Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 425

Search results for: Mark G. Luciano

425 Forensic Study on Personal Identification of Pakistani Population by Individualizing Characteristics of Footprints

Authors: Muneeba Butt

Abstract:

One of the most important physical evidence which leaves suspects at the crime scene is footprints. Analysis of footprints, which can provide useful information for personal identification, is helpful in crime scene investigation. For the current study, 200 samples collected (144 male and 56 female) from Pakistani population with a consent form. The footprints were collected by using black ink with an ink pad. The entire samples were photographed, and then the magnifying glass was used for visualization of individual characteristics including detail of toes, humps, phalange mark, and flat foot cracks in footprint patterns. The descriptive results of individualizing characteristics features were presented in tabular form with respective frequency and percentage. In the result in the male population, the prevalence of tibialis type (T-type) is highest. In the female population, the prevalence of midularis type (M-type) is highest. Humps on the first toe are more found in the male population rather than other humps. In the female population, humps on the third toe are more found rather than other humps. In the male population, the prevalence of phalange mark by toe 1 is highest followed by toe 3, toe 5, toe 2, toe 4 and in female population the prevalence of phalange mark by toe 1 is highest followed by toe 5, 4, 3 and 2. Creases marks are found highest in male population as compared to the female population.

Keywords: foot prints, toes, humps, cracks

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
424 A Benchtop Experiment to Study Changes in Tracer Distribution in the Subarachnoid Space

Authors: Smruti Mahapatra, Dipankar Biswas, Richard Um, Michael Meggyesy, Riccardo Serra, Noah Gorelick, Steven Marra, Amir Manbachi, Mark G. Luciano

Abstract:

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is profoundly regulated by the effects of cardiac pulsation and the volume of the incoming blood. Furthermore, these effects on ICP are incremented by the presence of a rigid skull that does not allow for changes in total volume during the cardiac cycle. These factors play a pivotal role in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and distribution, with consequences that are not well understood to this date and that may have a deep effect on the Central Nervous System (CNS) functioning. We designed this study with two specific aims: (a) To study how pulsatility influences local CSF flow, and (b) To study how modulating intracranial pressure affects drug distribution throughout the SAS globally. In order to achieve these aims, we built an elaborate in-vitro model of the SAS closely mimicking the dimensions and flow rates of physiological systems. To modulate intracranial pressure, we used an intracranially implanted, cardiac-gated, volume-oscillating balloon (CADENCE device). Commercially available dye was used to visualize changes in CSF flow. We first implemented two control cases, seeing how the tracer behaves in the presence of pulsations from the brain phantom and the balloon individually. After establishing the controls, we tested 2 cases, having the brain and the balloon pulsate together in sync and out of sync. We then analyzed the distribution area using image processing software. The in-sync case produced a significant increase, 5x times, in the tracer distribution area relative to the out-of-sync case. Assuming that the tracer fluid would mimic blood flow movement, a drug introduced in the SAS with such a system in place would enhance drug distribution and increase the bioavailability of therapeutic drugs to a wider spectrum of brain tissue.

Keywords: blood-brain barrier, cardiac-gated, cerebrospinal fluid, drug delivery, neurosurgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
423 Application of Low-order Modeling Techniques and Neural-Network Based Models for System Identification

Authors: Venkatesh Pulletikurthi, Karthik B. Ariyur, Luciano Castillo

Abstract:

The system identification from the turbulence wakes will lead to the tactical advantage to prepare and also, to predict the trajectory of the opponents’ movements. A low-order modeling technique, POD, is used to predict the object based on the wake pattern and compared with pre-trained image recognition neural network (NN) to classify the wake patterns into objects. It is demonstrated that low-order modeling, POD, is able to predict the objects better compared to pretrained NN by ~30%.

Keywords: the bluff body wakes, low-order modeling, neural network, system identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
422 Empirical Study of Running Correlations in Exam Marks: Same Statistical Pattern as Chance

Authors: Weisi Guo

Abstract:

It is well established that there may be running correlations in sequential exam marks due to students sitting in the order of course registration patterns. As such, a random and non-sequential sampling of exam marks is a standard recommended practice. Here, the paper examines a large number of exam data stretching several years across different modules to see the degree to which it is true. Using the real mark distribution as a generative process, it was found that random simulated data had no more sequential randomness than the real data. That is to say, the running correlations that one often observes are statistically identical to chance. Digging deeper, it was found that some high running correlations have students that indeed share a common course history and make similar mistakes. However, at the statistical scale of a module question, the combined effect is statistically similar to the random shuffling of papers. As such, there may not be the need to take random samples for marks, but it still remains good practice to mark papers in a random sequence to reduce the repetitive marking bias and errors.

Keywords: data analysis, empirical study, exams, marking

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
421 How Much for a Dancer? Culture Policy in Japan and Czech Republic towards Dance

Authors: Lucie Hayashi

Abstract:

This paper offers a view on a different approach towards a dancer´s career in two very dissimilar countries: on one hand Japan, an economic predator at the end of last century, but suffering under economic crisis from the beginning of the new century; and the Czech Republic, a post-communist country, caught up in capitalist fever from the 1990s on the other. The government’s approach towards culture and dance in these two countries not only has a different history and nature, but also presents a different take on the ideal future development in its respective dance scenes. The level of support from the state budget echoes in all the fields of a professional dance career, dance art and the education of the public towards dance. The message of the statistic data is clear: the production of an enormous number of well trained and expensively educated dancers with no jobs for them in Japan, and a lack of good dancers ready to fill state supported theatre companies in the Czech Republic (that gladly employs Japanese dancers). The paradigm leaves a big exclamation mark on the huge influence the policy has on dance in society, and a question mark on the ideal situation.

