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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2020

Search results for: bacterial diversity

2020 Bacterial Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance in Coastal Sediments of Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea

Authors: Ilknur Tuncer, Nihayet Bizsel

Abstract:

The scarcity of research in bacterial diversity and antimicrobial resistance in coastal environments as in Turkish coasts leads to difficulties in developing efficient monitoring and management programs. In the present study, biogeochemical analysis of sediments and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of bacteria in Izmir Bay, eastern Aegean Sea under high anthropogenic pressure were aimed in summer period when anthropogenic input was maximum and at intertidal zone where the first terrigenious contact occurred for aquatic environment. Geochemical content of the intertidal zone of Izmir Bay was firstly illustrated such that total and organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents were high and the grain size distribution varied as sand and gravel. Bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance were also firstly given for Izmir Bay. Antimicrobially assayed isolates underlined the multiple resistance in the inner, middle and outer bays with overall 19% high MAR (multiple antibiotic resistance) index. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that 67 % of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus and the rest included the families Alteromonadaceae, Bacillaceae, Exiguobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Planococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae.

Keywords: bacterial phylogeny, multiple antibiotic resistance, 16S rRNA genes, Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea

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2019 Culturable Microbial Diversity of Agave Artisanal Fermentations from Central Mexico

Authors: Thalía Moreno-García Malo, Santiago Torres-Ríos, María G. González-Cruz, María M. Hernández-Arroyo, Sergio R. Trejo-Estrada

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Agave atrovirens is the main source of agave sap, the raw material for the production of pulque, an artisanal fermented beverage, traditional since prehispanic times in the highlands of central Mexico. Agave sap is rich in glucose, sucrose and fructooligosaccharides, and strongly differs from agave syrup from A. tequilana, which is mostly a high molecular weight fructan. Agave sap is converted into pulque by a highly diverse microbial community which includes bacteria, yeast and even filamentous fungi. The bacterial diversity has been recently studied. But the composition of consortia derived from directed enrichments differs sharply from the whole fermentative consortium. Using classical microbiology methods, and selective liquid and solid media formulations, either bacterial or fungal consortia were developed and analyzed. Bacterial consortia able to catabolize specific prebiotic saccharides were selected and preserved for future developments. Different media formulations, selective for bacterial genera such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were also used. For yeast, specific media, osmotic pressure and unique carbon sources were used as selective agents. Results show that most groups are represented in the enrichment cultures; although very few are recoverable from the whole consortium in artisanal pulque. Diversity and abundance vary among consortia. Potential bacterial probiotics obtained from agave sap and agave juices show tolerance to hydrochloric acid, as well as strong antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Agave, pulque, microbial consortia, prebiotic activity

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2018 Nucleotide Diversity and Bacterial Endosymbionts of the Black Cherry Aphid Myzus cerasi (Fabricus, 1775) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Turkey

Authors: Burcu Inal, Irfan Kandemir

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Sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene of twenty-five Turkish and one Greek Myzus cerasi (Fabricus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in populations were collected from Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus. The partial coding region of COI studied is 605 bp for all the populations, from which 565 nucleotides were conserved, 40 were variable, 37 were singleton, and 3 sites were parsimony-informative. Four haplotypes were identified based on nucleotide substitutions, and the mean of intraspecific divergence was calculated to be 0.3%. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Evolution, Neighbor-joining, and Unweighed Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Myzus borealis Ossiannilson were included as outgroups. The population of M. cerasi from Isparta diverged from the rest of the groups and formed a clade (Haplotype B) with Myzus borealis. The rest of the haplotype diversity includes Haplotype A and Haplotype C with individuals characterized as Myzus cerasi pruniavium and Haplotype D with Myzus cerasi cerasi. M. cerasi diverge into two subspecies and it must be reevaluated whether this pest is monophagous or oligophagous in terms of plant type dependence. The obligated endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola was also found during this research, but no facultative symbionts could be found. It is expected further studies will be required for a complete barcoding and diversity of bacterial endosymbionts present.

Keywords: bacterial endosymbionts, barcoding, black cherry aphid, nucleotide diversity

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2017 Effect of Fiddler Crab Burrows on Bacterial Communities of Mangrove Sediments

Authors: Mohammad Mokhtari, Gires Usup, Zaidi Che Cob

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Bacteria communities as mediators of the biogeochemical process are the main component of the mangrove ecosystems. Crab burrows by increasing oxic-anoxic interfaces and facilitating the flux rate between sediment and tidal water affect biogeochemical properties of sediments. The effect of fiddler crab burrows on the density and diversity of bacteria were investigated to elucidate the effect of burrow on bacterial distribution. Samples collected from the burrow walls of three species of fiddler crabs including Uca paradussumieri, Uca rosea, and Uca forcipata. Sediment properties including grain size, temperature, Redox potential, pH, chlorophyll, water and organic content were measured from the burrow walls to assess the correlation between environmental variables and bacterial communities. Bacteria were enumerated with epifluorescence microscopy after staining with SYBR green. Bacterial DNA extracted from sediment samples and the community profiles of bacteria were determined with Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). High endemism was observed among bacterial communities. Among the 152 observed OTU’s, 22 were found only in crab burrows. The highest bacterial density and diversity were recorded in burrow wall. The results of ANOSIM indicated a significant difference between the bacterial communities from the three species of fiddler crab burrows. Only 3% of explained bacteria variability in the constrained ordination model of CCA was contributed to depth, while much of the bacteria’s variability was attributed to coarse sand, pH, and chlorophyll content. Our findings suggest that crab burrows by affecting sediment properties such as redox potential, pH, water, and chlorophyll content induce significant effects on the bacterial communities.

