Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: convent sweets

18 Portuguese Influence on Minas Gerais Dessert Culinary During Brazil Colonization Period

Authors: Silvania M. P. Silva, Ricardo A. Mazaro, Gemilde M. Queiroz, Josefa Barbosa, Lucas S. Victorino, Grasiela J. Silva

Abstract:

The Minas Gerais sweets have a remarkable personality, perceived on the original usage of fruits, sweets, and cheeses in the Brazilian gastronomic landscape, as a unique representation of Minas Gerais. This memory-related and feeling-oriented food is one of the treasures common to all Brazilians. It is mandatory to mention its Portuguese roots for the use of honey, as well as sugar cane and its countless possibilities. This work will show that this heritage is predominantly Portuguese, born in Portuguese convents and that it crossed the Atlantic. Through a historical survey, visits to mining towns known for their sweet culture and material collected in these places, we present the protagonists of this journey of flavors: the Portuguese cake makers (boleiras), who brought the knowledge, ingredients, and the dream of a better life in the crowded mines of gold and opportunities, helping to form a new Minas Gerais knowledge with their delicacies.

Keywords: sweets from portugal, convent sweets, minas gerais, brazil

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17 Design Elements: Examining Product Design Attribute That Make Sweets Appear More Delicious to Foreign Patrons

Authors: Kazuko Sakamoto, Keiichiro Kawarabayashi, Yoji Kitani

Abstract:

Japanese sweets are one of the important elements of the Chur Japan strategy. In this research, we investigated what kind of sweets are liked to the Chinese tourist. What is generally eaten is influenced by culture, a sense of values, and business practice. Therefore, what was adapted there is sold. However, when traveling, what its country does not have is called for. Then, how far should we take in Chinese people's taste in a design? This time, the design attribute (a color and a form) which leads to sweets "being delicious" was clarified by rough aggregate theory.As a result, the difference in the taste of Chinese people and Japanese people became clear.

Keywords: design attribute, international comparison, taste by appearance, design attribute

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16 Impact of SES and Culture on Well-Being of Adolescent

Authors: Shraddha B. Rai, Mahipatsinh D. Chavda, Bharat S. Trivedi

Abstract:

The aim of the present research is to study the effect of education and social belonging on well-being of youth. Well-being is one of the most important aspects of human being and the state of well-being can be attained in terms of healthy body with healthy mind. Well-being has been defined as encompassing people’s cognitive and affective evaluations of their lives. Well-being has been interchangeably used with health and quality of life. According to the WHO, the main determinants of health include the social, economic, and the physical environment and the persons individual characteristics and behaviors. WHO lists other factors that can influence the well-being of a person such as the gender, education, social support networks and health services. The main objective of the present investigation is to know the effect of education and social belonging on well-being of youth. The sample of 180 students belonging to Gujarati and English (convent) culture were selected randomly from Guajarati and English (convent) schools of Ahmedabad City of Gujarat (India). General well-being Scale by Dr. Ashok Kalia and Ms. Anita Deswal was administered to measure the Physical, Emotional, and Social and school well-being. The result shows that there is significant different found between Gujarati and English (convent) culture on Well-being in school students. SES is also affect significantly to wellbeing of students.

Keywords: culture, SES, well-being, health, quality of life

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15 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and Its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

Authors: Mervet A. El-sherif, Ginat M El-sherif, Kadry H Tolba

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine, identify and investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: licorice, carob, natural antioxidants, antioxidant activity, applications

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14 Nutritional Status of Middle School Students and Their Selected Eating Behaviours

Authors: K. Larysz, E. Grochowska-Niedworok, M. Kardas, K. Brukalo, B. Calyniuk, R. Polaniak

Abstract:

Eating behaviours and habits are one of the main factors affecting health. Abnormal nutritional status is a growing problem related to nutritional errors. The number of adolescents presenting excess body weight is also rising. The body's demand for all nutrients increases in the period of intensive development, i.e., during puberty. A varied, well-balanced diet and elimination of unhealthy habits are two of the key factors that contribute to the proper development of a young body. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status and selected eating behaviours/habits in adolescents attending middle school. An original questionnaire including 24 questions was conducted. A total of 401 correctly completed questionnaires were qualified for the assessment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Furthermore, the frequency of breakfast consumption, the number of meals per day, types of snacks and sweetened beverages, as well as the frequency of consuming fruit and vegetables, dairy products and fast-foods were assessed. The obtained results were analysed statistically. The study showed that malnutrition was more of a problem than overweight or obesity among middle school students. More than 71% of middle school students have breakfast, whereas almost 30% of adolescents skip this meal. Up to 57.6% of respondents most often consume sweets at school. A total of 37% of adolescents consume sweetened beverages daily or almost every day. Most of the respondents consume an optimal number of meals daily. Only 24.7% of respondents consume fruit and vegetables more than once daily. The majority of respondents (49.40%) declared that they consumed fast food several times a month. Satisfactory frequency of consuming dairy products was reported by 32.7% of middle school students. Conclusions of our study: 1. Malnutrition is more of a problem than overweight or obesity among middle school students. They consume excessive amounts of sweets, sweetened beverages, and fast foods. 2. The consumption of fruit and vegetables was too low in the study group. The intake of dairy products was also low in some cases. 3. A statistically significant correlation was found between the frequency of fast food consumption and the intake of sweetened beverages. A low correlation was found between nutritional status and the number of meals per day. The number of meals consumed by these individuals decreased with increasing nutritional status.

Keywords: adolescent, malnutrition, nutrition, nutritional status, obesity

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13 Comparison between Torsional Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling and Conventional Drilling of Bone: An in vitro Study

Authors: Nikoo Soleimani

Abstract:

Background: Reducing torque during bone drilling is one of the effective factors in reaching to an optimal drilling process. Methods: 15 bovine femurs were drilled in vitro with a drill bit with a diameter of 4 mm using two methods of torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling (T-UAD) and convent conventional drilling (CD) and the effects of changing the feed rate and rotational speed on the torque were compared in both methods. Results: There was no significant difference in the thrust force measured in both methods due to the direction of vibrations. Results showed that using T-UAD method for bone drilling at feed rates of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm/rev led for all rotational speeds to a decrease of at least 16.3% in torque compared to the CD method. Further, using T-UAD at rotational speeds of 355~1000 rpm with various feed rates resulted in a torque reduction of 16.3~50.5% compared to CD method. Conclusions: Reducing the feed rate and increasing the rotational speed, except for the rotational speed of 500 rpm and a feed rate of 0.32 mm/rev, resulted generally in torque reduction in both methods. However, T-UAD is a more effective and desirable option for bone drilling considering its significant torque reduction.

Keywords: torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling, torque, bone drilling, rotational speed, feed rate

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12 Indoor Microclimate in a Historic Library: Considerations on the Positive Effect of Historic Books on the Stability of Indoor Relative Humidity

Authors: Magda Posani, Maria Do Rosario Veiga, Vasco Peixoto De Freitas

Abstract:

The presented research considers the hygrothermal data acquired in the municipal library of Porto. The library is housed in an XVIII century convent and, among all the rooms in the construction, one, in particular, was chosen for the monitoring campaign because of the presence of a great number of historic books. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as CO₂ concentration, were measured for six consecutive months, in the period December 24th - June 24th. The indoor environment of the building is controlled with a heating and cooling system that is turned on only during the opening hours of the library. The ventilation rate is low because the windows are kept closed, and there is no forced ventilation. The micro-climate is analyzed in terms of users’ comfort and degradation risks for historic books and valuable building surfaces. Through a comparison between indoor and outdoor measured hygrothermal data, indoor relative humidity appears very stable. The influence of the hygroscopicity of books on the stabilization of indoor relative humidity is therefore investigated in detail. The paper finally discusses the benefits given by the presence of historic books in libraries with intermittent heating and cooling. The possibility of obtaining a comfortable and stable indoor climate with low use of HVAC systems in these conditions, while avoiding degradation risks for books and historic building components, is further debated.