Keywords: culture policy, dance, education, employment, Czech Republic, Japan

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
420 Determination of Critical Organ Doses for Liver Scintigraphy Using Cr-51

Authors: O. Maranci, A. B. Tugrul

Abstract:

Scintigraphy is an imaging method of nuclear events provoked by collisions or charged current interactions with radiation. It is used for diagnostic test used in nuclear medicine via radiopharmaceuticals emitting radiation which is captured by gamma cameras to form two-dimensional images. Liver scintigraphy is widely used in nuclear medicine.Tc-99m and Cr-51 gamma radioisotopes can be used for this purpose. Cr-51 usage is more important for patients’ organ dose that has higher energy and longer half-life as compared to Tc-99m. In this study, it is aimed to determine the required dose for critical organs of patient through liver scintigraphy via Cr-51 gamma radioisotope. Experimental studies were conducted on patients even though conducting experimental studies on patients is extremely difficult for determination of critical organ doses. Torso phantom was utilized to simulate the liver scintigraphy by using 20 mini packages of Cr-51 that were placed on the organ. The radioisotope was produced by irradiation in central thimble of TRIGA MARK II Reactor at 250 KW power. As the results of the study, critical organ doses were determined and evaluated with different critic organs.

Keywords: critical organ doses, liver, scintigraphy, TRIGA Mark-II

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
419 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar

Abstract:

In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: OMR, image processing, hough circle trans-form, interpolation, detection, binary thresholding

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
418 Development of Instructional Material Using Scientific Approach to Make the Nature of Science (NOS) and Critical Thinking Explicit on Chemical Bonding and Intermolecular Forces Topics

Authors: Ivan Ashif Ardhana, Intan Mahanani

Abstract:

Chemistry education tends to change from triplet representation among macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic to tetrahedron shape. This change set the aspect of human element on the top of learning. Meaning that students are expected to solve the problems involving the ethic, morality, and humanity through the class. Ability to solve the problems connecting either theories or applications is called scientific literacy which have been implemented in curriculum 2013 implicitly. Scientific literacy has an aspect of nature science and critical thinking. Both can be integrated to learning using scientific approach and scientific inquiry. Unfortunately, students’ ability of scientific literacy in Indonesia is far from expectation. A survey from PISA had proven it. Scientific literacy of Indonesian students is always at bottom five position from 2002 till 2012. Improving a scientific literacy needs many efforts against them. Developing an instructional material based on scientific approach is one kind of that efforts. Instructional material contains both aspect of nature of science and critical thinking which is instructed explicitly to improve the students’ understanding about science. Developing goal is to produce a prototype and an instructional material using scientific approach whose chapter is chemical bonding and intermolecular forces for high school students grade ten. As usual, the material is subjected to get either quantitative mark or suggestion through validation process using validation sheet instrument. Development model is adapted from 4D model containing four steps. They are define, design, develop, and disseminate. Nevertheless, development of instructional material had only done until third step. The final step wasn’t done because of time, cost, and energy limitations. Developed instructional material had been validated by four validators. They are coming from chemistry lecture and high school’s teacher which two at each. The result of this development research shown the average of quantitative mark of students’ book is 92.75% with very proper in criteria. Given at same validation process, teacher’s guiding book got the average mark by 96.98%, similar criteria with students’ book. Qualitative mark including both comments and suggestions resulted from validation process were used as consideration for the revision. The result concluded us how the instructional materials using scientific approach to explicit nature of science and critical thinking on the topic of chemical bonding and intermolecular forces are very proper if they are used at learning activity.

Keywords: critical thinking, instructional material, nature of science, scientific literacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
417 Coupling Concept of Two Parallel Research Codes for Two and Three Dimensional Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis

Authors: Luciano Garelli, Marco Schauer, Jorge D’Elia, Mario A. Storti, Sabine C. Langer

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This paper discuss a coupling strategy of two different software packages to provide fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis. The basic idea is to combine the advantages of the two codes to create a powerful FSI solver for two and three dimensional analysis. The fluid part is computed by a program called PETSc-FEM, a software developed at Centro de Investigación de Métodos Computacionales (CIMEC). The structural part of the coupled process is computed by the research code elementary Parallel Solver (elPaSo) of the Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institut für Konstruktionstechnik (IK).

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), fluid structure interaction (FSI), finite element method (FEM), software

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
416 Choice of Sleeper and Rail Fastening Using Linear Programming Technique

Authors: Luciano Oliveira, Elsa Vásquez-Alvarez

Abstract:

The increase in rail freight transport in Brazil in recent years requires new railway lines and the maintenance of existing ones, which generates high costs for concessionaires. It is in this context that this work is inserted, whose objective is to propose a method that uses Binary Linear Programming for the choice of sleeper and rail fastening, from various options, including the way to apply these materials, with focus to minimize costs. Unit value information, the life cycle each of material type, and service expenses are considered. The model was implemented in commercial software using real data for its validation. The formulated model can be replicated to support decision-making for other railway projects in the choice of sleepers and rail fastening with lowest cost.

