Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Minas Balyan

31 The Mandaya Woman: Her Role as Balyan (Priestess) and Magdadawot (Bard)

Authors: Genevieve Jorolan-Quintero

Abstract:

After the devastation caused by typhoon Haiyan in the southeastern part of the Philippines in 2012, there was this intense need among the indigenous communities to ‘reconcile’ with nature. The belief that the deluge, which claimed thousands of lives, was caused by the destruction of the environment because of humanities’ greed and carelessness was widespread and strong. The rift had to be mended. Nature had to be appeased. For this, the balyan (priestess) was called in to perform a ritual. Only she can communicate with the spirits. The communities depend on her spiritual intervention as she alone has the power to invoke the spirits of nature. Among the indigenous people, the balyan is most often also a magdadawot (bard) who possesses the knowledge especially about the folk epics and the skill to chant them. The balyan is the communities’ repository of knowledge. When one passes away, a whole library of tribal knowledge and wisdom is lost. The oral traditions embody the life values, ideals, customs, and even the history of the First Nations People. These include the myths, epics, legends, riddles, and songs. The indigenous system is patriarchal, but is actually indirectly matriarchal reflecting the authority of the woman. Disputes within the community are heard and tried by the Council of Elders. However, the balyan is often consulted for her opinion. Her advice is deemed significant and most often necessary. These are three instances that highlight the significant role of the balyan among the indigenous communities in the Philippines, especially among the Mandaya tribe who live in the southern region of the country. This paper highlights the unique kind of leadership of the Mandaya woman – as priestess and bard - and her impact on the lives of her people.

Keywords: balyan, bard, magdadawot, mandaya

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30 Portuguese Influence on Minas Gerais Dessert Culinary During Brazil Colonization Period

Authors: Silvania M. P. Silva, Ricardo A. Mazaro, Gemilde M. Queiroz, Josefa Barbosa, Lucas S. Victorino, Grasiela J. Silva

Abstract:

The Minas Gerais sweets have a remarkable personality, perceived on the original usage of fruits, sweets, and cheeses in the Brazilian gastronomic landscape, as a unique representation of Minas Gerais. This memory-related and feeling-oriented food is one of the treasures common to all Brazilians. It is mandatory to mention its Portuguese roots for the use of honey, as well as sugar cane and its countless possibilities. This work will show that this heritage is predominantly Portuguese, born in Portuguese convents and that it crossed the Atlantic. Through a historical survey, visits to mining towns known for their sweet culture and material collected in these places, we present the protagonists of this journey of flavors: the Portuguese cake makers (boleiras), who brought the knowledge, ingredients, and the dream of a better life in the crowded mines of gold and opportunities, helping to form a new Minas Gerais knowledge with their delicacies.

Keywords: sweets from portugal, convent sweets, minas gerais, brazil

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
29 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction 'Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect'

Authors: Minas Balyan

Abstract:

Nowadays X-ray nonlinear diffraction and nonlinear effects are investigated due to the presence of the third generation synchrotron sources and XFELs. X-ray third order nonlinear dynamical diffraction is considered as well. Using the nonlinear model of the usual visible light optics the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses are obtained by the author in previous papers. The obtained equations show, that even if the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero (forbidden reflection), the dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus, in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well-known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the 'third order nonlinear Renninger effect' is considered theoretically.

Keywords: Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Takagi’s equations, nonlinear Renninger effect, third order nonlinearity

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28 Modernization and Modernity: The Professional Education Concept in the Political Discourse of the Legislative Congress of Minas Gerais (1892-1930)

Authors: Milene Magalhães Pinto, Irlen Antônio Gonçalves

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The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the historical processes of organization and reform of professional education contributed with the educational projects for the training/education starting from the idea of modernization of Brazil by way of industry and skilled worker. In the discourse of Congress Legislative of Minas Gerais is possible to identify the role of education as a mediating body of construction processes and rationalization modernizing of the country. The hypothesis is that education is an important instrument for promoting progress and citizenship and the way to form the professional who would serve the social and economic purposes of modernization of Brazil in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In this sense, we investigate the relationship of the concept of professional education with the ideas of modernization and modernity.

Keywords: education, modernization and education, legislative congress of Minas Gerais, professional education

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27 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction Rocking Curves in Case of Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect

Authors: Minas Balyan

Abstract:

In the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and in the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses for forbidden reflections the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero. The dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the ‘third order nonlinear Renninger effect’ is considered theoretically and numerically. If the reflection exactly is forbidden the diffracted wave’s amplitude is zero both in Laue and Bragg cases since the boundary conditions and dynamical diffraction equations are compatible with zero solution. But in real crystals due to some percent of dislocations and other localized defects, the atoms are displaced with respect to their equilibrium positions. Thus in real crystals susceptibilities of forbidden reflection are by some order small than for usual not forbidden reflections but are not exactly equal to zero. The numerical calculations for susceptibilities two order less than for not forbidden reflection show that in Bragg geometry case the nonlinear reflection curve’s behavior is the same as for not forbidden reflection, but for forbidden reflection the rocking curves’ width, center and boundaries are two order sensitive on the input intensity value. This gives an opportunity to investigate third order nonlinear X-ray dynamical diffraction for not intense beams – 0.001 in the units of critical intensity.

Keywords: third order nonlinearity, Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Renninger effect, rocking curves

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26 The Use of Microbiological Methods to Reduce Aflatoxin M1 in Cheese

Authors: Bruna Goncalves, Jennifer Henck, Romulo Uliana, Eliana Kamimura, Carlos Oliveira, Carlos Corassin

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Studies have shown evidence of human exposure to aflatoxin M1 due to the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products (mainly cheeses). This poses a great risk to public health, since milk and milk products are frequently consumed by a portion of the population considered immunosuppressed, children and the elderly. Knowledge of the negative impacts of aflatoxins on health and economics has led to investigations of strategies to prevent their formation in food, as well as to eliminate, inactivate or reduce the bioavailability of these toxins in contaminated products This study evaluated the effect of microbiological methods using lactic acid bacteria on aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) reduction in Minas Frescal cheese (typical Brazilian product, being among the most consumed cheeses in Brazil) spiked with 1 µg/L AFM1. Inactivated lactic acid bacteria (0,5%, v/v de L. rhamnosus e L. lactis) were added during the cheese production process. Nine cheeses were produced, divided into three treatments: negative controls (without AFM1 or lactic acid bacteria), positive controls (AFM1 only), and lactic acid bacteria + AFM1. Samples of cheese were collected on days 2, 10, 20 and 30 after the date of production and submitted to composition analyses and determination of AFM1 by high-performance liquid chromatography. The reductions of AFM1 in cheese by lactic acid bacteria at the end of the trial indicate a potential application of inactivated lactic acid bacteria in reducing the bioavailability of AFM1 in Minas frescal cheese without physical-chemical and microbiological modifications during the 30-day experimental period. The authors would like to thank São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP (grants #2017/20081-6 and #2017/19683-1).