Keywords: bioturbation, canonical corresponding analysis, fiddler crab, microbial ecology

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2016 Phylogenetic Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance in Sediments of Aegean Sea

Authors: Ilknur Tuncer, Nihayet Bizsel

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The studies in bacterial diversity and antimicrobial resistance in coastal areas are important to understand the variability in the community structures and metabolic activities. In the present study, antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria isolated from stations with different depths and influenced by terrestrial and marine fluxes in eastern Aegean Sea were illustrated. 51% of the isolates were found as resistant and 14% showed high MAR index indicating the high-risk sources of contamination in the environment. The resistance and the intermediate levels and high MAR index of the study area were 38–60%, 11–38% and 0–40%, respectively. According to 16S rRNA gene analysis, it was found that the isolates belonged to two phyla Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria with the genera Bacillus, Halomonas, Oceanobacillus, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Vibrio. 47% of Bacillus strains which were dominant among all isolates were resistant. In addition to phylogenetically diverse bacteria, the variability in resistance, intermediate and high MAR index levels of the study area indicated the effect of geographical differences.

Keywords: bacterial diversity, multiple antibiotic resistance, 16S rRNA genes, Aegean Sea

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2015 A Call for Transformative Learning Experiences to Facilitate Student Workforce Diversity Learning in the United States

Authors: Jeanetta D. Sims, Chaunda L. Scott, Hung-Lin Lai, Sarah Neese, Atoya Sims, Angelia Barrera-Medina

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Given the call for increased transformative learning experiences and the demand for academia to prepare students to enter workforce diversity careers, this study explores the landscape of workforce diversity learning in the United States. Using a multi-disciplinary syllabi browsing process and a content analysis method, the most prevalent instructional activities being used in workforce-diversity related courses in the United States are identified. In addition, the instructional activities are evaluated based on transformative learning tenants.

Keywords: workforce diversity, workforce diversity learning, transformative learning, diversity education, U. S. workforce diversity, workforce diversity assignments

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2014 Bacterial Community Diversity in Soil under Two Tillage Systems

Authors: Dalia Ambrazaitienė, Monika Vilkienė, Danute Karcauskienė, Gintaras Siaudinis

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The soil is a complex ecosystem that is part of our biosphere. The ability of soil to provide ecosystem services is dependent on microbial diversity. T Tillage is one of the major factors that affect soil properties. The no-till systems or shallow ploughless tillage are opposite of traditional deep ploughing, no-tillage systems, for instance, increase soil organic matter by reducing mineralization rates and stimulating litter concentrations of the top soil layer, whereas deep ploughing increases the biological activity of arable soil layer and reduces the incidence of weeds. The role of soil organisms is central to soil processes. Although the number of microbial species in soil is still being debated, the metagenomic approach to estimate microbial diversity predicted about 2000 – 18 000 bacterial genomes in 1 g of soil. Despite the key role of bacteria in soil processes, there is still lack of information about the bacterial diversity of soils as affected by tillage practices. This study focused on metagenomic analysis of bacterial diversity in long-term experimental plots of Dystric Epihypogleyic Albeluvisols in western part of Lithuania. The experiment was set up in 2013 and had a split-plot design where the whole-plot treatments were laid out in a randomized design with three replicates. The whole-plot treatments consisted of two tillage methods - deep ploughing (22-25 cm) (DP), ploughless tillage (7-10 cm) (PT). Three subsamples (0-20 cm) were collected on October 22, 2015 for each of the three replicates. Subsamples from the DP and PT systems were pooled together wise to make two composition samples, one representing deep ploughing (DP) and the other ploughless tillage (PT). Genomic DNA from soil sample was extracted from approximately 200 mg field-moist soil by using the D6005 Fungal/Bacterial Miniprep set (Zymo Research®) following the manufacturer’s instructions. To determine bacterial diversity and community composition, we employed a culture – independent approach of high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Metagenomic sequencing was made with Illumina MiSeq platform in Base Clear Company. The microbial component of soil plays a crucial role in cycling of nutrients in biosphere. Our study was a preliminary attempt at observing bacterial diversity in soil under two common but contrasting tillage practices. The number of sequenced reads obtained for PT (161 917) was higher than DP (131 194). The 10 most abundant genus in soil sample were the same (Arthrobacter, Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacterium, Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Alphaproteobacteria, Longilinea, Gemmatimonas, Solirubrobacter), just the percent of community part was different. In DP the Arthrobacter and Acidobacterium consist respectively 8.4 % and 2.5%, meanwhile in PT just 5.8% and 2.1% of all community. The Nocardioides and Terrabacter were observed just in PT. This work was supported by the project VP1-3.1-ŠMM-01-V-03-001 NKPDOKT and National Science Program: The effect of long-term, different-intensity management of resources on the soils of different genesis and on other components of the agro-ecosystems [grant number SIT-9/2015] funded by the Research Council of Lithuania.

Keywords: deep ploughing, metagenomics, ploughless tillage, soil community analysis

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2013 Impacts of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Functional Bacterial Community in Activated Sludge

Authors: I. Kamika, S. Azizi, M. Tekere

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Nanotechnology promises significant improvements of advanced materials and manufacturing techniques with a vast range of applications, which are critical for the future competitiveness of national industries. The manipulations and productions of materials, whilst, controlling the optical properties and surface area to a nanosize scale enabled a birth of a new field known as nanotechnology. However, their rapidly developing industry raises concerns about the environmental impacts of nanoparticles, as their effects on functional bacterial community in wastewater treatment remain unclear. The present research assessed the impact of cerium Oxide nanoparticles (nCeO) on the bacterial microbiome of an activated sludge system, which influenced its performance of this system on nutrient removal. Out of 15875 reads sequenced, a total of 13133 reads were non-chimeric. The wastewater samples were more dominant to the unclassified bacteria (51.07% of bacteria community) followed with the classified bacteria (48.93). Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in both classified and unclassified bacteria, whereas 18% of bacteria could even not be assigned a phylum and remained unclassified suggesting hitherto vast untapped microbial diversity. The bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranged from 1014 to 2629 over the experimental period. The denitrification related species including Diaphorobacter species, Thauera species and those in the Sphaerotilus and Leptothrix group were found to be inhibited in a high concentration of CeO-NP. The diversity indices suggested that the bacterial community inhabiting the wastewater samples were less diverse as the concentration of CeO increases. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results highlighted that the bacterial community variance had the strongest relationship with water temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) content as well as nCeO. The results provided the relationships between the microbial community and environmental variables in the wastewater samples.