Keywords: books, historic buildings, hygroscopicity, relative humidity

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11 Create and Design Visual Presentation to Promote Thai Cuisine

Authors: Supaporn Wimonchailerk

Abstract:

This research aims to study how to design and create the media to promote Thai cuisine. The study used qualitative research methods by using in-depth interview 3 key informants who have experienced in the production of food or cooking shows in television programs with an aspect of acknowledging Thai foods. The results showed that visual presentation is divided into four categories. First, the light meals should be presented in details via the close-up camera with lighting to make the food look more delicious. Then the curry presentation should be arranged a clear and crisp light focus on a colorful curry paste. Besides the vision of hot steam floating from the plate and a view of curry spread on steamed rice can call great attentions. Third, delivering good appearances of the fried or spicy foods, the images must allow the audiences to see the shine of the coat covering the texture of the food and the colorful of the ingredients. Fourth, the presentation of sweets is recommended to focus on details of food design, composition, and layout.

Keywords: media production, television, promote, Thai cuisine

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10 Characteristic of Gluten-Free Products: Latvian Consumer Survey

Authors: Laila Ozola, Evita Straumite

Abstract:

Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, a protein occurring in wheat, rye and barley. The only way of the effective daily treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. From the investigation of products available in the local market, it was found that Latvian producers do not offer gluten-free products. The aim of this research was to study and analyze changes of celiac patient’s attitude to gluten-free product quality and availability in the Latvian market and purchasing habits. The survey was designed using website www.visidati.lv, and a questionnaire was sent to people suffering from celiac disease. The first time the respondents were asked to fill in the questionnaire in 2011, but now repeatedly from the beginning of September 2013 till the end of January 2014. The questionnaire was performed with 75 celiac patients, respondents were from all Latvian regions and they answered 16 questions. One of the most important questions was aimed to find out consumers’ opinion about quality of gluten-free products, consumption patterns of gluten-free products, and, moreover, their interest in products made in Latvia. Respondents were asked to name gluten-free products they mainly buy and give specific purchase locations, evaluate the quality of products and necessity for products produced in Latvia. The results of questionnaire show that the consumers are satisfied with the quality of gluten-free flour, flour blends, sweets and pasta, but are not satisfied with the quality of bread and confectionery available in the Latvian markets.

Keywords: consumers, gluten-free products, quality, survey

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9 Effects of the Food Colour Erythrosine on Thyroid Gland Function in Experimental Rats

Authors: Maha M.Saber, Eitedal Daoud, Moetazza M. Alshafei, Lobna M. Abd El-Latif

Abstract:

Children in the third world consumes many food products colored red like sweets and soft drink without knowing its effect on health or the type of color used in these products Erythrosine (ER,FD & C Red No.3) is one of the most common coloring agent used in these products and in coloring cherry in compotes. The possible adverse effect of erythrosine ER on the thyroid gland function is investigated in albino rats. Forty-five adult male albino rats were divided to three groups two groups will receive ER orally in doses 68 and I36mg/kg respectively. Third group will receive distilled water for three months Sections of thyroid glands were examined for histopathological, morphometric analysis and MIB-I Ki67 (proliferative marker). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxin (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH) were determined, results showed histological changes in the two treatment groups versus control group in the group with 68mg/kg dose show vaculation of the cytoplasm of follicular cells and pleomorphism of their nuclei. While the other treated group {136mg /kg} showed congestion of blood vessels, hyperplasia of the interstitial cells and increased multilayer of the follicular cells. Highly significant increase in the mean area of the thyroid follicles in both treated groups compared to control group.Erythrosine treated groups showed a very highly significant decrease (P < 0.001) in serum concentration of T3 and T 4 while TSH showed a very highly significant increase versus control.

Keywords: erythrosine, thyroid, morphometrics, proliferative marker

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8 Raman, Atomic Force Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry for Isotopic Ratios Methods Used to Investigate Human Dentine and Enamel

Authors: Nicoleta Simona Vedeanu, Rares Stiufiuc, Dana Alina Magdas

Abstract:

A detailed knowledge of the teeth structure is mandatory to understand and explain the defects and the dental pathology, but especially to take a correct decision regarding dental prophylaxis and treatment. The present work is an alternative study to the traditional investigation methods used in dentistry, a study based on the use of modern, sensitive physical methods to investigate human enamel and dentin. For the present study, several teeth collected from patients of different ages were used for structural and dietary investigation. The samples were investigated by Raman spectroscopy for the molecular structure analysis of dentin and enamel, atomic force microscopy (AFM) to view the dental topography at the micrometric size and mass spectrometry for isotopic ratios as a fingerprint of patients’ personal diet. The obtained Raman spectra and their interpretation are in good correlation with the literature and may give medical information by comparing affected dental structures with healthy ones. AFM technique gave us the possibility to study in details the dentin and enamel surface to collect information about dental hardness or dental structural changes. δ¹³C values obtained for the studied samples can be classified in C4 category specific to young people and children diet (sweets, cereals, juices, pastry). The methods used in this attempt furnished important information about dentin and enamel structure and dietary habits and each of the three proposed methods can be extended at a larger level in the study of the teeth structure.

Keywords: AFM, dentine, enamel, Raman spectroscopy

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7 Analysis of Eating Habits of Working People in Shopping Centers on a 12-Hour Basis

Authors: A. Sadowska, R. Polaniak, P. Boczarski, E. Grochowska-Niedworok

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Working in a shopping center 12 hours a day as a shop assistant is a very demanding and stressful job, which is still underestimated. Proper eating habits, including recommended fruits, vegetables, products rich in fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, and proper hydration, can contribute to improvement in health and make shop assistants more resistant to stress. The aim of this study was to analyze the eating habits of shop assistants working in shopping centers 12 hours a day. Participant 101 sellers from Poland filled out authorial surveys. Nearly 50% of participants consumed the recommended number of 4 to 5 meals per day. There was a slight dependence between the number of meals consumed per day and the time that employers allowed for employee mealtimes. Respondents declared that they engaged in snacking, and they generally chose fruit, chocolates, and other sweets. Survey results indicated a low liquid intake, which was about 1,05 liters daily. Mineral water was chosen most often (63%) by participants. Participant fish consumption was very low in comparison with the norms, which can pose a risk of developing omega-3 fatty acids deficiency. Shop assistants stated that a change in their eating habits was necessary. Study findings suggest a moderate dependence between being on a diet and counting calories and macronutrients contained in meals. The number of meals eaten per day is correlated with the number of meals eaten at the worksite. The percentage of snacking by shop assistants was so high that it suggested a need for more nutrition education. The topic of eating habits among shop assistants should be examined using a larger group of participants. It is necessary to note a connection between nutrition and health problems.

Keywords: eating habits, work during 12 hours a day, shopping center, nutrition

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6 Functional Snacks Bars: A Healthy Alternative to a Poor Diet Quality

Authors: Daniela Istrati, Camelia Vizireanu, Camelia Grozavu, Rodica Mihaela Dinica

Abstract:

In last years, eating habits have changed, and snacking has become more common. Snacking habits, including eating whole fruit, vegetables and crackers, were found to contribute to better overall diet quality, while consuming snacks such as cookies, pastries, sweets, milk desserts and soft drinks was associated with poorer diet quality. The nutritional quality of the snack is very important and choosing nutritious foods as snacks can be beneficial for our health. For this reason, the development of functional snacks bars represents a necessity for this niche market. The aim of this work was to develop some formulations of energizing snack bars with high dietary fibers and antioxidant activity. Snack bars contain both fruits with antioxidant activity and components (cereals and seeds) rich in carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fats that provide energy during sports activities, physical and mental stress. Three types of samples were prepared and stored in refrigerated conditions at 40°C for 30 days. The first sample (S1) contains wheat germs, raw pumpkin seeds, toasted oat flakes, flaxseeds flour, cinnamon honey, raw sunflower seeds, sea buckthorn, amaranth flour, cinnamon and olive oil. The second sample (S2) has the same composition as the first, less flour and cinnamon flour and the honey used was ginger, honey. The third sample (S3) is like the first less amaranth flour and the honey used was buckthorn sea honey. The physicochemical, antioxidant activity, polyphenolic and flavonoid content and sensorial characteristics of the samples were investigated. Results showed that snacks bars had important level of extracted phenolics, flavonoids, fibers, proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Therefore, snack bars may be a convenient functional food, offering an important source of flavonoids and polyphenols, a healthy alternative to a poor diet quality, with balanced nutritional and sensory characteristics that recommend it in the diet of all consumers concerned with maintaining health. Acknowledgment: This study has been founded by the Francophone University Agency, Project Réseau régional dans le domaine de la santé, la nutrition et la sécurité alimentaire (SaIN), No. at Dunarea de Jos University of Galati 21899/ 06.09.2017