Keywords: linear programming, rail fastening, rail sleeper, railway

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
415 Medium-Scale Multi-Juice Extractor for Food Processing

Authors: Flordeliza L. Mercado, Teresito G. Aguinaldo, Helen F. Gavino, Victorino T. Taylan

Abstract:

Most fruits and vegetables are available in large quantities during peak season which are oftentimes marketed at low price and left to rot or fed to farm animals. The lack of efficient storage facilities, and the additional cost and unavailability of small machinery for food processing, results to low price and wastage. Incidentally, processed fresh fruits and vegetables are gaining importance nowadays and health conscious people are also into ‘juicing’. One way to reduce wastage and ensure an all-season availability of crop juices at reasonable costs is to develop equipment for effective extraction of juice. The study was conducted to design, fabricate and evaluate a multi-juice extractor using locally available materials, making it relatively cheaper and affordable for medium-scale enterprises. The study was also conducted to formulate juice blends using extracted juices and calamansi juice at different blending percentage, and evaluate its chemical properties and sensory attributes. Furthermore, the chemical properties of extracted meals were evaluated for future applications. The multi-juice extractor has an overall dimension of 963mm x 300mm x 995mm, a gross weight of 82kg and 5 major components namely; feeding hopper, extracting chamber, juice and meal outlet, transmission assembly, and frame. The machine performance was evaluated based on juice recovery, extraction efficiency, extraction rate, extraction recovery, and extraction loss considering type of crop as apple and carrot with three replications each and was analyzed using T-test. The formulated juice blends were subjected to sensory evaluation and data gathered were analyzed using Analysis of Variance appropriate for Complete Randomized Design. Results showed that the machine’s juice recovery (73.39%), extraction rate (16.40li/hr), and extraction efficiency (88.11%) for apple were significantly higher than for carrot while extraction recovery (99.88%) was higher for apple than for carrot. Extraction loss (0.12%) was lower for apple than for carrot, but was not significantly affected by crop. Based on adding percentage mark-up on extraction cost (Php 2.75/kg), the breakeven weight and payback period for a 35% mark-up is 4,710.69kg and 1.22 years, respectively and for a 50% mark-up, the breakeven weight is 3,492.41kg and the payback period is 0.86 year (10.32 months). Results on the sensory evaluation of juice blends showed that the type of juice significantly influenced all the sensory parameters while the blending percentage including their respective interaction, had no significant effect on all sensory parameters, making the apple-calamansi juice blend more preferred than the carrot-calamansi juice blend in terms of all the sensory parameter. The machine’s performance is higher for apple than for carrot and the cost analysis on the use of the machine revealed that it is financially viable with a payback period of 1.22 years (35% mark-up) and 0.86 year (50% mark-up) for machine cost, generating an income of Php 23,961.60 and Php 34,444.80 per year using 35% and 50% mark-up, respectively. The juice blends were of good qualities based on the values obtained in the chemical analysis and the extracted meal could also be used to produce another product based on the values obtained from proximate analysis.

Keywords: food processing, fruits and vegetables, juice extraction, multi-juice extractor

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
414 Brand Tips of Thai Halal Products

Authors: Pibool Waijittragum

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze the marketing strategies of Thai Halal products which related to the way of life for Thai Muslims. The expected benefit is the marketing strategy for brand building process for Halal products in Thailand. 4 elements of marketing strategies which necessary for the brand identity creation is the research framework: Consists of Attributes, Benefits, Values and Personality. The research methodology was applied using qualitative and quantitative; 19 marketing experts with dynamic roles in Thai consumer products were interviewed. In addition, a field survey of 122 Thai Muslims selected from 175 Muslim communities in Bangkok was studied. Data analysis will be according to 5 categories of Thai Halal product: 1) Meat 2) Vegetable and Fruits 3) Instant foods and Garnishing ingredient 4) Beverages, desserts and snacks 5) Hygienic daily products; such as soap, shampoo and body lotion. The results will explain some suitable representation in the marketing strategies of Thai Halal products as are: 1) Benefit; the characteristics of the product with its benefit. Consumers will purchase this product with the reason of; it is beneficial nutrients product, there are no toxic or chemical residues. Fresh and clean materials 2) Attribute; the exterior images that attract to consumer. Consumers will purchase this product with the reason of; there is a standard proof mark, food and drug secure proof mark and Halal products mark. Packaging and its materials should be draw attention. Use an attractive graphic. Use outstanding images of product, material or ingredients. 3) Value; the value of products that affect to consumers perception; it is healthy products. Accumulate quality of life. It is a product of expertise, manufacturing of research result. Consumers are important. It’s sincere, honest and reliable to all. 4) Personality; reflection of consumers thought. The personality feedback to them after they were consumes this product; they are health care persons. They are the rational person, moral person, justice person and thoughtful person like a progressive thinking.

