Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4971

Search results for: nature of science

4971 Nature, Elixir of Architecture: A Contemplation on Human, Nature and Architecture in Islam

Authors: A. Kabiri-Samani, M. J. Seddighi

Abstract:

There is no doubt that a key factor in the manifestation of architecture is the interaction of human and nature. Explaining the type of relationship defined by “the architect” between architecture and nature opens a window towards understanding the theoretical conceptions of the architect as the creator of “architecture”. Now, if these theoretical foundations are put under scrutiny from the viewpoint of Islam, and an architect considers the relationship of human and nature within the context of Islam, he would let nature to manifest itself in architecture. The reasons for such a relationship is explicable in terms of the degree and nature of knowledge of the architect about nature; while the way it comes to existence is explained by defining the force of nature – ruling the entire nature – and its acts. It is by the scientific command of the architect and his mastery in the hermetic force of nature that the material bodies of buildings evolve from artificial to natural. Additionally, the presence of nature creates hermetic architectural spaces for the spiritual development of humans while serving for living at different levels.

Keywords: nature, Islam, cognition, science, presence, elixir

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4970 Thai Student Teachers' Prior Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS)

Authors: N. Songumpai, W. Sumranwanich, S. Chatmaneerungcharoen

Abstract:

This research aims to study the understanding of 8 aspects of nature of science (NOS). The research participants were 39 General Science student teachers who were selected by purposive sampling. In 2015 academic year, they enrolled in the course of Science Education Learning Management. Qualitative research was used as research methodology to understand how the student teachers propose on NOS. The research instruments consisted of open-ended questionnaires and semi-structure interviews that were used to assess students’ understanding of NOS. Research data was collected by 8 items- questionnaire and was categorized into students’ understanding of NOS, which consisted of complete understanding (CU), partial understanding (PU), misunderstanding (MU) and no understanding (NU). The findings reveal the majority of students’ misunderstanding of NOS regarding the aspects of theory and law(89.7%), scientific method(61.5%) and empirical evidence(15.4%) respectively. From the interview data, the student teachers present their misconceptions of NOS that indicate about theory and law cannot change; science knowledge is gained through experiment only (step by step); science is the things that are around humans. These results suggest that for effective science teacher education, the composition of design of NOS course needs to be considered. Therefore, teachers’ understanding of NOS is necessary to integrate into professional development program/course for empowering student teachers to begin their careers as strong science teachers in schools.

Keywords: nature of science, student teacher, no understanding, misunderstanding, partial understanding, complete understanding

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4969 Environmental Science: A Proposal for Constructing New Knowledge for Ecotourism Itineraries

Authors: Veruska C. Dutra, Mary L. G. S. Senna

Abstract:

The principle of sustainability has been studied by different sciences with the purpose of formulating clear and concrete models. Much has been discussed about sustainability, and several points of view have been used to try to explain it; environmental science emerges from various environmental discourses that are willing to establish a new concept for understanding this complexity. This way, we focus on the activity of ecotourism as a way to integrate sustainable practices proposed by environmental science, and thus, make it possible to create a new perspective for eco-tourists and the managers of tourist destinations towards nature. The aim of this study was to suggest a direction for environmental awareness, based on environmental science, to change the eco-tourist's view of nature in ecotourism tours. The methodology used was based on a case study concerning the Jalapão State Park - JSP, located in the State of Tocantins, Northern Brazil. The study was based on discussions, theoretical studies, bibliographical research and on-site research. We have identified that to incite the tourists’ awareness, they need to visit nature to understand the environmental problems and promote actions for its preservation. We highlight in this study actions to drive their human perception through environmental science, so that the ecotourism itinerary tours to the JSP, promote a balance between the natural environment and the tourist, making them, in this way, environmental tourists.

Keywords: science, environmental, ecoturism, Jalapão

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4968 Analysis of Learning Difficulties among Preservice Students towards Science Education

Authors: Nahla Khatib

Abstract:

This study investigated several learning difficulties that affected the classroom learning experience of preservice students who are studying general science and methods of teaching science students at Faculty of Educational Studies at the Arab Open University (AOU) in Amman, Jordan. The focus questions for this study were to find answers for the following: 1. What are the main areas of learning difficulty among preservice students towards science education? 2. What are the main aspects of reducing obstacles towards success in science education? To achieve this goal, the researcher prepared a questionnaire which included 30 items to point out the learning difficulties among preservice students towards science education. The questionnaire was distributed among students enrolled in the general science courses 1&2 and methods of teaching science courses at the beginning of the spring semester of year (2013-2014). After collecting the filled questionnaire a descriptive statistical analysis was carried out (means and standard deviation) for the items of the questionnaire. After analyzing the data statistically our findings showed that student control–factors as well as course controlled factor, factors related to the nature of science, and factors related to the role of instructor affected student success toward science education. The study was concluded with a number of recommendations.

