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Paper Count: 13

Search results for: microalbuminuria

13 Prevalence of Microalbuminuria and Its Relation with Various Risk Factors in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Singh Baljinder, Sharma Navneet


Microalbuminuria is the earliest detectable marker of diabetic nephropathy. We planned to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetics and correlate with various risk factor. We randomly selected 100 type 1 diabetic patients after inclusion and exclusion criteria from DCRC, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner. Clinical examinations for anthropometeric parameters, hypertension, retinopathy, glycaemic status, lipid profile were done and microalbuminuria was estimated by micral test. Microalbuminuria was seen in 38% patients. The mean urinary albumin concentration was 96.61 mg/l in microalbuminuria positive cases, 134 mg/L in hypertensive patients while 74.5 mg/L in normal patients. Mean diabetic duration was 6.43 years in microalbuminurics. Albumin excretion increased significantly with age at onset of 10-18 years and declined thereafter. Microalbuminuria cases exhibited mean cholesterol 181.63 mg%, TG 130.94 mg%, LDL 109.87 mg%, HDL 57.5 mg% and VLDL 30.64 mg%. Mean urinary albumin concentration in patients with retinopathy was 160.52 mg/L while 78.66 mg/L without retinopathy. In multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis, a strong positive association was seen between microalbuminuria and hypertension (OR=5.087, CI=2.1319-12.101), fasting blood sugar (OR=3. 491, CI=1.138-10.70), duration of diabetes (OR=3.41, CI=1.360-8.55) and HbA1c (OR=2.381, CI-=1.1-5.64). The present study indicates that microalbuminuria is a common complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus and can be prevented by careful management of risk factors.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, microalbuminuria, diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, hypertension

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12 Correlation between Microalbuminuria and Hypertension in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Authors: Alia Ali, Azeem Taj, Muhammed Joher Amin, Farrukh Iqbal, Zafar Iqbal


Background: Hypertension is commonly found in patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD). Microalbuminuria is the first clinical sign of involvement of kidneys in patients with type 2 diabetes. Uncontrolled hypertension induces a higher risk of cardiovascular events, including death, increasing proteinuria and progression to kidney disease. Objectives: To determine the correlation between microalbuminuria and hypertension and their association with other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: One hundred and thirteen type 2 diabetic patients were screened for microalbuminuria and raised blood pressure, attending the diabetic clinic of Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. The study was conducted from November 2012 to June 2013. Results: Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1, those with normoalbuminuria (n=63) and Group 2, those having microalbuminuria (n=50). Group 2 patients showed higher blood pressure values as compared to Group 1. The results were statistically significant and showed poor glycemic control as a contributing risk factor. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is high frequency of hypertension among type 2 diabetics but still much higher among those having microalbuminuria. So, early recognition of renal dysfunction through detection of microalbuminuria and to start treatment without any delay will confer future protection from end-stage renal disease as well as hypertension and its complications in type 2 diabetic patients.

Keywords: hypertension, microalbuminuria, diabetic kidney disease, type 2 Diabetes mellitus

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11 Assessment of Association Between Microalbuminuria and Lung Function Test Among the Community of Jimma Town

Authors: Diriba Dereje


Background: Cardiac and renal disease are the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) affecting the community in a significant manner. The best and recommended method in halting CNCD is by working on prevention as early as possible. This is only possible if early surrogate markers are identified. As part of the stated solution, this study will identify an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Methodology: Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 adult in Jimma town. A systematic sampling technique was used in selecting participants to the study. In searching for the possible association, binary and multivariate logistic regression and t-test was conducted. Finally, the association between microalbuminuria and lung function test was well stated in the form of figures and written description. Result and Conclusion: A significant association was found between microalbuminuria and different lung function test parameters.

Keywords: microalbuminuria, lung function, association, test

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10 Microalbuminuria in Patients with Hypertension Visiting Tertiary Care Centre, Western Nepal

Authors: Binaya Tamang, Buddhi R. Pokharel, Narayan Gautam, Puspa R. Dhakal, Yuresh Twayana


