Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1134

Search results for: Bragg diffraction

1134 Flat-Top Apodization of Laser Beams by Means of Acousto-Optics

Authors: Sergey I. Chizhikov, Vladimir Y. Molchanov, Konstantin B. Yushkov

Abstract:

We demonstrate a method for adaptive spatial shaping of laser beams by means of acousto-optic Bragg diffraction. Transformation of the angular spectrum during Bragg diffraction is used to convert Gaussian intensity distribution into a flat-top one. Theoretical model is supported by the experiment.

Keywords: acousto-optics, flat top, beam shaping, Bragg diffraction

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1133 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction Rocking Curves in Case of Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect

Authors: Minas Balyan

Abstract:

In the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and in the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses for forbidden reflections the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero. The dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the ‘third order nonlinear Renninger effect’ is considered theoretically and numerically. If the reflection exactly is forbidden the diffracted wave’s amplitude is zero both in Laue and Bragg cases since the boundary conditions and dynamical diffraction equations are compatible with zero solution. But in real crystals due to some percent of dislocations and other localized defects, the atoms are displaced with respect to their equilibrium positions. Thus in real crystals susceptibilities of forbidden reflection are by some order small than for usual not forbidden reflections but are not exactly equal to zero. The numerical calculations for susceptibilities two order less than for not forbidden reflection show that in Bragg geometry case the nonlinear reflection curve’s behavior is the same as for not forbidden reflection, but for forbidden reflection the rocking curves’ width, center and boundaries are two order sensitive on the input intensity value. This gives an opportunity to investigate third order nonlinear X-ray dynamical diffraction for not intense beams – 0.001 in the units of critical intensity.

Keywords: third order nonlinearity, Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Renninger effect, rocking curves

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1132 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction 'Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect'

Authors: Minas Balyan

Abstract:

Nowadays X-ray nonlinear diffraction and nonlinear effects are investigated due to the presence of the third generation synchrotron sources and XFELs. X-ray third order nonlinear dynamical diffraction is considered as well. Using the nonlinear model of the usual visible light optics the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses are obtained by the author in previous papers. The obtained equations show, that even if the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero (forbidden reflection), the dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus, in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well-known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the 'third order nonlinear Renninger effect' is considered theoretically.

Keywords: Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Takagi’s equations, nonlinear Renninger effect, third order nonlinearity

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1131 Optical Switching Based On Bragg Solitons in A Nonuniform Fiber Bragg Grating

Authors: Abdulatif Abdusalam, Mohamed Shaban

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the nonlinear pulse propagation through a nonuniform birefringent fiber Bragg grating (FBG) whose index modulation depth varies along the propagation direction. Here, the pulse propagation is governed by the nonlinear birefringent coupled mode (NLBCM) equations. To form the Bragg soliton outside the photonic bandgap (PBG), the NLBCM equations are reduced to the well known NLS type equation by multiple scale analysis. As we consider the pulse propagation in a nonuniform FBG, the pulse propagation outside the PBG is governed by inhomogeneous NLS (INLS) rather than NLS. We, then, discuss the formation of soliton in the FBG known as Bragg soliton whose central frequency lies outside but close to the PBG of the grating structure. Further, we discuss Bragg soliton compression due to a delicate balance between the SPM and the varying grating induced dispersion. In addition, Bragg soliton collision, Bragg soliton switching and possible logic gates have also been discussed.

Keywords: Bragg grating, non uniform fiber, non linear pulse

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1130 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine

Abstract:

Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (FBGS), strain, temperature, humidity, structural health monitoring (SHM)

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1129 Analytical Study Of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Using Finite Difference Time Domain Method

Authors: N. R. Mohamad, H. Ono, H. Haroon, A. Salleh, N. M. Z. Hashim

Abstract:

In this research, we have studied and analyzed the modulation of light and liquid crystal in HPDLCs using Finite Domain Time Difference (FDTD) method. HPDLCs are modeled as a mixture of polymer and liquid crystals (LCs) that categorized as an anisotropic medium. FDTD method is directly solves Maxwell’s equation with less approximation, so this method can analyze more flexible and general approach for the arbitrary anisotropic media. As the results from FDTD simulation, the highest diffraction efficiency occurred at ±19 degrees (Bragg angle) using p polarization incident beam to Bragg grating, Q > 10 when the pitch is 1µm. Therefore, the liquid crystal is assumed to be aligned parallel to the grating constant vector during these parameters.