Keywords: aflatoxin, milk, minas frescal cheese, decontamination

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25 Isoflavone and Mineral Content in Conventional Commercial Soybean Cultivars and Transgenic Soybean Planted in Minas Gerais, Brazil

Authors: Renata Adriana Labanca, Gabriela Rezende Costa, Nilton de Oliveira Couto e Silva, José Marcos Gontijo Mandarino, Rodrigo Santos Leite, Nilson César Castanheira Guimarães, Roberto Gonçalves Junqueira

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in composition between six brands of conventional soybean and six genetically modified cultivars (GM), all of them from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We focused on the isoflavones profile and mineral content questioning the substantial equivalence between conventional and GM organisms. The statement of compliance label for conventional grains was verified for the presence of genetic modified genes by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We did not detect the presence of the 35S promoter in commercial samples, indicating the absence of transgene insertion. For mineral analysis, we used the method of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Isoflavones quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed no statistical difference between the conventional and transgenic soybean groups concerning isoflavone content and mineral composition. The concentration of potassium, the main mineral component of soy, was the highest in conventional soybeans compared to that in GM soy, while GM samples presented the highest concentrations of iron.

Keywords: glycine max, genetically modified organism, bioactive compounds, ICP-OES, HPLC

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24 Mathematical Reconstruction of an Object Image Using X-Ray Interferometric Fourier Holography Method

Authors: M. K. Balyan

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The main principles of X-ray Fourier interferometric holography method are discussed. The object image is reconstructed by the mathematical method of Fourier transformation. The three methods are presented – method of approximation, iteration method and step by step method. As an example the complex amplitude transmission coefficient reconstruction of a beryllium wire is considered. The results reconstructed by three presented methods are compared. The best results are obtained by means of step by step method.

Keywords: dynamical diffraction, hologram, object image, X-ray holography

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23 Advanced Analysis on Dissemination of Pollutant Caused by Flaring System Effect Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Fluent Model with WRF Model Input in Transition Season

Authors: Benedictus Asriparusa

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In the area of the oil industry, there is accompanied by associated natural gas. The thing shows that a large amount of energy is being wasted mostly in the developing countries by contributing to the global warming process. This research represents an overview of methods in Minas area employed by these researchers in PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia to determine ways of measuring and reducing gas flaring and its emission drastically. It provides an approximation includes analytical studies, numerical studies, modeling, computer simulations, etc. Flaring system is the controlled burning of natural gas in the course of routine oil and gas production operations. This burning occurs at the end of a flare stack or boom. The combustion process will release emissions of greenhouse gases such as NO2, CO2, SO2, etc. This condition will affect the air and environment around the industrial area. Therefore, we need a simulation to create the pattern of the dissemination of pollutant. This research paper has being made to see trends in gas flaring model and current developments to predict dominant variable which gives impact to dissemination of pollutant. Fluent models used to simulate the distribution of pollutant gas coming out of the stack. While WRF model output is used to overcome the limitations of the analysis of meteorological data and atmospheric conditions in the study area. This study condition focused on transition season in 2012 at Minas area. The goal of the simulation is looking for the exact time which is most influence towards dissemination of pollutants. The most influence factor divided into two main subjects. It is the quickest wind and the slowest wind. According to the simulation results, it can be seen that quickest wind moves to horizontal way and slowest wind moves to vertical way.

Keywords: flaring system, fluent model, dissemination of pollutant, transition season

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22 “It Isn’t a State Problem”: The Minas Conga Mine Controversy and Exemplifying the Need for Binding International Obligations on Corporate Actors

Authors: Cindy Woods

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After years of implacable neoliberal globalization, multinational corporations have moved from the periphery to the center of the international legal agenda. Human rights advocates have long called for greater corporate accountability in the international arena. The creation of the Global Compact in 2000, while aimed at fostering greater corporate respect for human rights, did not silence these calls. After multiple unsuccessful attempts to adopt a set of norms relating to the human rights responsibilities of transnational corporations, the United Nations succeeded in 2008 with the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (Guiding Principles). The Guiding Principles, praised by some within the international human rights community for their recognition of an individual corporate responsibility to respect human rights, have not escaped their share of criticism. Many view the Guiding Principles to be toothless, failing to directly impose obligations upon corporations, and call for binding international obligations on corporate entities. After decades of attempting to promulgate human rights obligations for multinational corporations, the existing legal frameworks in place fall short of protecting individuals from the human rights abuses of multinational corporations. The Global Compact and Guiding Principles are proof of the United Nations’ unwillingness to impose international legal obligations on corporate actors. In June 2014, the Human Rights Council adopted a resolution to draft international legally binding human rights norms for business entities; however, key players in the international arena have already announced they will not cooperate with such efforts. This Note, through an overview of the existing corporate accountability frameworks and a study of Newmont Mining’s Minas Conga project in Peru, argues that binding international human rights obligations on corporations are necessary to fully protect human rights. Where states refuse to or simply cannot uphold their duty to protect individuals from transnational businesses’ human rights transgressions, there must exist mechanisms to pursue justice directly against the multinational corporation.

Keywords: business and human rights, Latin America, international treaty on business and human rights, mining, human rights

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21 The Influence of Republican Culture in the Professional Education Reforms in Brazil (1892-1930)

Authors: Milene Magalhães Pinto, Irlen Antônio Gonçalves

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This paper is within the area of History of Education in Brazil, having a descriptive and exploratory nature. It has been built on the belief that professional education is organized under political guidelines and solidifies through institutionalized discourses, allowing to know its mission concerning the society in which it operates by studying these speeches. Our purpose is to analyze how the Republican political culture yielded changes in public education through reforms to professional education in the First Republic, based on seven procedures of law that occurred in the Legislature of State of Minas Gerais. The Republican effort to reform the teaching was the result of a conception of society that aspired to advance the country by way of the national worker.