Keywords: bacterial community, next generation, cerium oxide, wastewater, activated sludge, nanoparticles, nanotechnology

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2012 Bacterial Diversity in Vaginal Microbiota in Patients with Different Levels of Cervical Lesions Related to Human Papillomavirus Infection

Authors: Michelle S. Pereira, Analice C. Azevedo, Julliane D. Medeiros, Ana Claudia S. Martins, Didier S. Castellano-Filho, Claudio G. Diniz, Vania L. Silva

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Vaginal microbiota is a complex ecosystem, composed by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, living in a dynamic equilibrium. Lactobacillus spp. are predominant in vaginal ecosystem, and factors such as immunity and hormonal variations may lead to disruptions, resulting in proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial syndrome, caused by an increasing of anaerobic bacteria replacing Lactobacillus spp. Microorganisms such as Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mobiluncus spp., and Atopobium vaginae can be found in BV, which may also be associated to other infections such as by Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is highly prevalent in sexually active women, and is considered a risk factor for development of cervical cancer. As long as few data is available on vaginal microbiota of women with HPV-associated cervical lesions, our objectives were to evaluate the diversity in vaginal ecosystem in these women. To all patients, clinical and socio-demographic data were collected after gynecological examination. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee from Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vaginal secretion and cervical scraping were collected. Gram-stained smears were evaluated to establish Nugent score for BV determination. Viral and bacterial DNA obtained was used as template for HPV genotyping (PCR) and bacterial fingerprint (REP-PCR). In total 31 patients were included (mean age 35 and 93.6% sexually active). The Nugent score showed that 38.7% were BV. From the medical records, Pap smear tests showed that 32.3% had low grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL), 29% had high grade squamous epithelial lesion (HSIL), 25.8% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and 12.9% with atypical squamous cells that would not exclude high-grade lesion (ASC-H). All participants were HPV+. HPV-16 was the most frequent (87.1%), followed by HPV-18 (61.3%). HPV-31, HPV-52 and HPV-58 were also detected. Coinfection HPV-16/HPV-18 was observed in 75%. In the 18-30 age group, HPV-16 was detected in 40%, and HPV-16/HPV-18 coinfection in 35%. HPV-16 was associated to 30% of ASC-H and 20% of HSIL patients. BV was observed in 50% of HPV-16+ participants and in 45% of HPV-16/HPV-18+. Fingerprints of bacterial communities showed clusters with low similarity suggesting high heterogeneity in vaginal microbiota within the sampled group. Overall, the data is worrisome once cervical-cancer highly risk-associated HPV-types were identified. The high microbial diversity observed may be related to the different levels of cellular lesions, and different physiological conditions of the participants (age, social behavior, education). Further prospective studies are needed to better address correlations and BV and microbial imbalance in vaginal ecosystems which would be related to the different cellular lesions in women with HPV infections. Supported by FAPEMIG, CNPq, CAPES, PPGCBIO/UFJF.

Keywords: human papillomavirus, bacterial vaginosis, bacterial diversity, cervical cancer

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2011 Plant Microbiota of Coastal Halophyte Salicornia Ramossisima

Authors: Isabel N. Sierra-Garcia, Maria J. Ferreira, Sandro Figuereido, Newton Gomes, Helena Silva, Angela Cunha

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Plant-associated microbial communities are considered crucial in the adaptation of halophytes to coastal environments. The plant microbiota can be horizontally acquired from the environment or vertically transmitted from generation to generation via seeds. Recruiting of the microbial communities by the plant is affected by geographical location, soil source, host genotype, and cultivation practice. There is limited knowledge reported on the microbial communities in halophytes the influence of biotic and abiotic factors. In this work, the microbiota associated with the halophyte Salicornia ramosissima was investigated to determine whether the structure of bacterial communities is influenced by host genotype or soil source. For this purpose, two contrasting sites where S. ramosissima is established in the estuarine system of the Ria de Aveiro were investigated. One site corresponds to a natural salt marsh where S. ramosissima plants are present (wild plants), and the other site is a former salt pan that nowadays are subjected to intensive crop production of S. ramosissima (crop plants). Bacterial communities from the rhizosphere, seeds and root endosphere of S. ramossisima from both sites were investigated by sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The analysis of the sequences showed that the three plant-associated compartments, rhizosphere, root endosphere, and seed endosphere, harbor distinct microbiomes. However, bacterial richness and diversity were higher in seeds of wild plants, followed by rhizosphere in both sites, while seeds in the crop site had the lowest diversity. Beta diversity measures indicated that bacterial communities in root endosphere and seeds were more similar in both wild and crop plants in contrast to rhizospheres that differed by local, indicating that the recruitment of the similar bacterial communities by the plant genotype is active in regard to the site. Moreover, bacterial communities from the root endosphere and rhizosphere were phylogenetically more similar in both sites, but the phylogenetic composition of seeds in wild and crop sites was distinct. These results indicate that cultivation practices affect the seed microbiome. However, minimal vertical transmission of bacteria from seeds to adult plants is expected. Seeds from the crop site showed higher abundances of Kushneria and Zunongwangia genera. Bacterial members of the classes Alphaprotebacteria and Bacteroidia were the most ubiquitous across sites and compartments and might encompass members of the core microbiome. These findings indicate that bacterial communities associated with S. ramosissima are more influenced by host genotype rather than local abiotic factors or cultivation practices. This study provides a better understanding of the composition of the plant microbiota in S. ramosissima , which is essential to predict the interactions between plant and associated microbial communities and their effects on plant health. This knowledge is useful to the manipulations of these microbial communities to enhance the health and productivity of this commercially important plant.