Keywords: birefringence, diffraction efficiency, finite domain time difference, nematic liquid crystals

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1128 Spectral Properties of Fiber Bragg Gratings

Authors: Y. Hamaizi, H. Triki, A. El-Akrmi

Abstract:

In this paper, the reflection spectra, group delay and dispersion of a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are obtained. FBGs with two types of apodized variations of the refractive index were modeled to show how the side-lobes can be suppressed. Apodization techniques are used to get optimized reflection spectra. The simulation is based on solving coupled mode equations together with the transfer matrix method.

Keywords: fiber bragg gratings, coupled-mode theory, reflectivity, apodization

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1127 Numerical Study of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor: Longitudinal and Transverse Detection of Temperature and Strain

Authors: K. Khelil, H. Ammar, K. Saouchi

Abstract:

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) structure is an periodically modulated optical fiber. It acts as a selective filter of wavelength whose reflected peak is called Bragg wavelength and it depends on the period of the fiber and the refractive index. The simulation of FBG is based on solving the Coupled Mode Theory equation by using the Transfer Matrix Method which is carried out using MATLAB. It is found that spectral reflectivity is shifted when the change of temperature and strain is uniform. Under non-uniform temperature or strain perturbation, the spectrum is both shifted and destroyed. In case of transverse loading, reflectivity spectrum is split into two peaks, the first is specific to X axis, and the second belongs to Y axis. FBGs are used in civil engineering to detect perturbations applied to buildings.

Keywords: Bragg wavelength, coupled mode theory, optical fiber, temperature measurement

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1126 Design of Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Bragg Grating for Remote Sensing Monitoring Application

Authors: Arafat A. A. Shabaneh

Abstract:

Harsh environments demand a developed detection of an optical communication system to ensure a high level of security and safety. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are emerging sensing instruments that respond to variations in strain and temperature via varying wavelengths. In this paper, cascaded uniform FBG as a strain sensor for 6 km length at 1550 nm wavelength with 30 oC is designed with analyzing of dynamic strain and wavelength shifts. FBG is placed in a small segment of optical fiber, which reflects light of a specific wavelength and passes the remaining wavelengths. This makes a periodic alteration in the refractive index within the fiber core. The alteration in the modal index of fiber produced due to strain consequences in a Bragg wavelength. When the developed sensor exposure to a strain of cascaded uniform FBG by 0.01, the wavelength is shifted to 0.0000144383 μm. The sensing accuracy of the developed sensor is 0.0012. Simulation results show reliable and effective strain monitoring sensors for remote sensing applications.

Keywords: Cascaded fiber Bragg gratings, Strain sensor, Remote sensing, Wavelength shift

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1125 Investigation on the Kinetic Mechanism of the Reduction of Fe₂O₃/CoO-Decorated Carbon Xerogel

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghaani, Michele Catti

Abstract:

The reduction of CoO/Fe₂O₃ oxides supported on carbon xerogels was studied to elucidate the effect of nano-size distribution of the catalyst in carbon matrices. Resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels were synthesized, impregnated with iron and cobalt nitrates, and subsequently heated to obtain the oxides. The mechanism of oxide reduction to metal was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction in dynamic, non-isothermal conditions. Kinetic profiles of the reactions were obtained by plotting the diffraction intensities of selected Bragg peaks vs. temperature. The extracted Temperature-Programmed-Reduction (TPR) diagrams were analyzed by appropriate kinetic models, leading to best results with the Avrami-Erofeev model for all reduction reactions considered. The activation energies for the two-step reduction of iron oxide were 65 and 37 kJmol⁻¹, respectively. The average value for the reduction of CoO to Co was found to be around 21 kJ mol⁻¹. Such results may contribute to develop efficient and inexpensive non-noble metal-based catalysts in element form, e.g., Fe, Co, via heterogenization of metal complexes on mesoporous supports.

Keywords: non-isothermal kinetics, carbon aerogel, in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, reduction mechanisms

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1124 Propagation of W Shaped of Solitons in Fiber Bragg Gratings

Authors: Mezghiche Kamel

Abstract:

We present solitary wave solutions for the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger (PNLS) equation describing propagation of femtosecond light pulses through the fiber Bragg grating structure where the pulse dynamics is governed by the nonlinear-coupled mode (NLCM) equations. Using the multiple scale analysis, we reduce the NLCM equations into the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger (PNLS) type equation. Unlike the reported solitary wave solutions of the PNLS equation, the novel ones can describe W shaped of solitons and their properties.