Keywords: marketing strategies, product identity, branding, Thai Halal products

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
413 The Algorithm of Semi-Automatic Thai Spoonerism Words for Bi-Syllable

Authors: Nutthapat Kaewrattanapat, Wannarat Bunchongkien

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The purposes of this research are to study and develop the algorithm of Thai spoonerism words by semi-automatic computer programs, that is to say, in part of data input, syllables are already separated and in part of spoonerism, the developed algorithm is utilized, which can establish rules and mechanisms in Thai spoonerism words for bi-syllables by utilizing analysis in elements of the syllables, namely cluster consonant, vowel, intonation mark and final consonant. From the study, it is found that bi-syllable Thai spoonerism has 1 case of spoonerism mechanism, namely transposition in value of vowel, intonation mark and consonant of both 2 syllables but keeping consonant value and cluster word (if any). From the study, the rules and mechanisms in Thai spoonerism word were applied to develop as Thai spoonerism word software, utilizing PHP program. the software was brought to conduct a performance test on software execution; it is found that the program performs bi-syllable Thai spoonerism correctly or 99% of all words used in the test and found faults on the program at 1% as the words obtained from spoonerism may not be spelling in conformity with Thai grammar and the answer in Thai spoonerism could be more than 1 answer.

Keywords: algorithm, spoonerism, computational linguistics, Thai spoonerism

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
412 Embodied Energy in Concrete and Structural Masonry on Typical Brazilian Buildings

Authors: Marco A. S. González, Marlova P. Kulakowski, Luciano G. Breitenbach, Felipe Kirch

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The AEC sector has an expressive environmental responsibility. Actually, most building materials have severe environmental impacts along their production cycle. Professionals enrolled in building design may choice the materials and techniques with less impact among the viable options. This work presents a study about embodied energy in materials of two typical Brazilian constructive alternatives. The construction options considered are reinforced concrete structure and structural masonry. The study was developed for the region of São Leopoldo, southern Brazil. Results indicated that the energy embodied in these two constructive systems is approximately 1.72 GJ•m-2 and 1.26 GJ•m-2, respectively. It may be concluded that the embodied energy is lower in the structural masonry system, with a reduction around to 1/4 in relation to the traditional option. The results can be used to help design decisions.

Keywords: civil construction, sustainability, embodied energy, Brazil

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
411 The Study of Mirror Self-Recognition in Wildlife

Authors: Azwan Hamdan, Mohd Qayyum Ab Latip, Hasliza Abu Hassim, Tengku Rinalfi Putra Tengku Azizan, Hafandi Ahmad

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Animal cognition provides some evidence for self-recognition, which is described as the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. The mirror self-recognition (MSR) or mark test is a behavioral technique to determine whether an animal have the ability of self-recognition or self-awareness in front of the mirror. It also describes the capability for an animal to be aware of and make judgments about its new environment. Thus, the objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the ability of wild and captive wildlife in mirror self-recognition. Wild animals from the Royal Belum Rainforest Malaysia were identified based on the animal trails and salt lick grounds. Acrylic mirrors with wood frame (200 x 250cm) were located near to animal trails. Camera traps (Bushnell, UK) with motion-detection infrared sensor are placed near the animal trails or hiding spot. For captive wildlife, animals such as Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) were selected from Zoo Negara Malaysia. The captive animals were also marked using odorless and non-toxic white paint on its forehead. An acrylic mirror with wood frame (200 x 250cm) and a video camera were placed near the cage. The behavioral data were analyzed using ethogram and classified through four stages of MSR; social responses, physical inspection, repetitive mirror-testing behavior and realization of seeing themselves. Results showed that wild animals such as barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) increased their physical inspection (e.g inspecting the reflected image) and repetitive mirror-testing behavior (e.g rhythmic head and leg movement). This would suggest that the ability to use a mirror is most likely related to learning process and cognitive evolution in wild animals. However, the sun bear’s behaviors were inconsistent and did not clearly undergo four stages of MSR. This result suggests that when keeping Malayan sun bear in captivity, it may promote communication and familiarity between conspecific. Interestingly, chimp has positive social response (e.g manipulating lips) and physical inspection (e.g using hand to inspect part of the face) when they facing a mirror. However, both animals did not show any sign towards the mark due to lost of interest in the mark and realization that the mark is inconsequential. Overall, the results suggest that the capacity for MSR is the beginning of a developmental process of self-awareness and mental state attribution. In addition, our findings show that self-recognition may be based on different complex neurological and level of encephalization in animals. Thus, research on self-recognition in animals will have profound implications in understanding the cognitive ability of an animal as an effort to help animals, such as enhanced management, design of captive individuals’ enclosures and exhibits, and in programs to re-establish populations of endangered or threatened species.

