Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: glycine max

68 Modeling of Glycine Transporters in Mammalian Using the Probability Approach

Authors: K. S. Zaytsev, Y. R. Nartsissov


Glycine is one of the key inhibitory neurotransmitters in Central nervous system (CNS) meanwhile glycinergic transmission is highly dependable on its appropriate reuptake from synaptic cleft. Glycine transporters (GlyT) of types 1 and 2 are the enzymes providing glycine transport back to neuronal and glial cells along with Na⁺ and Cl⁻ co-transport. The distribution and stoichiometry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 differ in details, and GlyT2 is more interesting for the research as it reuptakes glycine to neuron cells, whereas GlyT1 is located in glial cells. In the process of GlyT2 activity, the translocation of the amino acid is accompanied with binding of both one chloride and three sodium ions consequently (two sodium ions for GlyT1). In the present study, we developed a computer simulator of GlyT2 and GlyT1 activity based on known experimental data for quantitative estimation of membrane glycine transport. The trait of a single protein functioning was described using the probability approach where each enzyme state was considered separately. Created scheme of transporter functioning realized as a consequence of elemental steps allowed to take into account each event of substrate association and dissociation. Computer experiments using up-to-date kinetic parameters allowed receiving the number of translocated glycine molecules, Na⁺ and Cl⁻ ions per time period. Flexibility of developed software makes it possible to evaluate glycine reuptake pattern in time under different internal characteristics of enzyme conformational transitions. We investigated the behavior of the system in a wide range of equilibrium constant (from 0.2 to 100), which is not determined experimentally. The significant influence of equilibrium constant in the range from 0.2 to 10 on the glycine transfer process is shown. The environmental conditions such as ion and glycine concentrations are decisive if the values of the constant are outside the specified range.

Keywords: glycine, inhibitory neurotransmitters, probability approach, single protein functioning

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67 Glycine Betaine Affects Antioxidant Response and Lipid Peroxidation in Wheat Genotypes under Water-Deficit Conditions

Authors: S. K. Thind, Neha Gupta


Glycine betaine (N, N’, N’’– trimethyl glycine), (GB) as aqueous solution (100 mM) containing 0.1% TWEEN-20 (Ploythylene glycol sorbitan monolaurate) was sprayed on selected nineteen wheat genotypes at maximum tillering and anthesis stages. Water-deficit conditions resulted in lipid peroxidation. GB applications reduced lipid peroxidation in all wheat genotypes at both the stages. Catalase (CAT) activity was recorded more in control than under stressed conditions in selected wheat genotypes at both the stages; GB had no effect. The ascorbic acid content in leaves of selected genotypes increased under water deficit. A genotypic variability in Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) activity was recorded and GB treatment decreased it. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased significantly under water-deficit at both stages in all genotypes. In present study, prolonged water-deficit conditions caused CAT deficiency/suppression which was compensated by APX and SOD; and GB exogenous application mitigated negative effect of water-deficit stress on lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: glycine-betaine, lipid peroxidation, ROS, water deficit stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
66 Mechanical Properties of Diamond Reinforced Ni Nanocomposite Coatings Made by Co-Electrodeposition with Glycine as Additive

Authors: Yanheng Zhang, Lu Feng, Yilan Kang, Donghui Fu, Qian Zhang, Qiu Li, Wei Qiu


Diamond-reinforced Ni matrix composite has been widely applied in engineering for coating large-area structural parts owing to its high hardness, good wear resistance and corrosion resistance compared with those features of pure nickel. The mechanical properties of Ni-diamond composite coating can be promoted by the high incorporation and uniform distribution of diamond particles in the nickel matrix, while the distribution features of particles are affected by electrodeposition process parameters, especially the additives in the plating bath. Glycine has been utilized as an organic additive during the preparation of pure nickel coating, which can effectively increase the coating hardness. Nevertheless, to author’s best knowledge, no research about the effects of glycine on the Ni-diamond co-deposition has been reported. In this work, the diamond reinforced Ni nanocomposite coatings were fabricated by a co-electrodeposition technique from a modified Watt’s type bath in the presence of glycine. After preparation, the SEM morphology of the composite coatings was observed combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and the diamond incorporation was analyzed. The surface morphology and roughness were obtained by a three-dimensional profile instrument. 3D-Debye rings formed by XRD were analyzed to characterize the nickel grain size and orientation in the coatings. The average coating thickness was measured by a digital micrometer to deduce the deposition rate. The microhardness was tested by automatic microhardness tester. The friction coefficient and wear volume were measured by reciprocating wear tester to characterize the coating wear resistance and cutting performance. The experimental results confirmed that the presence of glycine effectively improved the surface morphology and roughness of the composite coatings. By optimizing the glycine concentration, the incorporation of diamond particles was increased, while the nickel grain size decreased with increasing glycine. The hardness of the composite coatings was increased as the glycine concentration increased. The friction and wear properties were evaluated as the glycine concentration was optimized, showing a decrease in the wear volume. The wear resistance of the composite coatings increased as the glycine content was increased to an optimum value, beyond which the wear resistance decreased. Glycine complexation contributed to the nickel grain refinement and improved the diamond dispersion in the coatings, both of which made a positive contribution to the amount and uniformity of embedded diamond particles, thus enhancing the microhardness, reducing the friction coefficient, and hence increasing the wear resistance of the composite coatings. Therefore, additive glycine can be used during the co-deposition process to improve the mechanical properties of protective coatings.