Keywords: fiber bragg grating, nonlinear-coupled mode equations, w shaped of solitons, PNLS

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1123 Numerical Simulation of Fiber Bragg Grating Spectrum for Mode-І Delamination Detection

Authors: O. Hassoon, M. Tarfoui, A. El Malk

Abstract:

Fiber Bragg optic sensor embedded in composite material to detect and monitor the damage which is occur in composite structure. In this paper we deal with the mode-Ι delamination to determine the resistance of material to crack propagation, and use the coupling mode theory and T-matrix method to simulating the FBGs spectrum for both uniform and non-uniform strain distribution. The double cantilever beam test which is modeling in FEM to determine the Longitudinal strain, there are two models which are used, the first is the global half model, and the second the sub-model to represent the FBGs with refine mesh. This method can simulate the damage in the composite structure and converting the strain to wavelength shifting of the FBG spectrum.

Keywords: fiber bragg grating, delamination detection, DCB, FBG spectrum, structure health monitoring

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1122 Coordination Polymer Hydrogels Based on Coinage Metals and Nucleobase Derivatives

Authors: Lamia L. G. Al-Mahamad, Benjamin R. Horrocks, Andrew Houlton

Abstract:

Hydrogels based on metal coordination polymers of nucleosides and a range of metal ions (Au, Ag, Cu) have been prepared and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. AFM images of the xerogels revealed the formation of extremely long polymer molecules (> 10 micrometers, the maximum scan range). This result is also consistent with TEM images which show a fibrous morphology. Oxidative doping of the Au-nucleoside fibres produces an electrically conductive nanowire. No sharp Bragg peaks were found at the at the X-ray diffraction pattern for metal ions hydrogels indicating that the samples were amorphous, but instead the data showed broad peaks in the range 20 < Q < 40 and correspond to distances d=2μ/Q. The data was analysed using a simplified Rietveld method by fitting a regression model to obtain the distance between atoms.

Keywords: hydrogel, metal ions, nanowire, nucleoside

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1121 Characteristics of Photoluminescence in Resonant Quasiperiodic Double-period Quantum Wells

Authors: C. H. Chang, R. Z. Qiu, C. W. Tsao, Y. H. Cheng, C. H. Chen, W. J. Hsueh

Abstract:

Characteristics of photoluminescence (PL) in a resonant quasi-periodic double-period quantum wells (DPQW) are demonstrated. The maximum PL intensity in the DPQW is remarkably greater than that in a traditional periodic QW (PQW) under the Bragg or anti-Bragg conditions. The optimal PL spectrum in the DPQW has an asymmetrical form instead of the symmetrical form in the PQW. Moreover, there are two large values of PL intensity in the DPQW, which also differs from the PQW.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, quantum wells, quasiperiodic structure

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1120 Revealing Single Crystal Quality by Insight Diffraction Imaging Technique

Authors: Thu Nhi Tran Caliste

Abstract:

X-ray Bragg diffraction imaging (“topography”)entered into practical use when Lang designed an “easy” technical setup to characterise the defects / distortions in the high perfection crystals produced for the microelectronics industry. The use of this technique extended to all kind of high quality crystals, and deposited layers, and a series of publications explained, starting from the dynamical theory of diffraction, the contrast of the images of the defects. A quantitative version of “monochromatic topography” known as“Rocking Curve Imaging” (RCI) was implemented, by using synchrotron light and taking advantage of the dramatic improvement of the 2D-detectors and computerised image processing. The rough data is constituted by a number (~300) of images recorded along the diffraction (“rocking”) curve. If the quality of the crystal is such that a one-to-onerelation between a pixel of the detector and a voxel within the crystal can be established (this approximation is very well fulfilled if the local mosaic spread of the voxel is < 1 mradian), a software we developped provides, from the each rocking curve recorded on each of the pixels of the detector, not only the “voxel” integrated intensity (the only data provided by the previous techniques) but also its “mosaic spread” (FWHM) and peak position. We will show, based on many examples, that this new data, never recorded before, open the field to a highly enhanced characterization of the crystal and deposited layers. These examples include the characterization of dislocations and twins occurring during silicon growth, various growth features in Al203, GaNand CdTe (where the diffraction displays the Borrmannanomalous absorption, which leads to a new type of images), and the characterisation of the defects within deposited layers, or their effect on the substrate. We could also observe (due to the very high sensitivity of the setup installed on BM05, which allows revealing these faint effects) that, when dealing with very perfect crystals, the Kato’s interference fringes predicted by dynamical theory are also associated with very small modifications of the local FWHM and peak position (of the order of the µradian). This rather unexpected (at least for us) result appears to be in keeping with preliminary dynamical theory calculations.

