Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2550

Search results for: industrial symbiosis

2550 Improving Energy Efficiency through Industrial Symbiosis: A Conceptual Framework of Energy Management in Energy-Intensive Industries

Authors: Yuanjun Chen, Yongjiang Shi

Abstract:

Rising energy prices have drawn a focus to global energy issues, and the severe pollution that has resulted from energy-intensive industrial sectors has yet to be addressed. By combining Energy Efficiency with Industrial Symbiosis, the practices of efficient energy utilization and improvement can be not only enriched at the factory level but also upgraded into “within and/or between firm level”. The academic contribution of this paper provides a conceptual framework of energy management through IS. The management of waste energy within/between firms can contribute to the reduction of energy consumption and provides a solution to the environmental issues.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy management, industrial symbiosis, energy-intensive industry

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2549 A Multi-Level Approach to Improve Sustainability Performances of Industrial Agglomerations

Authors: Patrick Innocenti, Elias Montini, Silvia Menato, Marzio Sorlini

Abstract:

Documented experiences of industrial symbiosis are always triggered and driven only by economic goals: environmental and (even rarely) social results are sometimes assessed and declared as effects of virtuous behaviours, but are merely casual and un-pursued side externalities. Even worse: all the symbiotic project candidates entailing economic loss for just one of the (also dozen) partners are simply stopped without considering the overall benefit for the whole partnership. The here-presented approach aims at providing methodologies and tools to effectively manage these situations and fostering the implementation of virtuous symbiotic investments in manufacturing aggregations for a more sustainable production.

Keywords: business model, industrial symbiosis, industrial agglomerations, sustainability

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2548 Contracting Strategies to Foster Industrial Symbiosis Implementation

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) deals with the exchange of waste materials, fatal energy and utilities as resources for production. While it brings environmental benefits from resource conservation its economic profitability is one of the main barriers to its implementation. I.S involves several actors with their own objectives and resources so that each actor must be satisfied by ex-ante arrangements to commit toward investments and transactions. Regarding I.S Transaction cost economics helps to identify hybrid forms of governance for transactions governance due to I.S projects specificities induced by the need for customization (asset specificity, non-homogeneity). Thus we propose a framework to analyze the best contractual practices tailored to address I.S specific risks that we identified as threefold (load profiles and quality mismatch, value fluctuations). Schemes from cooperative game theory and contracting management are integrated to analyze value flows between actors. Contractual guidelines are then proposed to address the identified risks and to split the value for a set of I.S archetypes drawn from actual experiences.

Keywords: contracts, economics, industrial symbiosis, risks

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2547 A Study of Industrial Symbiosis and Implementation of Indigenous Circular Economy Technique on an Indian Industrial Area

Authors: A. Gokulram

Abstract:

Industrial waste is often categorized as commercial and non-commercial waste by market value. In many Indian industries and other industrialized countries, the commercial value waste is capitalized and non-commercial waste is dumped to landfill. A lack of adequate research on industrial waste leads to the failure of effective resource management and the non-commercial waste are being considered as commercially non-viable residues. The term Industrial symbiosis refers to the direct inter-firm reuse or exchange of material and energy resource. The resource efficiency of commercial waste is mainly followed by an informal symbiosis in our research area. Some Industrial residues are reused within the facility where they are generated, others are reused directly nearby industrial facilities and some are recycled via the formal and informal market. The act of using industrial waste as a resource for another product faces challenges in India. This research study has observed a major negligence of trust and communication among several bodies to implement effective circular economy in India. This study applies interviewing process across researchers, government bodies, industrialist and designers to understand the challenges of circular economy in India. The study area encompasses an industrial estate in Ahmedabad in the state of Gujarat which comprises of 1200 industries. The research study primarily focuses on making industrial waste as commercial ready resource and implementing Indigenous sustainable practice in modern context to improve resource efficiency. This study attempted to initiate waste exchange platform among several industrialist and used varied methodologies from mail questionnaire to telephone survey. This study makes key suggestions to policy change and sustainable finance to improve circular economy in India.

Keywords: effective resource management, environmental policy, indigenous technique, industrial symbiosis, sustainable finance

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2546 A Study on Strategy of Coordinative Symbiosis between New and Old Buildings: Case Study of Shanghai Citic Plaza and Surroundings

Authors: Tianyi Qin

Abstract:

Along with the acceleration of Chinese urbanization, the expansion, renovation and demolition of old buildings is on the stage together with the design and construction of new buildings every day in downtown of the old city area. The coordinative symbiosis between new and old buildings is an important problem which needs to be solved in the process of urban development. By studying and analyzing the case of Shanghai Citic Plaza and surroundings, this paper contributes to discussing the concept, value and problems to be solved of the coordination of new and old buildings, meanwhile, striking the balance between new and old buildings from the aspects of architectural form, space, function and local context. As a result, the strategy of the coordinative symbiosis between new and old buildings is summarized, which can offer some guiding principles to urban development from now on.