Keywords: halophytes, plant microbiome, Salicornia ramosissima, agriculture

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2010 The Effect of Diversity Sensitive Orientation on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

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The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of diversity sensitive orientation on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Diversity sensitive orientation is the attitude of the individual to respect and accommodate diversity. This is focused on an individual’s perception of diversity. Although being made from the most diversity related research team and organizational level, this study deals with diversity issues at the individual level. To test the proposed research model and hypothesis, the data were collected from 291 Korean employees. The study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis for the validity test. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationship in the conceptual model. The results of this paper were as followings: First, diversity sensitive orientation was positively related to job satisfaction. Second, diversity sensitive orientation was negatively related to turnover intention. In other words, the positive influence of the diversity sensitive orientation has been verified. Based on the findings, this study suggested implications and directions for future research.

Keywords: diversity sensitive orientation, job satisfaction, turnover intention, perception, cognition

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2009 Changes in Skin Microbiome Diversity According to the Age of Xian Women

Authors: Hanbyul Kim, Hye-Jin Kin, Taehun Park, Woo Jun Sul, Susun An

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Skin is the largest organ of the human body and can provide the diverse habitat for various microorganisms. The ecology of the skin surface selects distinctive sets of microorganisms and is influenced by both endogenous intrinsic factors and exogenous environmental factors. The diversity of the bacterial community in the skin also depends on multiple host factors: gender, age, health status, location. Among them, age-related changes in skin structure and function are attributable to combinations of endogenous intrinsic factors and exogenous environmental factors. Skin aging is characterized by a decrease in sweat, sebum and the immune functions thus resulting in significant alterations in skin surface physiology including pH, lipid composition, and sebum secretion. The present study gives a comprehensive clue on the variation of skin microbiota and the correlations between ages by analyzing and comparing the metagenome of skin microbiome using Next Generation Sequencing method. Skin bacterial diversity and composition were characterized and compared between two different age groups: younger (20 – 30y) and older (60 - 70y) Xian, Chinese women. A total of 73 healthy women meet two conditions: (I) living in Xian, China; (II) maintaining healthy skin status during the period of this study. Based on Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database, skin samples of 73 participants were enclosed with ten most abundant genera: Chryseobacterium, Propionibacterium, Enhydrobacter, Staphylococcus and so on. Although these genera are the most predominant genus overall, each genus showed different proportion in each group. The most dominant genus, Chryseobacterium was more present relatively in Young group than in an old group. Similarly, Propionibacterium and Enhydrobacter occupied a higher proportion of skin bacterial composition of the young group. Staphylococcus, in contrast, inhabited more in the old group. The beta diversity that represents the ratio between regional and local species diversity showed significantly different between two age groups. Likewise, The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) values representing each phylogenetic distance in the two-dimensional framework using the OTU (Operational taxonomic unit) values of the samples also showed differences between the two groups. Thus, our data suggested that the composition and diversification of skin microbiomes in adult women were largely affected by chronological and physiological skin aging.

Keywords: next generation sequencing, age, Xian, skin microbiome

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2008 Blood Microbiome in Different Metabolic Types of Obesity

Authors: Irina M. Kolesnikova, Andrey M. Gaponov, Sergey A. Roumiantsev, Tatiana V. Grigoryeva, Dilyara R. Khusnutdinova, Dilyara R. Kamaldinova, Alexander V. Shestopalov

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Background. Obese patients have unequal risks of metabolic disorders. It is accepted to distinguish between metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). MUHO patients have a high risk of metabolic disorders, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Among the other things, the gut microbiota also contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in obesity. Obesity is accompanied by significant changes in the gut microbial community. In turn, bacterial translocation from the intestine is the basis for the blood microbiome formation. The aim was to study the features of the blood microbiome in patients with various metabolic types of obesity. Patients, materials, methods. The study included 116 healthy donors and 101 obese patients. Depending on the metabolic type of obesity, the obese patients were divided into subgroups with MHO (n=36) and MUHO (n=53). Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the blood microbiome was based on metagenomic analysis. Blood samples were used to isolate DNA and perform sequencing of the variable v3-v4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Alpha diversity indices (Simpson index, Shannon index, Chao1 index, phylogenetic diversity, the number of observed operational taxonomic units) were calculated. Moreover, we compared taxa (phyla, classes, orders, and families) in terms of isolation frequency and the taxon share in the total bacterial DNA pool between different patient groups. Results. In patients with MHO, the characteristics of the alpha-diversity of the blood microbiome were like those of healthy donors. However, MUHO was associated with an increase in all diversity indices. The main phyla of the blood microbiome were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Cyanobacteria, TM7, Thermi, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Tenericutes were found to be less significant phyla of the blood microbiome. Phyla Acidobacteria, TM7, and Verrucomicrobia were more often isolated in blood samples of patients with MUHO compared with healthy donors. Obese patients had a decrease in some taxonomic ranks (Bacilli, Caulobacteraceae, Barnesiellaceae, Rikenellaceae, Williamsiaceae). These changes appear to be related to the increased diversity of the blood microbiome observed in obesity. An increase of Lachnospiraceae, Succinivibrionaceae, Prevotellaceae, and S24-7 was noted for MUHO patients, which, apparently, is explained by a magnification in intestinal permeability. Conclusion. Blood microbiome differs in obese patients and healthy donors at class, order, and family levels. Moreover, the nature of the changes is determined by the metabolic type of obesity. MUHO linked to increased diversity of the blood microbiome. This appears to be due to increased microbial translocation from the intestine and non-intestinal sources.

