Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: bureaucracy

52 Rational Bureaucracy and E-Government: A Philosophical Study of Universality of E-Government

Authors: Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

Hegel is the first great political philosopher who specifically contemplates on bureaucracy. For Hegel bureaucracy is the function of the state. Since state, essentially is a rational organization, its function; namely, bureaucracy must be rational. Since, what is rational is universal; Hegel had to explain how the bureaucracy could be understood as universal. Hegel discusses bureaucracy in his treatment of ‘executive power’. He analyses modern bureaucracy as a form of political organization, its constituent members, and its relation to the social environment. Therefore, the essence of bureaucracy in Hegel’s philosophy is the implementation of law and rules. Hegel argues that unlike the other social classes that are particular because they look for their own private interest, bureaucracy as a class is a ‘universal’ because their orientation is the interest of the state. State for Hegel is essentially rational and universal. It is the actualization of ‘objective Spirit’. Marx criticizes Hegel’s argument on the universality of state and bureaucracy. For Marx state is equal to bureaucracy, it constitutes a social class that based on the interest of bourgeois class that dominates the society and exploits proletarian class. Therefore, the main disagreement between these political philosophers is: whether the state (bureaucracy) is universal or particular. Growing e-government in modern state as an important aspect of development leads us to contemplate on the particularity and universality of e-government. In this article, we will argue that e-government essentially is universal. E-government, in itself, is impartial; therefore, it cannot be particular. The development of e-government eliminates many side effects of the private, personal or particular interest of the individuals who work as bureaucracy. Finally, we will argue that more a state is developed more it is universal. Therefore, development of e-government makes the state a more universal and affects the modern philosophical debate on the particularity or universality of bureaucracy and state.

Keywords: particularity, universality, rational bureaucracy, impartiality

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51 From Bureaucracy to Organizational Learning Model: An Organizational Change Process Study

Authors: Vania Helena Tonussi Vidal, Ester Eliane Jeunon

Abstract:

This article aims to analyze the change processes of management related bureaucracy and learning organization model. The theoretical framework was based on Beer and Nohria (2001) model, identified as E and O Theory. Based on this theory the empirical research was conducted in connection with six key dimensions: goal, leadership, focus, process, reward systems and consulting. We used a case study of an educational Institution located in Barbacena, Minas Gerais. This traditional center of technical knowledge for long time adopted the bureaucratic way of management. After many changes in a business model, as the creation of graduate and undergraduate courses they decided to make a deep change in management model that is our research focus. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with director, managers and courses supervisors. The analysis were processed by the procedures of Collective Subject Discourse (CSD) method, develop by Lefèvre & Lefèvre (2000), Results showed the incremental growing of management model toward a learning organization. Many impacts could be seeing. As negative factors we have: people resistance; poor information about the planning and implementation process; old politics inside the new model and so on. Positive impacts are: new procedures in human resources, mainly related to manager skills and empowerment; structure downsizing, open discussions channel; integrated information system. The process is still under construction and now great stimulus is done to managers and employee commitment in the process.

Keywords: bureaucracy, organizational learning, organizational change, E and O theory

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50 The Relationship between Conceptual Organizational Culture and the Level of Tolerance in Employees

Authors: M. Sadoughi, R. Ehsani

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is examining the relationship between conceptual organizational culture and the level of tolerance in employees of Islamic Azad University of Shahre Ghods. This research is a correlational and analytic-descriptive one. The samples included 144 individuals. A 24-item standard questionnaire of organizational culture by Cameron and Queen was used in this study. This questionnaire has six criteria and each criterion includes four items that each item indicates one cultural dimension. Reliability coefficient of this questionnaire was normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Also, the 25-item questionnaire of tolerance by Conor and Davidson was used. This questionnaire is in a five-degree Likert scale form. It has seven criteria and is designed to measure the power of coping with pressure and threat. It has the needed content reliability and its reliability coefficient is normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariable regression. The results showed among various dimensions of organizational culture, there is a positive significant relationship between three dimensions (family, adhocracy, bureaucracy) and tolerance, there is a negative significant relationship between dimension of market and tolerance and components of organizational culture have the power of prediction and explaining the tolerance. In this explanation, the component of family is the most effective and the best predictor of tolerance.