Keywords: nature of science, preservice teachers, science education, learning difficulties

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4967 Nature Writing in Margaret Atwood’s 'The Testaments'

Authors: Natalia Fontes De Oliveira

Abstract:

Nature and women have a long age association that has persisted throughout history, cultures, literature, and arts. Women’s physiological functions of reproduction and childbearing are viewed as closer to nature as a binary opposition to men, who have metaphorically and historically been associated with culture. To liberate from strictures of phallogocentric rhetoric, a radical critique of the categories of nature and culture must be undertaken. This paper proposes that nature writing in Margaret Atwood’s The Testaments is used subversively as a form of rebellion to disrupt the metaphorical relationship between women and nature. In tune with ecofeminist concerns, the imagery rewrites patriarchal paradigms of binary oppositions as the protagonists narrate a complex and plural relationship between nature and women.

Keywords: ecofeminism, Margaret Atwood, nature writing, women's writing

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4966 Metamorphosis in Nature through Adéquation: An Ecocritical Reading of Charles Tomlinson's Poetry

Authors: Zahra Barzegar, Reza Deedari, Behzad Pourgharib

Abstract:

This study examines how metamorphosis in nature is depicted in Charles Tomlinson's poetry through Lawrence Buell's mimesis and referential strategy of adéquation. This study aims to answer the questions that what is the relationship between Tomlinson's selected poems and nature, and how does Tomlinson's poetry bring the reader close to the natural environment. Adéquation is a way that brings the reader close to nature, not by imitating nature but by referring to it imaginatively and creating a stylized image. Using figurative language, namely imagery, metaphor, and analogy, adéquation creates a stylized image of metamorphosis in a nature scene that acts as a middle way between the reader and nature. This paper proves that adéquation reinvents the metamorphosis in natural occurrences in Charles Tomlinson's selected poems. Thus, a reader whose imagination is addressed achieves closeness with nature and a caring outlook toward natural happenings. This article confirms that Tomlinson's poems are potential enough to represent metamorphosis in nature through adéquation. Therefore, the reader understands nature beyond the poem as the poem presents a gist of nature through adéquation.

Keywords: adéquation, metamorphosis, nature, referentiality

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4965 Indigenous Knowledge and Nature of Science Interface: Content Considerations for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education

Authors: Mpofu Vongai, Vhurumuku Elaosi

Abstract:

Many African countries, such as Zimbabwe and South Africa, have curricula reform agendas that include incorporation of Indigenous Knowledge and Nature of Science (NOS) into school Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. It is argued that at high school level, STEM learning, which incorporates understandings of indigenization science and NOS, has the potential to provide a strong foundation for a culturally embedded scientific knowledge essential for their advancement in Science and Technology. Globally, investment in STEM education is recognized as essential for economic development. For this reason, developing countries such as Zimbabwe and South Africa have been investing into training specialized teachers in natural sciences and technology. However, in many cases this training has been detached from the cultural realities and contexts of indigenous learners. For this reason, the STEM curricula reform has provided implementation challenges to teachers. An issue of major concern is the teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), which is essential for effective implementation of these STEM curricula. Well-developed Teacher PCK include an understanding of both the nature of indigenous knowledge (NOIK) and of NOS. This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the development of 3 South African and 3 Zimbabwean in-service teachers’ abilities to integrate NOS and NOIK as part of their PCK. A participatory action research design was utilized. The main focus was on capturing, determining and developing teachers STEM knowledge for integrating NOIK and NOS in science classrooms. Their use of indigenous games was used to determine how their subject knowledge for STEM and pedagogical abilities could be developed. Qualitative data were gathered through the use dialogues between the researchers and the in-service teachers, as well as interviewing the participating teachers. Analysis of the data provides a methodological window through which in-service teachers’ PCK can be STEMITIZED and their abilities to integrate NOS and NOIK developed. Implications are raised for developing teachers’ STEM education in universities and teacher training colleges.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, nature of science, pedagogical content knowledge, STEM education

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4964 The Convergence between Science Practical Work and Scientific Discourse: Lessons Learnt from Using a Practical Activity to Encourage Student Discourse

Authors: Abraham Motlhabane

Abstract:

In most practical-related science lessons, the focus is on completing the experimental procedure as directed by the teacher. However, the scientific discourse among learners themselves and teacher–learner discourse about scientific processes, scientific inquiry and the nature of science should play an important role in the teaching and learning of science. This means the incorporation of inquiry-based activities aimed at sparking debates about scientific concepts. This article analyses a science lesson presented by a teacher to his colleagues acting as learners. Six lessons were presented and transcribed. One of the lessons has been used for this study as the basis for the events as they unfolded during the lesson. Data was obtained through direct observations and the use of a predetermined observation schedule. Field notes were compiled during teacher preparations and the presentation of the lessons.