Keywords: mirror self-recognition (MSR), self-recognition, self-awareness, wildlife

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410 Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications

Authors: Giulio Rosati, Luciano Sappia, Rossana Madrid, Noemi Rozlòsnik

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The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, biosensors, four-point probe, nano-films, PEDOT

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
409 Peak Floor Response for Buildings with Flexible Base

Authors: Luciano Roberto Fernandez-Sola, Cesar Augusto Arredondo-Velez, Miguel Angel Jaimes-Tellez

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This paper explores the modifications on peak acceleration, velocity and displacement profiles over the structure due to dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI). A shear beam model is used for the structure. Soil-foundation flexibility (inertial interaction) is considered by a set of springs and dashpots at the structure base. Kinematic interaction is considered using transfer functions. Impedance functions are computed using simplified expressions for rigid foundations. The research studies the influence of the slenderness ratio on the value of the peak floor response. It is shown that the modifications of peak floor responses are not the same for acceleration, velocity and displacement. This is opposite to the hypothesis used by methods included in several building codes. Results show that modifications produced by DSSI on different response quantities are not equal.

Keywords: peak floor intensities, dynamic soil-structure interaction, buildings with flexible base, kinematic and inertial interaction

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408 Industrial Ecology Perspectives of Food Supply Chains: A Framework of Analysis

Authors: Luciano Batista, Sylvia Saes, Nuno Fouto, Liam Fassam

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This paper introduces the theoretical and methodological basis of an analytical framework conceived with the purpose of bringing industrial ecology perspectives into the core of the underlying disciplines supporting analyses in studies concerned with environmental sustainability aspects beyond the product cycle in a supply chain. Given the pressing challenges faced by the food sector, the framework focuses upon waste minimization through industrial linkages in food supply chains. The combination of industrial ecology practice with basic LCA elements, the waste hierarchy model, and the spatial scale of industrial symbiosis allows the standardization of qualitative analyses and associated outcomes. Such standardization enables comparative analysis not only between different stages of a supply chain, but also between different supply chains. The analytical approach proposed contributes more coherently to the wider circular economy aspiration of optimizing the flow of goods to get the most out of raw materials and cuts wastes to a minimum.

Keywords: by-product synergy, food supply chain, industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
407 Finite Element Analysis of the Blanking and Stamping Processes of Nuclear Fuel Spacer Grids

Authors: Rafael Oliveira Santos, Luciano Pessanha Moreira, Marcelo Costa Cardoso

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Spacer grid assembly supporting the nuclear fuel rods is an important concern in the design of structural components of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The spacer grid is composed by springs and dimples which are formed from a strip sheet by means of blanking and stamping processes. In this paper, the blanking process and tooling parameters are evaluated by means of a 2D plane-strain finite element model in order to evaluate the punch load and quality of the sheared edges of Inconel 718 strips used for nuclear spacer grids. A 3D finite element model is also proposed to predict the tooling loads resulting from the stamping process of a preformed Inconel 718 strip and to analyse the residual stress effects upon the spring and dimple design geometries of a nuclear spacer grid.

Keywords: blanking process, damage model, finite element modelling, inconel 718, spacer grids, stamping process

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
406 Quantum Dots Incorporated in Biomembrane Models for Cancer Marker

Authors: Thiago E. Goto, Carla C. Lopes, Helena B. Nader, Anielle C. A. Silva, Noelio O. Dantas, José R. Siqueira Jr., Luciano Caseli

Abstract:

Quantum dots (QD) are semiconductor nanocrystals that can be employed in biological research as a tool for fluorescence imagings, having the potential to expand in vivo and in vitro analysis as cancerous cell biomarkers. Particularly, cadmium selenide (CdSe) magic-sized quantum dots (MSQDs) exhibit stable luminescence that is feasible for biological applications, especially for imaging of tumor cells. For these facts, it is interesting to know the mechanisms of action of how such QDs mark biological cells. For that, simplified models are a suitable strategy. Among these models, Langmuir films of lipids formed at the air-water interface seem to be adequate since they can mimic half a membrane. They are monomolecular films formed at liquid-gas interfaces that can spontaneously form when organic solutions of amphiphilic compounds are spread on the liquid-gas interface. After solvent evaporation, the monomolecular film is formed, and a variety of techniques, including tensiometric, spectroscopic and optic can be applied. When the monolayer is formed by membrane lipids at the air-water interface, a model for half a membrane can be inferred where the aqueous subphase serve as a model for external or internal compartment of the cell. These films can be transferred to solid supports forming the so-called Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and an ampler variety of techniques can be additionally used to characterize the film, allowing for the formation of devices and sensors. With these ideas in mind, the objective of this work was to investigate the specific interactions of CdSe MSQDs with tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells using Langmuir monolayers and LB films of lipids and specific cell extracts as membrane models for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Surface pressure-area isotherms and polarization modulation reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) showed an intrinsic interaction between the quantum dots, inserted in the aqueous subphase, and Langmuir monolayers, constructed either of selected lipids or of non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic cells extracts. The quantum dots expanded the monolayers and changed the PM-IRRAS spectra for the lipid monolayers. The mixed films were then compressed to high surface pressures and transferred from the floating monolayer to solid supports by using the LB technique. Images of the films were then obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal microscopy, which provided information about the morphology of the films. Similarities and differences between films with different composition representing cell membranes, with or without CdSe MSQDs, was analyzed. The results indicated that the interaction of quantum dots with the bioinspired films is modulated by the lipid composition. The properties of the normal cell monolayer were not significantly altered, whereas for the tumorigenic cell monolayer models, the films presented significant alteration. The images therefore exhibited a stronger effect of CdSe MSQDs on the models representing cancerous cells. As important implication of these findings, one may envisage for new bioinspired surfaces based on molecular recognition for biomedical applications.