Keywords: co-electrodeposition, glycine, mechanical properties, Ni-diamond nanocomposite coatings

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65 Increase of Atmosphere CO2 Concentration and Its Effects on Culture/Weed Interaction

Authors: J. I. Santos, A. E. Cesarin, C. A. R. Sales, M. B. B. Triano, P. F. R. B. Martins, A. F. Braga, N. J. Neto, A., A. M. Barroso, P. L. C. A. Alves, C. A. M. Huaman


Climate change projections based on the emission of greenhouse effect gases suggest an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, in up to 750 ppm. In this scenario, we have significant changes in plant development, and consequently, in agricultural systems. This study aims to evaluate the interaction between culture (Glycine max) and weed (Amaranthus viridis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in two conditions of CO2, 400 and 800 ppm. The results showed that the coexistence of culture with both weed species resulted in a mutual loss, with decrease in dry mass productivity of culture + weeds, in both conditions of CO2. However, when the culture is grown in association with E. heterophylla, total dry mass of culture + weed was smaller at 800 ppm. Soybean was more aggressive in comparison to the A. viridis in both the concentrations of CO2, but not in relation to the E. heterophylla.

Keywords: plants interaction, increase of [CO₂], plants of metabolismo C3, glycine max

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
64 Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Soybean (Glycine max. L.) by Using Osmoprotectants and Compost Application

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, SobhySorour, AbdElhamid Omar, Adel Ragab, Mohammad Sohidul Islam, Celaleddin Barutçular, Akihiro Ueda, Hirofumi Saneoka


Salinity is one of the major factors limiting crop production in an arid environment. What adds to the concern is that all the legume crops are sensitive to increasing soil salinity. So it is implacable to either search for salinity enhancement of legume plants. The exogenous of osmoprotectants has been found effective in reducing the adverse effects of salinity stress on plant growth. Despite its global importance soybean production suffer the problems of salinity stress causing damages at plant development. Therefore, in the current study we try to clarify the mechanism that might be involved in the ameliorating effects of osmo-protectants such as proline and glycine betaine and compost application on soybean plants grown under salinity stress. Experiments were carried out in the greenhouse of the experimental station, plant nutritional physiology, Hiroshima University, Japan in 2011- 2012. The experiment was arranged in a factorial design with 4 replications at NaCl concentrations (0 and 15 mM). The exogenous, proline and glycine betaine concentrations (0 mM and 25 mM) for each. Compost treatments (0 and 24 t ha-1). Results indicated that salinity stress induced reduction in all growth and physiological parameters (dry weights plant-1, chlorophyll content, N and K+ content) likewise, seed and quality traits of soybean plant compared with those of the unstressed plants. In contrast, salinity stress led to increases in the electrolyte leakage ratio, Na and proline contents. Thus tolerance against salt stress was observed, the improvement of salt tolerance resulted from proline, glycine betaine and compost were accompanied with improved membrane stability, K+, and proline accumulation on contrary, decreased Na+ content. These results clearly demonstrate that could be used to reduce the harmful effect of salinity on both physiological aspects and growth parameters of soybean. They are capable of restoring yield potential and quality of seed and may be useful in agronomic situations where saline conditions are diagnosed as a problem. Consequently, exogenous osmo-protectants combine with compost will effectively solve seasonal salinity stress problem and are a good strategy to increase salinity resistance in the drylands.

Keywords: compost, glycine betaine, proline, salinity tolerance, soybean

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63 Genomic and Proteomic Variation in Glycine Max Genotypes towards Salinity

Authors: Faheema Khan


In order to investigate the influence of genetic background on salt tolerance in Soybean (Glycine max) ten soybean genotypes released/notified in India were selected. (Pusa-20, Pusa-40, Pusa-37, Pusa-16, Pusa-24, Pusa-22, BRAGG, PK-416, PK-1042, and DS-9712). The 10-day-old seedlings were subjected to 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mM NaCl for 15 days. Plant growth, leaf osmotic adjustment, and RAPD analysis were studied. In comparison to control plants, the plant growth in all genotypes was decreased by salt stress, respectively. Salt stress decreased leaf osmotic potential in all genotypes however the maximum reduction was observed in genotype Pusa-24 followed by PK-416 and Pusa-20. The difference in osmotic adjustment between all the genotypes was correlated with the concentrations of ion examined such as Na+ and the leaf proline concentration. These results suggest that the genotypic variation for salt tolerance can be partially accounted for by plant physiological measures. The genetic polymorphisms between soybean genotypes differing in response to salt stress were characterized using 25 RAPD primers. These primers generated a total of 1640 amplification products, among which 1615 were found to be polymorphic. A very high degree of polymorphism (98.30%) was observed. UPGMA cluster analysis of genetic similarity indices grouped all the genotypes into two major clusters. Intra-clustering within the two clusters precisely grouped the 10 genotypes in sub-cluster as expected from their physiological findings. Our results show that RAPD technique is a sensitive, precise and efficient tool for genomic analysis in soybean genotypes.

Keywords: glycine max, NaCl, RAPD, proteomics

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62 Design and Facile Synthesis of New Amino Acid Derivatives with Anti-Tumor and Antimicrobial Activities

Authors: Hoda Sabry Othman, Randa Helmy Swellem, Galal Abd El-Moein Nawwar


N-cyanoacetyl glycine is a reactive polyfunctional precursor for synthesis of new difficult accessible compounds including pyridones, thiazolopyridine and others. The key step of this protocol is the formation of different ylidines which underwent Michael addition with carbon nucleophiles affording various heterocyclic compounds. Selected compounds underwent pharmacological evaluation, in vitro against two cell lines; breast cell line (MCF-7),and liver cell line(HEPG2). Compounds 14, 15a and 16 showed IC50 values 8.93, 8.18 and 8.03 (µ/ml) respectively for breast cell line (MCF-7), while the standard drug (Tamoxifen) revealed IC50 8.31. With respect to the liver cell line (HEPG2), compounds 14 and 15a revealed IC50 18.4 and 13.6(µ/ml) respectively while the IC50 of the standard drug(5-Flurouracil) is 25(µ/ml). The antimicrobial activity was also screened and revealed that oxime 7 and ylidine 9f showed a broad-spectrum activity.