Keywords: discourse, inquiry, practical work, science, scientific

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4963 Women's Contemporary Dystopias: Feminist Protagonists Taking Back Control

Authors: Natalia Fontes De Oliveira

Abstract:

The Canadian author Margaret Atwood deconstructs the tainted dichotomies between women and men by embracing the disorder throughout her dystopias. In Atwood’s The Testaments, nature can be seen as a background to the story as well as a metaphorical expression of the characters’ state of mind, nevertheless, the protagonists’ nature writing portrays conveys a curiosity to the pre-established sanctions of a docile garden, viewing nature as an autonomous entity, especially when they are away from the confinements of Gilead’s regime. The three narrating protagonists, Agnes, Aunt Lydia, and Nicole, use nature writing subversively as a form of rebellion. This paper investigates how the three protagonists narrate nature through an intimist point of view, with sensibility to observe the multiple relationships among humanity, nature, and the impositions of a theocratic ultra conservative patriarchal society.

Keywords: contemporary literature, dystopias, feminism, women’s writing

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4962 Bio-Inspired Design Approach Analysis: A Case Study of Antoni Gaudi and Santiago Calatrava

Authors: Marzieh Imani

Abstract:

Antoni Gaudi and Santiago Calatrava have reputation for designing bio-inspired creative and technical buildings. Even though they have followed different independent approaches towards design, the source of bio-inspiration seems to be common. Taking a closer look at their projects reveals that Calatrava has been influenced by Gaudi in terms of interpreting nature and applying natural principles into the design process. This research firstly discusses the dialogue between Biomimicry and architecture. This review also explores human/nature discourse during the history by focusing on how nature revealed itself to the fine arts. This is explained by introducing naturalism and romantic style in architecture as the outcome of designers’ inclination towards nature. Reviewing the literature, theoretical background and practical illustration of nature have been included. The most dominant practical aspects of imitating nature are form and function. Nature has been reflected in architectural science resulted in shaping different architectural styles such as organic, green, sustainable, bionic, and biomorphic. By defining a set of common aspects of Gaudi and Calatrava‘s design approach and by considering biomimetic design categories (organism, ecosystem, and behaviour as the main division and form, function, process, material, and construction as subdivisions), Gaudi’s and Calatrava’s project have been analysed. This analysis explores if their design approaches are equivalent or different. Based on this analysis, Gaudi’s architecture can be recognised as biomorphic while Calatrava’s projects are literally biomimetic. Referring to these architects, this review suggests a new set of principles by which a bio-inspired project can be determined either biomorphic or biomimetic.

Keywords: biomimicry, Calatrava, Gaudi, nature

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4961 Big Data: Appearance and Disappearance

Authors: James Moir

Abstract:

The mainstay of Big Data is prediction in that it allows practitioners, researchers, and policy analysts to predict trends based upon the analysis of large and varied sources of data. These can range from changing social and political opinions, patterns in crimes, and consumer behaviour. Big Data has therefore shifted the criterion of success in science from causal explanations to predictive modelling and simulation. The 19th-century science sought to capture phenomena and seek to show the appearance of it through causal mechanisms while 20th-century science attempted to save the appearance and relinquish causal explanations. Now 21st-century science in the form of Big Data is concerned with the prediction of appearances and nothing more. However, this pulls social science back in the direction of a more rule- or law-governed reality model of science and away from a consideration of the internal nature of rules in relation to various practices. In effect Big Data offers us no more than a world of surface appearance and in doing so it makes disappear any context-specific conceptual sensitivity.

Keywords: big data, appearance, disappearance, surface, epistemology

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4960 Development of Instructional Material Using Scientific Approach to Make the Nature of Science (NOS) and Critical Thinking Explicit on Chemical Bonding and Intermolecular Forces Topics

Authors: Ivan Ashif Ardhana, Intan Mahanani

Abstract:

Chemistry education tends to change from triplet representation among macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic to tetrahedron shape. This change set the aspect of human element on the top of learning. Meaning that students are expected to solve the problems involving the ethic, morality, and humanity through the class. Ability to solve the problems connecting either theories or applications is called scientific literacy which have been implemented in curriculum 2013 implicitly. Scientific literacy has an aspect of nature science and critical thinking. Both can be integrated to learning using scientific approach and scientific inquiry. Unfortunately, students’ ability of scientific literacy in Indonesia is far from expectation. A survey from PISA had proven it. Scientific literacy of Indonesian students is always at bottom five position from 2002 till 2012. Improving a scientific literacy needs many efforts against them. Developing an instructional material based on scientific approach is one kind of that efforts. Instructional material contains both aspect of nature of science and critical thinking which is instructed explicitly to improve the students’ understanding about science. Developing goal is to produce a prototype and an instructional material using scientific approach whose chapter is chemical bonding and intermolecular forces for high school students grade ten. As usual, the material is subjected to get either quantitative mark or suggestion through validation process using validation sheet instrument. Development model is adapted from 4D model containing four steps. They are define, design, develop, and disseminate. Nevertheless, development of instructional material had only done until third step. The final step wasn’t done because of time, cost, and energy limitations. Developed instructional material had been validated by four validators. They are coming from chemistry lecture and high school’s teacher which two at each. The result of this development research shown the average of quantitative mark of students’ book is 92.75% with very proper in criteria. Given at same validation process, teacher’s guiding book got the average mark by 96.98%, similar criteria with students’ book. Qualitative mark including both comments and suggestions resulted from validation process were used as consideration for the revision. The result concluded us how the instructional materials using scientific approach to explicit nature of science and critical thinking on the topic of chemical bonding and intermolecular forces are very proper if they are used at learning activity.