Keywords: blood microbiome, blood bacterial DNA, obesity, metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically unhealthy obesity

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2007 Impact of a Locally-Prepared Fermented Alcoholic Beverage from Jaggery on the Gut Bacterial Profile of the Tea-Tribal Populations of Assam, India

Authors: Rupamoni Thakur, Madhusmita Dehingia, Narayan C. Talukdar, Mojibur R. Khan

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The human gut is an extremely active fermentation site and is inhabited by diverse bacterial species. Consumption of alcoholic beverages has been shown to substantially modulate the human gut bacterial profile (GBP) of an individual. Assam, a major north-eastern state of India, is home to a number of tribal populations of which the tea-tribes form a major community. These tea-tribal communities are known to prepare and consume a locally-prepared alcoholic beverage from fermented jaggery, whose chemical composition is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of daily intake of the locally-prepared alcoholic beverage on the GBP of the tea-tribal communities and correlate it with the changes in the biochemical biomarkers of the population. The fecal bacterial diversity of 40 drinkers and 35 non-drinking healthy individuals were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results suggested that the GBP was significantly modulated in the fermented-beverage consuming subjects. Significant difference was also observed in the serum biochemical parameters such as triglyceride, total cholesterol and the liver marker enzymes (ASAT/ALAT and GGT). Further studies to identify the GBP of drinkers vs non-drinkers through Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis and to correlate the changes with the biochemical biomarkers of the population is underway.

Keywords: alcoholic beverage, gut bacterial profile, PCR-DGGE analysis, tea-tribes of India

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2006 The Response of Soil Biodiversity to Agriculture Practice in Rhizosphere

Authors: Yan Wang, Guowei Chen, Gang Wang

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Soil microbial diversity is one of the important parameters to assess the soil fertility and soil health, even stability of the ecosystem. In this paper, we aim to reveal the soil microbial difference in rhizosphere and root zone, even to pick the special biomarkers influenced by the long term tillage practices, which included four treatments of no-tillage, ridge tillage, continuous cropping with corn and crop rotation with corn and soybean. Here, high-throughput sequencing was performed to investigate the difference of bacteria in rhizosphere and root zone. The results showed a very significant difference of species richness between rhizosphere and root zone soil at the same crop rotation system (p < 0.01), and also significant difference of species richness was found between continuous cropping with corn and corn-soybean rotation treatment in the rhizosphere statement, no-tillage and ridge tillage in root zone soils. Implied by further beta diversity analysis, both tillage methods and crop rotation systems influence the soil microbial diversity and community structure in varying degree. The composition and community structure of microbes in rhizosphere and root zone soils were clustered distinctly by the beta diversity (p < 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size (LEfSe) analysis of total taxa in rhizosphere picked more than 100 bacterial taxa, which were significantly more abundant than that in root zone soils, whereas the number of biomarkers was lower between the continuous cropping with corn and crop rotation treatment, the same pattern was found at no-tillage and ridge tillage treatment. Bacterial communities were greatly influenced by main environmental factors in large scale, which is the result of biological adaptation and acclimation, hence it is beneficial for optimizing agricultural practices.

Keywords: tillage methods, biomarker, biodiversity, rhizosphere

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2005 Managing Diversity in MNCS: A Literature Review of Existing Strategic Models for Managing Diversity and a Roadmap to Transfer Them to the Subsidiaries

Authors: Debora Gottardello, Mireia Valverde Aparicio, Juan Llopis Taverner

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Globalization has given rise to a great diversity in the composition of people in organizations. Diversity management is therefore key to create growth in today’s competitive global marketplace. This work develops a literature review related to the existing models for managing diversity covering the period from 1980 until 2014. Furthermore, it identifies limitations in previous models. More specifically, the literature review reveals that there is a lack of information about how these models can be adapted from the headquarters to the subsidiaries. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is to suggest how the models should be adapted when they are directed to host countries. Our aim is to highlight the limitations of the developed models with regards to the translation of the diversity management practices to the subsidiaries. Accordingly, a model that will enable MNCs to ensure a global strategy is suggested. Taking advantage of the potential incorporated in a culturally diverse work team should be at the top of every international company’s aims. Executives from headquarters need to use different attitudes when transferring diversity practices towards their subsidiaries. Further studies should reassess local practices of diversity management to find out how this universal management model is translated.

Keywords: culture diversity, diversity management, human resources management, MNCs, subsidiaries, workforce diversity

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2004 The Analysis of Cultural Diversity in EFL Textbook for Senior High School in Indonesia

Authors: Soni Ariawan

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The study aims to explore the cultural diversity highlighted in EFL textbook for Senior High School grade 10 in Indonesia. The visual images are selected as the data and qualitatively analysed using content analysis. The reason to choose visual images because images are not always neutral and they might impact teaching and learning process. In the current study, cultural diversity aspects are focused on religion (Muslim, Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian), gender (male, female, unclear), ethnic (Melanesian, Austronesian, Foreigner) and socioeconomic (low, middle, high, undetermined) diversity as the theoretical framework. The four aspects of cultural diversity are sufficiently representative to draw a conclusion in investigating Indonesian culture representation in EFL textbook. The finding shows that cultural diversity is not proportionally reflected in the textbook, particularly in the visual images.