Keywords: biomembrane, langmuir monolayers, quantum dots, surfaces

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405 Primary Cryptococcal Pneumonia in an HIV Positive Filipino Patient

Authors: Mark Andrew Tu, Raymond Olazo, Cybele Abad

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Cryptococcosis is an invasive infection most commonly found in patients who are immuno compromised. However, patients with this infection usually present with meningitis and rarely pulmonary infection in isolation. We present a case of a Filipino HIV patient who developed cryptococcal pneumonia without meningitis.

Keywords: Cryptococcal Pneumonia, HIV, Filipino, immune system

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
404 Geography Undergraduates 360⁰ Academic Peer Learning And Mentoring 2021 – 2023: A Pilot Study

Authors: N. Ayob, N. C. Nkosi, R. P. Burger, S. J. Piketh, F. Letlaila, O. Maphosa

Abstract:

South African higher tertiary institution have been faced with high dropout rates. About 50 to 60% of first years drop out to due to various reasons one being inadequate academic support. Geography 111 (GEOG 111) module is historically known for having below 50% pass rate, high dropout rate and identified as a first year risk module. For the first time GEOG 111 (2021) on the Mahikeng Campus admitted 150 students pursuing more than 6 different qualifications (BA and BSc) from the Humanities Faculty and FNAS. First year students had difficulties transitioning from secondary to tertiary institutions as we shifted to remote learning while we navigate through the Covid-19 pandemic. The traditional method of teaching does not encourage students to help each other. With remote learning we do not have control over what the students share and perhaps this can be a learning opportunity to embrace peer learning and change the manner in which we assess the students. The purpose of this pilot study was to assist GEOG111 students with academic challenges whilst improving their University experience. This was a qualitative study open to all GEOG111, repeaters, students who are not confident in their Geographical knowledge and never did Geography at high school level. The selected 9 Golden Key International Honour Society Geography mentors attended an academic mentor training program with module lecturers. About 17.6% of the mentees did not have a geography background however, 94% of the mentees passed, 1 mentee had a mark of 38%. 11 of the participants had a mark >60% with one student that excelled 70%. It is evident that mentorship helped students reach their academic potential. Peer learning and mentoring are associated with improved academic performance and allows the students to take charge of their learning and academic experience. Thus an important element as we transform pedagogies at higher learning institutions.

Keywords: geography, risk module, peer mentoring, peer learning

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403 Corruption in the Financial Services Industry: Is Regulation the Panacea?

Authors: Maria Krambia-Kapardis, Elisavet Charalambous

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Corruption has given rise to extensive discussion due to its notorious consequences. It undermines democracy, brings in inequalities and imbalances and weakens governance. With the recent financial turmoil pinpointing that corruption has played a vital part, lessons have to be learned and actions have to be taken. Regulation can be the means for doing so as it advances transparency and accountability, leaving no space for corruption to flourish. Much depends though on the culture of a state and how determined it is to mark the end of corruption.

Keywords: banking regulation, corruption, culture, European Union

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402 Stress and Rhythm in the Educated Nigerian Accent of English

Authors: Nkereke M. Essien

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The intention of this paper is to examine stress in the Educated Nigerian Accent of English (ENAE) with the aim of analyzing stress and rhythmic patterns of Nigerian English. Our aim also is to isolate differences and similarities in the stress patterns studied and also know what forms the accent of these Educated Nigerian English (ENE) which marks them off from other groups or English’s of the world, to ascertain and characterize it and to provide documented evidence for its existence. Nigerian stress and rhythmic patterns are significantly different from the British English stress and rhythmic patterns consequently, the educated Nigerian English (ENE) features more stressed syllables than the native speakers’ varieties. The excessive stressed of syllables causes a contiguous “Ss” in the rhythmic flow of ENE, and this brings about a “jerky rhythm’ which distorts communication. To ascertain this claim, ten (10) Nigerian speakers who are educated in the English Language were selected by a stratified Random Sampling technique from two Federal Universities in Nigeria. This classification belongs to the education to the educated class or standard variety. Their performance was compared to that of a Briton (control). The Metrical system of analysis was used. The respondents were made to read some words and utterance which was recorded and analyzed perceptually, statistically and acoustically using the one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The Turky-Kramer Post Hoc test, the Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks test, and the Praat analysis software were used in the analysis. It was revealed from our findings that the Educated Nigerian English speakers feature more stressed syllables in their productions by spending more time in pronouncing stressed syllables and sometimes lesser time in pronouncing the unstressed syllables. Their overall tempo was faster. The ENE speakers used tone to mark prominence while the native speaker used stress to mark pronounce, typified by the control. We concluded that the stress pattern of the ENE speakers was significantly different from the native speaker’s variety represented by the control’s performance.