Keywords: coordinative symbiosis, new and old buildings, Shanghai Citic Plaza, strategy

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2545 Industrial Ecology Perspectives of Food Supply Chains: A Framework of Analysis

Authors: Luciano Batista, Sylvia Saes, Nuno Fouto, Liam Fassam

Abstract:

This paper introduces the theoretical and methodological basis of an analytical framework conceived with the purpose of bringing industrial ecology perspectives into the core of the underlying disciplines supporting analyses in studies concerned with environmental sustainability aspects beyond the product cycle in a supply chain. Given the pressing challenges faced by the food sector, the framework focuses upon waste minimization through industrial linkages in food supply chains. The combination of industrial ecology practice with basic LCA elements, the waste hierarchy model, and the spatial scale of industrial symbiosis allows the standardization of qualitative analyses and associated outcomes. Such standardization enables comparative analysis not only between different stages of a supply chain, but also between different supply chains. The analytical approach proposed contributes more coherently to the wider circular economy aspiration of optimizing the flow of goods to get the most out of raw materials and cuts wastes to a minimum.

Keywords: by-product synergy, food supply chain, industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis

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2544 Eco-Design of Construction Industrial Park in China with Selection of Candidate Tenants

Authors: Yang Zhou, Kaijian Li, Guiwen Liu

Abstract:

Offsite construction is an innovative alternative to conventional site-based construction, with wide-ranging benefits. It requires building components, elements or modules were prefabricated and pre-assembly before installed into their final locations. To improve efficiency and achieve synergies, in recent years, construction companies were clustered into construction industrial parks (CIPs) in China. A CIP is a community of construction manufacturing and service businesses located together on a common property. Companies involved in industrial clusters can obtain environment and economic benefits by sharing resources and information in a given region. Therefore, the concept of industrial symbiosis (IS) can be applied to the traditional CIP to achieve sustainable industrial development or redevelopment through the implementation of eco-industrial parks (EIP). However, before designing a symbiosis network between companies in a CIP, candidate support tenants need to be selected to complement the existing construction companies. In this study, an access indicator system and a linear programming model are established to select candidate tenants in a CIP while satisfying the degree of connectivity among the enterprises in the CIP, minimizing the environmental impact, and maximizing the annualized profit of the CIP. The access indicator system comprises three primary indicators and fifteen secondary indicators, is proposed from the perspective of park-based level. The fifteen indicators are classified as three primary indicators including industrial symbiosis, environment performance and economic benefit, according to the three dimensions of sustainability (environment, economic and social dimensions) and the three R's of the environment (reduce, reuse and recycle). The linear programming model is a method to assess the satisfactoriness of all the indicators and to make an optimal multi-objective selection among candidate tenants. This method provides a practical tool for planners of a CIP in evaluating which among the candidate tenants would best complement existing anchor construction tenants. The reasonability and validity of the indicator system and the method is worth further study in the future.

Keywords: construction industrial park, China, industrial symbiosis, offsite construction, selection of support tenants

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2543 Integrating Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contract Design to Support Industrial Symbiosis Deployment

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) is the realization of Industrial Ecology (I.E) principles in production systems in function. I.S consists in the use of waste materials, fatal energy, recirculated utilities and infrastructure/service sharing as resources for production. Environmental benefits can be achieved from resource conservation but economic profitability is required by the participating actors. I.S indeed involves several actors with their own objectives and resources so that each one must be satisfied by ex-ante arrangements to commit toward I.S execution (investments and transactions). Following the Resource-Based View of transactions we build a modular framework to assess global I.S profitability and to specify each actor’s contributions to costs and benefits in line with their resource endowments and performance requirements formulations. I.S projects specificities implied by the need for customization (asset specificity, non-homogeneity) induce the use of long-term contracts for transactions following Transaction costs economics arguments. Thus we propose first a taxonomy of costs and value drivers for I.S and an assignment to each actor of I.S specific risks that we identified as load profiles mismatch, quality problems and value fluctuations. Then appropriate contractual guidelines (pricing, cost sharing and warranties) that support mutual profitability are derived from the detailed identification of contributions by the cost-benefits model. This analytical framework helps identifying what points to focus on when bargaining over contracting for transactions and investments. Our methodology is applied to I.S archetypes raised from a literature survey on eco-industrial parks initiatives and practitioners interviews.