Keywords: critical thinking, instructional material, nature of science, scientific literacy

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4959 The Impact of Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognition on Their Use of Inquiry Based Teaching Approaches

Authors: Irfan Ahmed Rind

Abstract:

Science education has recently become the top priority of government of Pakistan. Number of schemes has been initiated for the improvement of science teaching and learning at primary and secondary levels of education, most importantly training in-service science teachers on inquiry based teaching and learning to empower students and encourage creativity, critical thinking, and innovation among them. Therefore, this approach has been promoted in the recent continuous professional development trainings for the in-service teachers. However, the follow ups on trained science teachers and educators suggest that these teachers fail to implement the inquiry based teaching and learning in their classes. In addition, these trainings also fail to bring any significant change in students’ science content knowledge and understanding as per the annual national level surveys conducted by government and independent agencies. Research suggests that science has been taught using scientific positivism, which supports objectivity based on experiments and mathematics. In contrary, the inquiry based teaching and learning are based on constructivism, which conflicts with the positivist epistemology of science teachers. It was, therefore, assumed that science teachers struggle to implement the inquiry based teaching approach as it conflicts with their basic epistemological beliefs. With this assumption, this research aimed to (i) understand how science teachers conceptualize the nature of science, and how this influence their understanding of learning, learners, their own roles as teachers and their teaching strategies, (ii) identify the conflict of science teachers’ epistemological beliefs with the inquiry based teaching approach, and (iii) find the ways in which science teachers epistemological beliefs may be developed from positivism to constructivism, so that they may effectively use the inquiry based teaching approach in teaching science. Using qualitative case study approach, thirty six secondary and higher secondary science teachers (21 male and 15 female) were selected. Data was collected using interviewed, participatory observations (sixty lessons were observed), and twenty interviews from students for verifications of teachers’ responses. The findings suggest that most of the science teacher were positivist in defining the nature of science. Most of them limit themselves to one fix answer that is provided in the books and that there is only one 'right' way to teach science. There is no room for students’ or teachers’ own opinion or bias when it comes to scientific concepts. Inquiry based teaching seems 'no right' to them. They find it difficult to allow students to think out of the box. However, some interesting exercises were found to be very effective in bringing the change in teachers’ epistemological beliefs. These will be discussed in detail in the paper. The findings have major implications for the teachers, educators, and policymakers.

Keywords: science teachers, epistemology, metacognition, inquiry based teaching

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4958 An Analysis of Uncoupled Designs in Chicken Egg

Authors: Pratap Sriram Sundar, Chandan Chowdhury, Sagar Kamarthi

Abstract:

Nature has perfected her designs over 3.5 billion years of evolution. Research fields such as biomimicry, biomimetics, bionics, bio-inspired computing, and nature-inspired designs have explored nature-made artifacts and systems to understand nature’s mechanisms and intelligence. Learning from nature, the researchers have generated sustainable designs and innovation in a variety of fields such as energy, architecture, agriculture, transportation, communication, and medicine. Axiomatic design offers a method to judge if a design is good. This paper analyzes design aspects of one of the nature’s amazing object: chicken egg. The functional requirements (FRs) of components of the object are tabulated and mapped on to nature-chosen design parameters (DPs). The ‘independence axiom’ of the axiomatic design methodology is applied to analyze couplings and to evaluate if eggs’ design is good (i.e., uncoupled design) or bad (i.e., coupled design). The analysis revealed that eggs design is a good design, i.e., uncoupled design. This approach can be applied to any nature’s artifacts to judge whether their design is a good or a bad. This methodology is valuable for biomimicry studies. This approach can also be a very useful teaching design consideration of biology and bio-inspired innovation.

Keywords: uncoupled design, axiomatic design, nature design, design evaluation

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4957 Effects of Sensory Integration Techniques in Science Education of Autistic Students

Authors: Joanna Estkowska

Abstract:

Sensory integration methods are very useful and improve daily functioning autistic and mentally disabled children. Autism is a neurobiological disorder that impairs one's ability to communicate with and relate to others as well as their sensory system. Children with autism, even highly functioning kids, can find it difficult to process language with surrounding noise or smells. They are hypersensitive to things we can ignore such as sight, sounds and touch. Adolescents with highly functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome can study Science and Math but the social aspect is difficult for them. Nature science is an area of study that attracts many of these kids. It is a systematic field in which the children can focus on a small aspect. If you follow these rules you can come up with an expected result. Sensory integration program and systematic classroom observation are quantitative methods of measuring classroom functioning and behaviors from direct observations. These methods specify both the events and behaviors that are to be observed and how they are to be recorded. Our students with and without autism attended the lessons in the classroom of nature science in the school and in the laboratory of University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz. The aim of this study is investigation the effects of sensory integration methods in teaching to students with autism. They were observed during experimental lessons in the classroom and in the laboratory. Their physical characteristics, sensory dysfunction, and behavior in class were taken into consideration by comparing their similarities and differences. In the chemistry classroom, every autistic student is paired with a mentor from their school. In the laboratory, the children are expected to wear goggles, gloves and a lab coat. The chemistry classes in the laboratory were held for four hours with a lunch break, and according to the assistants, the children were engaged the whole time. In classroom of nature science, the students are encouraged to use the interactive exhibition of chemical, physical and mathematical models constructed by the author of this paper. Our students with and without autism attended the lessons in those laboratories. The teacher's goals are: to assist the child in inhibiting and modulating sensory information and support the child in processing a response to sensory stimulation.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, science education, sensory integration techniques, student with special educational needs

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4956 Science Explorer Modules as a Communication Approach to Encourage High School Students to Pursue Science Careers

Authors: Mark Ivan Roblas

Abstract:

The Science Explorer is a mobile learning science facility in the Philippines. It is a bus that travels to different provinces in the country bringing interactive science modules facilitated by scientists from the industry and academe. The project aims to entice students to get into careers in science through interactive science modules and interaction with real-life scientists. This article looks into the effectiveness of its modules as a communication source and message to encourage high school students to get into careers in the future. The study revealed that as the Science Explorer modules are able to retain students to stay in science careers of their choice and even convert some to choose from non-science to a science degree, it still lacks in penetrating the belief system of the students and influencing them to take a scientific career path.

Keywords: informal science, mobile science, science careers, science education

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4955 Water's Role in Creating a Sense of Belonging

Authors: Narges Nejati

Abstract:

Nowadays as science hasten toward technology, only quantity of construction noticed and there is a little attention toward quality of construction and there is no usage for element which was prevalent in traditional architecture. This is the cause of this issue that nowadays we see building that most of them just keep you from heat and cold of outside environment and there is no trace of any culture of their country or nation in it. And although we know that man is a creature that adores beauty by his nature, but this spiritual need of him is ignored. And designers by taking an enormous price instead of planning (spiritual designing) to release peace, they attend to planning which make a human soul bothered and ill. The present research is trying to illustrate price of concepts and principles of water usage as one of the elements of nature and also shows the water application in some of the Iranian constructions and the results show the motif of using water in constructions and also some benefits of using it in constructions. And also this matter can causes a reconnection between nature and constructing of a beautiful environment which is consonant and proportional with man’ physical, spiritual and cultural needs. And causes peace and comfort of men. A construction which man feels a friendly atmosphere in them which he has a sense of belonging to them not a construction which arouses feeling of weariness and fatigue.

Keywords: water usage, belonging, sustainable architecture, urban design

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4954 Biomimetic Architecture: The Bio Process to an Eco-Friendly Design

Authors: Odeyemi Ifeoluwayemi, Maha Joushua, Fulani Omoyeni

Abstract:

In the search for sustainability, over time, architectural approaches to design have moved from just nature inspired design to the study of nature’s principles to produce effective designs that solve the issue of sustainability. Nature has established materials, shapes and processes that are effective right from a minor scale to an enormous scale. A branch of human knowledge that studies nature is called biology. Biology helps us to grasp and understand nature. Biomimicry is a new way of viewing and valuing nature, based not on what we can extract from the natural world but on what we can learn from it. Life has sustained on the earth for the last 3.85 billion years, and it is necessary for us to find out how life has been able to stay sustained for that long. The building must teach the society new ecological morals, thus, a better understanding of how nature works can usefully inspire architectural designs to resolve issues that have already been resolved by nature. This will not only help in creating a healthy environment but will also produce positive environmental impacts. Biomimetic Architecture connects and reproduces the ideologies found in nature in order to create built environment which benefit people and other living creatures as well as preserving it for the future. Understanding the bioprocess would lead to the establishment of ecological approaches that serve as a platform for creating a built environment that goes beyond sustaining current settings but also mimic nature’s regenerative ecosystem. This paper aims to explain these design methods under the name of biomimicry and biomimetic architecture by reviewing literature and research works done by examining these approaches classified as forms, processes and ecosystems. It is expected that this research will provide information that would, therefore, lead to the creation of buildings that are eco-friendly and provide greater comfort to the populaces.

Keywords: biomimetic architecture, biomimicry, ecological design, nature

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4953 Science Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Ogbeta I. Joseph, Habiba B. A. Awwalu, Otokiti Jimoh

Abstract:

This paper entitled science education in Nigeria issues and challenges highlighted the role of science education to the development of science and technology in Nigeria. Science embraces every attempt of human to explore and manage the natural world, the contribution of science education to the technological development of the nation, the role of science education in ICT development, the importance of mathematics in the development of science education, the paper also analyzed the challenges facing the development of science education to include corruption, insecurity, and political instability, the paper concluded by encouraging the government and other stakeholders in educational sector to pay more attention to the teaching and learning of science in our schools. Therefore recommended the development that emphasizes should be on the teaching and learning of science base subjects in the school.

