visitors and adults. This article aims to bring together both theoretical frameworks and practical examples of how interactive media in the form of electronic books can be used to enhance the experience of the museum visitor.

Keywords: electronic books, interactive media, arts education, museum education

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74 Beyond the White Cube: A Study on the Site Specific Curatorial Practice of Kochi Muziris Biennale

Authors: Girish Chandran, Milu Tigi

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Brian O'Doherty's seminal essay, Inside the white Cube theorized and named the dominant mode of display and exhibition of Modern Art museums. Ever since the advent of Biennales and other site-specific public art projects we have seen a departure from the white cube mode of exhibition. The physicality, materiality and context within which an artwork is framed has a role in the production of meaning of public art. Equally, artworks contribute to the meaning and identity of a place. This to and fro relationship between the site and artwork and its influence on the sense of place and production of meaning is being explored in this paper in the context of Kochi Muziris Biennale (KMB). Known as the Peoples biennale with over 5 lakh visitors, it is India's first Biennale and its largest art exhibition of contemporary art. The paper employs place theory and contemporary curatorial theories to present the case. The KMB has an interesting mix of exhibition spaces which includes existing galleries and halls, site-specific projects in public spaces, infill developments and adaptive reuse of heritage and other unused architecture. The biennale was envisioned as an event connecting to the history, socio-political peculiarities of the cultural landscape of Kerala and more specifically Kochi. The paper explains the role of spatial elements in forming a curatorial narrative connected to the above mentioned ambitions.The site-specific nature of exhibition and its use of unused architecture helps in the formation of exhibition spaces unique in type and materiality. The paper argues how this helps in the creation of an 'archeology of the place'. The research elucidates how a composite nature of experience helps connect with the thematic ambitions of the Biennale and how it brings about an aesthetics distinct to KMB.

Keywords: public art, curatorial practice, architecture, place, contemporary art, site specificity

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73 The Performance of Natural Light by Roof Systems in Cultural Buildings

Authors: Ana Paula Esteves, Diego S. Caetano, Louise L. B. Lomardo

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This paper presents an approach to the performance of the natural lighting, when the use of appropriated solar lighting systems on the roof is applied in cultural buildings such as museums and foundations. The roofs, as a part of contact between the building and the external environment, require special attention in projects that aim at energy efficiency, being an important element for the capture of natural light in greater quantity, but also for being the most important point of generation of photovoltaic solar energy, even semitransparent, allowing the partial passage of light. Transparent elements in roofs, as well as superior protection of the building, can also play other roles, such as: meeting the needs of natural light for the accomplishment of the internal tasks, attending to the visual comfort; to bring benefits to the human perception and about the interior experience in a building. When these resources are well dimensioned, they also contribute to the energy efficiency and consequent character of sustainability of the building. Therefore, when properly designed and executed, a roof light system can bring higher quality natural light to the interior of the building, which is related to the human health and well-being dimension. Furthermore, it can meet the technologic, economic and environmental yearnings, making possible the more efficient use of that primordial resource, which is the light of the Sun. The article presents the analysis of buildings that used zenith light systems in search of better lighting performance in museums and foundations: the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in the United States, the Iberê Camargo Foundation in Brazil, the Museum of Fine Arts in Castellón in Spain and the Pinacoteca of São Paulo.

Keywords: natural lighting, roof lighting systems, natural lighting in museums, comfort lighting

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72 Museum-Based Education: Its Role in Formal/School Education

Authors: Kinga Anna Gajda

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The aim of the paper is presented the results of the research project titled: Regional or trans-regional cultural education using the example of museums. In the frame of the project there were prepared: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the level of schools’ use of museum programs in the period 2010-2015; Qualitative and quantitative analysis of interprovincial co-operation between schools and cultural institutions; intevied and questionnaries. That was a research materials. Informal education may include classes that use visual culture - museum lessons. The paper will examine what range of programs is offered schools by the museums. On the basis of the conducted analysis, the paper will verify what programs addressing the schools are directly coincided with the material taught in schools or as a supplement to existing curriculum. The paper will answer the question is the museum-based education the part of school education, the teaching parallel or a separate category of teaching.

Keywords: museum-based education, school, parallel teaching, curriculum

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