Keywords: accent, Nigerian English, rhythm, stress

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401 Novel Framework for MIMO-Enhanced Robust Selection of Critical Control Factors in Auto Plastic Injection Moulding Quality Optimization

Authors: Seyed Esmail Seyedi Bariran, Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari

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Apparent quality defects such as warpage, shrinkage, weld line, etc. are such an irresistible phenomenon in mass production of auto plastic appearance parts. These frequently occurred manufacturing defects should be satisfied concurrently so as to achieve a final product with acceptable quality standards. Determining the significant control factors that simultaneously affect multiple quality characteristics can significantly improve the optimization results by eliminating the deviating effect of the so-called ineffective outliers. Hence, a robust quantitative approach needs to be developed upon which major control factors and their level can be effectively determined to help improve the reliability of the optimal processing parameter design. Hence, the primary objective of current study was to develop a systematic methodology for selection of significant control factors (SCF) relevant to multiple quality optimization of auto plastic appearance part. Auto bumper was used as a specimen with the most identical quality and production characteristics to APAP group. A preliminary failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) was conducted to nominate a database of pseudo significant significant control factors prior to the optimization phase. Later, CAE simulation Moldflow analysis was implemented to manipulate four rampant plastic injection quality defects concerned with APAP group including warpage deflection, volumetric shrinkage, sink mark and weld line. Furthermore, a step-backward elimination searching method (SESME) has been developed for systematic pre-optimization selection of SCF based on hierarchical orthogonal array design and priority-based one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The development of robust parameter design in the second phase was based on DOE module powered by Minitab v.16 statistical software. Based on the F-test (F 0.05, 2, 14) one-way ANOVA results, it was concluded that for warpage deflection, material mixture percentage was the most significant control factor yielding a 58.34% of contribution while for the other three quality defects, melt temperature was the most significant control factor with a 25.32%, 84.25%, and 34.57% contribution for sin mark, shrinkage and weld line strength control. Also, the results on the he least significant control factors meaningfully revealed injection fill time as the least significant factor for both warpage and sink mark with respective 1.69% and 6.12% contribution. On the other hand, for shrinkage and weld line defects, the least significant control factors were holding pressure and mold temperature with a 0.23% and 4.05% overall contribution accordingly.

Keywords: plastic injection moulding, quality optimization, FMEA, ANOVA, SESME, APAP

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400 Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG)

Authors: María González Alriols, Itziar Egües, María A. Andrés, Mirari Antxustegi

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Several collaborative learning proposals were prepared to be applied in the laboratory sessions of chemistry in the first course of engineering studies. The aim was to engage the students from the beginning and to avoid absenteeism as well as to reach a more homogeneous level in the class. The students, divided into small groups of four or five mates, were asked to do an exercise before having the practical session in the lab. Precisely, each one of the groups was asked to study the theoretical fundamentals and the practical aspects of one lab session and to prepare a didactical video with this content, including the materials, equipment and reactants required, and the detailed experimental procedure. Furthermore, they should include the performance of the experiment step by step, indicating the faced difficulties and the obtained results and conclusions. After watching the video of this precise activity, the other groups of students would go to the lab to put into practice the session following the commands explained in the video. The evaluation of the video activity that is worth the 50% of the total mark of the laboratory sessions, is done depending on the success that the other groups of students had while doing the practical session that was explained in the video. This means that the successful transmission of knowledge to the rest of the mates in the class through the video was compulsory to pass the practical sessions and the subject. The other 50% of the mark depended on the understanding of the other students’ explanations and the success in the corresponding practical sessions. The experience was found to be very positive, as the engagement level was considerably higher, the absenteeism lower and the attitude in the laboratory much more responsible. The materials, reactants and equipment were used carefully, and no incidents were registered. Furthermore, the fact of having peer experts was useful to encourage critical thinking in a more relaxed way, with the teacher figure in a secondary position. Finally, the academic achievements were satisfactory as well, with a high percentage of students over the level required for passing the subject.

Keywords: collaborative learning, engineering instruction, chemistry, laboratory sessions

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399 Gender Construction in Contemporary Dystopian Fiction in Young Adult Literature: A South African Example

Authors: Johan Anker

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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of gender construction in modern dystopian fiction, the development of this genre in Young Adult Literature and reasons for the enormous appeal on the adolescent readers. A recent award winning South African text in this genre, The Mark by Edith Bullring (2014), will be used as example while also comparing this text to international bestsellers like Divergent (Roth:2011), The Hunger Games (Collins:2008) and others. Theoretical insights from critics and academics in the field of children’s literature, like Ames, Coats, Bradford, Booker, Basu, Green-Barteet, Hintz, McAlear, McCallum, Moylan, Ostry, Ryan, Stephens and Westerfield will be referred to and their insights used as part of the analysis of The Mark. The role of relevant and recurring themes in this genre, like global concerns, environmental destruction, liberty, self-determination, social and political critique, surveillance and repression by the state or other institutions will also be referred to. The paper will shortly refer to the history and emergence of dystopian literature as genre in adult and young adult literature as part of the long tradition since the publishing of Orwell’s 1984 and Huxley’s Brave New World. Different factors appeal to adolescent readers in the modern versions of this hybrid genre for young adults: teenage protagonists who are questioning the underlying values of a flawed society like an inhuman or tyrannical government, a growing understanding of the society around them, feelings of isolation and the dynamic of relationships. This unease leads to a growing sense of the potential to act against society (rebellion), and of their role as agents in a larger community and independent decision-making abilities. This awareness also leads to a growing sense of self (identity and agency) and the development of romantic relationships. The specific modern tendency of a female protagonist as leader in the rebellion against state and state apparatus, who gains in agency and independence in this rebellion, an important part of the identification with and construction of gender, while being part of the traditional coming-of-age young adult novel will be emphasized. A comparison between the traditional themes, structures and plots of young adult literature (YAL) with adult dystopian literature and those of recent dystopian YAL will be made while the hybrid nature of this genre and the 'sense of unease' but also of hope, as an essential part of youth literature, in the closure to these novels will be discussed. Important questions about the role of the didactic nature of these texts and the political issues and the importance of the formation of agency and identity for the young adult reader, as well as identification with the protagonists in this genre, are also part of this discussion of The Mark and other YAL novels.