Background and Objective: Microalbuminuria is often regarded as a sign of end-organ damage due to hypertension, with an increased risk for renal diseases. The present study was designed to find the prevalence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients by determining albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and the association of ACR and microalbuminuria status with different stages and duration of hypertension (HTN). Also, to establish the correlation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with various parameters viz; ACR, urinary microalbumin (UMA), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary creatinine (Ucreat), serum creatinine (Screat), and find out their significance among HTN and ACR status. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Department of Internal Medicine, UCMS, Bhairahawa, Nepal from April 2019 to September 2019 after obtaining ethical approval from institutional review committee (IRC), UCMS. A total of 120 hypertensive patients were enrolled whose blood, and spot urine samples were taken. eGFR was calculated by using Cockcroft-Gault formula after determining Screat while ACR was calculated after measuring Ucreat and UMA from the spot urine sample. Creatinine was estimated from modified jaffes’ reaction, whereas urinary micro albumin was done by Mispa i3 analyzer. Data were analyzed by using SPSS. 20 using p-value ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: In our study, the highest enrolled were grade II HTN (36.7%) followed by normal (33.3%), grade I (20.8%) and grade III (9.2%). Evaluating the ACR status, 19.2% were microalbuminuria, and the rest were normal. Though the ACR status (normal and microalbuminuria) was not statistically significant with HTN status (P=0.860) and the duration of HTN status (P=0.165), 5 (45.5%) out of 11 grade III HTN were microalbuminuria and the prevalence was also higher for longer duration .i.e., more than 10 years. In microalbuminuria, both the SBP (p=0.023, r=0.471) and DBP (P=0.034, r= 0.444) were strongly and positively correlated with Screat, in contrast to eGFR, which was negatively but weakly correlated. With the significant difference between the HTN group, the mean ACR (P=0.047) and UMA (P=0.02) were found to be highest among grade III patients, i.e., 84.3 ± 113.3 mg/gm. and 88.4 ± 83.9 mg/l respectively. The mean eGFR (64.2 ± 24.8 vs 77.2 ± 18.1 ml/min) was considerably lower in microalbuminuria ( p=0.026) than the normal in contrast to the SBP (160 ± 33.7 vs. 146.6 ± 19.5 mm of Hg) which was significantly higher (P=0.008). Among the different BMI category, the mean ACR was found to be significantly different (P= 0.01) with the highest value in underweight (115.2 ± 51.5 mg/gm.) and lowest in overweight (31.8 ± 4.3 mg/gm.). Conclusion: The study recommends that the microalbuminuria can be a very useful and imperative predictor of deranged kidney functions in hypertensive patients. The high value of ACR and UMA in hypertensive patients along with significant increased Screat, SBP whereas decreased eGFR in microalbuminuria patients explicitly supports the above statement.

Keywords: albumin creatinine ratio, hypertension, microalbuminuria, renal disease

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9 Separation of Urinary Proteins with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis in Patients with Secondary Nephropathies

Authors: Irena Kostovska, Katerina Tosheska Trajkovska, Svetlana Cekovska, Julijana Brezovska Kavrakova, Hristina Ampova, Sonja Topuzovska, Ognen Kostovski, Goce Spasovski, Danica Labudovic


Background: Proteinuria is an important feature of secondary nephropathies. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteinuria plays an important role in determining the types of proteinuria (glomerular, tubular and mixed), in the diagnosis and prognosis of secondary nephropathies. The damage of the glomerular basement membrane is responsible for a proteinuria characterized by the presence of large amounts of protein with high molecular weights such as albumin (69 kilo Daltons-kD), transferrin (78 kD) and immunoglobulin G (150 kD). An insufficiency of proximal tubular function is the cause of a proteinuria characterized by the presence of proteins with low molecular weight (LMW), such as retinol binding protein (21 kD) and α1-microglobulin (31 kD). In some renal diseases, a mixed glomerular and tubular proteinuria is frequently seen. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is the most widely used method of analyzing urine proteins for clinical purposes. The main aim of the study is to determine the type of proteinuria in the most common secondary nephropathies such as diabetic, hypertensive nephropathy and preeclampsia. Material and methods: In this study were included 90 subjects: subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n=30), subjects with hypertensive nephropahty (n=30) and pregnant women with preeclampsia (n=30). We divided all subjects according to UM/CR into three subgroups: macroalbuminuric (UM/CR >300 mg/g), microalbuminuric (UM/CR 30-300 mg/g) and normolabuminuric (UM/CR<30 mg/g). In all subjects, we measured microalbumin and creatinine in urine with standard biochemical methods. Separation of urinary proteins was performed by SDS-PAGE, in several stages: linear gel preparation (4-22%), treatment of urinary samples before their application on the gel, electrophoresis, gel fixation, coloring with Coomassie blue, and identification of the separated protein fractions based on standards with exactly known molecular weight. Results: According to urinary microalbumin/creatinin ratio in group of subject with diabetic nephropathy, nine patients were macroalbuminuric, while 21 subject were microalbuminuric. In group of subjects with hypertensive nephropathy, we found macroalbuminuria (n=4), microalbuminuria (n=20) and normoalbuminuria (n=6). All pregnant women with preeclampsia were macroalbuminuric. Electrophoretic separation of urinary proteins showed that in macroalbuminric patients with diabetic nephropathy 56% have mixed proteinuria, 22% have glomerular proteinuria and 22% have tubular proteinuria. In subgroup of subjects with diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria, 52% have glomerular proteinuria, 8% have tubular proteinuria, and 40% of subjects have normal electrophoretic findings. All patients with maroalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy have mixed proteinuria. In subgroup of patients with microalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy, we found: 32% with mixed proteinuria, 27% with normal findings, 23% with tubular, and 18% with glomerular proteinuria. In all normoalbuminruic patiens with hypertensive nephropathy, we detected normal electrophoretic findings. In group of subjects pregnant women with preeclampsia, we found: 81% with mixed proteinuria, 13% with glomerular, and 8% with tubular proteinuria. Conclusion: By SDS PAGE method, we detected that in patients with secondary nephropathies the most common type of proteinuria is mixed proteinuria, indicating both loss of glomerular permeability and tubular function. We can conclude that SDS PAGE is high sensitive method for detection of renal impairment in patients with secondary nephropathies.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, preeclampsia, hypertensive nephropathy, SDS PAGE