Keywords: education, science, technology and national development, challenges

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4952 Understanding Willingness to Engage in pro-Environmental Behaviour among Recreational Anglers in South Africa

Authors: Kelvin Mwaba, Nicole Strickland

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Overexploitation and illegal fishing have been identified as the primary cause of the global decline in the fish stock. While commercial companies and small-scale fishing sectors are strictly regulated in South Africa, recreational anglers are not. The underlying assumption seems to be that recreational anglers can self-regulate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship that recreational anglers have with nature and how this relationship can predict unlawful fishing practices. Methods: Using a survey design, 99 self-identified recreational anglers were recruited through convenient sampling. The anglers were accessed from fishing tackle shops around False Bay in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire that consisted of pro-environmental behavior survey and the Nature Relatedness Scale. Results: Data analyses indicated that significant differences with regard to nature relatedness on the basis of participants’ age and level of education. Older and more educated anglers scored higher on nature relatedness than younger and less educated anglers. Logistic regression analysis showed that nature relatedness was a significant predictor of pro-environmental behaviors (R²= 0.061). Discussion and Conclusion: The findings of the present study provide support regarding the importance of encouraging healthy and sustainable relationships between humans and nature. Combating harmful fishing practices can achieve through understanding and promoting human care for nature among anglers and others involved in fishing.

Keywords: pro-environmental, behavior, anglers, South Africa

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4951 Not Three Gods but One: Why Reductionism Does Not Serve Our Theological Discourse

Authors: Finley Lawson

Abstract:

The triune nature of God is one of the most complex doctrines of Christianity, and its complexity is further compounded when one considers the incarnation. However, many of the difficulties and paradoxes associated with our idea of the divine arise from our adherence to reductionist ontology. In order to move our theological discourse forward, in respect to divine and human nature, a holistic interpretation of our profession of faith is necessary. The challenge of a holistic interpretation is that it questions our ability to make any statement about the genuine, ontological individuation of persons (both divine and human), and in doing so raises the issue of whether we are, ontologically, bound to descend in to a form of pan(en)theism. In order to address the ‘inevitable’ slide in to pan(en)theism. The impact of two forms of holistic interpretation, Boolean and Non-Boolean, on our concept of personhood will be examined. Whilst a Boolean interpretation allows for a greater understanding of the relational nature of the Trinity, it is the Non-Boolean interpretation which has greater ontological significance. A Non-Boolean ontology, grounded in our scientific understanding of the nature of the world, shows our quest for individuation rests not in ontological fact but in epistemic need, and that it is our limited epistemology that drives our need to divide that which is ontologically indivisible. This discussion takes place within a ‘methodological’, rather than ‘doctrinal’ approach to science and religion - examining assumptions and methods that have shaped our language and beliefs about key doctrines, rather than seeking to reconcile particular Christian doctrines with particular scientific theories. Concluding that Non-Boolean holism is the more significant for our doctrine is, in itself, not enough. A world without division appears much removed from the distinct place of man and divine as espoused in our creedal affirmation, to this end, several possible interpretations for understanding Non-Boolean human – divine relations are tentatively put forward for consideration.

Keywords: holism, individuation, ontology, Trinitarian relations

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4950 Man-Nature relationship in Bishop’s Poetry: An Eco-Critical Reading of the Selected Poems

Authors: Khaled Abkar Alkodimi

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This paper attempts to explore Bishop’s eco-poetics and environmental consciousness from an ecocritical perspective. It focuses on her representations of animals, environments, and natural phenomena and the connection between a broad range of human activities and flora, fauna habitats. Indeed, Bishop shows a sense of human responsibility towards the earth in her peculiar treatment of place and livestock, which appears to be more than a static growth process. Her poetry is totally contrary to egoism and egotism, and this can be easily noticed in her subjective understanding of nature and creatures. The findings show Bishop as an eco-poet who committed herself and her poetry to highlight the significance of nature and world life at large. This is obvious through her representation of natural phenomena such as seasonal cycles, weather, and physical and ecological elements, including air, earth, and water, which essentially constitute and inform the poet’s environmental thoughts. Examining Bishop’s conception of a human relationship with ‘external nature through the examination of her poetic language, this study shows how the environmental imagination can suggest social responsibility to readers.

Keywords: elizabeth bishop, eco-criticism, eco-poetry, environmental consciousness, man-nature relationship

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4949 The Importance of Science and Technology Education in Skill Acquisition for Self Dependence

Authors: Olaje Monday Olaje

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Science and technology has been prove to be the back bone for economic development of any country, and for Nigeria, it has more critical role to play. This paper examines the importance of science and technology education for national development and self dependence for Nigerian citizens. A historical overview of the interconnectivity of science and technology and self dependence is heighted. The current situation and challenges facing science and technology education are also highlighted to bring out the theoretical importance of science and technology education for self dependence which actually has not been practically achieved. Recommendations are also made at the of the study so as to skill acquisition through science and technology for self dependence.