Keywords: antitumor, cyanoacetyl glycine, heterocycles, pyridones

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
61 CAP-Glycine Protein Governs Growth, Differentiation, and the Pathogenicity of Global Meningoencephalitis Fungi

Authors: Kyung-Tae Lee, Li Li Wang, Kwang-Woo Jung, Yong-Sun Bahn


Microtubules are involved in mechanical support, cytoplasmic organization as well as in a number of cellular processes by interacting with diverse microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), such as plus-end tracking proteins, motor proteins, and tubulin-folding cofactors. A common feature of these proteins is the presence of a cytoskeleton-associated protein-glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain, which is evolutionarily conserved and generally considered to bind to α-tubulin to regulate functions of microtubules. However, there has been a dearth of research on CAP-Gly proteins in fungal pathogens, including Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes fatal meningoencephalitis globally. In this study, we identified five CAP-Gly proteins encoding genes in C. neoformans. Among these, Cgp1, encoded by CNAG_06352, has a unique domain structure that has not been reported before in other eukaryotes. Supporting the role of Cpg1 in microtubule-related functions, we demonstrate that deletion or overexpression of CGP1 alters cellular susceptibility to thiabendazole, a microtubule destabilizer, and Cgp1 is co-localized with cytoplasmic microtubules. Related to the cellular functions of microtubules, Cgp1 also governs maintenance of membrane stability and genotoxic stress responses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Cgp1 uniquely regulates sexual differentiation of C. neoformans with distinct roles in the early and late stage of mating. Our domain analysis reveals that the CAP-Gly domain plays major roles in all the functions of Cgp1. Finally, the cgp1Δ mutant is attenuated in virulence. In conclusion, this novel CAP-Gly protein, Cgp1, has pleotropic roles in regulating growth, stress responses, differentiation and pathogenicity of C. neoformans.

Keywords: human fungal pathogen, CAP-Glycine protein, microtubule, meningoencephalitis

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60 Salt Tolerance of Potato: Genetically Engineered with Atriplex canescens BADH Gene Driven by 3 Copies of CAMV35s Promoter

Authors: Arfan Ali, Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal, Idrees Ahmad Nasir


Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is ranked among the top leading staple foods in the world. Salinity adversely affects potato crop yield and quality. Therefore, increased level of salt tolerance is a key factor to ensure high yield. The present study focused on the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Atriplex canescens betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene, using single, double and triple CAMV35s promoter to improve salt tolerance in potato. Detection of seven potato lines harboring BADH gene, followed by identification of T-DNA insertions, determination of transgenes copies no through Southern Hybridization and quantification of BADH protein through Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay were considered in this study. The results clearly depict that the salt tolerance of potato was found to be promoter-dependent, as the potato transgenic lines with triple promoter showed 4.4 times more glycine betaine production which consequently leads towards high resistance to salt stress as compared to transgenic potato lines with single and double promoters having least production of glycine betaine. Moreover, triple promoter transgenic potato lines have also shown lower levels of H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), relative electrical conductivity, high proline and chlorophyll content as compared other two lines having a single and double promoter. Insilco analysis also confirmed that Atriplex canescens BADH has the tendency to interact with sodium ions and water molecules. Taken together these facts it can be concluded that over-expression of BADH under triple CAMV35s promoter with more glycine betaine, chlorophyll & MDA contents, high relative quantities of other metabolites results in an enhanced level of salt tolerance in potato.

Keywords: Atriplex canescens, BADH, CAMV35s promotor, potato, Solanum tubersum

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
59 Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects Coating

Authors: Seyedeh Narjes Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Enayati, Fathallah Karimzadeh, Nigel Mark Sammes


The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an optimized combustion-like process followed by calcinations is described herein. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods. Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48 (stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the as-prepared powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the 2 ratio results in the formation of desired copper spinel single phase at both calcinations temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates decomposes to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react to each other to form copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized samples were obtained 2 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C), respectively.

Keywords: SOFC interconnect coatings, Copper ferrite, Spinels, electrical conductivity, Glycine–nitrate process

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58 GGE-Biplot Analysis of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Silica Effects on Sunflower

Authors: Naser Sabaghnia, Mohsen Janmohammadi, Mehdi Mohebodini


Present investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid, nano-silica, and nano-titanium dioxide on sunflower. Results showed that the first two principal components were sufficient to create a two-dimensional treatment by trait biplot, and such biplot accounted percentages of 49% and 19%, respectively of the interaction between traits and treatments. The vertex treatments of polygon were ascorbic acid, glycine betaine, nano-TiO2, and control indicated that high performance in some important traits consists of number of days to seed maturity, number of seeds per head, number heads per single plant, hundred seed weight, seed length, seed yield performance, and oil content. Treatments suitable for obtaining the high seed yield were identified in the vector-view function of biplot and displayed nano-silica and nano titanium dioxide as the best treatments suitable for obtaining of high seed yield.

Keywords: drought stress, nano-silicon dioxide, oil content, TiO2 nanoparticles

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57 Production of Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by a Thermophilic Strain of Bacillus and Pseudomonas Species

Authors: Patience Orobosa Olajide


Five hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strains isolated from contaminated environment were investigated with respect to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Screening for bioplastic production was done on assay mineral salts agar medium containing 0.2% poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) as the sole carbon source. Two of the test bacteria were positive for PHB biosynthesis and were identified based on gram staining, biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus licheniformis which grew at 37 and up to 65 °C respectively, thus suggesting the later to be thermotolerant. In this study, the effects of different carbon and nitrogen sources on PHB production in these strains were investigated. Maximum PHB production was obtained in 48 hr for the two strains and amounted to yields of 72.86 and 62.22 percentages for Bacillus licheniformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. In these strains, glycine was the most efficient carbon sources for the production of PHB compared with other carbon (glucose, lactose, sucrose, Arabinose) and nitrogen (L- glycine, L-cysteine, DL-Tryptophan, and Potassium Nitrate) sources. The screening of microbial strains for industrial PHB production should be based on several factors including the cell’s capability to mineralize an inexpensive substrate, rate of growth and the extent of polymer accumulation.