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8 Study of Silent Myocardial Ischemia in Type 2 Diabeic Males: Egyptian Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem, Yhea Kishik, Ali Hassan, Mohamed Abdelwahab


Introduction: Accelerated coronary and peripheral vascular atherosclerosis is one of the most common and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. A recent aspect of coronary artery disease in this condition is its silent nature. The aim of the work: Detection of the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) in Upper Egypt type 2 diabetic males and to select male diabetic population who should be screened for SMI. Patients and methods: 100 type 2 diabetic male patients with a negative history of angina or anginal equivalent symptoms and 30 healthy control were included. Full medical history and thorough clinical examination were done for all participants. Fasting and post prandial blood glucose level, lipid profile, (HbA1c), microalbuminuria, and C-reactive protein were done for all participants Resting ECG, trans-thoracic echocardiography, treadmill exercise ECG, myocardial perfusion imaging were done for all participants and patients positive for one or more NITs were subjected for coronary angiography. Results Twenty nine patients (29%) were positive for one or more NITs in the patients group compared to only one case (3.3%) in the controls. After coronary angiography, 20 patients were positive for significant coronary artery stenosis in the patients group, while it was refused to be done by the patient in the controls. There were statistical significant difference between the two groups regarding, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity, family history of DM and IHD with higher levels of microalbuminuria, C-reactive protein, total lipids in patient group versus controls According to coronary angiography, patients were subdivided into two subgroups, 20 positive for SMI (positive for coronary angiography) and 80 negative for SMI (negative for coronary angiography). No statistical difference regarding family history of DM and type of diabetic therapy was found between the two subgroups. Yet, smoking, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and family history of IHD were significantly higher in diabetics positive versus those negative for SMI. 90% of patients in subgroup positive for SMI had two or more cardiac risk factors while only two patients had one cardiac risk factor (10%). Uncontrolled DM was detected more in patients positive for SMI. Diabetic complications were more prevalent in patients positive for SMI versus those negative for SMI. Most of the patients positive for SMI have DM more than 5 years duration. Resting ECG and resting Echo detected only 6 and 11 cases, respectively, of the 20 positive cases in group positive for SMI compared to treadmill exercise ECG and myocardial perfusion imaging that detected 16 and 18 cases respectively, Conclusion: Type 2 diabetic male patients should be screened for detection of SMI when aged above 50 years old, diabetes duration is more than 5 years, presence of two or more cardiac risk factors and/or patients suffering from one or more of the chronic diabetic complications. CRP, is an important parameter for selection of type 2 diabetic male patients who should be screened for SMI. Non invasive cardiac tests are reliable for screening of SMI in these patients in our locality.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, Silent myocardial ischemia, Stress tests, type 2 DM

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7 Clinical Cases of Rare Types of 'Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young' Diabetes