Keywords: adhocracy, bureaucracy, organizational culture, tolerance

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49 Comparative Public Administration: A Case Study of ASEAN Member States

Authors: Nattapol Pourprasert

Abstract:

This research is to study qualitative research having two objectives: 1. to study comparison of private sector of government to compare with ASEAN Member States, 2. to study trend of private enterprise administration of ASEAN Member States. The results are: (1) Thai people focus on personal resource administrative system, (2) Indonesia focuses on official system by good administrative principles, (3) Malaysia focuses on technology development to service people, (4) Philippines focuses on operation system development, (5) Singapore focuses on public service development, (6) Brunei Darussalam focuses on equality in government service of people, (7) Vietnam focuses on creating government labor base and develop testing and administration of operation test, (8) Myanmar focuses on human resources development, (9) Laos focuses on form of local administration, (10) Cambodia focuses on policy revolution in personal resources. The result of the second part of the study are: (1) Thailand created government personnel to be power under qualitative official structural event, (2) Indonesia has Bureaucracy Reform Roadmap of Bureaucracy Reform and National Development Plan Medium Term, (3) Malaysia has database for people service, (4) Philippines follows up control of units operation by government policy, (5) Singapore created reliability, participation of people to set government policy people’s demand, (6) Brunei Darussalam has social welfare to people, (7) Vietnam revolved testing system and administration including manpower base construction of government effectively, (8) Myanmar creates high rank administrators to develop country, (9) Laos distributes power to locality, and (10) Cambodia revolved personnel resource policy.

Keywords: public administration development, ASEAN member states, private sector, government

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48 Factors That Affect the Diffusion of Innovation in Greek Archaeological Museums

Authors: Maria Boile, Eirini Sifaki

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This study, based on desktop research and the analysis of questionnaires completed by a representative sample of museums, adopts the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory of Everett Rogers as a theoretical basis to figure out the perceived benefits that occur for any organization after the adoption of an official website, and identify the factors that affect its diffusion process. The most important conclusion is that Greek archaeological museums are far away from involving such technologies in their strategies, mainly because of the bureaucracy, the lack of necessary funds, and the lack of personnel.

Keywords: dDiffusion of innovation, websites, archaeological museums, economic crisis

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47 Civil Service Reforms in Kazakhstan and Its Influence on Modernization

Authors: Aliya Idrissova

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Civil service (public administration) is an important social institution of society properties. Civil service institution had a significant impact on modernization processes in Kazakhstan through ensuring the functioning of all the subsystems of social life. This article is an attempt to analyses the reforms of public service institution in Kazakhstan and to assess its influence on modernization processes.

Keywords: civil service, Kazakhstan, modernization, a national model of civil service, civil service reforms, bureaucracy

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46 Local Religion 'Parmalim': Between Civilization and Faith

Authors: Sabrina Yulianti

Abstract:

This study aims to explain the identity struggles of local religious communities in Indonesia. Local religion in Indonesia is not recognized by the government and is not incorporated into the official religion in Indonesia. This makes the local religions in Indonesia experienced the challenges and obstacles in fulfilling their rights as citizens of Indonesia. Challenges and barriers they experience such as: difficulty in making of the birth certificate and marriage. It is as experienced by one of the local religions namely Parmalim which located in North Sumatra. Not only difficulty in taking care of the bureaucracy as a citizen, but the local religion is seen as a minority and sometimes regarded as follower of deviate religion.

Keywords: local religion, faith, struggles, civilization, discrimination

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45 Enabling Rather Than Managing: Organizational and Cultural Innovation Mechanisms in a Heterarchical Organization

Authors: Sarah M. Schoellhammer, Stephen Gibb

Abstract:

Bureaucracy, in particular, its core element, a formal and stable hierarchy of authority, is proving less and less appropriate under the conditions of today’s knowledge economy. Centralization and formalization were consistently found to hinder innovation, undermining cross-functional collaboration, personal responsibility, and flexibility. With its focus on systematical planning, controlling and monitoring the development of new or improved solutions for customers, even innovation management as a discipline is to a significant extent based on a mechanistic understanding of organizations. The most important drivers of innovation, human creativity, and initiative, however, can be more hindered than supported by central elements of classic innovation management, such as predefined innovation strategies, rigid stage gate processes, and decisions made in management gate meetings. Heterarchy, as an alternative network form of organization, is essentially characterized by its dynamic influence structures, whereby the biggest influence is allocated by the collective to the persons perceived the most competent in a certain issue. Theoretical arguments that the non-hierarchical concept better supports innovation than bureaucracy have been supported by empirical research. These prior studies either focus on the structure and general functioning of non-hierarchical organizations or on their innovativeness, that means innovation as an outcome. Complementing classic innovation management approaches, this work aims to shed light on how innovations are initiated and realized in heterarchies in order to identify alternative solutions practiced under conditions of the post-bureaucratic organization. Through an initial individual case study, which is part of a multiple-case project, the innovation practices of an innovative and highly heterarchical medium-sized company in the German fire engineering industry are investigated. In a pragmatic mixed methods approach media resonance, company documents, and workspace architecture are analyzed, in addition to qualitative interviews with the CEO and employees of the case company, as well as a quantitative survey aiming to characterize the company along five scaled dimensions of a heterarchy spectrum. The analysis reveals some similarities and striking differences to approaches suggested by classic innovation management. The studied heterarchy has no predefined innovation strategy guiding new product and service development. Instead, strategic direction is provided by the CEO, described as visionary and creative. Procedures for innovation are hardly formalized, with new product ideas being evaluated on the basis of gut feeling and flexible, rather general criteria. Employees still being hesitant to take responsibility and make decisions, hierarchical influence is still prominent. Described as open-minded and collaborative, culture and leadership were found largely congruent with definitions of innovation culture. Overall, innovation efforts at the case company tend to be coordinated more through cultural than through formal organizational mechanisms. To better enable innovation in mainstream organizations, responsible practitioners are recommended not to limit changes to reducing the central elements of the bureaucratic organization, formalization, and centralization. The freedoms this entails need to be sustained through cultural coordination mechanisms, with personal initiative and responsibility by employees as well as common innovation-supportive norms and values. These allow to integrate diverse competencies, opinions, and activities and, thus, to guide innovation efforts.