Keywords: antioxidant activity, functional food, sea buckthorn, snack bars

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5 Assessment of the Situation and the Cause of Junk Food Consumption in Iranians: A Qualitative Study

Authors: A. Rezazadeh, B Damari, S. Riazi-Esfahani, M. Hajian

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The consumption of junk food in Iran is alarmingly increasing. This study aimed to investigate the influencing factors of junk food consumption and amendable interventions that are criticized and approved by stakeholders, in order to presented to health policy makers. The articles and documents related to the content of study were collected by using the appropriate key words such as junk food, carbonated beverage, chocolate, candy, sweets, industrial fruit juices, potato chips, French fries, puffed corn, cakes, biscuits, sandwiches, prepared foods and popsicles, ice cream, bar, chewing gum, pastilles and snack, in scholar.google.com, pubmed.com, eric.ed.gov, cochrane.org, magiran.com, medlib.ir, irandoc.ac.ir, who.int, iranmedex.com, sid.ir, pubmed.org and sciencedirect.com databases. The main key points were extracted and included in a checklist and qualitatively analyzed. Then a summarized abstract was prepared in a format of a questionnaire to be presented to stakeholders. The design of this was qualitative (Delphi). According to this method, a questionnaire was prepared based on reviewing the articles and documents and it was emailed to stakeholders, who were asked to prioritize and choose the main problems and effective interventions. After three rounds, consensus was obtained.            Studies revealed high consumption of junk foods in the Iranian population, especially in children and adolescents. The most important affecting factors include availability, low price, media advertisements, preference of fast foods taste, the variety of the packages and their attractiveness, low awareness and changing in lifestyle. Main interventions recommended by stakeholders include developing a protective environment, educational interventions, increasing healthy food access and controlling media advertisements and putting pressure from the Industry and Mining Ministry on producers to produce healthy snacks. According to the findings, the results of this study may be proposed to public health policymakers as an advocacy paper and to be integrated in the interventional programs of Health and Education ministries and the media. Also, implementation of supportive meetings with the producers of alternative healthy products is suggested.

Keywords: junk foods, situation, qualitative study, Iran

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4 Festivals and Weddings in India during Corona Pandemic

Authors: Arul Aram, Vishnu Priya, Monicka Karunanithi

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In India, in particular, festivals are the occasions of celebrations. They create beautiful moments to cherish. Mostly, people pay a visit to their native places to celebrate with their loved ones. So are wedding celebrations. The Covid-19 pandemic came upon us unexpectedly, and to fight it, the festivals and weddings are celebrated unusually. Crowded places are deserted. Mass gatherings are avoided, changes and alterations are made in our rituals and celebrations. The warmth usually people have at their heart during any festival and wedding has disappeared. Some aspects of the celebrations become virtual/digital rather than real -- for instance, digital greetings/invitations, digital conduct of ceremonies by priests, YouTube worship, online/digital cash gifts, and digital audience for weddings. Each festival has different rituals which are followed with the divine nature in every family, but the pandemic warranted some compromises on the traditions. Likewise, a marriage is a beautiful bond between two families where a lot of traditional customs are followed. The wedding ceremonies are colorful and celebrations may extend for several days. People in India spend financial resources to prepare and celebrate weddings. The bride's and the groom's homes are fully decorated with colors, balloons and other decorations. The wedding rituals and celebrations vary by religion, region, preference and the resources of the groom, bride and their families. They can range from one day to multiple-days events. But the Covid-19 pandemic situation changes the mindset of people over ceremonies. This lockdown has affected those weddings and industries that support them and make the people postpone or at times advance without fanfare their 'big day.' People now adopt the protocols, guidelines and safety measures to reduce the risk and minimize the fear during celebrations. The study shall look into: how the pandemic shattered the expectations of people celebrating; problems faced economically by people/service providers who are benefited by the celebrations; and identify the alterations made in the rituals or the practices of our culture for the safety of families. The study shall employ questionnaires, interviews and visual ethnography to collect data. The study found that during a complete lockdown, people have not bought new clothes, sweets, or snacks, as they generally do before a pandemic. Almost all of them kept their celebrations low-key, and some did not celebrate at all. Digital media played a role in keeping the celebration alive, as people used it to wish their friends and families virtually. During partial unlock, the situation was under control, and people began to go out and see a few family and friends. They went shopping and bought new clothes and needs, but they did it while following safety precautions. There is also an equal percentage of people who shopped online. Although people continue to remain disappointed, they were less stressed up as life was returning to normal.