Keywords: rocking curve imaging, X-ray diffraction, defect, distortion

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1119 Design and Analysis of Metamaterial Based Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser

Authors: Ishraq M. Anjum

Abstract:

Distributed Bragg reflectors are used in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) in order to achieve very high reflectivity. Use of metamaterial in place of distributed Bragg reflector can reduce the device size significantly. A silicon-based metamaterial near perfect reflector is designed to be used in place of distributed Bragg reflectors in VCSELs. Mie resonance in dielectric microparticles is exploited in order to design the metamaterial. A reflectivity of 98.31% is achieved using finite-difference time-domain method. An 808nm double intra-cavity contacted VCSEL structure with 1.5 λ cavity is proposed using this metamaterial near perfect reflector. The active region is designed to be composed of seven GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. Upon numerical investigation of the designed VCSEL structure, the threshold current is found to be 2.96 mA at an aperture of 40 square micrometers and the maximum output power is found to be 71 mW at a current of 141 mA. Miniaturization of conventional VCSELs is possible using this design.

Keywords: GaAs, LASER, metamaterial, VCSEL, vertical cavity surface emitting laser

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1118 Study of the Mega–Landslide at the Community of Ropoto, Central Greece, and of the Design of Mitigation and Early Warning System Using the Fiber Bragg Grating Technology

Authors: Michael Bellas, George Voulgaridis

Abstract:

This paper refers to the world known mega - landslide induced at the community of Ropoto, belonging to the Municipality of Trikala, in the Central part of Greece. The landslide affected the debris as well as the colluvium mantle of the flysch, and makes up a special case of study in engineering geology and geotechnical engineering not only because of the size of the domain affected by the landslide (approximately 750m long), but also because of the geostructure’s global behavior. Due to the landslide, the whole community’s infrastructure massively collapsed and human lives were put in danger. After the complete simulation of the coupled Seepage - Deformation phenomenon due to the extreme rainfall, and by closely examining the slope’s global behavior, both the mitigation of the landslide, as well as, an advanced surveillance method (Fiber Bragg Grating) using fiber optics were further studied, in order both to retain the geostructure and to monitor its health by creating an early warning system, which would serve as a complete safety net for saving both the community’s infrastructure as well as the lives of its habitats.

Keywords: landslide, remediation measures, the finite element method (FEM), Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing method

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1117 Structural Health Monitoring using Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors in Slab and Beams

Authors: Pierre van Tonder, Dinesh Muthoo, Kim twiname

Abstract:

Many existing and newly built structures are constructed on the design basis of the engineer and the workmanship of the construction company. However, when considering larger structures where more people are exposed to the building, its structural integrity is of great importance considering the safety of its occupants (Raghu, 2013). But how can the structural integrity of a building be monitored efficiently and effectively. This is where the fourth industrial revolution step in, and with minimal human interaction, data can be collected, analysed, and stored, which could also give an indication of any inconsistencies found in the data collected, this is where the Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) monitoring system is introduced. This paper illustrates how data can be collected and converted to develop stress – strain behaviour and to produce bending moment diagrams for the utilisation and prediction of the structure’s integrity. Embedded fibre optic sensors were used in this study– fibre Bragg grating sensors in particular. The procedure entailed making use of the shift in wavelength demodulation technique and an inscription process of the phase mask technique. The fibre optic sensors considered in this report were photosensitive and embedded in the slab and beams for data collection and analysis. Two sets of fibre cables have been inserted, one purposely to collect temperature recordings and the other to collect strain and temperature. The data was collected over a time period and analysed used to produce bending moment diagrams to make predictions of the structure’s integrity. The data indicated the fibre Bragg grating sensing system proved to be useful and can be used for structural health monitoring in any environment. From the experimental data for the slab and beams, the moments were found to be64.33 kN.m, 64.35 kN.m and 45.20 kN.m (from the experimental bending moment diagram), and as per the idealistic (Ultimate Limit State), the data of 133 kN.m and 226.2 kN.m were obtained. The difference in values gave room for an early warning system, in other words, a reserve capacity of approximately 50% to failure.