Keywords: acquisition, education, self-dependence, science, technology

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4948 Evaluation of the Families' Psychological Nature and the Relationship between the Academic Success According to the Students' Opinion

Authors: Sebnem Erismen, Ahmet Guneyli, Azize Ummanel

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the students' academic success and families' psychological nature. The study based upon the quantitative research, and descriptive model is used. Relational descriptive model is used while evaluating the relation between families’ psychological nature and the academic success level of the students. A total of 523 secondary school students have participated the study. Personal Information Form, Family Structure Evaluation Form (FSEF) and School Reports were employed as the primary methods of data gathering. ANOVA and LSD Scheffe Test were used for analysing the data. Results of the study indicate that there are differences between the FSEF scores according to the students’ and teachers’ gender; however, no differences between the class level and seniority of the teachers were seen. Regarding the academic success of the students, it was seen that majority of them have high points. It was also seen that the academic success level of the students differentiates regarding to the classroom teachers’ gender and seniority. In conclusion, it was seen that there is a relation between the families’ psychological nature and students' academic success.

Keywords: families’ perceived psychological nature, academic success, families effect on the academic success, education

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4947 Exposure to Nature: An Underutilized Component of Student Mental Health

Authors: Jeremy Bekker, Guy Salazar

Abstract:

Introduction: Nature-exposure interventions on university campuses may serve as an effective addition to overburdened counseling and student support centers. Nature-exposure interventions can work as a preventative well-being enhancement measure on campuses, which can be used adjacently with existing health resources. Specifically, this paper analyzes how spending time in nature impacts psychological well-being, cognitive functioning, and physical health. The poster covers the core findings and recommendations of this paper, which has been previously published in the BYU undergraduate psychology journal Intuition. Research Goals and Method: The goal of this paper was to outline the potential benefits of nature exposure for students’ physical health, mental well-being, and academic success. Another objective of this paper was to outline potential research-based interventions that use campus green spaces to improve student outcomes. Given that the core objective of this paper was to identify and establish research-based nature exposure interventions that could be used on college campuses, a broad literature review focused on these areas. Specifically, the databases Scopus and PsycINFO were used to screen for research focused on psychological well-being, physical health, cognitive functioning, and nature exposure interventions. Outcomes: Nature exposure has been shown to help increase positive affect, life satisfaction, happiness, coping ability and subjective well-being. Further, nature exposure has been shown to decrease negative affect, lower mental distress, reduce cognitive load, and decrease negative psychological symptoms. Finally, nature exposure has been shown to lead to better physical health. Findings and Recommendations: Potential interventions include adding green space to university buildings and grounds, dedicating already natural environments as nature restoration areas, and providing means for outdoor excursions. Potential limitations and suggested areas for future research are also addressed. Many campuses already contain green spaces, defined as any part of an environment that is predominately made of natural elements, and these green spaces comprise an untapped resource that is relatively cheap and simple.

Keywords: nature exposure, preventative care, undergraduate mental health, well-being intervention

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4946 From Vertigo to Verticality: An Example of Phenomenological Design in Architecture

Authors: E. Osorio Schmied

Abstract:

Architects commonly attempt a depiction of organic forms when their works are inspired by nature, regardless of the building site. Nevertheless it is also possible to try matching structures with natural scenery, by applying a phenomenological approach in terms of spatial operations, regarding perceptions from nature through architectural aspects such as protection, views, and orientation. This method acknowledges a relationship between place and space, where intentions towards tangible facts then become design statements. Although spaces resulting from such a process may present an effective response to the environment, they can also offer further outcomes beyond the realm of form. The hypothesis is that, in addition to recognising a bond between architecture and nature, it is also plausible to associate such perceptions with the inner ambient of buildings, by analysing features such as daylight. The case study of a single-family house in a rainforest near Valdivia, Chilean Patagonia is presented, with the intention of addressing the above notions through a discussion of the actual effects of inhabiting a place by way of a series of insights, including a revision of diagrams and photographs that assist in understanding the implications of this design practice. In addition, figures based on post-occupancy behaviour and daylighting performance relate both architectural and environmental issues to a decision-making process motivated by the observation of nature.