Keywords: bacteria, poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), hydrocarbon, thermotolerant

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
56 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Co (II) Ternary Complexes Involving N-(2-Acetamido) Iminodiacete and Some Amino Acids Acid by Periodate

Authors: Ahmed A. Abdel-Khalek, Reham A. Mohamed


The kinetics of oxidation of the cobalt (II) complexes, [CoII(ADA)(Gly)(H2O)2]-, (ADA = N-(2-acetamido) iminodi-acetic acid and (Gly = Glycine) by periodate in aqueous acetate medium to cobalt (III) have been studied spectrophotometrically at 530 nm over the 30–50°C and a variety pH 4.57-5.25 range and I = 0.50 mol dm-3 under pseudo first order condition by taking large excess of oxidant [IO4-] and it obeys the following rate law: Rate=[CoII(ADA)(Gly)(H2O)2]-[H5IO6]{k4K6+(k5K7K5/[H+])}. Also, the kinetics of oxidation of the cobalt(II) complexes, [CoII(ADA)(Val)(H2O)2]- (ADA = N-(2-acetamido) iminodi-acetic acid and (Val = valine) by periodate in aqueous medium to cobalt (III) have been studied spectrophotometrically at 580 nm over the 30–50°C and a variety pH 4.3-5.12 range and I = 0.50 mol dm-3 under pseudo first order condition by taking large excess of oxidant [IO4-] and it obeys the following rate law: Rate=[CoII(ADA)(Val)(H2O)2]-[H5IO6]{k4K6+(k5K7K5/[H+])}

Keywords: periodate, oxidation, cobalt (II), glycine, valine acid, n-(2-acetamido imino-diacetato)

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55 Effect of Nitrogen Source on Production of CMCase by Bacillus megaterium 1295S Isolated from Sewage Treatment Plants

Authors: Adel A. S. Al-Gheethi, M. O. Abdul-Monem


Cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from wastewater and sludge, and identified as Bacillus megaterium 1295S, Sporosarcina pasteurii 586S, Bacillus subtilis 117S, Burkholderia cepacia 120S and Staphylococcus xylosus 222W. Among bacteria, B. megaterium 1295S was the best cellulase producer under the catabolic repression and was therefore selected to study the factors affecting cellulase production. The optimum conditions for cellulase production were observed in CMC-Yeast Extract (CYE) agar medium (pH 6.5) inoculated with 0.4 mL of bacterial culture and incubated at 45˚C for 72 h. Twenty amino acids were introduced into the production medium as nitrogen source to investigate the production of cellulase in presence of amino acids in comparison to peptone (as an organic source) and sodium nitrate (as an inorganic source). The results found that the maximum production of cellulase was recorded at 50 ppm when L-hydroxy proline, L-arginine, glycine, L-histidine, L-leucine, DL-isoleucine, DL-β-phenylalanine were used as sole nitrogen sources and at 100 ppm when DL-threonine, L-ornithine 12.29, L-proline were used as sole nitrogen sources. The highest biomass yield was found when glycine 5 ppm and DL-serine 100 ppm used as a nitrogen source.

Keywords: CMCase, Bacillus megaterium 1295S, factors, amino acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
54 Metabolomics Profile Recognition for Cancer Diagnostics

Authors: Valentina L. Kouznetsova, Jonathan W. Wang, Igor F. Tsigelny


Metabolomics has become a rising field of research for various diseases, particularly cancer. Increases or decreases in metabolite concentrations in the human body are indicative of various cancers. Further elucidation of metabolic pathways and their significance in cancer research may greatly spur medicinal discovery. We analyzed the metabolomics profiles of lung cancer. Thirty-three metabolites were selected as significant. These metabolites are involved in 37 metabolic pathways delivered by MetaboAnalyst software. The top pathways are glyoxylate and dicarboxylate pathway (its hubs are formic acid and glyoxylic acid) along with Citrate cycle pathway followed by Taurine and hypotaurine pathway (the hubs in the latter are taurine and sulfoacetaldehyde) and Glycine, serine, and threonine pathway (the hubs are glycine and L-serine). We studied interactions of the metabolites with the proteins involved in cancer-related signaling networks, and developed an approach to metabolomics biomarker use in cancer diagnostics. Our analysis showed that a significant part of lung-cancer-related metabolites interacts with main cancer-related signaling pathways present in this network: PI3K–mTOR–AKT pathway, RAS–RAF–ERK1/2 pathway, and NFKB pathway. These results can be employed for use of metabolomics profiles in elucidation of the related cancer proteins signaling networks.

Keywords: cancer, metabolites, metabolic pathway, signaling pathway

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53 Exploration Study of Civet Coffee: Amino Acids Composition and Cup Quality