Keywords: bureaucracy, heterarchy, innovation management, values

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44 Understanding How Democratic Governance Influence Resource Allocation and Utilisation in Economies in Transition: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Terence Maisah Seka

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This paper examines democratic governance within the private and public sectors in economies in transition (Cameroon) by exploring how they influence development in terms of resource allocation to priorities that are locally conceptualized. The benefit of this is an improvement in indigenous and the quality of life for the local population. Using an ethnographic approach, this paper suggests that institutional corruption and state bureaucracy has limited the impact of democratic governance in influencing development. This has seen funds for developments being embezzled; local projects are not being done to satisfaction among others. The paper contributes by proposing measures to eliminate corruption to improve democratic governance, which will improve resource allocation and utilization.

Keywords: democratic governance, resource allocation, utilisation, Cameroon

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43 Kitchen Bureaucracy: The Preparation of Banquets for Medieval Japanese Royalty

Authors: Emily Warren

Abstract:

Despite the growing body of research on Japanese food history, little has been written about the attitudes and perspectives premodern Japanese people held about their food, even on special celebratory days. In fact, the overall image that arises from the literature is one of ambivalence: that the medieval nobility of the Heian and Kamakura periods (795-1333) did not much care about what they ate and for that reason, food seems relatively scarce in certain historical records. This study challenges this perspective by analyzing the manuals written to guide palace management and feast preparation for royals, introducing two of the sources into English for the first time. This research is primarily based on three manuals that address different aspects of royal food culture and preparation. The Chujiruiki, or Record of the Palace Kitchens (1295), is a fragmentary manual written by a bureaucrat in charge of the main palace kitchen office. This document collection details the utensils, furnishing, and courses that officials organized for the royals’ two daily meals in the morning (asagarei gozen) and in the afternoon (hiru gozen) when they enjoyed seven courses, each one carefully cooked and plated. The orchestration of daily meals and frequent banquets would have been complicated affairs for those preparing the tableware and food, thus requiring texts like the Chûjiruiki, as well as another manual, the Nicchûgyôji (11th c.), or The Daily Functions. Because of the complex coordination between various kitchen-related bureaucratic offices, kitchen officials endeavored to standardize the menus and place settings depending on the time of year, religious abstinence days, and available ingredients flowing into the capital as taxes. For the most important annual banquets and rites celebrating deities and the royal family, kitchen officials would likely refer to the Engi Shiki (927), or Protocols of the Engi Era, for details on offerings, servant payments, and menus. This study proposes that many of the great feast events, and indeed even daily meals at the palace, were so standardized and carefully planned for repetition that there would have been little need for the contents of such feasts to be detailed in diaries or novels—places where historians have noted a lack of the mention of food descriptions. These descriptions were not included for lack of interest on the part of the nobility, but rather because knowledge of what would be served at banquets and feasts would be considered a matter-of-course in the same way that a modern American would likely not need to state the menu of a traditional Thanksgiving meal to an American audience. Where food was concerned, novelty more so than tradition prompted a response in personal records, like diaries.

Keywords: banquets, bureaucracy, Engi shiki, Japanese food

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42 RV Car Clinic as Cost-Effective Health Care

Authors: Dessy Arumsari, Ais Assana Athqiya, Mulyaminingrum

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Healthcare in remote areas is one of the major concerns in Indonesia. Building hospitals in a nation of 18.000 islands with a larger-than-life bureaucracy and problems with corruption, a critical shortage of qualified medical professionals and well-heeled patients resigned to traveling abroad for health care is a hard feat to accomplish. To assuring that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective care, a new solution to tackle this problem is with the presence of RV Car Clinic. This car has a concept such as a walking hospital that provides health facilities inside it. All of the health professionals who work in RV Car Clinic will do the rotation for a year in order to the equitable distribution of health workers. We need to advocate the policy makers to help realize RV Car Clinic in remote areas. Health services can be disseminated by the present of RV Car Clinic. Summarily, the local communities can get cost effectively because RV Car Clinic will come to their place and serve the health services.