Authors: Alla Ovsyannikova, Oksana Rymar, Elena Shakhtshneider, Mikhail Voevoda


In Siberia endocrinologists increasingly noted young patients with the course of diabetes mellitus differing from 1 and 2 types. Therefore we did a molecular genetic study for this group of patients to verify the monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus in them and researched the characteristics of this pathology. When confirming the monogenic form of diabetes, we performed a correction therapy for many patients (transfer from insulin to tablets), prevented specific complications, examined relatives and diagnosed their diabetes at the preclinical stage, revealed phenotypic characteristics of the pathology which led to the high significance of this work. Materials and Methods: We observed 5 patients (4 families). We diagnosed MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young) during the molecular genetic testing (direct automatic sequencing). All patients had a full clinical examination, blood samples for biochemical research, determination of C-peptide and TSH, antibodies to b-cells, microalbuminuria, abdominal ultrasound, heart and thyroid ultrasound, examination of ophthalmologist. Results: We diagnosed 3 rare types of MODY: two women had MODY8, one man – MODY6 and man and his mother - MODY12. Patients with types 8 and 12 had clinical features. Age of onset hyperglycemia ranged from 26 to 34 years. In a patient with MODY6 fasting hyperglycemia was detected during a routine examination. Clinical symptoms, complications were not diagnosed. The patient observes a diet. In the first patient MODY8 was detected during first pregnancy, she had itchy skin and mostly postprandial hyperglycemia. Upon examination we determined glycated hemoglobin 7.5%, retinopathy, non-proliferative stage, peripheral neuropathy. She uses a basic bolus insulin therapy. The second patient with MODY8 also had clinical manifestations of hyperglycemia (pruritus, thirst), postprandial hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy, a stage of microalbuminuria. The patient was diagnosed autoimmune thyroiditis. She used inhibitors of DPP-4. The patient with MODY12 had an aggressive course. In the detection of hyperglycemia he had complaints of visual impairment, intense headaches, leg cramps. The patient had a history of childhood convulsive seizures of non-epileptic genesis, without organic pathology, which themselves were stopped at the age of 12 years. When we diagnosed diabetes a patient was 28 years, he had hypertriglyceridemia, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery, proliferative retinopathy (lacerocoagulation). Diabetes and early myocardial infarction were observed in three cases in family. We prescribe therapy with sulfonylureas and SGLT-2 inhibitors with a positive effect. At the patient's mother diabetes began at a later age (30 years) and a less aggressive course was observed. She also has hypertriglyceridemia and uses oral hypoglycemic drugs. Conclusions: 1) When young patients with hyperglycemia have extrapancreatic pathologies and diabetic complications with a short duration of diabetes we can assume they have one of type of MODY diabetes. 2) In patients with monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus, the clinical manifestations of hyperglycemia in each succeeding generation are revealed at an earlier age. Research had increased our knowledge of the monogenic forms of diabetes. The reported study was supported by RSCF, research project No. 14-15-00496-P.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, MODY diabetes, monogenic forms, young patients

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6 Association Nephropathy and Hypertension in Diabetic Patients

Authors: Bahlous Afef, Bouzid Kahena, Bardkis Ahlem, Mrad Mehdi, Kalai Eya, Sonia Bahri, Abdelmoula Jaouida


Diabetic nephropathy is the first cause of chronic renal failure and hemodialysis use in several countries including Tunisia. The role of hypertension (HT) as major risk factor for nephropathy is undeniable. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between blood pressure and nephropathy in a population of diabetic type 2 recently discovered. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective study focused on 60 patients with type 2 diabetes recently discovered (<5 years). Each patient have benefited from: -a full clinical examination with measurement of blood pressure - exploring a blood-glucose control and renal function -urinary exploration with the determination of proteinuria microalbuminumie of 24 hours with a immunoturbidimetric method using Architect (ABBOTT CI 8200). Results and discussion: Hypertension was present in 46.7% of cases. Twenty patients, 35% of the study population showed nephropathy. Four of these patients (6.66% of cases) had proteinuria, while 16 (26.6% of patients) had microalbuminuria (> 30mg/24 hours). Systolic blood pressure was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the presence of nephropathy (139 +19.44) vs. for the group with normal renal function (128.65 +15.12 mmHg). Conclusion: The etiology of diabetic nephropathy is multifactorial. However, systolic blood pressure and glycemic control remains the major risk factors. Better glycemic control and treatment of hypertension allowed preventing and slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

Keywords: hypertension, nephropathy, hemodialysis, diabetes

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5 Relation of Urinary Microalbumin with Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Selected Male and Female Patients

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Howarh Humaira Ali, Ishrat Sultana