Authors: Murna Muzaifa, Dian Hasni, Febriani, Anshar Patria, Amhar Abubakar


Coffee flavour is influenced by many factors such as processing techniques. Civet coffee is known as one of premium coffee due to its unique processing technique and its superior cupping quality. The desirable aroma of coffee is foremost formed during roasting step at a high temperature from precursors that are present in the green bean. Sugars, proteins, acids and trigonelline are the principal flavor precursors compounds in green coffee bean. It is now widely accepted that amino acids act as precursors of the Maillard reaction during which the colour and aroma are formed. To investigate amino acids on civet coffee, concentration of 20 amino acids (L-Isoleucine, L-Valine, L-Proline, L-Phenylalanine, L-Arginine, L-Asparagine, L-Threonine, L-Tryptophan, L-Leucine, L-Serine, L-Glutamine, L-Methionine, L-Histidine, Aspartic acid, L-Tyrosine, L-Lysine, L-Glutamic acid, and L-Cysteine, L-Alanine and Glycine) were determined in green and roasted bean of civet coffee by LCMS analysis. The cup quality of civet coffee performed using professional Q-grader followed SCAA standard method. The measured parameters were fragrance/aroma, flavor, acidity, body, uniformity, clean up, aftertaste, balance, sweetness and overall. The work has been done by collecting samples of civet coffee from six locations in Gayo Higland, Aceh-Indonesia. The results showed that 18 amino acids were detected in green bean of civet coffee (L-Isoleucine, L-Valine, L-Proline, L-Phenylalanine, L-Arginine, L-Asparagine, L-Threonine, L-Tryptophan, L-Leucine, L-Serine, L-Glutamine, L-Methionine, L-Histidine, Aspartic acid, L-Tyrosine, L-Lysine, L-Glutamic acid, and L-Cysteine) and 2 amino acids were not detected (L-Alanine and Glycine). On the other hand, L-Tyrosine and Glycine were not detected in roasted been of civet coffee. Glutamic acid is the amino acid with highest concentration in both green and roasted bean (21,02 mg/g and 24,60 mg/g), followed by L- Valine (19,98 mg/g and 20,22 mg/g) and Aspartic acid (14,93 mg/g and 18,58 mg/g). Civet coffee has a fairly high cupping value (cup quality), ranging from 83.75 to 84.75, categorized as speciality coffee. Moreover, civet coffee noted to have nutty, chocolaty, fishy, herby and watery.

Keywords: amino acids, civet coffee, cupping quality, luwak

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
52 The Effects of Inoculation and N Fertilization on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Seed Yield and Protein Concentration under Drought Stress

Authors: Oqba Basal, Andras Szabo


Using mineral fertilization is increasing worldwide, as it is claimed to be majorly responsible for achieving high yields; however, the negative impacts of mineral fertilization on soil and environment are becoming more obvious, with alternative methods being more necessary and applicable, especially with the current climatic changes which have imposed serious abiotic stresses, such as drought. An experiment was made during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of inoculation and N fertilization on the seed yield and protein concentration of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivar (Panonia Kincse) under three different irrigation regimes: severe drought stress (SD), moderate drought stress (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Three N fertilizer rates were applied: no N fertilizer (0 N), 35 kg ha⁻¹ of N fertilizer (35 N) and 105 kg ha⁻¹ of N fertilizer (105 N). Half of the seeds in each treatment was inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant, and the other half was not inoculated. The results showed significant differences in the seed yield associated with inoculation, irrigation and the interaction between them, whereas there were no significant differences in the seed yield associated with fertilization alone or in interaction with inoculation or irrigation or both. When seeds were inoculated, yield was increased when (35 N) was applied compared to (0 N) but not significantly; however, the high rate of N fertilizer (105 N) reduced the yield to a level even less than (0 N). When seeds were not inoculated, the highest rate of N increased the yield the most compared to the other two N fertilizer rates whenever the drought was present (moderate or severe). Under severe drought stress, inoculation was positively and significantly correlated with yield; however, adding N fertilizer increased the yield of uninoculated plants compared to the inoculated ones, regardless of the rate of N fertilizer. Protein concentration in the seeds was significantly affected by irrigation and by fertilization, but not by inoculation. Protein concentration increased as the N fertilization rate increased, regardless of the inoculation or irrigation treatments; moreover, increasing the N rate reduced the correlation coefficient of protein concentration with the irrigation. It was concluded that adding N fertilizer is not always recommended, especially when seeds are inoculated before being sown; however, it is very important under severe drought stress to sustain yield. Enhanced protein concentrations could be achieved by applying N fertilization, whether the seeds were pre-inoculated or not.

Keywords: drought stress, N fertilization, protein concentration, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
51 Extracellular Hydrolase-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Chilca Salterns in Peru

Authors: Carol N. Flores-Fernández, Guadalupe Espilco, Cynthia Esquerre, Amparo I. Zavaleta


Saline environments represent a valuable source of enzymes with novel properties and particular features for application in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry. This study focuses on the isolation and screening of hydrolase-producing bacteria from Chilca salterns and the evaluation of their biotechnological potential. Soil samples were collected from Chilca salterns in Peru. For the isolation, medium containing 0.2 % of yeast extract, 5 % of NaCl and 10 % of the soil sample was used. After 72 h of incubation at 37 °C, serial dilutions were made up to 10−12 dilutions, spread on agar plates with 0.5 % of yeast extract and 5 % of NaCl, and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. Screening of hydrolase-producing bacteria was carried out for cellulases, amylases, lipases, DNase, and proteases on specific media. Moreover, protease-producing bacteria were tested using protein extracted from the following legumes as substrate: Glycine max, Lupinus mutabilis, Pisum sativum, Erythrina edulis, Cicer arietinum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba. A total of 16 strains were isolated from soil samples. On the screening media; 75, 44, 81 and 50 % were cellulase, amylase, DNase and protease producers, respectively. Also, 19 % of the isolates produced all the hydrolytic enzymes above mentioned. Lipase producers were not found. The 37 % and 12 % of the strains grew at 20 % and 30 % of salt concentration, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the strains grew at pH range between 5 and 10. From the total of protease-producing bacteria, 100 % hydrolyzed Glycine max, Lupinus mutabilis, and Pisum sativum protein, while 87 % hydrolyzed Erythrina edulis and Cicer arietinum protein. Finally, 75 % and 50 % of the strains hydrolyzed Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba protein, respectively. Hydrolase-producing bacteria isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru grew at high salt concentrations and wide range of pH. In addition, protease-producing bacteria hydrolyzed protein from different sources such as leguminous. These enzymes have great biotechnological potential and could be used for different industrial processes and applications.

