Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: legibility

19 A Meta-Analysis of Handwriting and Visual-Motor Integration (VMI): The Moderating Effect of Handwriting Dimensions

Authors: Hong Lu, Xin Chen, Zhengcheng Fan

Abstract:

Prior research has claimed a close association between handwriting and mathematics attainment with the help of spatial cognition. However, the exact mechanism behind this relationship remains un-investigated. Focusing on visual-motor integration (VMI), one critical spatial skill, this meta-analysis aims to estimate the size of the handwriting- visual-motor integration relationship and examine the moderating effect of handwriting dimensions on the link. With a random effect model, a medium relation (r=.26, 95%CI [.22, .30]) between handwriting and VMI was summarized in 38 studies with 55 unique samples and 141 effect sizes. Findings suggested handwriting dimensions significantly moderated the handwriting- VMI relationship, with handwriting legibility showing a substantial correlation with VMI, but neither handwriting speed nor pressure. Identifying the essential relationship between handwriting legibility and VMI, this study adds to the literature about the key cognitive processing needs underlying handwriting, and spatial cognition thus highlights the cognitive mechanism regarding handwriting, spatial cognition, and mathematics performances.

Keywords: handwriting, visual-motor integration, legibility, meta-analysis

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18 Spatial Evaluations of Haskoy: The Emperial Village

Authors: Yasemin Filiz-Kuruel, Emine Koseoglu

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate Haskoy district of Beyoglu town of Istanbul. Haskoy is located in Halic region, between Kasimpasa district and Kagithane district. After the conquest of Istanbul, Fatih Sultan Mehmet (the Conqueror) set up his tent here. Therefore, the area gets its name as Haskoy, 'imperial village' that means a village which is special for Sultan. Today, there are shipyard and ateliers in variable sizes in Haskoy. In this study, the legibility of Haskoy streets is investigated comparatively. As a research method, semantic differential scale is used. The photos of the streets, which contain specific criteria, are chosen. The questionnaire is directed to first and third grade architecture students. The spatial evaluation of Haskoy streets is done through the survey.

Keywords: Haskoy, legibility, semantic differential scale, urban streets

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17 Investigation of the Perceptional Quality of Nightscape in the Urban Space: A Case Study of Mashhad Koohsangi Axis in Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Khatami, Maryam Ziyaee, Elham Sanagar Darbani

Abstract:

Variety of different factors could influence on the measure urban perception. Both physical and non-physical factors, at least, make the quality of perception through the urban spaces. The value of lighting is one of the important factors which could make the better quality of environmental perception for the user. The perception of urban space in most of the Iranian cities is offer by different factors during the night time which caused to the death of nightlife and social activities. Therefore, this research is an attempt to study on the different of user perception during day and night in the Koohsangi Street. As the case study area in Iran in order to bring out the main influential factors during perception process. To deal with this good we used chi-square test on a sample size made up of on hundred participants. The result shows that for improving the night quality of urban spaces the legibility, navigation, and role stimulation were in important perception factors. Therefore, by focusing on these factors it would be possible to find out more functional solution for improving the activity of night perception.

Keywords: perception, urban space, legibility, imageability, nightscape

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16 A Study on Establishing Criteria for Installation of Small Road Signs

Authors: Sang-KeunBaik, Kyu-Soo Chong, Joon-Yeop Na

Abstract:

This study attempts to reduce the wind load of road signs, improve roadside landscaping, and enhance the safety of road users by establishing criteria for the installation of small road signs. First, we derive the minimum font size that can be used on road signs according to the road’s design speed by considering the visibility and legibility of such road signs. We classify road junctions into eight types based on junction type (intersection, interchange, and expressway) and on the number of road lanes. Furthermore, we propose small sign alternatives, to which the minimum font size is applied, to be placed by each road junction. To verify the effects of the small signs, we implemented a 3D simulation road environment, to which the small road signs were applied, and performed experiments using the driving simulator targeting 50 drivers. The experiments compared and analyzed the effects, whether the driver proceeds to the desired exit and the average driving time, between the existing large road signs and the improved small road signs under the same road conditions and intersection type. We conducted a survey with the participants of the simulation experiment on the preference between graphical signs (large road signs) and exit-centric signs (small road signs). The results show that the participants prefer the exit-centric signs (60%) to the graphical signs (40%). We propose installation criteria for small road signs for intersections, interchanges, and expressways based on the results of the experiment and the survey.