Long term irregularity in the glycemic state, especially in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c, is noted to be correlated with the development of microalbuminuria. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association of urinary microalbumin with HbA1c and with duration of diabetes mellitus in selected male and female T2DM patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a total of 70 patients, thirty-five each male and females with diagnosed T2DM, within the age group of 35-60 years. Biochemical parameters of urea, creatinine, urinary microalbumin, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and post- parendial blood glucose were determined by standard methods. Data was statistically examined by student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation. Results showed that comparison of healthy control subjects with both male and female T2DM patients depicted significantly elevated levels of all parameters in (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Comparison of duration of T2DM with the existence of urinary microalbumin was moderately significant (P < 0.05) when duration was less than 4 years, significant (P < 0.01) with duration of 4-6 years and markedly significant (P < 0.001) with duration of more than 6 years. It is concluded that in male and female T2DM patients, duration of DM as well as poor glycemic control, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c is significantly correlated with elevated levels of urinary microalbumin.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary microalbumin, T2DM, HbA1c

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4 Liquid Chromatography Microfluidics for Detection and Quantification of Urine Albumin Using Linear Regression Method

Authors: Patricia B. Cruz, Catrina Jean G. Valenzuela, Analyn N. Yumang


Nearly a hundred per million of the Filipino population is diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The early stage of CKD has no symptoms and can only be discovered once the patient undergoes urinalysis. Over the years, different methods were discovered and used for the quantification of the urinary albumin such as the immunochemical assays where most of these methods require large machinery that has a high cost in maintenance and resources, and a dipstick test which is yet to be proven and is still debated as a reliable method in detecting early stages of microalbuminuria. This research study involves the use of the liquid chromatography concept in microfluidic instruments with biosensor as a means of separation and detection respectively, and linear regression to quantify human urinary albumin. The researchers’ main objective was to create a miniature system that quantifies and detect patients’ urinary albumin while reducing the amount of volume used per five test samples. For this study, 30 urine samples of unknown albumin concentrations were tested using VITROS Analyzer and the microfluidic system for comparison. Based on the data shared by both methods, the actual vs. predicted regression were able to create a positive linear relationship with an R2 of 0.9995 and a linear equation of y = 1.09x + 0.07, indicating that the predicted values and actual values are approximately equal. Furthermore, the microfluidic instrument uses 75% less in total volume – sample and reagents combined, compared to the VITROS Analyzer per five test samples.

Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease, Linear Regression, Microfluidics, Urinary Albumin

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3 Role of Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Conditioned Media in Alleviating Kidney Injury via Inhibition of Renin-Angiotensin System in Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Pardis Abolghasemi, Benyamin Hatamsaz


Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a serious health problem described by specific kidney structure and functional disturbance. Renoprotective effects of the stem cells secretase have been shown in many kidney diseases. The aim is to evaluate the capability of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells conditioned media (hWJMSCs-CM) to alleviate DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Methods: Diabetic nephropathy was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, IP) in twenty rats. Conditioned media was extracted from hWJMSCs at third passages. At week 8, diabetic rats were divided into two groups: treated (hWJMSCs-CM, 500 μl/rat for three weeks, IP) and not treated (DN). In the 11th week, three groups (control, DN and DN+hWJMSCs-CM) were kept in metabolic cages and urine was collected for 24h. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. The serum samples were maintained for measuring BUN, Cr and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The left kidney was kept at -80°C for ACE activity assessment. The right kidney and pancreas were used for histopathologic evaluation. Result: Diabetic nephropathy was detected by microalbuminuria and increased albumin/creatinine ratio, as well as the pancreas and renal structural disturbance. Glomerular filtration rate, BP and HR increased in the DN group. The ACE activity was elevated in the serum and kidneys of the DN group. Administration of hWJMSCs-CM modulated the renal functional and structural disturbance and decreased the ACE activity. Conclusion: Conditioned media was extracted from hWJMSCs may have a Renoprotective effect in diabetic nephropathy. This may happen through regulation of ACE activity and renin-angiotensin system inhibition.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, mesenchymal stem cells, immunomodulation, anti-inflammation

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2 Study on Metabolic and Mineral Balance, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Different Therapy

Authors: E. Nemes-Nagy, E. Fogarasi, M. Croitoru, A. Nyárádi, K. Komlódi, S. Pál, A. Kovács, O. Kopácsy, R. Tripon, Z. Fazakas, C. Uzun, Z. Simon-Szabó, V. Balogh-Sămărghițan, E. Ernő Nagy, M. Szabó, M. Tilinca