Keywords: professional education, republican political culture, education reforms, Brazil

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20 Culture Medium Design Based on Whey for the Growth and Bacteriocin Production of Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus

Authors: Carolina Gutierrez-Cortes, Hector Suarez, Gustavo Buitrago

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Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a competitive strategy for substrate and habitat. Those peptides have a potential use as food biopreservatives due to their antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, avoiding the use of additives that can be harmful to consumers. The industrial production of bacteriocins is currently expensive; one of the options to be competitive is the development of economic culture media, for example, with the use of agro-industrial wastes such as whey. This study evaluated the growth and production of bacteriocins from four strains: Pediococcus pentosaceus 63, Pediococcus pentosaceus 145, Pediococcus pentosaceus 146 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 147 isolated from ‘minas cheese’ (artisanal cheese made from raw milk in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) in order to select a strain with growth at high rates and higher antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes 104 after incubation on the culture medium designed with whey and other components. The media used were: MRS broth, modified MRS broth (using different sources of carbon and nitrogen and different amounts of micronutrients) and a culture medium designed by a factorial design using whey and other components. The final biomass concentrations of the four strains in MRS broth after 24 hours of incubation were very similar 9.25, 9.33, 9.25 and 9.22 (log CFU/mL) for P. pentosaceus 63, P. pentosaceus 145, P. pentosaceus 146 and P. pentosaceus 147 respectively. In the same assays, antimicrobial activity of 3200 AU/mL for the first three and of 12800 AU/mL for P. pentosaceus 147 were obtained. Culture of P. pentosaceus 63 on modified MRS broth, showed the effect of some sources of carbon on the activity of bacteriocin, obtaining 12800 AU/mL with dextrose and 25600 AU/mL with maltose. Cultures of P. pentosaceus 145, 146 and 147 with these same sugars presented activity of 12800 AU/mL. It was observed that the modified MRS medium using whey increased the antimicrobial activity of the strains at 16000, 6400, 16000 and 19200 AU/mL for each strain respectively, keeping the biomass at values close to 9 log units. About nitrogen sources, it was observed that the combination of peptone (10 g /L), meat extract (10 g/L) and yeast extract (5 g/L) promoted the highest activity (12800 AU/mL), and in all cases MgSO4, MnSO4, K2HPO4 and ammonium citrate at low concentrations adversely affected bacteriocin production. Because P. pentosaceus 147 showed the highest antimicrobial activity in the presence of whey, it was used to evaluate the culture medium (peptone (10 g/L), meat extract (8 g/L), yeast extract (2 g/L), Tween® 80 (1 g/L), ammonium citrate (2 g/L), sodium acetate (5 g/L), MgSO4 (0.2 g/L), MnSO4 (0.04 g/L)). With the designed medium added with whey, 9.34 log units of biomass concentration and 19200 AU/mL were achieved for P. pentosaceus 147. The above suggest that the new medium promotes the antimicrobial activity of P. pentosaceus 147 allowing the use of an economic medium using whey.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bacteriocins, pediococcus, whey

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19 Detecting Logical Errors in Haskell

Authors: Vanessa Vasconcelos, Mariza A. S. Bigonha

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In order to facilitate both processes, this paper presents HaskellFL, a tool that uses fault localization techniques to locate a logical error in Haskell code. The Haskell subset used in this work is sufficiently expressive for those studying functional programming to get immediate help debugging their code and to answer questions about key concepts associated with the functional paradigm. HaskellFL was tested against functional programming assignments submitted by students enrolled at the functional programming class at the Federal University of Minas Gerais and against exercises from the Exercism Haskell track that are publicly available on GitHub. Furthermore, the EXAM score was chosen to evaluate the tool’s effectiveness, and results showed that HaskellFL reduced the effort needed to locate an error for all tested scenarios. Results also showed that the Ochiai method was more effective than Tarantula.

Keywords: debug, fault localization, functional programming, Haskell

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18 The Use of Piezocone Penetration Test Data for the Assessment of Iron Ore Tailings Liquefaction Susceptibility

Authors: Breno M. Castilho

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The Iron Ore Quadrangle, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is responsible for most of the country’s iron ore production. As a result, some of the biggest tailings dams in the country are located in this area. In recent years, several major failure events have happened in Tailings Storage Facilities (TSF) located in the Iron Ore Quadrangle. Some of these failures were found to be caused by liquefaction flowslides. This paper presents Piezocone Penetration Test (CPTu) data that was used, by applying Olson and Peterson methods, for the liquefaction susceptibility assessment of the iron ore tailings that are typically found in most TSF in the area. Piezocone data was also used to determine the steady-state strength of the tailings so as to allow for comparison with its drained strength. Results have shown great susceptibility for liquefaction to occur in the studied tailings and, more importantly, a large reduction in its strength. These results are key to understanding the failures that took place over the last few years.

Keywords: Piezocone Penetration Test CPTu, iron ore tailings, mining, liquefaction susceptibility assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
17 Analysis of Energy Efficiency Behavior with the Use of Train Dynamics Simulator and Statistical Tools: Case Study of Vitoria Minas Railway, Brazil

Authors: Eric Wilson Santos Cabral, Marta Monteiro Da Costa Cruz, Fabio Luis Maciel Machado, Henrique Andrade, Rodrigo Pirola Pestana, Vivian Andrea Parreira

Abstract:

The large variation in the price of diesel in Brazil directly affects the variable cost of companies operating in the transportation sector. In rail transport, the great challenge is to overcome the annual budget, cargo and ore transported with cost reduction in relation to previous years, becoming more efficient every year. Some effective measures are necessary to achieve the reduction of the liter ratio consumed by KTKB (Gross Ton per Kilometer multiplied by thousand). This acronym represents the indicator of energy efficiency of some railroads in the world. This study is divided into two parts: the first, to identify using statistical tools, part of the controlled variables in the railways, which have a correlation with the energy efficiency indicator, seeking to aid decision-making. The second, with the use of the train dynamics simulator, within scenarios defined in the operational reality of a railroad, seeks to optimize the train formations and the train stop model for the change of train drivers. With the completion of the study, companies in the rail sector are expected to be able to reduce some of their transportation costs.