Keywords: agency, dystopian literature, gender construction, young adult literature

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398 Language Politics and Identity in Translation: From a Monolingual Text to Multilingual Text in Chinese Translations

Authors: Chu-Ching Hsu

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This paper focuses on how the government-led language policies and the political changes in Taiwan manipulate the languages choice in translations and what translation strategies are employed by the translator to show his or her language ideology behind the power struggles and decision-making. Therefore, framed by Lefevere’s theoretical concept of translating as rewriting, and carried out a diachronic and chronological study, this paper specifically sets out to investigate the language ideology and translator’s idiolect of Chinese language translations of Anglo-American novels. The examples drawn to explore these issues were taken from different versions of Chinese renditions of Mark Twain’s English-language novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in which there are several different dialogues originally written in the colloquial language and dialect used in the American state of Mississippi and reproduced in Mark Twain’s works. Also, adapted corpus methodology, many examples are extracted as instances from the translated texts and source text, to illuminate how the translators in Taiwan deal with the dialectal features encoded in Twain’s works, and how different versions of Chinese translations are employed by Taiwanese translators to confirm the language polices and to express their language identity textually in different periods of the past five decades, from the 1960s onward. The finding of this study suggests that the use of Taiwanese dialect and language patterns in translations does relate to the movement of the mother-tongue language and language ideology of the translator as well as to the issue of language identity raised in the island of Taiwan. Furthermore, this study confirms that the change of political power in Taiwan does bring significantly impact in language policy-- assimilationism, pluralism or multiculturalism, which also makes Taiwan from a monolingual to multilingual society, where the language ideology and identity can be revealed not only in people’s daily communication but also in written translations.

Keywords: language politics and policies, literary translation, mother-tongue, multiculturalism, translator’s ideology

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397 Cognitivism in Classical Japanese Art and Literature: The Cognitive Value of Haiku and Zen Painting

Authors: Benito Garcia-Valero

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This paper analyses the cognitivist value of traditional Japanese theories about aesthetics, art, and literature. These reflections were developed several centuries before actual Cognitive Studies, which started in the seventies of the last century. A comparative methodology is employed to shed light on the similarities between traditional Japanese conceptions about art and current cognitivist principles. The Japanese texts to be compared are Zeami’s treatise on noh art, Okura Toraaki’s Waranbe-gusa on kabuki theatre, and several Buddhist canonical texts about wisdom and knowledge, like the Prajnaparamitahrdaya or Heart Sutra. Japanese contemporary critical sources on these works are also referred, like Nishida Kitaro’s reflections on Zen painting or Ichikawa Hiroshi’s analysis of body/mind dualism in Japanese physical practices. Their ideas are compared with cognitivist authors like George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Mark Turner and Margaret Freeman. This comparative review reveals the anticipatory ideas of Japanese thinking on body/mind interrelationship, which agrees with cognitivist criticism against dualism, since both elucidate the physical grounds acting upon the formation of concepts and schemes during the production of knowledge. It also highlights the necessity of recovering ancient Japanese treatises on cognition to continue enlightening current research on art and literature. The artistic examples used to illustrate the theory are Sesshu’s Zen paintings and Basho’s classical haiku poetry. Zen painting is an excellent field to demonstrate how monk artists conceived human perception and guessed the active role of beholders during the contemplation of art. On the other hand, some haikus by Matsuo Basho aim at factoring subjectivity out from artistic praxis, which constitutes an ideal of illumination that cannot be achieved using art, due to the embodied nature of perception; a constraint consciously explored by the poet himself. These ideas consolidate the conclusions drawn today by cognitivism about the interrelation between subject and object and the concept of intersubjectivity.

Keywords: cognitivism, dualism, haiku, Zen painting

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396 Touching Interaction: An NFC-RFID Combination

Authors: Eduardo Álvarez, Gerardo Quiroga, Jorge Orozco, Gabriel Chavira

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AmI proposes a new way of thinking about computers, which follows the ideas of the Ubiquitous Computing vision of Mark Weiser. In these, there is what is known as a Disappearing Computer Initiative, with users immersed in intelligent environments. Hence, technologies need to be adapted so that they are capable of replacing the traditional inputs to the system by embedding these in every-day artifacts. In this work, we present an approach, which uses Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC) technologies. In the latter, a new form of interaction appears by contact. We compare both technologies by analyzing their requirements and advantages. In addition, we propose using a combination of RFID and NFC.

Keywords: touching interaction, ambient intelligence, ubiquitous computing, interaction, NFC and RFID

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