Keywords: health policy, health professional, remote areas, RV Car Clinic

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41 Role of Judiciary in Developing Countries

Authors: Amir Shafiq, Asif Shahzad, Shabbar Mehmood, Muhammad Saeed, Hamid Mustafa

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Administration of justice in a society is evolutionary process. In pre-modern societies vital organs that we consider separate today i.e. legislation, implementation and adjudication were controlled by a King, the sovereign authority. Whereas now it is recognized that Development of a country revolves in seven arenas i.e. Civil Society, Political Society, Economic Society, Legislature, Judiciary, Executive & Bureaucracy. Each society whether developing or developed, has need of institutions and structures that can resolve difference of opinions of private or public nature between contending parties. Administration of justice has a key-role in the development of the society. Through this paper, it is to highlight that an independent judiciary having the support of public opinion therefore is inevitable to wriggle out from such problems in order to restore and protect the fundamental rights, constitution and democratic political system in third world countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: role of judiciary, developing countries, judicial activism, present scenario

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40 Comparing Performance Indicators among Mechanistic, Organic, and Bureaucratic Organizations

Authors: Benchamat Laksaniyanon, Padcharee Phasuk, Rungtawan Boonphanakan

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With globalization, organizations had to adjust to an unstable environment in order to survive in a competitive arena. Typically within the field of management, different types of organizations include mechanistic, bureaucratic and organic ones. In fact, bureaucratic and mechanistic organizations have some characteristics in common. Bureaucracy is one type of Thailand organization which adapted from mechanistic concept to develop an organization that is suitable for the characteristic and culture of Thailand. The objective of this study is to compare the adjustment strategies of both organizations in order to find key performance indicators (KPI) suitable for improving organization in Thailand. The methodology employed is binary logistic regression. The results of this study will be valuable for developing future management strategies for both bureaucratic and mechanistic organizations.

Keywords: mechanistic, bureaucratic and organic organization, binary logistic regression, key performance indicators (KPI)

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39 Obstacles to Innovation for SMEs: Evidence from Germany

Authors: Natalia Strobel, Jan Kratzer

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Achieving effective innovation is a complex task and during this process firms (especially SMEs) often face obstacles. However, research into obstacles to innovation focusing on SMEs is very scarce. In this study, we propose a theoretical framework for describing these obstacles to innovation and investigate their influence on the innovative performance of SMEs. Data were collected in 2013 through face-to-face interviews with executives of 49 technology SMEs from Germany. The semi-structured interviews were designed on the basis of scales for measuring innovativeness, financial/competitive performance and obstacles to innovation, next to purely open questions. We find that the internal obstacles lack the know-how, capacity overloading, unclear roles and tasks, as well as the external obstacle governmental bureaucracy negatively influence the innovative performance of SMEs. However, in contrast to prior findings this study shows that cooperation ties of firms might also negatively influence the innovative performance.

Keywords: innovation, innovation process, obstacles, SME

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38 Nepal Himalaya: Status of Women, Politics, and Administration

Authors: Tulasi Acharya

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The paper is a qualitative analysis of status of women and women in politics and administration in Nepal Himalaya. The paper reviews data of women in civil service and in administrative levels. Looking at the Nepali politics and administration from the social constructivist perspective, the paper highlights some social and cultural issues that have othered women as “second sex.” As the country is heading towards modernity, gender friendly approaches are being instituted. Although the data reflects on the progress on women’s status and on women’s political and administrative participation, the data is not enough to predict the democratic gender practices in political and administrative levels. The political and administrative culture of Nepal Himalaya should be changed by promoting gender practices and deconstructing gender images in administrative culture through representative bureaucracy and by introducing democratic policies.

Keywords: politics, policy, administration, culture, women, Nepal, democracy

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37 The Relation between Organization Cultures with the Quality of Service for Government Hospital in Dusit Area

Authors: Routsukol Sunalai

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This research was to study the relationship between the organizational culture like bureaucratic system, and patronage system in government hospitals with hospital accreditation and its impact on the quality of service in the government hospital accredited. Qualitative research was applied in this study by in-depth interviews with samples containing 20 public welfare service providers, i.e. doctors, nurses and practical nurses and 20 service recipients in the units of study. It was found that the bureaucracy still existed and was evidenced by the structure of the line of command; work systems, clear cut duty divisions, procedures and plans, and the patronage system hindered the quality of service in the government hospitals under the process of development and accreditation. The administrators should encourage and support the creation of a learning process in the organization for self-improvement and work development.

Keywords: hospital in Dusit Area, organization culture, the quality of service, economics and financial engineering

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36 Tools for Transparency: The Role of Civic Technology in Increasing the Transparency of the State

Authors: Rebecca Rumbul

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The operation of the state can often appear opaque to citizens wishing to access official information, who have to negotiate a path through numerous levels of bureaucracy rationalized through institutional policy to acquire what information they want. Even where individual states have 'Right to Information' legislation guaranteeing citizen access to information, public sector conformity to such laws vary between states and between state organizations. In response to such difficulties in bringing citizens and information together, many NGO's around the world have begun designing and hosting digital portals to facilitate the requesting and receiving of official information. How then, are these 'civic technology' tools affecting the behavior of the state? Are they increasing the transparency of the state? This study looked at 5 Right to Information civic technology sites in Chile, Uruguay, Ukraine, Hungary and the UK, and found that such sites were providing a useful platform to publish official information, but that states were still reluctant to comply with all requests. It concludes that civic technology can be an important tool in increasing the transparency of the state, but that the state must have an institutional commitment to information rights for this to be fully effective.