Keywords: railway transport, railway simulation, energy efficiency, fuel consumption

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16 From Bureaucracy to Organizational Learning Model: An Organizational Change Process Study

Authors: Vania Helena Tonussi Vidal, Ester Eliane Jeunon

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This article aims to analyze the change processes of management related bureaucracy and learning organization model. The theoretical framework was based on Beer and Nohria (2001) model, identified as E and O Theory. Based on this theory the empirical research was conducted in connection with six key dimensions: goal, leadership, focus, process, reward systems and consulting. We used a case study of an educational Institution located in Barbacena, Minas Gerais. This traditional center of technical knowledge for long time adopted the bureaucratic way of management. After many changes in a business model, as the creation of graduate and undergraduate courses they decided to make a deep change in management model that is our research focus. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with director, managers and courses supervisors. The analysis were processed by the procedures of Collective Subject Discourse (CSD) method, develop by Lefèvre & Lefèvre (2000), Results showed the incremental growing of management model toward a learning organization. Many impacts could be seeing. As negative factors we have: people resistance; poor information about the planning and implementation process; old politics inside the new model and so on. Positive impacts are: new procedures in human resources, mainly related to manager skills and empowerment; structure downsizing, open discussions channel; integrated information system. The process is still under construction and now great stimulus is done to managers and employee commitment in the process.

Keywords: bureaucracy, organizational learning, organizational change, E and O theory

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15 Productivity, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)

Authors: Maira C. M. Fonseca, Maria Aparecida N. Sediyama, Rosana Goncalves R. das Dores, Sanzio Mollica Vidigal, Alberto C. P. Dias

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Among Brazilian plant diversity, many species are used as food and considered minor crops (non-conventional plant foods) (NCPF). Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) is a NCPF from which starch is extracted from rhizome do not have gluten. Thus, arrowroot flower starch can be consumed by celiac people. Additional, some medicinal and functional proprieties are assigned to arrowroot leaves which currently are underutilized. In Brazil, it’s cultivated mainly by small scale farmers and there is no specific recommendation for fertilization. This work aimed to determinate the best fertilization for rhizome production and to verify its influence in phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts. Two arrowroot varieties, “Common” and “Seta”, were cultivated in organic system at state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using cattle manure with three levels of nitrogen (N) (0, 300 and 900 kg N ha-1). The experiment design was in randomized block with four replicates. The highest production of rhizomes in both varieties, “Common” (38198.24 kg ha-1) and “Seta” (43567.71 kg ha-1), were obtained with the use of 300 kg N ha-1. With this fertilization, the total aerial part, petiole and leaf production in the varieties were respectively: “Common” (190.312 kg ha-1; 159.312 kg ha-1; 31.100 kg ha-1) and “Seta” (207.656 kg ha-1; 180.539 kg ha-1; 27.062 kg ha-1). Methanolic leaf extracts were analysed by HPLC-DAD. The major phenolic compounds found were caffeioylquinic acids, p-coumaric derivatives and flavonoids. In general, the production of these compounds significantly decreases with the increase levels of nitrogen (900 kg N ha-1). With 300 kg N ha-1 the phenolic production was similar to control. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH method and was detected around 60% of radical scavenging when 0.1 mg/mL of plant extracts were used. We concluded that fertilization with 300 kg N ha-1 increased arrowroot rhizome production, maintaining phenolic compounds yield at leaves.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, non-conventional plants, organic fertilization, phenolic compounds

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14 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Rabies Incidence in Herbivores of Economic Interest in Brazil

Authors: Francisco Miroslav Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Gina Polo, Ricardo Augusto Dias

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In Brazil, there is a high incidence of rabies in herbivores of economic interest (HEI) transmitted by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, the presence of human rabies cases and the huge economic losses in the world's largest cattle industry, it is important to assist the National Program for Control of Rabies in herbivores in Brazil, that aims to reduce the incidence of rabies in HEI populations, mainly through epidemiological surveillance, vaccination of herbivores and control of vampire-bat roosts. Material and Methods: A spatiotemporal retrospective Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic based on a Poisson model and Monte Carlo simulation and an Anselin's Local Moran's I statistic were used to uncover spatial clustering of HEI rabies from 2000 – 2014. Results: Were identify three important clusters with significant year-to-year variation (Figure 1). In 2000, was identified one area of clustering in the North region, specifically in the State of Tocantins. Between the year 2000 and 2004, a cluster centered in the Midwest and Southeast region including the States of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo and São Paulo was prominent. And finally between 2000 and 2005 was found an important cluster in the North, Midwest and South region. Conclusions: The HEI rabies is endemic in the country, in addition, appears to be significant differences among the States according to their surveillance services, that may be difficulting the control of the disease, also other factors could be influencing in the maintenance of this problem like the lack of information of vampire-bat roosts identification, and limited human resources for realization of field monitoring. A review of the program control by the authorities it’s necessary.

Keywords: Brazil, Desmodus rotundus, herbivores, rabies

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13 Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG)

Authors: María González Alriols, Itziar Egües, María A. Andrés, Mirari Antxustegi

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Several collaborative learning proposals were prepared to be applied in the laboratory sessions of chemistry in the first course of engineering studies. The aim was to engage the students from the beginning and to avoid absenteeism as well as to reach a more homogeneous level in the class. The students, divided into small groups of four or five mates, were asked to do an exercise before having the practical session in the lab. Precisely, each one of the groups was asked to study the theoretical fundamentals and the practical aspects of one lab session and to prepare a didactical video with this content, including the materials, equipment and reactants required, and the detailed experimental procedure. Furthermore, they should include the performance of the experiment step by step, indicating the faced difficulties and the obtained results and conclusions. After watching the video of this precise activity, the other groups of students would go to the lab to put into practice the session following the commands explained in the video. The evaluation of the video activity that is worth the 50% of the total mark of the laboratory sessions, is done depending on the success that the other groups of students had while doing the practical session that was explained in the video. This means that the successful transmission of knowledge to the rest of the mates in the class through the video was compulsory to pass the practical sessions and the subject. The other 50% of the mark depended on the understanding of the other students’ explanations and the success in the corresponding practical sessions. The experience was found to be very positive, as the engagement level was considerably higher, the absenteeism lower and the attitude in the laboratory much more responsible. The materials, reactants and equipment were used carefully, and no incidents were registered. Furthermore, the fact of having peer experts was useful to encourage critical thinking in a more relaxed way, with the teacher figure in a secondary position. Finally, the academic achievements were satisfactory as well, with a high percentage of students over the level required for passing the subject.