Keywords: covid-19, digital, festivals, India, wedding

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3 Nutritional Status of Children in a Rural Food Environment, Haryana: A Paradox for the Policy Action

Authors: Neha Gupta, Sonika Verma, Seema Puri, Nikhil Tandon, Narendra K. Arora

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The concurrent increasing prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity among children with changing lifestyle and the rapid transitioning society has necessitated the need for a unifying/multi-level approach to understand the determinants of the problem. The present community-based cross-sectional research study was conducted to assess the associations between lifestyle behavior and food environment of the child at household, neighborhood, and school with the BMI of children (6-12 year old) (n=612) residing in three rural clusters of Palwal district, Haryana. The study used innovative and robust methods for assessing the lifestyle and various components of food environment in the study. The three rural clusters selected for the study were located at three different locations according to their access to highways in the SOMAARTH surveillance site. These clusters were significantly different from each other in terms of their socio-demographic and socio-economic profile, living conditions, environmental hygiene, health seeking behavior and retail density. Despite of being different, the quality of living conditions and environmental hygiene was poor across three clusters. The children had higher intakes of dietary energy and sugars; one-fifth share of the energy being derived from unhealthy foods, engagement in high levels of physical activity and significantly different food environment at home, neighborhood and school level. However, despite having a high energy intake, 22.5% of the recruited children were thin/severe thin, and 3% were overweight/obese as per their BMI-for-age categories. The analysis was done using multi-variate logistic regression at three-tier hierarchy including individual, household and community level. The factors significantly explained the variability in governing the risk of getting thin/severe thin among children in rural area (p-value: 0.0001; Adjusted R2: 0.156) included age (>10years) (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.4), the interaction between minority category and poor SES of the household (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.6-12.1), availability of sweets (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-0.99) and cereals (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0) in the household and poor street condition (proxy indicator of the hygiene and cleanliness in the neighborhood) (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-1.1). The homogeneity of other factors at neighborhood and school level food environment diluted the heterogeneity in the lifestyles and home environment of the recruited children and their households. However, it is evident that when various individual factors interplay at multiple levels amplifies the risk of undernutrition in a rural community. Conclusion: These rural areas in Haryana are undergoing developmental, economic and societal transition. In correspondence, no improvements in the nutritional status of children have happened. Easy access to the unhealthy foods has become a paradox.

Keywords: transition, food environment, lifestyle, undernutrition, overnutrition

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2 Ethnobotanical and Laboratory Investigations of Plants Used for the Treatment of Typhoid Fever in Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Abubakar Bello Usman, Alhassan Muhammad Gani, Kolo Ibrahim