Keywords: architecture, design statements, nature, perception

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4945 Unmanned Air Vehicles against Disasters: Wildfires, Avalanches, Floods

Authors: İsmail Şimşekoğlu, Serkan Yılmaz

Abstract:

There have been great improvements in technology that caused epoch-making changes in aviation. Thus, we can control air vehicles from ground without pilots in them: The UAVs. Due to UAV’s lack of need of pilots and their small size make them have crucial importance for us. UAVs have variety of usage area, especially in military. However, as soldiers we believe that we can use UAVs for better purposes. In this essay we indicate the usage of UAVs for the sake of saving nature from destruction of disasters by expressing what happened in the past and what can possibly happen in the future, especially in firefighting, preventing avalanches and decreasing the effects of floods. These three disasters cause hazardous consequences to the nature. Wildfires endanger so many lives by burning and destroying what comes in their paths. The numbers of avalanches are increased with the global warming. The changes of seasons triggered floods all over the world that threaten the city life. Besides all of these people may lose their lives in order to intrude these disasters. Drones will do the job without involving people lives. Thus it will diminish the risks so drones will be used for the sake of nature and people.

Keywords: unmanned air vehicles, nature, firefighting, avalanche, flood

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
4944 Gender and Science: Is the Association Universal?

Authors: Neelam Kumar

Abstract:

Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Gender stratification is one of the most prevalent phenomena in the world of science. In most countries gender segregation, horizontal as well as vertical, stands out in the field of science and engineering. India is no exception. This paper aims to examine: (1) gender and science associations, historical as well as contemporary, (2) women’s enrolment and gender differences in selection of academic fields, (2) women as professional researchers, (3) career path and recognition/trajectories. The paper reveals that in recent years the gender–science relationship has changed, but is not totally free from biases. Women’s enrolment into various science disciplines has shown remarkable and steady increase in most parts of the world, including India, yet they remain underrepresented in the S&T workforce, although to a lesser degree than in the past.

Keywords: gender, science, universal, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
4943 Guided Energy Theory of a Particle: Answered Questions Arise from Quantum Foundation

Authors: Desmond Agbolade Ademola

Abstract:

This work aimed to introduce a theory, called Guided Energy Theory of a particle that answered questions that arise from quantum foundation, quantum mechanics theory, and interpretation such as: what is nature of wavefunction? Is mathematical formalism of wavefunction correct? Does wavefunction collapse during measurement? Do quantum physical entanglement and many world interpretations really exist? In addition, is there uncertainty in the physical reality of our nature as being concluded in the Quantum theory? We have been able to show by the fundamental analysis presented in this work that the way quantum mechanics theory, and interpretation describes nature is not correlated with physical reality. Because, we discovered amongst others that, (1) Guided energy theory of a particle fundamentally provides complete physical observable series of quantized measurement of a particle momentum, force, energy e.t.c. in a given distance and time.In contrast, quantum mechanics wavefunction describes that nature has inherited probabilistic and indeterministic physical quantities, resulting in unobservable physical quantities that lead to many worldinterpretation.(2) Guided energy theory of a particle fundamentally predicts that it is mathematically possible to determine precise quantized measurementof position and momentum of a particle simultaneously. Because, there is no uncertainty in nature; nature however naturally guides itself against uncertainty. Contrary to the conclusion in quantum mechanics theory that, it is mathematically impossible to determine the position and the momentum of a particle simultaneously. Furthermore, we have been able to show by this theory that, it is mathematically possible to determine quantized measurement of force acting on a particle simultaneously, which is not possible on the premise of quantum mechanics theory. (3) It is evidently shown by our theory that, guided energy does not collapse, only describes the lopsided nature of a particle behavior in motion. This pretty offers us insight on gradual process of engagement - convergence and disengagement – divergence of guided energy holders which further highlight the picture how wave – like behavior return to particle-like behavior and how particle – like behavior return to wave – like behavior respectively. This further proves that the particles’ behavior in motion is oscillatory in nature. The mathematical formalism of Guided energy theory shows that nature is certainty whereas the mathematical formalism of Quantum mechanics theory shows that nature is absolutely probabilistics. In addition, the nature of wavefunction is the guided energy of the wave. In conclusion, the fundamental mathematical formalism of Quantum mechanics theory is wrong.

Keywords: momentum, physical entanglement, wavefunction, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
4942 Exploring Students’ Views on Science Education

Authors: Ahmad Alshammari

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This study focused on exploring the students’ views about the science education in intermediate stage in State of Kuwait. This study used Social-Culture Theory (SCT) as a theoretical framework to understand the science curriculum reform process through the socio-cultural context and to discuss and explain the study findings. This study used a multi-method design, with both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect the data: students’ questionnaires and interviews. The study sample was selected randomly. First, the questionnaire was conducted with 647 students. Then 30 students (5 in each of 6 focus groups) were chosen to conduct the in-depth interviews. The findings of this study indicated the generally negative views of most of the students about the new science curriculum. The findings showed that most of the students have a negative attitude toward science, they have difficulty understanding most of the lessons, and they do not enjoy studying the science subject. This study recommends reviewing the new science curriculum (now currently in use) and taking into account the perspectives of the students about this curriculum. Developing and adapting the new science curriculum took place without taking into consideration the socio-culture and Islamic religion of Kuwaiti students. The MoE should deal with the relationship between science and culture and between science and religion, integrating more relevant science into the curriculum.

Keywords: science education, students views, science curriculum, curriculum development

Procedia PDF Downloads 155