Keywords: collaborative learning, engineering instruction, chemistry, laboratory sessions

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12 Variability of Energy Efficiency with the Application of Technologies Embedded in Locomotives of a Heavy Haul Railway: Case Study of Vitoria Minas Railway, Brazil

Authors: Eric Wilson Santos Cabral, Marta Monteiro Da Costa Cruz, Rodrigo Pirola Pestana, Vivian Andréa Parreira

Abstract:

In the transportation sector in Brazil, there is a great challenge that is the maintenance of profit in the face of the great variation in the price of diesel. This directly affects the variable cost of transport companies. Within the railways, part of the great challenges is to overcome the annual budget, cargo and ore transported, thus reducing costs compared to previous years, becoming more efficient each year. Within this scenario, the railway companies are looking for effective measures, aiming at reducing the ratio of liter of diesel consumed by KTKB (Kilometer Gross Ton multiplied by thousand). This ratio represents the indicator of energy efficiency of some railroads in Brazil and in other countries. In this study, we sought to analyze the behavior of the energy efficiency indicator on two parts: The first, with the application of technologies used in locomotives, such as the start-stop system of the diesel engine and the system of tracking and monitoring of fuel. The second, evaluation of the behavior of the variation of the type of cargo transported (loading mix). The study focused on locomotive technology will be carried out using statistical analysis, behavioral evaluation in different operating conditions, such as maneuvers for trains, service trains and freight trains. The analysis will also cover the evaluation of the loading mix made using statistical analysis of the existing railroad database, comparing the energy efficiency per loading mine and type of product. With the completion of this study, the railway undertakings should be able to better target decision-making in order to achieve substantial reductions in transport costs.

Keywords: railway transport, energy efficiency, railway technology, fuel consumption

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11 A Genre-Based Approach to the Teaching of Pronunciation

Authors: Marden Silva, Danielle Guerra

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Some studies have indicated that pronunciation teaching hasn’t been paid enough attention by teachers regarding EFL contexts. In particular, segmental and suprasegmental features through genre-based approach may be an opportunity on how to integrate pronunciation into a more meaningful learning practice. Therefore, the aim of this project was to carry out a survey on some aspects related to English pronunciation that Brazilian students consider more difficult to learn, thus enabling the discussion of strategies that can facilitate the development of oral skills in English classes by integrating the teaching of phonetic-phonological aspects into the genre-based approach. Notions of intelligibility, fluency and accuracy were proposed by some authors as an ideal didactic sequence. According to their proposals, basic learners should be exposed to activities focused on the notion of intelligibility as well as intermediate students to the notion of fluency, and finally more advanced ones to accuracy practices. In order to test this hypothesis, data collection was conducted during three high school English classes at Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), in Brazil, through questionnaires and didactic activities, which were recorded and transcribed for further analysis. The genre debate was chosen to facilitate the oral expression of the participants in a freer way, making them answering questions and giving their opinion about a previously selected topic. The findings indicated that basic students demonstrated more difficulty with aspects of English pronunciation than the others. Many of the intelligibility aspects analyzed had to be listened more than once for a better understanding. For intermediate students, the speeches recorded were considerably easier to understand, but nevertheless they found it more difficult to pronounce the words fluently, often interrupting their speech to think about what they were going to say and how they would talk. Lastly, more advanced learners seemed to express their ideas more fluently, but still subtle errors related to accuracy were perceptible in speech, thereby confirming the proposed hypothesis. It was also seen that using genre-based approach to promote oral communication in English classes might be a relevant method, considering the socio-communicative function inherent in the suggested approach.

Keywords: EFL, genre-based approach, oral skills, pronunciation

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10 Maintenance of Non-Crop Plants Reduces Insect Pest Population in Tropical Chili Pepper Agroecosystems

Authors: Madelaine Venzon, Dany S. S. L. Amaral, André L. Perez, Natália S. Diaz, Juliana A. Martinez Chiguachi, Maira C. M. Fonseca, James D. Harwood, Angelo Pallini

Abstract:

Integrating strategies of sustainable crop production and promoting the provisioning of ecological services on farms and within rural landscapes is a challenge for today’s agriculture. Habitat management, through increasing vegetational diversity, enhances heterogeneity in agroecosystems and has the potential to improve the recruitment of natural enemies of pests, which promotes biological control services. In tropical agroecosystems, however, there is a paucity of information pertaining to the resources provided by associated plants and their interactions with natural enemies. The maintenance of non-crop plants integrated into and/or surrounding crop fields provides the farmer with a low-investment option to enhance biological control. We carried out field experiments in chili pepper agroecosystems with small stakeholders located in the Zona da Mata, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2011 to 2015 where we assessed: (a) whether non-crop plants within and around chili pepper fields affect the diversity and abundance of aphidophagous species; (b) whether there are direct interactions between non-crop plants and aphidophagous arthropods; and (c) the importance of non-crop plant resources for survival of Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae species. Aphidophagous arthropods were dominated by Coccinellidae, Neuroptera, Syrphidae, Anthocoridae and Araneae. These natural enemies were readily observed preying on aphids, feeding on flowers or extrafloral nectaries and using plant structures for oviposition and/or protection. Aphid populations were lower on chili pepper fields associated with non-crop plants that on chili pepper monocultures. Survival of larvae and adults of different species of Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae on non-crop resources varied according to the plant species. This research provides evidence that non-crop plants in chili pepper agroecosystems can affect aphid abundance and their natural enemy abundance and survival. It is also highlighting the need for further research to fully characterize the structure and function of plant resources in these and other tropical agroecosystems. Financial support: CNPq, FAPEMIG and CAPES (Brazil).

Keywords: Conservation biological control, aphididae, Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, plant diversification

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9 A Prediction Method of Pollutants Distribution Pattern: Flare Motion Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Fluent Model with Weather Research Forecast Input Model during Transition Season

Authors: Benedictus Asriparusa, Lathifah Al Hakimi, Aulia Husada

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A large amount of energy is being wasted by the release of natural gas associated with the oil industry. This release interrupts the environment particularly atmosphere layer condition globally which contributes to global warming impact. This research presents an overview of the methods employed by researchers in PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia in the Minas area to determine a new prediction method of measuring and reducing gas flaring and its emission. The method emphasizes advanced research which involved analytical studies, numerical studies, modeling, and computer simulations, amongst other techniques. A flaring system is the controlled burning of natural gas in the course of routine oil and gas production operations. This burning occurs at the end of a flare stack or boom. The combustion process releases emissions of greenhouse gases such as NO2, CO2, SO2, etc. This condition will affect the chemical composition of air and environment around the boundary layer mainly during transition season. Transition season in Indonesia is absolutely very difficult condition to predict its pattern caused by the difference of two air mass conditions. This paper research focused on transition season in 2013. A simulation to create the new pattern of the pollutants distribution is needed. This paper has outlines trends in gas flaring modeling and current developments to predict the dominant variables in the pollutants distribution. A Fluent model is used to simulate the distribution of pollutants gas coming out of the stack, whereas WRF model output is used to overcome the limitations of the analysis of meteorological data and atmospheric conditions in the study area. Based on the running model, the most influence factor was wind speed. The goal of the simulation is to predict the new pattern based on the time of fastest wind and slowest wind occurs for pollutants distribution. According to the simulation results, it can be seen that the fastest wind (last of March) moves pollutants in a horizontal direction and the slowest wind (middle of May) moves pollutants vertically. Besides, the design of flare stack in compliance according to EPA Oil and Gas Facility Stack Parameters likely shows pollutants concentration remains on the under threshold NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards).