Keywords: fibre bragg grating, structural health monitoring, fibre optic sensors, beams

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1116 Study of Error Analysis and Sources of Uncertainty in the Measurement of Residual Stresses by the X-Ray Diffraction

Authors: E. T. Carvalho Filho, J. T. N. Medeiros, L. G. Martinez

Abstract:

Residual stresses are self equilibrating in a rigid body that acts on the microstructure of the material without application of an external load. They are elastic stresses and can be induced by mechanical, thermal and chemical processes causing a deformation gradient in the crystal lattice favoring premature failure in mechanicals components. The search for measurements with good reliability has been of great importance for the manufacturing industries. Several methods are able to quantify these stresses according to physical principles and the response of the mechanical behavior of the material. The diffraction X-ray technique is one of the most sensitive techniques for small variations of the crystalline lattice since the X-ray beam interacts with the interplanar distance. Being very sensitive technique is also susceptible to variations in measurements requiring a study of the factors that influence the final result of the measurement. Instrumental, operational factors, form deviations of the samples and geometry of analyzes are some variables that need to be considered and analyzed in order for the true measurement. The aim of this work is to analyze the sources of errors inherent to the residual stress measurement process by X-ray diffraction technique making an interlaboratory comparison to verify the reproducibility of the measurements. In this work, two specimens were machined, differing from each other by the surface finishing: grinding and polishing. Additionally, iron powder with particle size less than 45 µm was selected in order to be a reference (as recommended by ASTM E915 standard) for the tests. To verify the deviations caused by the equipment, those specimens were positioned and with the same analysis condition, seven measurements were carried out at 11Ψ tilts. To verify sample positioning errors, seven measurements were performed by positioning the sample at each measurement. To check geometry errors, measurements were repeated for the geometry and Bragg Brentano parallel beams. In order to verify the reproducibility of the method, the measurements were performed in two different laboratories and equipments. The results were statistically worked out and the quantification of the errors.

Keywords: residual stress, x-ray diffraction, repeatability, reproducibility, error analysis

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1115 Determination of the Structural Parameters of Calcium Phosphate for Biomedical Use

Authors: María Magdalena Méndez-González, Miguel García Rocha, Carlos Manuel Yermo De la Cruz

Abstract:

Calcium phosphate (Ca5(PO4)3(X)) is widely used in orthopedic applications and is widely used as powder and granules. However, their presence in bone is in the form of nanometric needles 60 nm in length with a non-stoichiometric phase of apatite contains CO3-2, Na+, OH-, F-, and other ions in a matrix of collagen fibers. The crystal size, morphology control and interaction with cells are essential for the development of nanotechnology. The structural results of calcium phosphate, synthesized by chemical precipitation with crystal size of 22.85 nm are presented in this paper. The calcium phosphate powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy and FT-IR transmission electron microscopy. Network parameters, atomic positions, the indexing of the planes and the calculation of FWHM (full width at half maximum) were obtained. The crystal size was also calculated using the Scherer equation d (hkl) = cλ/βcosѲ. Where c is a constant related to the shape of the crystal, the wavelength of the radiation used for a copper anode is 1.54060Å, Ѳ is the Bragg diffraction angle, and β is the width average peak height of greater intensity. Diffraction pattern corresponding to the calcium phosphate called hydroxyapatite phase of a hexagonal crystal system was obtained. It belongs to the space group P63m with lattice parameters a = 9.4394 Å and c = 6.8861 Å. The most intense peak is obtained 2Ѳ = 31.55 (FWHM = 0.4798), with a preferred orientation in 121. The intensity difference between the experimental data and the calculated values is attributable to the temperature at which the sintering was performed. The intensity of the highest peak is at angle 2Ѳ = 32.11. The structure of calcium phosphate obtained was a hexagonal configuration. The intensity changes in the peaks of the diffraction pattern, in the lattice parameters at the corners, indicating the possible presence of a dopant. That each calcium atom is surrounded by a tetrahedron of oxygen and hydrogen was observed by infrared spectra. The unit cell pattern corresponds to hydroxyapatite and transmission electron microscopic crystal morphology corresponding to the hexagonal phase with a preferential growth along the c-plane was obtained.