Keywords: digital, ICT, transparency, civic technology

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35 Project Risk Assessment of the Mining Industry of Ghana

Authors: Charles Amoatey

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The issue of risk in the mining industry is a global phenomenon and the Ghanaian mining industry is not exempted. The main purpose of this study is to identify the critical risk factors affecting the mining industry. The study takes an integrated view of the mining industry by examining the contribution of various risk factors to mining project failure in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted to solicit the critical risk factors from key mining practitioners. About 80 respondents from 11 mining firms participated in the survey. The study identified 22 risk factors contributing to mining project failure in Ghana. The five most critical risk factors based on both probability of occurrence and impact were: (1) unstable commodity prices, (2) inflation/exchange rate, (3) land degradation, (4) high cost of living and (5) government bureaucracy for obtaining licenses. Furthermore, the study found that risk assessment in the mining sector has a direct link with mining project sustainability. Mitigation measures for addressing the identified risk factors were discussed. The key findings emphasize the need for a comprehensive risk management culture in the entire mining industry.

Keywords: risk, assessment, mining, Ghana

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34 Federalizing the Philippines: What Does It Mean for the Igorot Indigenous Peoples?

Authors: Shierwin Agagen Cabunilas

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The unitary form of Philippine government has built a tradition of bureaucracy that strengthened oligarch and clientele politics. Consequently, the Philippines is lagged behind development. There is so much poverty, unemployment, and inadequate social services. In addition, it seems that the rights of national ethnic minority groups like the Igorots to develop their political and economic interests, linguistic and cultural heritage are neglected. Given these circumstances, a paradigm shift is inevitable. The author advocates a transition from a unitary to a federal system of government. Contrary to the notion that a unitary system facilitates better governance, it actually stifles it. As a unitary government, the Philippines seems (a) to exhibit incompetence in delivering efficient, necessary services to the people and (b) to exclude the minority from political participation and policy making. This shows that Philippine unitary system is highly centralized and operates from a top-bottom scheme. However, a federal system encourages decentralization, plurality and political participation. In my view, federalism is beneficial to the Philippine society and congenial to the Igorot indigenous peoples insofar as participative decision-making and development goals are concerned. This research employs critical and constructive analyses. The former interprets some complex practices of Philippine politics while the latter investigates how theories of federalism can be appropriated to deal with political deficits, ethnic diversity, and indigenous peoples’ rights to self-determination. The topic is developed accordingly: First, the author briefly examines the unitary structure of the Philippines and its impact on inter-governmental affairs and processes, asserting that bureaucracy and corruption, for example, are counterproductive to a participative political life, to economic development and to the recognition of national ethnic minorities. Second, he scrutinizes why federalism might transform this. Here, he assesses various opposing philosophical contentions on federal system in managing ethnically diverse society, like the Philippines, and argue that decentralization of political power, economic and cultural developments are reasons to exit from unitary government. Third, he suggests that federalism can be instrumental to Igorots self-determination. Self-determination is neither opposed to national development nor to the ideals of democracy – liberty, justice, solidarity. For example, as others have already noted, a politics in the vernacular facilitates greater participation among the people. Hence, there is a greater chance to arrive at policies that serve the interest of the people. Some may wary that decentralization disintegrates a nation. According to the author, however, the recognition of minority rights which includes self-determination may promote filial devotion to the state. If Igorot indigenous peoples have access to suitable institutions to determine their political life, economic goals, social needs, i.e., education, culture, language, chances are it moves the country forward to development fostering national unity. Remarkably, federal system thus best responds to the Philippines’s democratic and development deficits. Federalism can also significantly rectify the practices that oppress and dislocate national ethnic minorities as it ensures the creation of localized institutions for optimum political, economic, cultural determination and maximizes representation in the public sphere.

Keywords: federalism, Igorot, indigenous peoples, self-determination

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33 Good Governance and Human Development: Case of Rwanda

Authors: Hatun Korkmaz

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Todays, the developing countries of the world widely face challenges of economic growth, political, social and human development. One of the ways to achieve economic, political and human development is good governance. Without an improvement in good governance, the objectives of human development cannot be achieved. The good governance has become a key issue over preceding two decades and it is the very important component of good economic growth and human development. This paper argues that good governance impacts positively human development with the case of Rwanda. Rwanda is a good example of this subject. In this paper, firstly we explained that what is good governance and human development and how we measure them. Then we researched the relationship between good governance and human development in case of Rwanda with the indexes of many international institutions which are researching in this topics. Rwanda has recorded the 'best progress' since the year 2000, making it the ‘most successful' about governance. Rwanda is seen as one of the top ten countries in the region in terms of relative peace, political stability and economic progress. Part of the reason for Rwanda's success is accountability, which comprises access to information, elimination of corruption and bureaucracy and transparency in public service, which variables cumulatively earned it 72.1 percent. According to this research If countries want batter growth and human development then good reforms of good governance is needed.