Keywords: flare motion, new prediction, pollutants distribution, transition season, WRF model

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8 Working Conditions and Occupational Health: Analyzing the Stressing Factors in Outsourced Employees

Authors: Cledinaldo A. Dias, Isabela C. Santos, Marcus V. S. Siqueira

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In the contemporary globalization, the competitiveness generated in the search of new markets aiming at the growth of productivity and, consequently, of profits, implies the redefinition of productive processes and new forms of work organization. As a result of this structuring, unemployment, labor force turnover and the increase in outsourcing and informal work occur. Considering the different relationships and working conditions of outsourced employees, this study aims to identify the most present stressors among outsourced service providers from a Federal Institution of Higher Education in Brazil. To reach this objective, a descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach was carried out. The qualitative approach was chosen to provide an in-depth analysis of the occupational conditions of outsourced workers since this method seeks to focus on the social as a world of investigated meanings and the language or speech of each subject as the object of this approach. The survey was conducted in the city of Montes Claros - Minas Gerais (Brazil) and involved eighty workers from companies hired by the institution, including armed security guards, porters, cleaners, drivers, gardeners, and administrative assistants. The choice of professionals obeyed non-probabilistic criteria for convenience or accessibility. Data collection was performed by means of a structured questionnaire composed of sixty questions, in a Likert-type frequency interval scale format, in order to identify potential organizational stressors. The results obtained evidence that the stress factors pointed out by the workers are, in most cases, a determining factor due to the low productive performance at work. Amongst the factors associated with stress, the ones that stood out most were those related to organizational communication failures, the incentive to competition, lack of expectations of professional growth, insecurity and job instability. Based on the results, the need for greater concern and organizational responsibility with the well-being and mental health of the outsourced worker and the recognition of their physical and psychological limitations, and care that goes beyond the functional capacity for the work. Specifically for the preservation of mental health, physical and quality of life, it is concluded that it is necessary for the professional to be inserted in the external world that favors it internally since this set is complemented so that the individual remains in balance and obtain satisfaction in your work.

Keywords: occupational health, outsourced, organizational studies, stressors

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7 Estimating Evapotranspiration Irrigated Maize in Brazil Using a Hybrid Modelling Approach and Satellite Image Inputs

Authors: Ivo Zution Goncalves, Christopher M. U. Neale, Hiran Medeiros, Everardo Mantovani, Natalia Souza

Abstract:

Multispectral and thermal infrared imagery from satellite sensors coupled with climate and soil datasets were used to estimate evapotranspiration and biomass in center pivots planted to maize in Brazil during the 2016 season. The hybrid remote sensing based model named Spatial EvapoTranspiration Modelling Interface (SETMI) was applied using multispectral and thermal infrared imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper instrument. Field data collected by the IRRIGER center pivot management company included daily weather information such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, relative humidity for estimating reference evapotranspiration. In addition, soil water content data were obtained every 0.20 m in the soil profile down to 0.60 m depth throughout the season. Early season soil samples were used to obtain water-holding capacity, wilting point, saturated hydraulic conductivity, initial volumetric soil water content, layer thickness, and saturated volumetric water content. Crop canopy development parameters and irrigation application depths were also inputs of the model. The modeling approach is based on the reflectance-based crop coefficient approach contained within the SETMI hybrid ET model using relationships developed in Nebraska. The model was applied to several fields located in Minas Gerais State in Brazil with approximate latitude: -16.630434 and longitude: -47.192876. The model provides estimates of real crop evapotranspiration (ET), crop irrigation requirements and all soil water balance outputs, including biomass estimation using multi-temporal satellite image inputs. An interpolation scheme based on the growing degree-day concept was used to model the periods between satellite inputs, filling the gaps between image dates and obtaining daily data. Actual and accumulated ET, accumulated cold temperature and water stress and crop water requirements estimated by the model were compared with data measured at the experimental fields. Results indicate that the SETMI modeling approach using data assimilation, showed reliable daily ET and crop water requirements for maize, interpolated between remote sensing observations, confirming the applicability of the SETMI model using new relationships developed in Nebraska for estimating mainly ET and water requirements in Brazil under tropical conditions.

Keywords: basal crop coefficient, irrigation, remote sensing, SETMI

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6 Characterization of Main Phenolic Compounds in Eleusine indica L. (Poaceae) by HPLC-DAD and 1H NMR

Authors: E. M. Condori-Peñaloza, S. S. Costa

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Eleusine indica L, known as goose-grass, is considered a troublesome weed that can cause important economic losses in the agriculture worldwide. However, this grass is used as a medicinal plant in some regions of Brazil to treat influenza and pneumonia. In Africa and Asia, it is used to treat malaria and as diuretic, anti-helminthic, among other uses. Despite its therapeutic potential, little is known about the chemical composition and bioactive compounds of E. indica. Hitherto, two major flavonoids, schaftoside and vitexin, were isolated from aerial part of the species and showed inhibitory activity on lung neutrophil influxes in mice, suggesting a beneficial effect on airway inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the chemical profile of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Eleusine indica specimens using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), with emphasis on phenolic compounds. Specimens of E. indica were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Aerial parts of fresh plants were extracted by decoction (10% p/v). After spontaneous precipitation of the aqueous extract at 10-12°C for 24 hours, the supernatant obtained was frozen and lyophilized. After that, 1 g of the extract was dissolved into 25 mL of water and fractionated on a reverse phase chromatography column (RP-2), eluted with a gradient of H2O/EtOH. Five fractions were obtained. The extract and fractions had their chemical profile analyzed by using HPLC-DAD (C-18 column: 20 μL, 256 -365 nm; gradient water 0.01% phosphoric acid/ acetonitrile. The extract was also analyzed by NMR (1H, 500 MHz, D2O) in order to access its global chemical composition. HPLC-DAD analyses of crude extract allowed the identification of ten phenolic compounds. Fraction 1, eluted with 100% water, was poor in phenolic compounds and no major peak was detected. In fraction 2, eluted with 100% water, it was possible to observe one major peak at retention time (RT) of 23.75 minutes compatible with flavonoid; fraction 3, also eluted with 100% water, showed four peaks at RT= 21.47, 23.52, 24.33 and 25.84 minutes, all of them compatible with flavonoid. In fraction 4, eluted with 50%/ethanol/50% water, it was possible to observe 3 peaks compatible with flavonoids at RT=24.65, 26.81, 27.49 minutes, and one peak (28.83 min) compatible with a phenolic acid derivative. Finally, in fraction 5, eluted with 100% ethanol, no phenolic substance was detected. The UV spectra of all flavonoids detected were compatible with the flavone subclass (λ= 320-345 nm). The 1H NMR spectra of aerial parts extract showed signals in three regions: δ 0.8-3.0 ppm (aliphatic compounds), δ 3.0-5.5 ppm corresponding to carbohydrates (signals most abundant and overlapped), and δ 6.0-8.5 ppm (aromatic compounds). Signals compatible with flavonoids (rings A and B) could also be detected in the crude extract spectra. These results suggest the presence of several flavonoids in E. indica, which reinforces their therapeutic potential. The pharmacological activities of Eleusine indica extracts and fractions will be further evaluated.