Keywords: contracts, cost-benefit analysis, industrial symbiosis, risks

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2542 Isolation and Characterization of Salt-Tolerance of Rhizobia under the Effects of Salinity

Authors: Sarra Sobti, Baelhadj Hamdi-Aïssa

Abstract:

The bacteria of the soil, usually called rhizobium, have a considerable importance in agriculture because of their capacity to fix the atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with the plants of the family of legumes. The present work was to study the effect of the salinity on growth and nodulation of alfalfa-rhizobia symbiosis at different agricultural experimental sites in Ouargla. The experiment was conducted in 3 steps. The first one was the isolation and characterization of the Rhizobia; next, the evolution of the isolates tolerance to salinity at three levels of NaCl (6, 8,12 and 16 g/L); and the last step was the evolution of the tolerance on symbiotic characteristics. The results showed that the phenotypic characterizations behave practically as Rhizobia spp, and the effects of salinity affect the symbiotic process. The tolerance to high levels of salinity and the survival and persistence in severe and harsh desert conditions make these rhizobia highly valuable inoculums to improve productivity of the leguminous plants cultivated under extreme environments.

Keywords: rhizobia, symbiosis, salinity, tolerance, nodulation, soil, Medicago sativa L.

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2541 Implementation of Industrial Ecology Principles in the Production and Recycling of Solar Cells and Solar Modules

Authors: Julius Denafas, Irina Kliopova, Gintaras Denafas

Abstract:

Three opportunities for implementation of industrial ecology principles in the real industrial production of c-Si solar cells and modules are presented in this study. It includes: material flow dematerialisation, product modification and industrial symbiosis. Firstly, it is shown how the collaboration between R&D institutes and industry helps to achieve significant reduction of material consumption by a) refuse from phosphor silicate glass cleaning process and b) shortening of silicon nitride coating production step. Secondly, it was shown how the modification of solar module design can reduce the CO2 footprint for this product and enhance waste prevention. It was achieved by implementing a frameless glass/glass solar module design instead of glass/backsheet with aluminium frame. Such a design change is possible without purchasing new equipment and without loss of main product properties like efficiency, rigidity and longevity. Thirdly, industrial symbiosis in the solar cell production is possible in such case when manufacturing waste (silicon wafer and solar cell breakage) also used solar modules are collected, sorted and supplied as raw-materials to other companies involved in the production chain of c-Si solar cells. The obtained results showed that solar cells produced from recycled silicon can have a comparable electrical parameters like produced from standard, commercial silicon wafers. The above mentioned work was performed at solar cell producer Soli Tek R&D in the frame of H2020 projects CABRISS and Eco-Solar.

Keywords: manufacturing, process optimisation, recycling, solar cells, solar modules, waste prevention

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2540 The Use of Industrial Ecology Principles in the Production of Solar Cells and Solar Modules

Authors: Julius Denafas, Irina Kliopova, Gintaras Denafas

Abstract:

Three opportunities for implementation of industrial ecology principles in the real industrial production of c-Si solar cells and modules are presented in this study. It includes: material flow dematerialisation, product modification and industrial symbiosis. Firstly, it is shown how the collaboration between R&D institutes and industry helps to achieve significant reduction of material consumption by a) refuse from phosphor silicate glass cleaning process and b) shortening of SiNx coating production step. This work was performed in the frame of Eco-Solar project, where Soli Tek R&D is collaborating together with the partners from ISC-Konstanz institute. Secondly, it was shown how the modification of solar module design can reduce the CO2 footprint for this product and enhance waste prevention. It was achieved by implementing a frameless glass/glass solar module design instead of glass/backsheet with aluminium frame. Such a design change is possible without purchasing new equipment and without loss of main product properties like efficiency, rigidity and longevity. Thirdly, industrial symbiosis in the solar cell production is possible in such case when manufacturing waste (silicon wafer and solar cell breakage) are collected, sorted and supplied as raw-materials to other companies involved in the production chain of c-Si solar cells. The obtained results showed that solar cells produced from recycled silicon can have a comparable electrical parameters like produced from standard, commercial silicon wafers. The above mentioned work was performed at solar cell producer Soli Tek R&D in the frame of H2020 projects CABRISS and Eco-Solar.