Keywords: 3D simulation, driving simulator, legibility distance, minimum font size, small road signs

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15 Looking beyond Lynch's Image of a City

Authors: Sandhya Rao

Abstract:

Kevin Lynch’s Theory on Imeageability, let on explore a city in terms of five elements, Nodes, Paths, Edges, landmarks and Districts. What happens when we try to record the same data in an Indian context? What happens when we apply the same theory of Imageability to a complex shifting urban pattern of the Indian cities and how can we as Urban Designers demonstrate our role in the image building ordeal of these cities? The organizational patterns formed through mental images, of an Indian city is often diverse and intangible. It is also multi layered and temporary in terms of the spirit of the place. The pattern of images formed is loaded with associative meaning and intrinsically linked with the history and socio-cultural dominance of the place. The embedded memory of a place in one’s mind often plays an even more important role while formulating these images. Thus while deriving an image of a city one is often confused or finds the result chaotic. The images formed due to its complexity are further difficult to represent using a single medium. Under such a scenario it’s difficult to derive an output of an image constructed as well as make design interventions to enhance the legibility of a place. However, there can be a combination of tools and methods that allows one to record the key elements of a place through time, space and one’s user interface with the place. There has to be a clear understanding of the participant groups of a place and their time and period of engagement with the place as well. How we can translate the result obtained into a design intervention at the end, is the main of the research. Could a multi-faceted cognitive mapping be an answer to this or could it be a very transient mapping method which can change over time, place and person. How does the context influence the process of image building in one’s mind? These are the key questions that this research will aim to answer.

Keywords: imageability, organizational patterns, legibility, cognitive mapping

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14 Preferred Character Size for Oblique Angles

Authors: Photjanat Phimnom, Haruetai Lohasiriwat

Abstract:

In today’s world, the LED display has been used for presenting visual information under various circumstances. Such information is an important intermediary in the human information processing. Researchers have been investigated diverse factors that influence this process effectiveness. The letter size is undoubtedly one major factor that has been tested and recommended by many standards and guidelines. However, viewing information on the display from direct perpendicular position is a typical assumption whereas many actual events are required viewing from the angles. This current research aims to study the effect of oblique viewing angle and viewing distance on ability to recognize alphabet, number, and English word. The total of ten participants was volunteered to our 3 x 4 x 4 within subject study. Independent variables include three distance levels (2, 6, and 12 m), four oblique angle (0, 45, 60, 75 degree), and four target types (alphabet, number, short words, and long words). Following the method of constant stimuli we found that the larger oblique angle, ranging from 0 to 75 degree from the line of sight, results in significant higher legibility threshold or larger font size required (p-value < 0.05). Viewing distance factor also shows to have significant effect on the threshold (p-value < 0.05). However, the effect from distance factor is expected to be confounded by the quality of the screen we used in our experiment. Lastly, our results show that single alphabet as well as single number are recognized at significant lower threshold (smaller font size) as compared to both short and long words (p-value < 0.05). Therefore, it is recommended that when designs information to be presented on LED display, understanding of all possible ranges of oblique angle should be taken into account in order to specify the preferred letter size. Additionally, the recommendation of letter size for 100 % readability in our tested conditions is provided in the paper.

Keywords: letter size, oblique angle, viewing distance, legibility threshold

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13 The Tramway in French Cities: Complication of Public Spaces and Complexity of the Design Process

Authors: Elisa Maître

Abstract:

The redeployment of tram networks in French cities has considerably modified public spaces and the way citizens use them. Above and beyond the image that trams have of contributing to the sustainable urban development, the question of safety for users in these spaces has not been studied much. This study is based on an analysis of use of public spaces laid out for trams, from the standpoint of legibility and safety concerns. The study also examines to what extent the complexity of the design process, with many interactions between numerous and varied players in this process has a role in the genesis of these problems. This work is mainly based on the analysis of links between the uses of these re-designed public spaces (through observations, interviews of users and accident studies) and the analysis of the design conditions and processes of the projects studied (mainly based on interviews with the actors of these projects). Practical analyses were based three points of view: that of the planner, that of the user (based on observations and interviews) and that of the road safety expert. The cities of Montpellier, Marseille and Nice are the three fields of study on which the demonstration of this thesis is based. On part, the results of this study allow showing that the insertion of tram poses some problems complication of public areas of French cities. These complications related to the restructuring of public spaces for the tram, create difficulties of use and safety concerns. On the other hand, interviews depth analyses, fully transcribed, have led us to develop particular dysfunction scenarios in the design process. These elements lead to question the way the legibility and safety of these new forms of public spaces are taken into account. Then, an in-depth analysis of the design processes of public spaces with trams systems would also be a way of better understanding the choices made, the compromises accepted, and the conflicts and constraints at work, weighing on the layout of these spaces. The results presented concerning the impact that spaces laid out for trams have on the difficulty of use, suggest different possibilities for improving the way in which safety for all users is taken into account in designing public spaces.

Keywords: public spaces, road layout, users, design process of urban projects

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12 Between Buddha and Tsar: Kalmyk Buddhist Sangha in Late Russian Empire

Authors: Elzyata Kuberlinova

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This study explores how the Kalmyk Buddhist sangha responded to the Russian empire’s administrative integration and how the Buddhist clerical institutions were shaped in the process of interaction with representatives of the predominantly Orthodox state. The eighteenth-nineteenth century Russian imperial regime adhered to a religion-centred framework to govern its diverse subjects. Within this framework, any form of religious authority was considered a useful tool in the imperial quest for legibility. As such, rather than imposing religious homogeneity, the Russian administration engineered a framework of religious toleration and integrated the non-Orthodox clerical institutions in the empire’s administration. In its attempt to govern the large body of Kalmyk Buddhist sangha, the Russian government had to incorporate the sangha into the imperial institutional establishment. To this end, the Russian government founded the Lamaist Spiritual Governing Board in 1834, which became a part of the civil administration, where the Kalmyk Buddhist affairs were managed under the supervision of the Russian secular authorities. In 1847 the Lamaist Spiritual Board was abolished and Buddhist religious authority was transferred to the Lama of the Kalmyk people. From 1847 until the end of the empire in 1917 the Lama was the manager and intermediary figure between the Russian authorities and the Kalmyks where religious affairs were concerned. Substantial evidence collected in archives in Elista, Astrakhan, Stavropol and St.Petersburg show that despite being on the government’s payroll, first the Lamaist Spiritual Governing Board and later on the Lama did not always serve the interests of the state, and did not always comply with the Russian authorities’ orders. Although being incorporated into the state administrative system the Lama often found ways to manoeuvre the web of the Russian imperial bureaucracy in order to achieve his own goals. The Lama often used ‘every-day forms of resistance’ such as feigned misinterpretation, evasion, false compliance, feigned ignorance, and sabotage in order to resist without directly confronting or challenging the state orders.

Keywords: Buddhist Sangha, intermediary, Kalmyks, Lama, legibility, resistance, reform, Russian empire

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11 Social Sustainability Quotient of Vertical Habitats

Authors: Abdullah Mohamed, Raipat Vaidehi

Abstract:

With increasing immigration to urban areas, every city is experiencing shortage of housing. Vertical habitats are the only solution to this problem, it is hence important to make sure that these habitats are environmentally, socially and economically sustainable. A lot of work on vertical habitats has already been carried out in terms of environmental and economic sustainability, hence this research aims to study the aspects of social sustainability of the vertical habitats. It being the least studied topic, opens many reals of novelty and uniqueness. In this Research, user perception survey and various mapping methods have been used to study the social sustainability of the existing vertical habitats in the selected cities. The various aspects that can be used to define social sustainability of any place include; safety, equity, accessibility, legibility, imagibility, readability, memorability and ease of movement. This research would help to evolve new strategies in form of design and/or guidelines to make the existing vertical habitats socially sustainable.