Keywords: flavonoids, HPLC, NMR, phenolic compounds

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5 Bacterial Diversity in Vaginal Microbiota in Patients with Different Levels of Cervical Lesions Related to Human Papillomavirus Infection

Authors: Michelle S. Pereira, Analice C. Azevedo, Julliane D. Medeiros, Ana Claudia S. Martins, Didier S. Castellano-Filho, Claudio G. Diniz, Vania L. Silva

Abstract:

Vaginal microbiota is a complex ecosystem, composed by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, living in a dynamic equilibrium. Lactobacillus spp. are predominant in vaginal ecosystem, and factors such as immunity and hormonal variations may lead to disruptions, resulting in proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial syndrome, caused by an increasing of anaerobic bacteria replacing Lactobacillus spp. Microorganisms such as Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mobiluncus spp., and Atopobium vaginae can be found in BV, which may also be associated to other infections such as by Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is highly prevalent in sexually active women, and is considered a risk factor for development of cervical cancer. As long as few data is available on vaginal microbiota of women with HPV-associated cervical lesions, our objectives were to evaluate the diversity in vaginal ecosystem in these women. To all patients, clinical and socio-demographic data were collected after gynecological examination. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee from Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vaginal secretion and cervical scraping were collected. Gram-stained smears were evaluated to establish Nugent score for BV determination. Viral and bacterial DNA obtained was used as template for HPV genotyping (PCR) and bacterial fingerprint (REP-PCR). In total 31 patients were included (mean age 35 and 93.6% sexually active). The Nugent score showed that 38.7% were BV. From the medical records, Pap smear tests showed that 32.3% had low grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL), 29% had high grade squamous epithelial lesion (HSIL), 25.8% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and 12.9% with atypical squamous cells that would not exclude high-grade lesion (ASC-H). All participants were HPV+. HPV-16 was the most frequent (87.1%), followed by HPV-18 (61.3%). HPV-31, HPV-52 and HPV-58 were also detected. Coinfection HPV-16/HPV-18 was observed in 75%. In the 18-30 age group, HPV-16 was detected in 40%, and HPV-16/HPV-18 coinfection in 35%. HPV-16 was associated to 30% of ASC-H and 20% of HSIL patients. BV was observed in 50% of HPV-16+ participants and in 45% of HPV-16/HPV-18+. Fingerprints of bacterial communities showed clusters with low similarity suggesting high heterogeneity in vaginal microbiota within the sampled group. Overall, the data is worrisome once cervical-cancer highly risk-associated HPV-types were identified. The high microbial diversity observed may be related to the different levels of cellular lesions, and different physiological conditions of the participants (age, social behavior, education). Further prospective studies are needed to better address correlations and BV and microbial imbalance in vaginal ecosystems which would be related to the different cellular lesions in women with HPV infections. Supported by FAPEMIG, CNPq, CAPES, PPGCBIO/UFJF.

Keywords: human papillomavirus, bacterial vaginosis, bacterial diversity, cervical cancer

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4 Chemical and Biological Studies of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Calophyllaceae) Based on Ethnobotanical Survey of Rural Community from Brazil

Authors: Vanessa G. P. Severino, Eliangela Cristina Candida Costa, Nubia Alves Mariano Teixeira Pires Gomides, Lucilia Kato, Afif Felix Monteiro, Maria Anita Lemos Vasconcelos Ambrosio, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins

Abstract:

One of the biomes present in Brazil is known as Cerrado, which is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion, particularly in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Minas Gerais. Many species of plants are characterized as endemic and they have therapeutic value for a large part of the population, especially to the rural communities. Given that, the southeastern region of the state of Goiás contains about 21 rural communities, which present a form of organization based on the use of natural resources available. One of these rural communities is named of Coqueiros, where the knowledge about the medicinal plants was very important to this research. Thus, this study focuses on the ethnobotanical survey of this community on the use of Kielmeyera coriacea to treat diseases. From the 37 members interviewed, 76% indicated this species for the treatment of intestinal infection, leukemia, anemia, gastritis, gum pain, toothache, cavity, arthritis, arthrosis, healing, vermifuge, rheumatism, antibiotic, skin problems, mycoses and all kinds of infections. The medicinal properties attributed during the interviews were framed in the body system (disease categories), adapted from ICD 10; thus, 20 indications of use were obtained, among five body systems. Therefore, the root of this species was select to chemical and biological (antioxidant and antimicrobial) studies. From the liquid-liquid extraction of ethanolic extract of root (EER), the hexane (FH), ethyl acetate (FAE), and hydro alcoholic (FHA) fractions were obtained. The chemical profile study of these fractions was performed by LC-MS, identifying major compounds such as δ-tocotrienol, prenylated acylphoroglucinol, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone and quercitrin. EER, FH, FAE and FHA were submitted to biological tests. FHA presented the best antioxidant action (EC50 201.53 μg mL-1). EER inhibited the bacterial growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, microorganisms associated with rheumatism, at Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25 μg mL-1. In addition, the FH-10 subfraction, obtained from FH fractionation, presented MIC of 1.56 μg mL-1 against S. pneumoniae; EER also inhibited the fungus Candida glabrata (MIC 7.81 μg mL- 1). The FAE-4.7.3 fraction, from the fractionation of FAE, presented MIC of 200 μg mL-1 against Lactobacillus casei, which is one of the causes of caries and oral infections. By the correlation of the chemical and biological data, it is possible to note that the FAE-4.7.3 and FH-10 are constituted 4-hydroxy-2,3-methylenedioxy xanthone, 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethoxy xanthone, lupeol, prenylated acylphoroglucinol and quercitrin, which could be associated with the biological potential found. Therefore, this study provides an important basis for further investigations regarding the compounds present in the active fractions of K. coriacea, which will permit the establishment of a correlation between ethnobotanical survey and bioactivity.