Keywords: bacteria, extracellular, hydrolases, Peru, salterns

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50 Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed ligand complexes of Bipyridyl and Glycine with Different Counter Anions as Functional Antioxidant Enzyme Mimics

Authors: Mohamed M. Ibrahim, Gaber A. M. Mersal, Salih Al-Juaid, Samir A. El-Shazly


A series of mixed ligand complexes, viz., [Cu(BPy)(Gly)X]Y {X = Cl (1), Y = 0; X = 0, Y = ClO4- (2); X = H2O, Y = NO3- (3); X = H2O, Y = CH3COO- (4); and [Cu(BPy)(Gly)-(H2O)]2(SO4) (5) have been synthesized. Their structures and properties were characterized by elemental analysis, thermal analaysis, IR, UV–vis, and ESR spectroscopy, as well as electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry, electrical molar conductivity, and magnetic moment measurements. Complexes 1 and 2 formed slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometries of CuN3OCl and CuN3O2, respectively in which the N,O-donor glycine and N,N-donor bipyridyl bind at the basal plane with chloride ion or water as the axial ligand. Complex 3 shows square planar CuN3O coordination geometry, which exhibits chemically significant hydrogen bonding interactions besides showing coordination polymer formation. The superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities of all complexes were tested and were found to be promising candidates as durable electron-transfer catalyst being close to the efficiency of the mimicking enzymes displaying either catalase or tyrosinase activity to serve for complete reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, both with respect to superoxide radicals and related peroxides. The DNA binding interaction with super coiled pGEM-T plasmid DNA was investigated by using spectral (absorption and emission) titration and electrochemical techniques. The results revealed that DNA intercalate with complexes 1 and 2 through the groove binding mode. The calculated intrinsic binding constant (Kb) of 1 and 2 were 4.71 and 2.429 × 105 M−1, respectively. Gel electrophoresis study reveals the fact that both complexes cleave super coiled pGEM-T plasmid DNA to nicked and linear forms in the absence of any additives. On the other hand, the interaction of both complexes with DNA, the quasi-reversible CuII/CuI redox couple slightly improves its reversibility with considerable decrease in current intensity. All the experimental results indicate that the bipyridyl mixed copper(II) complex (1) intercalate more effectively into the DNA base pairs.

Keywords: enzyme mimics, mixed ligand complexes, X-ray structures, antioxidant, DNA-binding, DNA cleavage

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49 Genomic and Proteomic Variability in Glycine Max Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

Authors: Faheema Khan


To investigate the ability of sensitive and tolerant genotype of Glycine max to adapt to a saline environment in a field, we examined the growth performance, water relation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in relation to photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigment concentration, protein and proline in plants exposed to salt stress. Ten soybean genotypes (Pusa-20, Pusa-40, Pusa-37, Pusa-16, Pusa-24, Pusa-22, BRAGG, PK-416, PK-1042, and DS-9712) were selected and grown hydroponically. After 3 days of proper germination, the seedlings were transferred to Hoagland’s solution (Hoagland and Arnon 1950). The growth chamber was maintained at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 430 μmol m−2 s−1, 14 h of light, 10 h of dark and a relative humidity of 60%. The nutrient solution was bubbled with sterile air and changed on alternate days. Ten-day-old seedlings were given seven levels of salt in the form of NaCl viz., T1 = 0 mM NaCl, T2=25 mM NaCl, T3=50 mM NaCl, T4=75 mM NaCl, T5=100 mM NaCl, T6=125 mM NaCl, T7=150 mM NaCl. The investigation showed that genotype Pusa-24, PK-416 and Pusa-20 appeared to be the most salt-sensitive. genotypes as inferred from their significantly reduced length, fresh weight and dry weight in response to the NaCl exposure. Pusa-37 appeared to be the most tolerant genotype since no significant effect of NaCl treatment on growth was found. We observed a greater decline in the photosynthetic variables like photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content, in salt-sensitive (Pusa-24) genotype than in salt-tolerant Pusa-37 under high salinity. Numerous primers were verified on ten soybean genotypes obtained from Operon technologies among which 30 RAPD primers shown high polymorphism and genetic variation. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficient values for each pairwise comparison between cultivars were calculated and similarity coefficient matrix was constructed. The closer varieties in the cluster behaved similar in their response to salinity tolerance. Intra-clustering within the two clusters precisely grouped the 10 genotypes in sub-cluster as expected from their physiological findings.Salt tolerant genotype Pusa-37, was further analysed by 2-Dimensional gel electrophoresis to analyse the differential expression of proteins at high salt stress. In the Present study, 173 protein spots were identified. Of these, 40 proteins responsive to salinity were either up- or down-regulated in Pusa-37. Proteomic analysis in salt-tolerant genotype (Pusa-37) led to the detection of proteins involved in a variety of biological processes, such as protein synthesis (12 %), redox regulation (19 %), primary and secondary metabolism (25 %), or disease- and defence-related processes (32 %). In conclusion, the soybean plants in our study responded to salt stress by changing their protein expression pattern. The photosynthetic, biochemical and molecular study showed that there is variability in salt tolerance behaviour in soybean genotypes. Pusa-24 is the salt-sensitive and Pusa-37 is the salt-tolerant genotype. Moreover this study gives new insights into the salt-stress response in soybean and demonstrates the power of genomic and proteomic approach in plant biology studies which finally could help us in identifying the possible regulatory switches (gene/s) controlling the salt tolerant genotype of the crop plants and their possible role in defence mechanism.