Keywords: human development, Rwanda, good governance, governance, development

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32 Pali-Sanskrit Terms and Their Uses in Reflecting Political Society of Thailand

Authors: Kowit Pimpuang

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Through analysis of the Pali-Sanskrit (PL-SKT) terms and their uses in reflecting political society of Thailand, the objectives of this study were to explore PL-SKT word formation and its semantic changes employed in the political society of Thailand and to explore the political reflection of Thai society through their uses. Conceptual framework of this study consists of (1) use of PL-SKT word formation namely, primary derivative (Kitaka), secondary derivative (Tathita), compound (Samasa) and prefix (Upasagga), (2) semantic changes namely; widening, narrowing and transferring of meaning, and (3) political reflection of Thai society. Qualitative method was employed in this study and data were collected from Thai Newspapers. It was found that there were uses of the four kinds of word formation in formatting the new political terms concerned namely, primary derivative, secondary derivative, compound and prefix leading by compound through the following three semantic changes; widening, narrowing and transferring, in order to make clear in understanding. Furthermore, PL-SKT terms were employed in reflecting Thai politics caused by democratic conflicts through the bureaucracy, plutocracy, businessocracy and juristocracy respectively. Later, there have been political business groups and their corruption problems in political society of Thailand.

Keywords: Pali, Sanskrit, reflection, politics, Thailand

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31 Final Costs of Civil Claims

Authors: Behnam Habibi Dargah

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The economics of cost-benefit theory seeks to monitor claims and determine their final price. The cost of litigation is important because it is a measure of the efficiency of the justice system. From an economic point of view, the cost of litigation is considered to be the point of equilibrium of litigation, whereby litigation is regarded as a high-risk investment and is initiated when the costs are less than the probable and expected benefits. Costs are economically separated into private and social costs. Private cost includes material (direct and indirect) and spiritual costs. The social costs of litigation are also subsidized-centric due to the public and governmental nature of litigation and cover both types of bureaucratic bureaucracy and the costs of judicial misconduct. Macroeconomic policy in the economics of justice is the reverse engineering of controlling the social costs of litigation by employing selective litigation and working on the judicial culture to achieve rationality in the monopoly system. Procedures for controlling and managing court costs are also circumscribed to economic patterns in the field. Rational cost allocation model and cost transfer model. The rational allocation model deals with cost-tolerance systems, and the transfer model also considers three models of transferability, including legal, judicial and contractual transferability, which will be described and explored in the present article in a comparative manner.

Keywords: cost of litigation, economics of litigation, private cost, social cost, cost of litigation

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30 Analysis of Urban Slum: Case Study of Korail Slum, Dhaka

Authors: Sanjida Ahmed Sinthia

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Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world. There are several reasons for this insufficiency and uncontrolled population growth is one of the prime reasons. Others include low economic progress, imbalanced resource management, unemployment and underemployment, urban migration and natural catastrophes etc. As a result, the rate of urban poor is increasing inevitably in every sphere of urban cities in Bangladesh and Dhaka is the most affected one. Besides there is scarcity of urban land, housing, urban infrastructure and amenities which create pressure on urban cities and mostly encroach the open space, wetlands that causes environmental degradation. Government has no or limited control over these due to poor government policy and management, political pressure and lack of resource management. Unfortunately, over centralization and bureaucracy creates unnecessary delay and interruptions in any government initiations. There is also no coordination between government and private sector developer to solve the problem of urban Poor. To understand the problem of these huge populations this paper analyzes one of the single largest slum areas in Dhaka, Korail Slum. The study focuses on socio demographic analysis, morphological pattern and role of different actors responsible for the improvements of the area and recommended some possible steps for determining the potential outcomes.

Keywords: demographic analysis, environmental degradation, government policy, housing and land management policy

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29 Women's Rights in the Constitution of Nepal: 2015

Authors: Sudir Silwal, Surendra KC

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Nepalese legal system was derived from Hindu sacred before the democratic movement in 1990. Before this movement, Nepal had a patrimonial system. Nepal has ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Women organizations of the various political parties, different social organizations and women activists are playing the significant role to empower the women through the social awareness campaign across the country. As a result, 33% women representation in the local government has ascertained by the current constitution. The Constitution of Nepal-2015 has mentioned the rights of women as a fundamental right and it also has provisioned the National Women Commission as the constitutional body. This constitution is the model of gender friendly constitution in the world. As per this constitution, the Citizenship certificate is issued based on the lineage of the mother or father along with gender identity. The current constitution has guaranteed 33% women participation in judiciary, bureaucracy and legislation. This constitution further states that the parliament must elect a woman either as the president or the vice president. Similarly same rule is applied to elect the speaker and the deputy speaker in the parliament. In the same constitution, rights of the third gender also has guaranteed. The guiding principles of the constitution further explain that the constitution has followed the rule of positive discrimination and proportional representation of women in all elements of the state. This study shows that the state is not only focused in the representation of women in all structure of the nation but also need to emphasize the enhancement of the capability of the women to make them equal to the men.