Keywords: structure, nanoparticles, calcium phosphate, metallurgical and materials engineering

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1114 Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Yuri Shimomura

Abstract:

The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.

Keywords: bending, electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray diffraction, microstructure, IPF map, orientation distribution function

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1113 Grating Assisted Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for Monitoring of Hazardous Toxic Chemicals and Gases in an Underground Mines

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar Raghuwanshi, Yadvendra Singh

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to develop and optimize the Fiber Bragg (FBG) grating based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor for monitoring the hazardous toxic chemicals and gases in underground mines or any industrial area. A fully cladded telecommunication standard FBG is proposed to develop to produce surface plasmon resonance. A thin few nm gold/silver film (subject to optimization) is proposed to apply over the FBG sensing head using e-beam deposition method. Sensitivity enhancement of the sensor will be done by adding a composite nanostructured Graphene Oxide (GO) sensing layer using the spin coating method. Both sensor configurations suppose to demonstrate high responsiveness towards the changes in resonance wavelength. The GO enhanced sensor may show increased sensitivity of many fold compared to the gold coated traditional fibre optic sensor. Our work is focused on to optimize GO, multilayer structure and to develop fibre coating techniques that will serve well for sensitive and multifunctional detection of hazardous chemicals. This research proposal shows great potential towards future development of optical fiber sensors using readily available components such as Bragg gratings as highly sensitive chemical sensors in areas such as environmental sensing.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance, fibre Bragg grating, sensitivity, toxic gases, MATRIX method

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1112 Preparation and Characterization of Polyaniline (PANI) – Platinum Nanocomposite

Authors: Kumar Neeraj, Ranjan Haldar, Ashok Srivastava

Abstract:

Polyaniline used as light-emitting devices (LEDs), televisions, cellular telephones, automotive, Corrosion-resistant coatings, actuators and ability to have micro- and nano-devices. the electrical conductivity properties can be increased by introduction of metal nano particles. In the present study, platinum nano particles have been utilized to achieve the improved properties. Polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite are synthesized by chemical routes. The samples characterized by X-ray diffractometer show the amorphous nature of polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite. The Bragg’s diffraction peaks correspond to platinum nano particles and thermogravimetric analyzer predicts its decomposition at certain temperature. The current-potential characteristics of the samples are also studied which indicate a significant increasing the value of conductivity after introduction of pt nanoparticles in the matrix of polyaniline (PANI).

Keywords: polyaniline, XRD and platinum nanoparticles, characterization, pharmaceutical sciences

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1111 Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Overgrowth on the Bragg Grating for Gallium Nitride Based Distributed Feedback Laser

Authors: Junze Li, M. Li

Abstract:

Laser diodes fabricated from the III-nitride material system are emerging solutions for the next generation telecommunication systems and optical clocks based on Ca at 397nm, Rb at 420.2nm and Yb at 398.9nm combined 556 nm. Most of the applications require single longitudinal optical mode lasers, with very narrow linewidth and compact size, such as communication systems and laser cooling. In this case, the GaN based distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode is one of the most effective candidates with gratings are known to operate with narrow spectra as well as high power and efficiency. Given the wavelength range, the period of the first-order diffraction grating is under 100 nm, and the realization of such gratings is technically difficult due to the narrow line width and the high quality nitride overgrowth based on the Bragg grating. Some groups have reported GaN DFB lasers with high order distributed feedback surface gratings, which avoids the overgrowth. However, generally the strength of coupling is lower than that with Bragg grating embedded into the waveguide within the GaN laser structure by two-step-epitaxy. Therefore, the overgrowth on the grating technology need to be studied and optimized. Here we propose to fabricate the fine step shape structure of first-order grating by the nanoimprint combined inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching, then carry out overgrowth high quality AlGaN film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Then a series of gratings with different period, depths and duty ratios are designed and fabricated to study the influence of grating structure to the nano-heteroepitaxy. Moreover, we observe the nucleation and growth process by step-by-step growth to study the growth mode for nitride overgrowth on grating, under the condition that the grating period is larger than the mental migration length on the surface. The AFM images demonstrate that a smooth surface of AlGaN film is achieved with an average roughness of 0.20 nm over 3 × 3 μm2. The full width at half maximums (FWHMs) of the (002) reflections in the XRD rocking curves are 278 arcsec for the AlGaN film, and the component of the Al within the film is 8% according to the XRD mapping measurement, which is in accordance with design values. By observing the samples with growth time changing from 200s, 400s to 600s, the growth model is summarized as the follow steps: initially, the nucleation is evenly distributed on the grating structure, as the migration length of Al atoms is low; then, AlGaN growth alone with the grating top surface; finally, the AlGaN film formed by lateral growth. This work contributed to carrying out GaN DFB laser by fabricating grating and overgrowth on the nano-grating patterned substrate by wafer scale, moreover, growth dynamics had been analyzed as well.