Keywords: glycine max, salt stress, RAPD, genomic and proteomic variability

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48 The Effects of Drought and Nitrogen on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Physiology and Yield

Authors: Oqba Basal, András Szabó


Legume crops are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic relation with specific bacteria, which allows the use of the mineral nitrogen-fertilizer to be reduced, or even excluded, resulting in more profit for the farmers and less pollution for the environment. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important legumes with its high content of both protein and oil. However, it is recommended to combine the two nitrogen sources under stress conditions in order to overcome its negative effects. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that increasingly limits soybean yields. A precise rate of mineral nitrogen under drought conditions is not confirmed, as it depends on many factors; soybean yield-potential and soil-nitrogen content to name a few. An experiment was conducted during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of nitrogen source on the physiology and the yield of the soybean cultivar 'Boglár'. Three N-fertilizer rates including no N-fertilizer (0 N), 35 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (35 N) and 105 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (105 N) were applied under three different irrigation regimes; severe drought stress (SD), moderate drought stress (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Half of the seeds in each treatment were pre-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant. The overall results showed significant differences associated with fertilization and irrigation, but not with inoculation. Increasing N rate was mostly accompanied with increased chlorophyll content and leaf area index, whereas it positively affected the plant height only when the drought was waived off. Plant height was the lowest under severe drought, regardless of inoculation and N-fertilizer application and rate. Inoculation increased the yield when there was no drought, and a low rate of N-fertilizer increased the yield furthermore; however, the high rate of N-fertilizer decreased the yield to a level even less than the inoculated control. On the other hand, the yield of non-inoculated plants increased as the N-fertilizer rate increased. Under drought conditions, adding N-fertilizer increased the yield of the non-inoculated plants compared to their inoculated counterparts; moreover, the high rate of N-fertilizer resulted in the best yield. Regardless of inoculation, the mean yield of the three fertilization rates was better when the water amount increased. It was concluded that applying N-fertilizer to provide the nitrogen needed by soybean plants, with the absence of N2-fixation process, is very important. Moreover, adding relatively high rate of N-fertilizer is very important under severe drought stress to alleviate the drought negative effects. Further research to recommend the best N-fertilizer rate to inoculated soybean under drought stress conditions should be executed.

Keywords: drought stress, inoculation, N-fertilizer, soybean physiology, yield

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47 A Study on the Vegetative and Osmolyte Accumulation of Capsicum frutescens L. under Zinc Metal Stress

Authors: Ja’afar Umar, Adamu Aliyu Aliero


Plant growth, biochemical parameters, zinc metal concentrations were determined for Capsicum frutescens L. in response to varied concentration of zinc metal. The plant exhibited a decline in the vegetative parameters measured. Free proline and glycine betaine content increases with increasing concentration of zinc metal and differ significantly (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the osmolyte (pro and GB) accumulations, and high length of stem and wide leaf expansion are possible indicator of tolerance to heavy metals (Zinc) in Capsicum frutescens.

Keywords: zinc metal, osmolyte, Capsicum frutescens, stress

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46 Development and Evaluation of a Calcium Rich Plant-Based Supplement on Bone Turnover of Peri and Post Menopausal Women

Authors: Gayathri.G, Hemamalini.A.J, Chandrasekaran.A


Problem statement: Nutritional deficiency, especially calcium, may lead to poor bone formation and mineralization. Although there are plenty of synthetic supplements available, it is essential to make a calcium rich food supplement accessible to combat calcium deficiency that could be readily prepared at the household level. Thus the current study aimed to formulate and standardize an indigenous low-cost calcium-rich food supplement and to study the impact of supplementation on the bone resorption and formation markers. Methods: A Randomized controlled trial was conducted with 60 subjects distributed equally in control and experimental groups, including perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. A plant-based calcium-rich product was developed and supplemented in form of balls as a midmorning and evening snack by addition of optimized proportions of leaves of Sesbania Grandiflora, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Eleusine coracana, Glycine max, Vigna mungo for a period of 6 months. Postmenopausal and perimenopausal women received 1200mg and 800mg of calcium per day from the supplemented, respectively. Outcome measures like serum calcium; betacrosslaps (bone resorption marker) and total P1NP (bone absorption marker) were assessed after 3 months and after 6 months. Results: There were no significant changes seen in the serum calcium and total P1NP levels (bone formation marker) among the subjects during the supplementation period. The bone resorption marker (betacrosslaps) reduced in all the groups and the reduction (0.32 ± 0.130 ng/ml to 0.25 ± 0.130 ng/ml) was found to be statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) in experimental group of perimenopausal subjects and significant (p < 0.05) in experimental group of postmenopausal subjects (1.11 ± 0.290 ng/ml to 0.42 ± 0.263 ng/ml). Conclusion: With the current severe calcium deficiency in the Indian population, integrating low-cost, calcium-rich native foods that could be readily prepared at household level would be useful in raising the nutritional consumption of calcium, which would, in turn, decrease bone turnover.

Keywords: calcium, sesbania grandiflora, sesamum indicum, eleusine coracana, glycine max, vigna mungo, postmenopause, perimenopause, bone resorption, bone absorption, betacrosslaps, total P1NP

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45 Pioneer Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Containing Hard Materials

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş


The first laboratory synthesis of hard materials such as diamond proceeded to attack of developing materials with high hardness to compete diamond. Boron rich solids are good candidates owing to their short interatomic bond lengths and strong covalent character. Boron containing hard material was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere by using a fuel (glycine or urea), amorphous boron and/or boric acid in appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differantial thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: boron containing materials, hard materials, microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction

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44 The Effect of Fuel Type on Synthesis of CeO2-MgO Nano-Powder by Combustion Method

Authors: F. Ghafoori-Najafabadi, R. Sarraf-Mamoory, N. Riahi-Noori


In this study, nanocrystalline CeO2-MgO powders were synthesized by combustion reactions using citric acid, ethylene glycol, and glycine as different fuels and nitrate as an oxidant. The powders obtained with different kinds of fuels are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size and morphology of the particles and the extent of agglomeration in the powders were studied using SEM analysis. It is observed that the variation of fuel has an intense influence on the particle size and morphology of the resulting powder. X-ray diffraction revealed that any combined phases were observed, and that MgO and CeO2 phases were formed, separately.