Keywords: constitution, empowerment, representation, women's rights

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28 The Way of Life of the Civil Servant Community under the Bureau of the Royal Household: A Case Study of Tha Wasukri, Bangkok

Authors: Vilasinee Jintalikhitdee, Saowapa Phaithayawat

Abstract:

The research on “The Way of Life of the Civil Servant Community under the Bureau of the Royal Household” aims to study 1) the way of life of the people who live in the civil servant community in Tha Wasukri, and 2) the model of community administration of civil servants under the Bureau of the Royal Household. This research is conducted qualitatively and quantitatively by collecting data from interviews, focus group discussion, participant and non-participant observation along with the data from the questionnaire based on age groups which include elder group, working age group and youth group. The result of the research shows that the origin of this community is related to the history during the Rama V’s reign. It has been a harbor for the king to boat in any royal ceremonies; this custom is still maintained until today. The status or position of person who serves the king in terms of working is often inherited from the bureau of the Royal Household based on his/her consanguinity and, hence, further receives the rights to live in the Tha Wasukri area. Therefore, this community has some special characteristics demonstrating the way of living influenced by the regulation of the Bureau of the Royal Household such as respecting elders and interdependence in which there is internal social organization with the practice of bureaucracy in going in and out the community. The person who has rights to live here must be friendly to everybody so that this community will be a safe place for lives and property. The administration based on the model of Bangkok for local administration was used as an external structure only, but the way of living still follows the practice of the Bureau of the Royal Household.

Keywords: way of life, community, Tha Wasukri, Bureau of the Royal Household

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27 Precarious ID Cards - Studying Documentary Practices in India through the Lens of Internal Migration

Authors: Ambuja Raj

Abstract:

This research will attempt to understand how documents are materially indispensable civic artifacts for migrants in their encounters with the state. Documents such as ID cards are sites of mediation and bureaucratic manifestation which reveal the inherent dynamics of power between the state and a delocalized people. While ID cards allow the holder to retain a different identity and articulate their demands as a citizen, they at the same time transform subjects into ‘objects’ in the exercise of governmental power. The research is based on the study of internal migrants in India, who are ‘visible’ to the state through its host of ID documents such as the ‘Aadhaar card’, electoral IDs, Ration cards, and a variety of region-specific documents, without the possession of which, not only are they unable to access jobs, public goods and services, and accommodation, but are liable to exploitation from state forces and mediators. Through semi-structured interviews with social actors in the processes of documentation and welfare of migrants, as well as with settlements of migrants themselves located in the state of Kerala in India, the thesis will attempt to understand the salience of documentary practices in the lives of inter-state migrants who move within Indian states in the hope of bettering their economic conditions. The research will trace the material and evolving significance of ID cards in the tenacity of states dealing with these ‘illegible’ populations. It will try to bring theories of governmentality, biopolitics and Weberian bureaucracy into the migrant issue while critically grounding itself on secondary literature by scholars who have worked on South Asian ‘governments of paper’.

Keywords: migration, historiography of documents, anthropology of state, documentary practices

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26 Creating Sustainable Human Settlements: An Analysis of Planning Intervention in Addressing Informal Settlements in South Africa

Authors: Takudzwa C. Taruza, Carel B. Schoeman, Ilse M. Schoeman

Abstract:

The proliferation of informal settlements remains one of the major planning challenges in democratic South Africa. In spite of the various local, national and international initiatives to promote the creation of sustainable human settlements, informal settlements continue to exist as spatially marginalised societies characterised by poverty, unemployment, squalor conditions and disaster risks. It is argued that, in practice, intervention is mainly directed at achieving set quantitative targets and goals rather than improving the lives of the inhabitants. The relevant planning instruments do not adequately address the integration of informal settlements into the broader planning framework. This paper is based on the analysis of the informal settlement intervention within the North West Province. Financial constraints, bureaucracy in housing delivery and lack of horizontal and vertical integration in spatial planning and programme implementation are amongst the major factors that caused stagnation in some of the upgrading programmes which in turn hindered the attainment of the target set as part of the Outcome 8 Delivery Agreement. Moreover, the absence of distinct indicators for the assessment of the qualitative progress of upgrading programmes indicates shortcomings in the intervention policies and programmes to promote the creation of sustainable human settlements. Thus, this paper seeks to proffer an assessment toolkit as well as a framework for the implementation of a Sustainable Informal Settlement Programme.