Keywords: EFL textbook, cultural diversity, visual images, Indonesia

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2003 Metabolic and Phylogenetic Profiling of Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains Isolated from NZ Soils of Varying pH

Authors: Anish Shah, Steve A. Wakelin, Derrick Moot, Aurélie Laugraud, Hayley J. Ridgway

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A mixed pasture system of ryegrass-clover is used in New Zealand, where clovers are generally inoculated with commercially available strains of rhizobia. The community of rhizobia living in the soil and the way in which they interact with the plant are affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. In general, bacterial richness and diversity in soil varies by soil pH. pH also affects cell physiology and acts as a master variable that controls the wider soil physiochemical conditions such as P availability, Al release and micronutrient availability. As such, pH can have both primary and secondary effects on soil biology and processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil pH on the genetic diversity and metabolic profile of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating clover. Soils were collected from 12 farms across New Zealand which had a pH(water) range of between 4.9 and 7.5, with four acidic (pH 4.9 – 5.5), four ‘neutral’ (5.8 – 6.1) and four alkaline (6.5 – 7.5) soils. Bacteria were recovered from nodules of Trifolium repens (white clover) and T. subterraneum (subterranean clover) grown in the soils. The strains were cultured and screened against a range of pH-amended media to demonstrate whether they were adapted to pH levels similar to their native soils. The strains which showed high relative growth at a given pH (~20% of those isolated) were selected for metabolic and taxonomic profiling. The Omnilog (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) phenotype array was used to perform assays on carbon (C) utilisation for selected strains. DNA was extracted from the strains which had differing C utilisation profiles and PCR products for both forward and reverse primers were sequenced for the following genes: 16S rRNA, recA, nodC, nodD and nifH (symbiotic).

Keywords: bacterial diversity, clover, metabolic and taxonomic profiling, pH adaptation, rhizobia

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
2002 Bacterial Diversity in Human Intestinal Microbiota and Correlations with Nutritional Behavior, Physiology, Xenobiotics Intake and Antimicrobial Resistance in Obese, Overweight and Eutrophic Individuals

Authors: Thais O. de Paula, Marjorie R. A. Sarmiento, Francis M. Borges, Alessandra B. Ferreira-Machado, Juliana A. Resende, Dioneia E. Cesar, Vania L. Silva, Claudio G. Diniz

Abstract:

Obesity is currently a worldwide public health threat, being considered a pandemic multifactorial disease related to the human gut microbiota (GM). Add to that GM is considered an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) and little is known on GM and ARG in obesity, considering the altered physiology and xenobiotics intake. As regional and social behavior may play important roles in GM modulation, and most of the studies are based on small sample size and various methodological approaches resulting in difficulties for data comparisons, this study was focused on the investigation of GM bacterial diversity in obese (OB), overweight (OW) and eutrophic individuals (ET) considering their nutritional, clinical and social characteristics; and comparative screening of AGR related to their physiology and xenobiotics intake. Microbial community was accessed by FISH considering phyla as a taxonomic level, and PCR-DGGE followed by dendrograms evaluation (UPGMA method) from fecal metagenome of 72 volunteers classified according to their body mass index (BMI). Nutritional, clinical, social parameters and xenobiotics intake were recorded for correlation analysis. The fecal metagenome was also used as template for PCR targeting 59 different ARG. Overall, 62% of OB were hypertensive, and 12% or 4% were, regarding the OW and ET individuals. Most of the OB were rated as low income (80%). Lower relative bacterial densities were observed in the OB compared to ET for almost all studied taxa (p < 0.05) with Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio increased in the OB group. OW individuals showed a bacterial density representative of GM more likely to the OB. All the participants were clustered in 3 different groups based on the PCR-DGGE fingerprint patterns (C1, C2, C3), being OB mostly grouped in C1 (83.3%) and ET mostly grouped in C3 (50%). The cluster C2 showed to be transitional. Among 27 ARG detected, a cluster of 17 was observed in all groups suggesting a common core. In general, ARG were observed mostly within OB individuals followed by OW and ET. The ratio between ARG and bacterial groups may suggest that AGR were more related to enterobacteria. Positive correlations were observed between ARG and BMI, calories and xenobiotics intake (especially use of sweeteners). As with nutritional and clinical characteristics, our data may suggest that GM of OW individuals behave in a heterogeneous pattern, occasionally more likely to the OB or to the ET. Regardless the regional and social behaviors of our population, the methodological approaches in this study were complementary and confirmatory. The imbalance of GM over the health-disease interface in obesity is a matter of fact, but its influence in host's physiology is still to be clearly elucidated to help understanding the multifactorial etiology of obesity. Although the results are in agreement with observations that GM is altered in obesity, the altered physiology in OB individuals seems to be also associated to the increased xenobiotics intake and may interfere with GM towards antimicrobial resistance, as observed by the fecal metagenome and ARG screening. Support: FAPEMIG, CNPQ, CAPES, PPGCBIO/UFJF.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, bacterial diversity, gut microbiota, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
2001 Study of Microbial Diversity Associated with Tarballs and Their Exploitation in Crude Oil Degradation

Authors: Varsha Shinde, Belle Damodara Shenoy

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Tarballs are crude oil remnants found in oceans after long term weathering process and are a global concern since several decades as potential marine pollutant. Being complicated in structure microbial remediation of tarballs in natural environment is a slow process. They are rich in high molecular weight alkanes and poly aromatic hydrocarbons which are resistant to microbial attack and other environmental factors, therefore remain in environment for long time. However, it has been found that many bacteria and fungi inhabit on tarballs for nutrients and shelter. Many of them are supposed to be oil degraders, while others are supposed to be getting benefited by byproducts formed during hydrocarbon metabolism. Thus tarballs are forming special interesting ecological niche of microbes. This work aimed to study diversity of bacteria and fungi from tarballs and to see their potential application in crude oil degradation. The samples of tarballs were collected from Betul beach of south Goa (India). Different methods were used to isolate culturable fraction of bacteria and fungi from it. Those were sequenced for 16S rRNA gene and ITS for molecular level identification. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the presence of 13 bacterial genera/clades (Alcanivorax, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Marinobacter, Nitratireductor, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Tistrella and Vibrio), while the ITS sequence analysis placed the fungi in 8 diverse genera/ clades (Aspergillus, Byssochlamys, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scytalidium/ Xylogone, Talaromyces and Trichoderma). All bacterial isolates were screened for oil degradation capacity. Potential strains were subjected to crude oil degradation experiment for quantification. Results were analyzed by GC-MS-MS.