Keywords: nanoparticle, combustion synthesis, CeO2-MgO, nano-powder

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43 The Role of Thermo Priming on Improving Seedling Production Technology (ISPT) in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Seed's

Authors: Behzad Sani, Vida Jodaeian


In order to determine the impact of thermo priming on germination of soybean seeds, an experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors of studied included different time thermo priming (control, 5 and 10 minutes) through the placing seeds were exposed to oven. The results showed that the effect of thermo priming was significant on germination percentage, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour in P ≤ 0.05. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (77 %), seedling dry weight (1.39 g) and seedling vigour (107.03) were achieved by 10 minutes thermo priming.

Keywords: thermo priming, seedling, seedling production, seedling growth, soybean

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42 Effect of Formulation Compositions and Freezing Rates on the Conformational Changes of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin (HA)

Authors: Thanh Phuong Doan, Narueporn Sutanthavibul


The influence of freezing cycle on influenza haemagglutinin (HA) conformational stability was investigated in terms of freezing rates and formulation compositions. The results showed that appropriate HA conformation could be evaluated using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy with HA concentration of greater than 0.09 mg/ml. The intermediate freezing rate of approximately 1.0oC/min preserved the original HA conformation better than at slow freezing rate (0.5oC/min) and rapid freezing rate (2.6oC/min). The changes in CD spectra of the secondary HA structure were more pronounced than those of the tertiary HA structure during the evaluation. Additionally, the formulations, which resulted in the highest conformational stability were found to have sucrose present in the composition. As opposed to when only glycine was used, the stability of HA conformation was poor.

Keywords: freezing, haemagglutinin, influenza, circular dichroism

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41 Salinity Stress: Effects on Growth Biochemical Parameters and Ion Homeostasis in Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.)

Authors: Umar Jaafar, Mungadi


Plant growth, biochemical parameters, cytotoxic ion sequestration and ionic in balance were determined for spinach in response to varied concentrations of NaCl. The plant show decline in all vegetative parameters measured. Free proline content increase with increasing salt concentration and differ significantly (p<0.05) while the glycine betaine insignificantly (p>0.05) affected by concentration of NaCl. Salinity increases the cytotoxic ions, sodium chlorine ion and calcium with corresponding decrease in potassium ion concentrations. The ionic balance (Na+/K+) is low due to high content of potassium ion in plant accumulation ranging from 7700 to 6500 mg/kg. It can be concluded that the osmolyte accumulations, high number of leaves are possible indicators of salt tolerance in the spinach.

Keywords: spinach, salinity, osmolyte, cytotoxic

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40 Development and Total Error Concept Validation of Common Analytical Method for Quantification of All Residual Solvents Present in Amino Acids by Gas Chromatography-Head Space

Authors: A. Ramachandra Reddy, V. Murugan, Prema Kumari


Residual solvents in Pharmaceutical samples are monitored using gas chromatography with headspace (GC-HS). Based on current regulatory and compendial requirements, measuring the residual solvents are mandatory for all release testing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Generally, isopropyl alcohol is used as the residual solvent in proline and tryptophan; methanol in cysteine monohydrate hydrochloride, glycine, methionine and serine; ethanol in glycine and lysine monohydrate; acetic acid in methionine. In order to have a single method for determining these residual solvents (isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, methanol and acetic acid) in all these 7 amino acids a sensitive and simple method was developed by using gas chromatography headspace technique with flame ionization detection. During development, no reproducibility, retention time variation and bad peak shape of acetic acid peaks were identified due to the reaction of acetic acid with the stationary phase (cyanopropyl dimethyl polysiloxane phase) of column and dissociation of acetic acid with water (if diluent) while applying temperature gradient. Therefore, dimethyl sulfoxide was used as diluent to avoid these issues. But most the methods published for acetic acid quantification by GC-HS uses derivatisation technique to protect acetic acid. As per compendia, risk-based approach was selected as appropriate to determine the degree and extent of the validation process to assure the fitness of the procedure. Therefore, Total error concept was selected to validate the analytical procedure. An accuracy profile of ±40% was selected for lower level (quantitation limit level) and for other levels ±30% with 95% confidence interval (risk profile 5%). The method was developed using DB-Waxetr column manufactured by Agilent contains 530 µm internal diameter, thickness: 2.0 µm, and length: 30 m. A constant flow of 6.0 mL/min. with constant make up mode of Helium gas was selected as a carrier gas. The present method is simple, rapid, and accurate, which is suitable for rapid analysis of isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, methanol and acetic acid in amino acids. The range of the method for isopropyl alcohol is 50ppm to 200ppm, ethanol is 50ppm to 3000ppm, methanol is 50ppm to 400ppm and acetic acid 100ppm to 400ppm, which covers the specification limits provided in European pharmacopeia. The accuracy profile and risk profile generated as part of validation were found to be satisfactory. Therefore, this method can be used for testing of residual solvents in amino acids drug substances.

Keywords: amino acid, head space, gas chromatography, total error

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39 Isolation and Characterization of Collagen from Chicken Feet

Authors: P. Hashim, M. S. Mohd Ridzwan, J. Bakar


Collagen was isolated from chicken feet by using papain and pepsin enzymes in acetic acid solution at 4°C for 24h with a yield of 18.16% and 22.94% by dry weight, respectively. Chemical composition and characteristics of chicken feet collagen such as amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE patterns, FTIR spectra and thermal properties were evaluated. The chicken feet collagen is rich in the amino acids glycine, glutamic acid, proline and hydroxyproline. Electrophoresis pattern demonstrated two distinct α-chains (α1 and α2) and β chain, indicating that type I collagen is a major component of chicken feet collagen. The thermal stability of collagen isolated by papain and pepsin revealed stable denaturation temperatures of 48.40 and 53.35°C, respectively. The FTIR spectra of both collagens were similar with amide regions in A, B, I, II, and III. The study demonstrated that chicken feet collagen using papain isolation method is possible as commercial alternative ingredient.

Keywords: chicken feet, collagen, papain, pepsin

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