Keywords: formalization of informal settlements, planning intervention, sustainable formalization indicators, sustainable human settlements

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25 The Analysis of the Stress Phenomenon among the Academic Teachers

Authors: Monika Szpringer, Mariola Wojciechowska, Robert Dutkiewicz, Grażyna Nowak-Starz, Marzena Olędzka

Abstract:

The main aim of this article is to determine the phenomenon of stress among academic teachers as well as to identify the extent to which the teachers experience work-related psychological risks. It is also important to support academic teachers trade unions in scope of stress-oriented activities, including psychological dangers in the assessment of risk in the workplace (college). The authors used a method of a diagnostic survey with a polling as a technique and authors’ questionnaire as a tool. The survey was conducted between September and December of 2013 and it comprised 1890 academic teachers from five voivodeships. The study reveals that 84.0% of the respondents found the work of an academic teacher to be borne with a considerable stress. The percentage values of the most frequent causes of stress are as follows: frequent changes of both organisational and didactic matters as well as overwhelming bureaucracy (77.8 %), time pressure regarding professional development and related risk of losing job (68.2 %), difficult working conditions (45.4%), conflicts and rivalry between teachers (44.1%), excessive amount of duties as well as increasing requirements and demanding attitude of students (33.7%). Work-related stress affects or significantly affects the private life of 69 % and 66.4 % of the respondents respectively. The majority of the people surveyed deals with stress by undertaking various activities, with 40% pointing at using various substances, mostly cigarettes and alcohol (p > 0,05) Physical ailments were experienced by 81% of the respondents, in 9% they were rare and 8 % of the respondents had never experienced such disorders. The entire group of the surveyed people (100 %) claimed that they have no possibility of contacting a psychologist at their workplace (p > 0.05), and they stated that the need of contacting specialists does exist.

Keywords: stress, academic teachers, psychological risks, work-related

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24 Women Entrepreneurs in Haryana, India: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Neerja Ahlawat

Abstract:

In Indian society, women have always been an active part of the production process. Be it agriculture, dairy, or other home-based industries, Indian women have been competent and enterprising engaged in multiple economic activities. In recent times, women across the country have started establishing business enterprise and managing and working very hard. Despite their skills and capabilities, however, women are faced with varied problems and challenges. Women entrepreneurs in Haryana face a double challenge – a gender bias against women denies them the education and the opportunities available to their male counterparts and the lack of such learning and skills development inhibits any entrepreneurial ambitions. In many parts of the state, women venturing out of the household domain face much opposition and criticism. The present paper highlights the various problems and challenges faced by the women entrepreneurs while running the enterprises in the present competitive world in Haryana. An attempt has been made to investigate women entrepreneurs about the specific issues such as working capital, distribution channel, sales promotion, electricity, human resources and competition with other industries. The present empirical study was carried out in Rohtak city of Haryana using Interview schedule and Case study method. The study revealed the nature of problems women entrepreneurs face while dealing with issues of labour, market, and bureaucracy. The study categorically pointed out the difficulties women are confronted with while keeping a balance between domestic responsibilities and workplace challenges. The study concluded that women entrepreneurs are redefining their identities and priorities in the male dominant society.

Keywords: entrepreneur, gender bias, capital, human resource

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23 Slums in Casablanca: A Conceptive Approach for Better Implementation of VSB Program, Case Study: ER-Hamna Slum

Authors: Sakina Boufarsi, Mehmet Emre Aysu, Behiye Isik Aksulu

Abstract:

Morocco appears to be on its way to eradicating all of the country's slums by assuring the resettlement and improvement of all affected households' living circumstances through the VSB “Villes sans Bidonvilles” program established in 2004 to eradicate the slums in Morocco. Although many attempts have been made to curb their growth none have proven to be a permanent accomplishment. In Morocco, resettlement projects through satellite towns are perceived as the answer to the problem of the slums. However, the new satellite towns are the good intention of the program VSB, but they are environmentally unsustainable, socially isolated and culturally inappropriate, such conditions imposed continuous readjustments of the slum upgrading program. Although slum research is ongoing, they primarily concentrated on two constructs: exploring socio-economic and policy problems and analyzing physical characteristics. Considering that the two constructs mentioned are crucial, this study will demonstrate that a more systematic approach is needed to eradicate them efficiently. The slums issues in Casablanca are a solution that the poor devise for themselves due to government bureaucracy and failing housing policies, they reflect governments' incapacity to respond to urban development’s requiring decent housing for the vulnerable population. This issue will be addressed by exploring the previous strategies and analyzing in detail the strengths and shortcomings of the recent VSB Program. In addition to a comprehensive overview of the slums' situations by combining the social and physical characteristics through Erhamna case study in Sidi Moumen district for a deeper understanding, and therefore to direct improved and valuable recommendations to address the slum problem at all levels.

Keywords: Casablanca slums, resettlement projects, eradication of slums, satellite town, VSB program

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