Keywords: user lifestyle, user perception, social sustainability, vertical habitats

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10 Introduction of Electronic Health Records to Improve Data Quality in Emergency Department Operations

Authors: Anuruddha Jagoda, Samiddhi Samarakoon, Anil Jasinghe

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In its simplest form, data quality can be defined as 'fitness for use' and it is a concept with multi-dimensions. Emergency Departments(ED) require information to treat patients and on the other hand it is the primary source of information regarding accidents, injuries, emergencies etc. Also, it is the starting point of various patient registries, databases and surveillance systems. This interventional study was carried out to improve data quality at the ED of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL) by introducing an e health solution to improve data quality. The NHSL is the premier trauma care centre in Sri Lanka. The study consisted of three components. A research study was conducted to assess the quality of data in relation to selected five dimensions of data quality namely accuracy, completeness, timeliness, legibility and reliability. The intervention was to develop and deploy an electronic emergency department information system (eEDIS). Post assessment of the intervention confirmed that all five dimensions of data quality had improved. The most significant improvements are noticed in accuracy and timeliness dimensions.

Keywords: electronic health records, electronic emergency department information system, emergency department, data quality

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9 Structural Analysis of Hole-Type Plate for Weight Lightening of Road Sign

Authors: Joon-Yeop Na, Sang-Keun Baik, Kyu-Soo Chong

Abstract:

Road sign sizes are related to their support and foundation, and the large-scale support that is generally installed at roadsides can cause inconvenience to pedestrians and damage the urban landscape. The most influential factor in determining the support and foundation of road signs is the wind load. In this study, we introduce a hole-type road sign to analyze its effects on reducing wind load. A hole-type road sign reduces the drag coefficient that is applied when considering the air and fluid resistance of a plate when the wind pressure is calculated, thus serving as an effective option for lightening the weights of road sign structures. A hole-type road sign is punctured with a perforator. Furthermore, the size of the holes and their distance is determined considering the damage to characters, the poor performance of reflective sheets, and legibility. For the calculation of the optimal specification of a hole-type road sign, we undertook a theoretical examination for reducing the wind loads on hole-type road signs, and analyzed the bending and reflectivity of sample road sign plates. The analytic results confirmed that a hole-type road sign sample that contains holes of 6 mm in diameter with a distance of 18 mm between the holes shows reflectivity closest to that of existing road signs; moreover, the average bending moment resulted in a reduction of 4.24%, and the support’s diameter is reduced by 40.2%.

Keywords: hole type, road sign, weight lightening, wind load

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8 Evaluation of Video Development about Exclusive Breastfeeding as a Nutrition Education Media for Posyandu Cadre

Authors: Ari Istiany, Guspri Devi Artanti, M. Si

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Based on the results Riskesdas, it is known that breastfeeding awareness about the importance of exclusive breastfeeding is still low at only 15.3 %. These conditions resulted in a very infant at risk for infectious diseases, such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infection. Therefore, the aim of this study to evaluate the video development about exclusive breastfeeding as a nutrition education media for posyandu cadre. This research used development methods for making the video about exclusive breastfeeding. The study was conducted in urban areas Rawamangun, East Jakarta. Respondents of this study were 1 media experts from the Department of Educational Technology - UNJ, 2 subject matter experts from Department of Home Economics - UNJ and 20 posyandu cadres to assess the quality of the video. Aspects assessed include the legibility of text, image display quality, color composition, clarity of sound, music appropriateness, duration, suitability of the material and language. Data were analyzed descriptively likes frequency distribution table, the average value, and deviation standard. The result of this study showed that the average score assessment according to media experts, subject matter experts, and posyandu cadres respectively was 3.43 ± 0.51 (good), 4.37 ± 0.52 (very good) and 3.6 ± 0.73 (good). The conclusion is on exclusive breastfeeding video as feasible as a media for nutrition education. While suggestions for the improvement of visual media is multiply illustrations, add material about the correct way of breastfeeding and healthy baby pictures.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, posyandu cadre, video, nutrition education

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7 Comparing the Quality of Electronic and Paper Do-Not-Resucscitate Forms in Hosptail

Authors: Anmol Patel

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is medical intervention which should be considered for all inpatients; with a patient centred approach, open communication and accurate documentation of clinical decisions. National enquiries have shown that in a significant number of cases CPR was attempted when it was considered inappropriate. In these circumstances attempting to prevent a natural death and subjecting a patient to trauma at the end of life would deprive them of a dignified death. Anticipatory “do not attempt CPR (DNACPR)” decisions aim to prevent this for those considered appropriate. As a legal document, these forms are required to be completed accurately and thoroughly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in quality of DNACPR forms completed using electronic versus paper formats. A retrospective review of DNACPR forms and related documentation was completed in two District General Hospitals in South-East England, one of which uses electronic forms, while the other uses paper red forms. 50 completed forms from each hospital were analysed to assess for legibility, and quality of completion of all subsections of the form, including communications with family, relatives and the Multidisciplinary team. The hospital using paper forms showed a 40-44% rate of completion of sections relating to communication with patients and family, compared to 70% with the hospital using electronic forms. Similar trends were observed with other sections of the form. Conclusion: This study suggests that the implementation of electronic DNACPR forms significantly improves clinical practice and promotes better open communication with patients, family and the MDT.