Keywords: biological activity, ethnobotanical survey, Kielmeyera coriacea Mart., LC-MS profile

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3 An Epidemiological Study on Cutaneous Melanoma, Basocellular and Epidermoid Carcinomas Diagnosed in a Sunny City in Southeast Brazil in a Five-Year Period

Authors: Carolina L. Cerdeira, Julia V. F. Cortes, Maria E. V. Amarante, Gersika B. Santos

Abstract:

Skin cancer is the most common cancer in several parts of the world; in a tropical country like Brazil, the situation isn’t different. The Brazilian population is exposed to high levels of solar radiation, increasing the risk of developing cutaneous carcinoma. Aimed at encouraging prevention measures and the early diagnosis of these tumors, a study was carried out that analyzed data on cutaneous melanomas, basal cell, and epidermoid carcinomas, using as primary data source the medical records of 161 patients registered in one pathology service, which performs skin biopsies in a city of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All patients diagnosed with skin cancer at this service from January 2015 to December 2019 were included. The incidence of skin carcinoma cases was correlated with the identification of histological type, sex, age group, and topographic location. Correlation between variables was verified by Fisher's exact test at a nominal significance level of 5%, with statistical analysis performed by R® software. A significant association was observed between age group and type of cancer (p=0.0085); age group and sex (0.0298); and type of cancer and body region affected (p < 0.01). Those 161 cases analyzed comprised 93 basal cell carcinomas, 66 epidermoid carcinomas, and only two cutaneous melanomas. In the group aged 19 to 30 years, the epidermoid form was most prevalent; from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 59 years, the basal cell prevailed; in 60-year-olds or over, both types had higher frequencies. Associating age group and sex, in groups aged 18 to 30 and 46 to 59 years, women were most affected. In the 31-to 45-year-old group, men predominated. There was a gender balance in the age group 60-year-olds or over. As for topography, there was a high prevalence in the head and neck, followed by upper limbs. Relating histological type and topography, there was a prevalence of basal cell and epidermoid carcinomas in the head and neck. In the chest, the basal cell form was most prevalent; in upper limbs, the epidermoid form prevailed. Cutaneous melanoma affected only the chest and upper limbs. About 82% of patients 60-year-olds or over had head and neck cancer; from 46 to 59 and 60-year-olds or over, the head and neck region and upper limbs were predominantly affected; the distribution was balanced in the 31-to 45-year-old group. In conclusion, basal cell carcinoma was predominant, whereas cutaneous melanoma was the rarest among the types analyzed. Patients 60-year-olds or over were most affected, showing gender balance. In young adults, there was a prevalence of the epidermoid form; in middle-aged patients, basal cell carcinoma was predominant; in the elderly, both forms presented with higher frequencies. There was a higher incidence of head and neck cancers, followed by malignancies affecting the upper limbs. The epidermoid type manifested significantly in the upper limbs. Body regions such as the thorax and lower limbs were less affected, which is justified by the lower exposure of these areas to incident solar radiation.

Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous melanoma, skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, topographic location

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2 Hydrodynamics in Wetlands of Brazilian Savanna: Electrical Tomography and Geoprocessing

Authors: Lucas M. Furlan, Cesar A. Moreira, Jepherson F. Sales, Guilherme T. Bueno, Manuel E. Ferreira, Carla V. S. Coelho, Vania Rosolen

Abstract:

Located in the western part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the study area consists of a savanna environment, represented by sedimentary plateau and a soil cover composed by lateritic and hydromorphic soils - in the latter, occurring the deferruginization and concentration of high-alumina clays, exploited as refractory material. In the hydromorphic topographic depressions (wetlands) the hydropedogical relationships are little known, but it is observed that in times of rainfall, the depressed region behaves like a natural seasonal reservoir - which suggests that the wetlands on the surface of the plateau are places of recharge of the aquifer. The aquifer recharge areas are extremely important for the sustainable social, economic and environmental development of societies. The understanding of hydrodynamics in relation to the functioning of the ferruginous and hydromorphic lateritic soils system in the savanna environment is a subject rarely explored in the literature, especially its understanding through the joint application of geoprocessing by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and electrical tomography. The objective of this work is to understand the hydrogeological dynamics in a wetland (with an area of 426.064 m²), in the Brazilian savanna,as well as the understanding of the subsurface architecture of hydromorphic depressions in relation to the recharge of aquifers. The wetland was compartmentalized in three different regions, according to the geoprocessing. Hydraulic conductivity studies were performed in each of these three portions. Electrical tomography was performed on 9 lines of 80 meters in length and spaced 10 meters apart (direction N45), and a line with 80 meters perpendicular to all others. With the data, it was possible to generate a 3D cube. The integrated analysis showed that the area behaves like a natural seasonal reservoir in the months of greater precipitation (December – 289mm; January – 277,9mm; February – 213,2mm), because the hydraulic conductivity is very low in all areas. In the aerial images, geotag correction of the images was performed, that is, the correction of the coordinates of the images by means of the corrected coordinates of the Positioning by Precision Point of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE-PPP). Later, the orthomosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were generated, which with specific geoprocessing generated the volume of water that the wetland can contain - 780,922m³ in total, 265,205m³ in the region with intermediate flooding and 49,140m³ in the central region, where a greater accumulation of water was observed. Through the electrical tomography it was possible to identify that up to the depth of 6 meters the water infiltrates vertically in the central region. From the 8 meters depth, the water encounters a more resistive layer and the infiltration begins to occur horizontally - tending to concentrate the recharge of the aquifer to the northeast and southwest of the wetland. The hydrodynamics of the area is complex and has many challenges in its understanding. The next step is to relate hydrodynamics to the evolution of the landscape, with the enrichment of high-alumina clays, and to propose a management model for the seasonal reservoir.

Keywords: electrical tomography, hydropedology, unmanned aerial vehicle, water resources management

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