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The use of botanical raw materials to produce pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, teas, spirits, cosmetics, sweets, dietary supplements, special industrial compounds and crude materials constitute an important global resource in terms of healthcare and economy. In Nigeria and other developing countries, the indigenous knowledge on the uses of plants lies with the older generation and the traditional healers. However, these custodians are decreasing in number due to death and other unforeseen occurrences. An Ethno-botanical survey was carried out to obtain information on the ethno medical values of wide range of plants used by the people of Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria, in the practice of healing and cure of typhoid (enteric) fever. Oral interviews were conducted so as to consider those with low literacy level who are involved in the practice of traditional medicine and thirty four (34) informants availed themselves for the interview and were consulted. All relevant information obtained from the respondents was recorded. A recent and valid nomenclature, along with local names, family names, part of the plant(s) used, methods of preparation and administration and fifty four (54) plant species belonging to 27 families as well as 7 unidentified species that are commonly used by the people of the state in ethnomedical treatment of the ailment were tabulated. Those interviewed included traditional practitioners, local herb sellers, traditional rulers, hunters, farmers and patients. Specific questions were asked and information supplied by informants was promptly documented. Results showed that the people of Gombe State are knowledgeable on herbal medicine in the treatment of diseases and ailments. Furthermore, the aqueous leaf extracts of Senna siamea, the plant species with the highest PPK (percentage of people who have knowledge about the use of a species for treating typhoid fever) in this ethnobotanical survey, was tested for its activity against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi using the agar well diffusion method. The aqueous extracts showed some activity (zones of inhibition 11, 9, 7.5, 3.5, 1.3 mm) at 2000, 1800, 1600, 1400, 1200 µg/ml concentrations respectively. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the aqueous leaf extracts of the plant revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. Though a large number of traditionally used plants for the treatment of enteric fever were identified, further scientific validation of the traditional claims of anti-typhoid properties is imperative. This would establish their candidature for any possible future research for active principles and the possible development of new cheaper and more effective anti-typhoid drugs, as well as in the conservation of this rich diversity of medicinal plants.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, ethnobotany, gombe state, north-eastern Nigeria, phytochemical screening, senna siamea, typhoid fever

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1 Obesity and Lifestyle of Students in Roumanian Southeastern Region

Authors: Mariana Stuparu-Cretu, Doina-Carina Voinescu, Rodica-Mihaela Dinica, Daniela Borda, Camelia Vizireanu, Gabriela Iordachescu, Camelia Busila

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Obesity is involved in the etiology or acceleration of progression of important non-communicable diseases, such as: metabolic, cardiovascular, rheumatological, oncological and depression. It is a need to prevent the obesity occurrence, like a key link in disease management. From this point of view, the best approach is to early educate youngsters upon the need for a healthy nutrition lifestyle associated with constant physical activities. The objective of the study was to assess correlations between weight condition, physical activities and food preferences of students from South East Romania. Questionnaires were applied on high school students in Galati: 1006 girls and 880 boys, aged between 14 and 19 years (being approved by Local School Inspectorate and the Ethics Committee of the 'Dunarea de Jos' University of Galati). The collected answers have been statistically processed by using the multivariate regression method (PLS2) by Unscramble X program (Camo, Norway). Multiple variables such as age group, body mass index, nutritional habits and physical activities were separately analysed, depending on gender and general mathematical models were proposed to explain the obesity trend at an early age. The study results show that overweight and obesity are present in less than a fifth of the adolescents who were surveyed. With a very small variation and a strong correlation of over 86% for 99% of the cases, a general preference for sweet foods, nocturnal eating associated with computer work and a reduced period of physical activity is noticed for girls. In addition, the overweight girls consume sweet juices and alcohol, although a percentage of them also practice the gym. There is also a percentage of the normoponderal girls that consume high caloric foods which predispose this group to turn into overweight cases in time. Within the studied group, statistics for the boys show a positive correlation of almost 87% for over 96% of cases. They prefer high calories foods, fast food, and sweet juices, and perform medium physical activities. Both overweight and underweight boys are more sedentary. Over 15% of girls and over a quarter of boys consume alcohol. All these bad eating habits seem to increase with age, for both sexes. To conclude, obesity and overweight assessed in adolescents in S-E Romania reveal nonsignificant percentage differences between boys and girls. However, young people in this area of the country are sedentary in general; a significant percentage prefers sweets / sweet juices / fast-food and practice computer nourishing. The authors consider that at this age, it is very useful to adapt nutritional education by new methods of food processing and market supply. This would require an early understanding of the difference among foods and nutrients and the benefits of physical activities integrated into the healthy current lifestyle, as a measure for preventing and managing non-communicable chronic diseases related to nutritional errors and sedentarism. Acknowledgment— This study has been partial founded by the Francophone University Agency, Project Réseau régional dans le domaine de la santé, la nutrition et la sécurité alimentaire (SaIN), no.21899/ 06.09.2017.

Keywords: adolescents, body mass index, nutritional habits, obesity, physical activity

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