Keywords: DFB laser, MOCVD, nanoepitaxy, III-niitride

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1110 X-Ray Diffraction and Mӧssbauer Studies of Nanostructured Ni45Al45Fe10 Powders Elaborated by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: N. Ammouchi

Abstract:

We have studied the effect of milling time on the structural and hyperfine properties of Ni45Al45Fe10 compound elaborated by mechanical alloying. The elaboration was performed by using the planetary ball mill at different milling times. The as milled powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mӧssbauer spectroscopy. From XRD diffraction spectra, we show that the β NiAl(Fe) was completely formed after 24 h of milling time. When the milling time increases, the lattice parameter increases, whereas the grain size decreases to a few nanometres and the mean level of microstrains increases. The analysis of Mӧssbauer spectra indicates that, in addition to a ferromagnetic phase, α-Fe, a paramagnetic disordered phase Ni Al (Fe) solid solution is observed after 2h and only this phase is present after 12h.

Keywords: NiAlFe, nanostructured powders, X-ray diffraction, Mӧssbauer spectroscopy

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1109 Health of Riveted Joints with Active and Passive Structural Health Monitoring Techniques

Authors: Javad Yarmahmoudi, Alireza Mirzaee

Abstract:

Many active and passive structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have been developed for detection of the defects of plates. Generally, riveted joints hold the plates together and their failure may create accidents. In this study, well known active and passive methods were modified for the evaluation of the health of the riveted joints between the plates. The active method generated Lamb waves and monitored their propagation by using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disks. The signal was analyzed by using the wavelet transformations. The passive method used the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and evaluated the spectral characteristics of the signals by using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The results indicated that the existing methods designed for the evaluation of the health of individual plates may be used for inspection of riveted joints with software modifications.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, SHM, active SHM, passive SHM, fiber bragg grating sensor, lead zirconate titanate, PZT

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1108 Synthesis and Characterisation of Bi-Substituted Magnetite Nanoparticles by Mechanochemical Processing (MCP)

Authors: Morteza Mohri Esfahani, Amir S. H. Rozatian, Morteza Mozaffari

Abstract:

Single phase magnetite nanoparticles and Bi-substituted ones were prepared by mechanochemical processing (MCP). The effects of Bi-substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and magnetometry techniques, respectively. The XRD results showed that all samples have spinel phase and by increasing Bi content, the main diffraction peaks were shifted to higher angles, which means the lattice parameter decreases from 0.843 to 0.838 nm and then increases to 0.841 nm. Also, the results revealed that increasing Bi content lead to a decrease in saturation magnetization (Ms) from 74.9 to 48.8 emu/g and an increase in coercivity (Hc) from 96.8 to 137.1 Oe.

Keywords: bi-substituted magnetite nanoparticles, mechanochemical processing, X-ray diffraction, magnetism

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1107 The Role of Deformation Strain and Annealing Temperature on Grain Boundary Engineering and Texture Evolution of Haynes 230

Authors: Mohsen Sanayei, Jerzy Szpunar

Abstract:

The present study investigates the effects of deformation strain and annealing temperature on the formation of twin boundaries, deformation and recrystallization texture evolution and grain boundary networks and connectivity. The resulting microstructures were characterized using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) both immediately following small amount of deformation and after short time annealing at high temperature to correlate the micro and macro texture evolution of these alloys. Furthermore, this study showed that the process of grain boundary engineering, consisting cycles of deformation and annealing, is found to substantially reduce the mass and size of random boundaries and increase the proportion of low Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) grain boundaries.

Keywords: coincidence site lattice, grain boundary engineering, electron backscatter diffraction, texture, x-ray diffraction

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1106 Magnetic Structure and Transitions in 45% Mn Substituted HoFeO₃: A Neutron Diffraction Study

Authors: Karthika Chandran, Pulkit Prakash, Amitabh Das, Santhosh P. N.