Keywords: DNACPR, resuscitation, DNAR, patient communication

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6 Evaluation of Planned and Organically Transformed Public Spaces in Urban Indian Market Places: A Case of Bhopal City, India

Authors: Piyush Hajela

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Public spaces within Indian markets are vibrant, colorful and contain dimensions that make them attractive and therefore act as popular gathering spaces. Most of these public spaces emerge as squares, plazas of varied shapes and sizes spread at different locations within the market. These public spaces grow organically and are discovered by the people themselves as they respond positively to the collective human senses. On the other hand, there are the planned and designed public spaces as well that are less active. This research evaluates both the planned and the organically transformed public spaces in Indian markets from an Urban Design point of view. The purpose of such research is to provide a basis for design solutions to ensure the success of designed public spaces. The evaluation is done for identified Attributes, namely Comfort, Protection, Familiarity, Activities, Form, Legibility, Engagement, Safety, Accessibility, Environment and Transformations by which a Public Space attains its recognition. The evaluation is based on a rating done for forty-four parameters falling under eleven attributes of public space. An opinion survey of professionals is conducted for their priorities of attributes while designing Public spaces. A comparison is made to rank these attributes between Planned and Organically transformed Public spaces and, opinion of the professionals. After dues analysis, the research suggests the learning from the organically transformed Public spaces for ensuring the success of designed public spaces. The suggestions may be in the form of Design decisions or administrative regulations, or both for achieving the desirables.

Keywords: assessment, attributes, engagement, interaction

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5 Residential High-Rises and Meaningful Places: Missing Actions in the Isle of Dogs Regeneration

Authors: Elena Kalcheva, Ahmad Taki, Yuri Hadi

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Urban regeneration often includes residential high-rises as a way of optimum use of land. However, high-rises are in many cases connected to placelessness, this is not due to some intrinsic characteristic of the typology, but more to a failure to provide meaningful places in connection to them. The reason to study the Isle of the Dogs regeneration is the successful process that led to vibrant area with strong identity and social sustainability. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the gaps into the sound strategy for the development of the area and in its implementation which will make the place more sustainable. The paper addresses four research questions: are the residential high-rises supporting a proper physical form; is there deployed properly scaled mix of land uses and functions in connection with residential high-rises; are there possible quality activities in quality places near the residential high-rises; and is there a strong sense of place created with the residential high-rise buildings and their surroundings. The methodology relies on observational survey of the researched area together with structured questions, to evaluate the external qualities of the residential high-rises and their surroundings. Visual information can help identify the mistakes and the omissions of the provided project examples. It can provide insight on how can be improved imageability, legibility and human scale. In this connection, the paper argues that although the quality of the architecture of the high-rises is superb, there is a failure to create meaningful, high quality public realm in connection with them. As such, it does not function as well as the designers intended to do: the functional quality of the public realm is quite low. The implications of the study suggest that actions need to take place in order to improve and foster further regeneration of the area.

Keywords: high-rises, isle of the dogs, public realm, regeneration

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4 The Effect of Configuration Space and Visual Perception in Public Space Usage at Villa Bukit Tidar Housing in Malang City

Authors: Aisyiyah Fauziah Rahmah

Abstract:

Generally, an urban city has a rapid growth, it has frequent a variety of problems, especially of convenience in public space usage. The density of population in urban areas and the high activity is also indicated as a cause of urban resident lifestyle for the worse in social relationships and allow for the stress. Streets and green space (parks) are the only public space in a residential area which is used as a place to build social activity, to meet and interact with the other housing dweller. The high level of activity and social interaction that occurs will affect the spatial arrangement. It can be effected the space structures in housing more complex. Ease in access to public space is the reason many dweller prefer doing social activities there. Hillier in Carmona et al (2003) explains that the pattern and intensity of movement of individuals is influenced by the configuration of space, even the space structure can be regarded as the single most influential determinant of movements in the space. Whyte in Zhang and Lawson (2009) also suggest some factors such as seats, trees, water and legibility of space encourage people to stay in public outdoor space. Furthermore this activities can attract more activities. Villa Bukit Tidar is a housing in Lowokwaru District which highest number of people in Malang City, so social activity is also high there. It has natural and recreational concept and provided with view of Malang City from heights. This potential is able to attract the people who live there to stay in public outdoor space and doing activities there. From this study we can find whether the ease of access to public space and visual satisfaction of Villa Bukit Tidar housing affect the usage of public space. This study was carried out by observing the streets pattern and plot pattern to know the configuration space of Villa Bukit Tidar housing through values of connectivity and integrity by resulting from space sintax analysis. Distributing questionnaires also carried out to determine the level of satisfaction and importance perception of visual condition in the public space in Villa Bukit Tidar housing through Important Performance Analysis (IPA). Results of this research indicated that the public spaces in Villa Bukit Tidar housing who has high connectivity and integrity is considered to be visually satisfied and it has a higher public space usage than has low connectivity and integrity are considered to be visually dissatisfied.

Keywords: configuration space, visual perception, social activities, public space usage

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3 The Functions of Spatial Structure in Supporting Socialization in Urban Parks

Authors: Navid Nasrolah Mazandarani, Faezeh Mohammadi Tahrodi, Jr., Norshida Ujang, Richard Jan Pech

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Human evolution has designed us to be dependent on social and natural settings, but designed of our modern cities often ignore this fact. It is evident that high-rise buildings dominate most metropolitan city centers. As a result urban parks are very limited and in many cases are not socially responsive to our social needs in these urban ‘jungles’. This paper emphasizes the functions of urban morphology in supporting socialization in Lake Garden, one of the main urban parks in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It discusses two relevant theories; first the concept of users’ experience coined by Kevin Lynch (1960) which states that way-finding is related to the process of forming mental maps of environmental surroundings. Second, the concept of social activity coined by Jan Gehl (1987) which holds that urban public spaces can be more attractive when they provide welcoming places in which people can walk around and spend time. Until recently, research on socio-spatial behavior mainly focused on social ties, place attachment and human well-being; with less focus on the spatial dimension of social behavior. This paper examines the socio-spatial behavior within the spatial structure of the urban park by exploring the relationship between way-finding and social activity. The urban structures defined by the paths and nodes were analyzed as the fundamental topological structure of space to understand their effects on the social engagement pattern. The study uses a photo questionnaire survey to inspect the spatial dimension in relation to the social activities within paths and nodes. To understand the legibility of the park, spatial cognition was evaluated using sketch maps produced by 30 participants who visited the park. The results of the sketch mapping indicated that a spatial image has a strong interrelation with socio-spatial behavior. Moreover, an integrated spatial structure of the park generated integrated use and social activity. It was found that people recognized and remembered the spaces where they engaged in social activities. They could experience the park more thoroughly, when they found their way continuously through an integrated park structure. Therefore, the benefits of both perceptual and social dimensions of planning and design happened simultaneously. The findings can assist urban planners and designers to redevelop urban parks by considering the social quality design that contributes to clear mental images of these places.

Keywords: spatial structure, social activities, sketch map, urban park, way-finding

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2 Nature of Cities: Ontological Dimension of the Urban