Keywords: bacteria, biodegradation, crude oil, diversity, fungi, tarballs

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2000 The Influence of the Normative Gender Binary in Diversity Management: A Multi-Method Study on Gender Diversity of Diversity Management

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

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Diversity Management, as a substantial element of Human Resource Management, aims to secure the economic benefit that assumingly comes with a diverse workforce. Consequently, diversity managers focus on the protection of employees and securing equality measurements to assure organisational gender diversity. Gender diversity as one aspect of Diversity Management seems to adhere to gender binarism and cis-normativity. Workplaces are gendered spaces which are echoing the binary gender-normativity presented in Diversity Management, sold under the label of gender diversity. While the expectation of Diversity Management implies the inclusion of a multiplicity of marginalised groups, such as trans and gender diverse people, in current literature and practice, the reality is curated by gender binarism and cis-normativity. The qualitative multi-method research showed a lack of knowledge about trans and gender diverse matters within the profession of Diversity Management and Human Resources. The semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals from various backgrounds and occupations in Australia exposed missing considerations of trans and gender diverse experiences in the inclusivity and gender equity of various workplaces. Even if practitioners consider trans and gender diverse matters under gender diversity, the practical execution is limited to gender binary structures and cis-normative actions as the photo-elicit questionnaire with diversity managers, human resource officers, and personnel management demonstrates. Diversity Management should approach a broader source of informed practice by extending their business focus to the knowledge of humanity studies. Humanity studies could include diversity, queer, or gender studies to increase the inclusivity of marginalised groups such as trans and gender diverse employees and people. Furthermore, the definition of gender diversity should be extended beyond the gender binary and cis-normative experience. People may lose trust in Diversity Management as a supportive ally of marginalised employees if the understanding of inclusivity is limited to a gender binary and cis-normativity value system that misrepresents the richness of gender diversity.

Keywords: cis-normativity, diversity management, gender binarism, trans and gender diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1999 Evaluation of Negative Air Ions in Bioaerosol Removal: Indoor Concentration of Airborne Bacterial and Fungal in Residential Building in Qom City, Iran

Authors: Z. Asadgol, A. Nadali, H. Arfaeinia, M. Khalifeh Gholi, R. Fateh, M. Fahiminia

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The present investigation was conducted to detect the type and concentrations of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in one room (bedroom) of each selected residential building located in different regions of Qom during February 2015 (n=9) to July 2016 (n=11). Moreover, we evaluated the efficiency of negative air ions (NAIs) in bioaerosol reduction in indoor air in residential buildings. In the first step, the mean concentrations of bacterial and fungal in nine sampling sites evaluated in winter were 744 and 579 colony forming units (CFU)/m3, while these values were 1628.6 and 231 CFU/m3 in the 11 sampling sites evaluated in summer, respectively. The most predominant genera between bacterial and fungal in all sampling sites were detected as Micrococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. and also, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp., respectively. The 95% and 45% of sampling sites have bacterial and fungal concentrations over the recommended levels, respectively. In the removal step, we achieved a reduction with a range of 38% to 93% for bacterial genera and 25% to 100% for fungal genera by using NAIs. The results suggested that NAI is a highly effective, simple and efficient technique in reducing the bacterial and fungal concentration in the indoor air of residential buildings.

Keywords: bacterial, fungal, negative air ions (NAIs), indoor air, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
1998 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd

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The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
1997 Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose Membranes from Nata de Coco for CO2/CH4 Separation

Authors: Yanin Hosakun, Sujitra Wongkasemjit, Thanyalak Chaisuwan

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Carbon dioxide removal from natural gas is an important process because the existence of carbon dioxide in natural gas contributes to pipeline corrosion, reduces the heating value, and takes up volume in the pipeline. In this study, bacterial cellulose was chosen for the CO2/CH4 gas separation membrane due to its unique structure and prominent properties. Additionally, it can simply be obtained by culturing the bacteria so called “Acetobacter xylinum” through fermentation of coconut juice. Bacterial cellulose membranes with and without silver ions were prepared and studied for the separation performance of CO2 and CH4.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, CO2, CH4 separation, membrane, nata de coco

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
1996 Bacteriological Screening and Antibiotic – Heavy Metal Resistance Profile of the Bacteria Isolated from Some Amphibian and Reptile Species of the Biga Stream in Turkey

Authors: Nurcihan Hacioglu, Cigdem Gul, Murat Tosunoglu

Abstract:

In this article, the antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of the bacteria isolated from total 34 studied animals (Pelophylax ridibundus = 12, Mauremys rivulata = 14, Natrix natrix = 8) captured around the Biga Stream, are described. There was no database information on antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria from these area’s amphibians and reptiles. In this study, a total of 200 bacteria were successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptiles as well as from the water sample. According to Jaccard’s similarity index, the degree of similarity in the bacterial flora was quite high among the amphibian and reptile species under examination, whereas it was different from the bacterial diversity in the water sample. The most frequent isolates were A. hydrophila (31.5%), B. pseudomallei (8.5%), and C. freundii (7%). The total numbers of bacteria obtained were as follows: 45 in P. ridibundus, 45 in N. natrix 30 in M. rivulata, and 80 in the water sample. The result showed that cefmetazole was the most effective antibiotic to control the bacteria isolated in this study and that approximately 93.33% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to this antibiotic. The Multiple Antibiotic Resistances (MAR) index indicated that P. ridibundus (0.95) > N. natrix (0.89) > M. rivulata (0.39). Furthermore, all the tested heavy metals (Pb+2, Cu+2, Cr+3, and Mn+2) inhibit the growth of the bacterial isolates at different rates. Therefore, it indicated that the water source of the animals was contaminated with both antibiotic residues and heavy metals.