Abstract:

Rare earth orthoferrites (RFeO₃) exhibit interesting and useful magnetic properties like multiferroicity, magnetodielectric coupling, spin reorientation (SR) and exchange bias. B site doped RFeO₃ are attracting attention due to the complex and tuneable magnetic transitions. In this work, 45% Mn-doped HoFeO₃ polycrystalline sample (HoFe₀.₅₅Mn₀.₄₅O₃) was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The magnetic structure and transitions were studied by magnetization measurements and neutron powder diffraction methods. The neutron diffraction patterns were taken at 13 different temperatures from 7°K to 300°K (7°K and 25°K to 300°K in 25°K intervals). The Rietveld refinement was carried out by using a FULLPROF suite. The magnetic space groups and the irreducible representations were obtained by SARAh module. The room temperature neutron diffraction refinement results indicate that the sample crystallizes in an orthorhombic perovskite structure with Pnma space group with lattice parameters a = 5.6626(3) Ǻ, b = 7.5241(3) Ǻ and c = 5.2704(2) Ǻ. The temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) studies indicate the presence of two magnetic transitions in the system ( TN Fe/Mn~330°K and TSR Fe/Mn ~290°K). The inverse susceptibility vs. temperature curve shows a linear behavior above 330°K. The Curie-Weiss fit in this region gives negative Curie constant (-34.9°K) indicating the antiferromagnetic nature of the transition. The neutron diffraction refinement results indicate the presence of mixed magnetic phases Γ₄(AₓFᵧG

Keywords: neutron powder diffraction, rare earth orthoferrites, Rietveld analysis, spin reorientation

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1105 Study of the Removal Efficiency of Azo-Dyes Using Xanthan as Sequestering Agent

Authors: Cedillo Ortiz Cesar Isaac, Marañón-Ruiz Virginia-Francisca, Lozano-Alvarez Juan Antonio, Jáuregui-Rincón Juan, Roger Chiu Zarate

Abstract:

Introduction: The contamination of water with the azo-dye is a problem worldwide as although wastewater contaminate is treated in a municipal sewage system, still contain a considerable amount of dyes. In the present, there are different processes denominated tertiary method in which it is possible to lower the concentration of the dye. One of these methods is by adsorption onto various materials which can be organic or inorganic materials. The xanthan is a biomaterial as removal agents to decrease the dye content in aqueous solution. The Zimm-Bragg model described the experimental isotherms obtained when this biopolymer was used in the removal of textile dyes. Nevertheless, it was not established if a possible correlation between dye structure and removal efficiency exists. In this sense, the principal objective of this report is to propose a qualitative relationship between the structure of three azo-dyes (Congo Red (CR), Methyl Red (MR) and Methyl Orange (MO)) and their removal efficiency from aqueous environment when xanthan are used as dye sequestering agents. Methods: The dyes were subjected to different pH and ionic strength values to obtain the conditions of maximum dye removal. Afterward, these conditions were used to perform the adsorption isotherm as was reported in the previous study in our group. The Zimm-Bragg model was used to describe the experimental data and the parameters of nucleation (Ku) and cooperativity (U) were obtained by optimization using the R statistical software. The spectra from UV-Visible (aqueous solution), Infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopies (dry samples) were obtained from the biopolymer-dye complex. Results: The removal percent with xanthan in each dye are as follows: with CR had 99.98 % when the pH is 12 and ionic strength is 10.12, with MR had 84.79 % when the pH is 9.5 and ionic strength is 43 and finally the MO had 30 % in pH 4 and 72. It can be seen that when xanthan is used to remove the dyes, exists a lower dependence between structure and removal efficiency. This may be due to the different tendency to form aggregates of each dye. This aggregation capacity and the charge of each dye resulting from the pH and ionic strength values of aqueous solutions are key factors in the dye removal. The experimental isotherm of MR was only that adequately described by Zimm-Bragg model. Because with the CR had the 100 % of remove thus is very difficult obtain de experimental isotherm and finally MO had results fluctuating and therefore was impossible get the accurate data. Conclusions: The study of the removal of three dyes with xanthan as dye sequestering agents suggests that aggregation capacity of dyes and the charge resulting from structural characteristics such as molecular weight and functional groups have a relationship with the removal efficiency. Acknowledgements: We are gratefully acknowledged support for this project by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, México (CONACyT, Grant No. 632694.)

Keywords: adsorption, azo dyes, xanthan gum, Zimm Bragg theory

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