Authors: Ana Cristina García-Luna Romero

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This document seeks to reflect on the urban project from its conceptual identity root. In the first instance, a proposal is made on how the city project is sustained from the conceptual root, from the logos: it opens a way to assimilate the imagination; what we imagine becomes a reality. In this way, firstly, the need to use language as a vehicle for transmitting the stories that sustain us as humanity can be deemed as an important social factor that enables us to social behavior. Secondly, the need to attend to the written language as a mechanism of power, as a means to consolidate a dominant ideology or a political position, is raised; as it served to carry out the modernization project, it is therefore addressed differences between the real and the literate city. Thus, the consolidated urban-architectural project is based on logos, the project, and planning. Considering the importance of materiality and its relation to subjective well-being contextualized from a socio-urban approach, we question ourselves into how we can look at something that is doubtful. From a philosophy perspective, the truth is considered to be nothing more than a matter of correspondence between the observer and the observed. To understand beyond the relative of the gaze, it is necessary to expose different perspectives since it depends on the understanding of what is observed and how it is critically analyzed. Therefore, the analysis of materiality, as a political field, takes a proposal based on this research in the principles in transgenesis: principle of communication, representativeness, security, health, malleability, availability of potentiality or development, conservation, sustainability, economy, harmony, stability, accessibility, justice, legibility, significance, consistency, joint responsibility, connectivity, beauty, among others. The (urban) human being acts because he wants to live in a certain way: in a community, in a fair way, with opportunity for development, with the possibility of managing the environment according to their needs, etc. In order to comply with this principle, it is necessary to design strategies from the principles in transgenesis, which must be named, defined, understood, and socialized by the urban being, the companies, and from themselves. In this way, the technical status of the city in the neoliberal present determines extraordinary conditions for reflecting on an almost emergency scenario created by the impact of cities that, far from being limited to resilient proposals, must aim at the reflection of the urban process that the present social model has generated. Therefore, can we rethink the paradigm of the perception of life quality in the current neoliberal model in the production of the character of public space related to the practices of being urban. What we are trying to do within this document is to build a framework to study under what logic the practices of the social system that make sense of the public space are developed, what the implications of the phenomena of the inscription of action and materialization (and its results over political action between the social and the technical system) are and finally, how we can improve the quality of life of individuals from the urban space.

Keywords: cities, nature, society, urban quality of life

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1 Quality Assessment of Pedestrian Streets in Iran: Case Study of Saf, Tehran

Authors: Fstemeh Rais Esmaili, Ehsan Ranjbar

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Pedestrian streets as one type of urban public spaces have an important role in improving the quality of urban life. In Iran, planning and designing of pedestrian streets is in its primary steps. In spite of starting this approach in Iran, and designing several pedestrian streets, there are still not organized studies about quality assessment of pedestrian streets. As a result, the strength and weakness points of the initial experiences have not been utilized. This inattention to quality assessment have caused designing pedestrian streets to be limited to just vehicles traffic control and preliminary actions like paving; so that, special potentials of pedestrian streets for creating social, livable and dynamic public spaces have not been used. This article, as an organized study about quality assessment of pedestrian streets in Iran, tries to reach two main goals: first, introducing a framework for quality assessment of pedestrian streets in Iran, and second, creating a context for improving the quality of pedestrian streets especially for further experiences. The main research methods are description and context analyzing. With respect to comparative analysis of ideas about quality, considering international and local case studies and analyzing existing condition of Saf Pedestrian Street, a particular model for quality assessment has been introduced. In this model, main components and assessment criteria have been presented. On the basis of this model, questionnaire and checklist for assessment have been prepared. The questionnaire and interview have been used to assess qualities which are in direct contact with people and the checklist has been used for analyzing visual qualities by authors through observation. Some results of questionnaire and checklist show that 7 of 11 primary components, diversity, flexibility, cleanness, legibility and imaginably, identity, livability, form and physical setting are rated low and very low in quality degree. Three components, efficiency, comfort and distinctiveness, have medium and low quality degree and one component, access, linkage and permeability has high quality degree. Therefore, based on implemented analyzing process, Saf Pedestrian Street needs to be improved and these quality improvement priorities are determined based on presented criteria. Adaption of final results with existing condition illustrates the shortage of services for satisfying user’s needs, inflexibility and impossibility of using spaces in various times, lack of facilities for different climatic conditions, lack of facilities such as drinking fountain, inappropriate designing of existing urban furniture like garbage cans, and creating pollution and unsuitable view, lack of visual attractions, neglecting disabled persons in designing entrances, shortage of benches and their undesirable designing, lack of vegetation, absence of special characters making it different from other streets, preventing people taking part in the space causing lack of affiliation, lack of appropriate elements for leisure time and lack of exhilaration in the space. On the other hand, these results present high access and permeability, high safety, less sound pollution and more relief, comfortable movement along the way due to suitable pavement and economic efficiency, as the strength points of Saf pedestrian street.

Keywords: pedestrian streets, quality assessment, quality criteria, Saf Pedestrian Street

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