Intense oxidative stress, increased glycated hemoglobin and mineral imbalance represent risk factors for complications in diabetic patients. Cardiovascular complications are most common in these patients, including nephropathy. This study was conducted in 2015 at the Procardia Laboratory in Tîrgu Mureș, Romania on 40 type 2 diabetic adults. Routine biochemical tests were performed on the Konleab 20XTi analyzer (serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, urea). We also measured serum uric acid, magnesium and calcium concentration by photometric procedures, potassium, sodium and chloride by ion selective electrode, and chromium by atomic absorption spectrometry in a group of patients. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) dosage was made by reflectometry. Urine analysis was performed using the HandUReader equipment. The level of oxidative stress was measured by serum malondialdehyde dosage using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) formula was applied for calculation of creatinine-derived glomerular filtration rate. GraphPad InStat software was used for statistical analysis of the data. The diabetic subject included in the study presented high MDA concentrations, showing intense oxidative stress. Calcium was deficient in 5% of the patients, chromium deficiency was present in 28%. The atherogenic cholesterol fraction was elevated in 13% of the patients. Positive correlation was found between creatinine and MDRD-creatinine values (p<0.0001), 68% of the patients presented increased creatinine values. The majority of the diabetic patients had good control of their diabetes, having optimal HbA1c values, 35% of them presented fasting serum glucose over 120 mg/dl and 18% had glucosuria. Intense oxidative stress and mineral deficiencies can increase the risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients in spite of their good metabolic balance. More than two third of the patients present biochemical signs of nephropathy, cystatin C dosage and microalbuminuria could reveal better the kidney disorder, but glomerular filtration rate calculation formulas are also useful for evaluation of renal function.

Keywords: cardiovascular risk, homocysteine, malondialdehyde, metformin, minerals, type 2 diabetes, vitamin B12

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1 Diabetic Screening in Rural Lesotho, Southern Africa

Authors: Marie-Helena Docherty, Sion Edryd Williams


The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, type 2 diabetes represents over 90% of all types of diabetes with the number of diabetic patients expected to rise. This represents a huge economic burden in an area already contending with high rates of other significant diseases, including the highest worldwide prevalence of HIV. Diabetic complications considerably impact on morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological data for the region quotes high rates of retinopathy (7-63%), neuropathy (27-66%) and microalbuminuria (10-83%). It is therefore imperative that diabetic screening programmes are established. It is recognised that in many parts of the developing world the implementation and management of such programmes is limited by a lack of available resources. The International Diabetes Federation produced guidelines in 2012 taking these limitations into account suggesting that all diabetic patients should have access to basic screening. These guidelines are consistent with the national diabetic guidelines produced by the Lesotho Medical Council. However, diabetic care in Lesotho is delivered at the local level, with variable levels of quality. A cross sectional study was performed in the outpatient department of Maluti Hospital in Mapoteng, Lesotho, a busy rural hospital in the Berea district. Demographic data on gender, age and modality of treatment were collected over a six-week time period. Information regarding 3 basic screening parameters was obtained. These parameters included eye screening (defined as a documented ophthalmology review within the last 12 months), foot screening (defined as a documented foot health assessment by any health care professional within the last 12 months) and secondary prevention (defined as a documented blood pressure and lipid profile reading within the last 12 months). These parameters were selected on the basis of the absolute minimum level of resources in Maluti Hospital. Renal screening was excluded, as the hospital does not have access to reliable renal profile checks or urinalysis. There is however a fully functioning on-site ophthalmology department run by a senior ophthalmologist with the ability to provide retinal photography, retinal surgery and photocoagulation therapy. Data was collected on 183 type 2 diabetics. 112 patients were male and 71 were female. The average age was 43 years. 4 patients were diet controlled, 140 patients were on oral hypoglycaemic agents (metformin and/or glibenclamide), and 39 patients were on a combination of insulin and oral hypoglycaemics. In the preceding 12 months, 5 patients had undergone eye screening (3%), 24 patients had undergone foot screening (13%), and 31 patients had lipid profile testing (17%). All patients had a documented blood pressure reading (100%). Our results show that screening is poorly performed in the basic indicators suggested by the IDF and the Lesotho Medical Council. On the basis of these results, a screening programme was developed using the mnemonic SaFE; secondary prevention, foot and eye care. This is simple, memorable and transferable between healthcare professionals. In the future, the expectation would be to expand upon this current programme to include renal screening, and to further develop screening pertaining to secondary prevention.

Keywords: Africa, complications, rural, screening

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