Keywords: bacteriological quality, amphibian, reptile, antibiotic, heavy metal resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1995 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Iranian Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) Accessions Using ISSR Makers

Authors: Mehdi Mohebodini, Iman Khalili-Baseri, Mehdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan

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Diversity analysis at the molecular level using PCR-based markers is the efficient and rapid method of identifying the relationships and differences among the genotypes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships among 20 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The genotyping data were used to understand the relationships among the collected accessions and identify genetically diverse purslane accessions. The 25 primers gave a total of 92 bands, of which 62 were polymorphic (67.4%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon’s information index was 0.55, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of an observed allele, effective allele, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei’s index were 2, 1.65, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively.

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., genetic diversity, ISSR, germplasm

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
1994 Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling

Authors: Hui Li, Xueying Zhao, Ke Ma, Yu Cao, Fan Yang, Qingwen Xu, Wenbin Liu

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Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.

Keywords: bacterial profiling, forensic, massively parallel sequencing, soil evidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
1993 Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Bacterial Properties of Camellia sinensis, Tea Plant

Authors: Rini Jarial, Puranjan Mishra, Lakhveer Singh, Sveta Thakur, A. W. Zularisam, Mimi Sakinah

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The aim of the present study was to assess the biological properties of Camellia sinensis and to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic leaves-extract (MLE) of commercial green tea (Camellia sinensis) was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. The flavonoid (5.0 to 8.0 mg/ml) and protein content (10 to 15 mg/ml) of the MLE were recorded. MLE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (11-30 mm zone of inhibition) and was maximum against Staphylococcus aureus (30 mm). The MLE of Camellia sinensis had the best MIC values of 2.25 and 0.56 mg/ml against S. aureus and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The MLE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (65%) against a Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%). The present study provided strong experimental evidences that the MLE of Camellia sinensis is not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities that might be beneficial in the body weight management.

Keywords: anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial activity, anti-lipolytic activity, Camellia sinensis, phyto-chemicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1992 Interpersonal Variation of Salivary Microbiota Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

Authors: Manjula Weerasekera, Chris Sissons, Lisa Wong, Sally Anderson, Ann Holmes, Richard Cannon

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The aim of this study was to characterize bacterial population and yeasts in saliva by Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and measure yeast levels by culture. PCR-DGGE was performed to identify oral bacteria and yeasts in 24 saliva samples. DNA was extracted and used to generate DNA amplicons of the V2–V3 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene using PCR. Further universal primers targeting the large subunit rDNA gene (25S-28S) of fungi were used to amplify yeasts present in human saliva. Resulting PCR products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using Universal mutation detection system. DGGE bands were extracted and sequenced using Sanger method. A potential relationship was evaluated between groups of bacteria identified by cluster analysis of DGGE fingerprints with the yeast levels and with their diversity. Significant interpersonal variation of salivary microbiome was observed. Cluster and principal component analysis of the bacterial DGGE patterns yielded three significant major clusters, and outliers. Seventeen of the 24 (71%) saliva samples were yeast positive going up to 10³ cfu/mL. Predominately, C. albicans, and six other species of yeast were detected. The presence, amount and species of yeast showed no clear relationship to the bacterial clusters. Microbial community in saliva showed a significant variation between individuals. A lack of association between yeasts and the bacterial fingerprints in saliva suggests the significant ecological person-specific independence in highly complex oral biofilm systems under normal oral conditions.

Keywords: bacteria, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, oral biofilm, yeasts

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
1991 Bioinformatic Screening of Metagenomic Fosmid Libraries for Identification of Biosynthetic Pathways Derived from the Colombian Soils

Authors: María Fernanda Quiceno Vallejo, Patricia del Portillo, María Mercedes Zambrano, Jeisson Alejandro Triana, Dayana Calderon, Juan Manuel Anzola

Abstract:

Microorganisms from tropical ecosystems can be novel in terms of adaptations and conservation. Given the macrodiversity of Colombian ecosystems, it is possible that this diversity is also present in Colombian soils. Tropical soil bacteria could offer a potentially novel source of bioactive compounds. In this study we analyzed a metagenomic fosmid library constructed with tropical bacterial DNAs with the aim of understanding its underlying diversity and functional potential. 8640 clones from the fosmid library were sequenced by NANOPORE MiniOn technology, then analyzed with bioinformatic tools such as Prokka, AntiSMASH and Bagel4 in order to identify functional biosynthetic pathways in the sequences. The strains showed ample difference when it comes to biosynthetic pathways. In total we identified 4 pathways related to aryl polyene synthesis, 12 related to terpenes, 22 related to NRPs (Non ribosomal peptides), 11 related PKs (Polyketide synthases) and 7 related to RiPPs (bacteriocins). We designed primers for the metagenomic clones with the most BGCs (sample 6 and sample 2). Results show the biotechnological / pharmacological potential of tropical ecosystems. Overall, this work provides an overview of the genomic and functional potential of Colombian soil and sets the groundwork for additional exploration of tropical metagenomic sequencing.

Keywords: bioactives, biosyntethic pathways, bioinformatic, bacterial gene clusters, secondary metabolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 32