Keywords: solar cells and solar modules, manufacturing, waste prevention, recycling

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2539 Which Mechanisms are Involved by Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis to Increase Its Phosphorus Use Efficiency under Low Phosphorus Level?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, A. Bargaz, M. Mouradi, M. Farissi, A. Kabbaj, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam

Abstract:

Legume species are able to establish a nitrogen fixing symbiosis with soil rhizobia that allows them, when it operates normally, to ensure their necessary nitrogen nutrition. This biological process needs high phosphorus (P) supply and consequently it is limited under low phosphorus availability. To overcome this constraint, legume-rhizobia symbiosis develops many mechanisms to increase P availability in the rhizosphere and also the efficiency of P fertilizers. The objectives of our research works are to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms implemented by legume-rhizobia symbiosis to increase its P use efficiency (PUE) in order to select legume genotypes-rhizobia strains combination more performing for BNF under P deficiency. Our studies were carried out on two grain legume species, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and faba bean (Vicia faba) tested in farmers’ fields and in experimental station fewer than two soil phosphorus levels. Under field conditions, the P deficiency caused a significant decrease of Plant and nodule biomasses in all of the tested varieties with a difference between them. This P limitation increased the contents of available P in the rhizospheric soils that was positively correlated with the increase of phosphatases activities in the nodules and the rhizospheric soil. Some legume genotypes showed a significant increase of their P use efficiency under P deficiency. The P solubilization test showed that some rhizobia strains isolated from Haouz region presented an important capacity to grow on solid and liquid media with tricalcium phosphate as the only P source and their P solubilizing activity was confirmed by the assay of the released P in the liquid medium. Also, this P solubilizing activity was correlated with medium acidification and the excretion of acid phosphatases and phytases in the medium. Thus, we concluded that medium acidification and excretion of phosphatases in the rhizosphere are the prominent reactions for legume-rhizobia symbiosis to improve its P nutrition.

Keywords: legume, phosphorus deficiency, rhizobia, rhizospheric soil

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2538 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Trema orientalis: Effect of a Naturally-Occurring Symbiosis Receptor Kinase Mutant Allele

Authors: Yuda Purwana Roswanjaya, Wouter Kohlen, Rene Geurts

Abstract:

The Trema genus represents a group of fast-growing tropical tree species within the Cannabaceae. Interestingly, five species nested in this lineage -known as Parasponia- can establish rhizobium nitrogen-fixing root nodules, similar to those found in legumes. Parasponia and legumes use a conserved genetic network to control root nodule formation, among which are genes also essential for mycorrhizal symbiosis (the so-called common symbiotic pathway). However, Trema species lost several genes that function exclusively in nodulation, suggesting a loss-of the nodulation trait in Trema. Strikingly, in a Trema orientalis population found in Malaysian Borneo we identified a truncated SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SYMRK) mutant allele lacking a large portion of the c-terminal kinase domain. In legumes this gene is essential for nodulation and mycorrhization. This raises the question whether Trema orientalis can still be mycorrhized. To answer this question, we established quantitative mycorrhization assay for Parasponia andersonii and Trema orientalis. Plants were grown in closed pots on half strength Hoagland medium containing 20 µM potassium phosphate in sterilized sand and inoculated with 125 spores of Rhizopagus irregularis (Agronutrion-DAOM197198). Mycorrhization efficiency was determined by analyzing the frequency of mycorrhiza (%F), the intensity of the mycorrhizal colonization (%M) and the arbuscule abundance (%A) in the root system. Trema orientalis RG33 can be mycorrhized, though with lower efficiency compared to Parasponia andersonii. From this we conclude that a functional SYMRK kinase domain is not essential for Trema orientalis mycorrhization. In ongoing experiments, we aim to investigate the role of SYMRK in Parasponia andersonii mycorrhization and nodulation. For this two Parasponia andersonii symrk CRISPR-Cas9 mutant alleles were created. One mimicking the TorSYMRKRG33 allele by deletion of exon 13-15, and a full Parasponia andersonii SYMRK knockout.

Keywords: endomycorrhization, Parasponia andersonii, symbiosis receptor kinase (SYMRK), Trema orientalis

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2537 Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobacteria (Rhizobium mililoti 2011) Enhances the Tolerance and the Accumulation of Cadmium in Medicago sativa

Authors: Tahar Ghnaya, Majda Mnasri, Hanen Zaier, Rim Ghabriche, Chedly Abdelly

Abstract:

It is known that the symbiotic association between plant and microorganisms are beneficial for plant growth and resistance to metal stress. Hence, it was demonstrated that Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have a positive effect on host plants growing in metal polluted soils. Legume plants are those which normally associate to rhizobacteria in order to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect this type of symbiosis on the tolerance and the accumulation of Cd. We chose Medicago sativa, as a modal for host legume plants and Rhizobium mililoti 2011 as rhizobial strain. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants of M. sativa were submitted during three month to 0, 50, and 100 mgCd/kg dry soil. Results showed that the presence of Cd in the medium induced, in both inoculated and non-inoculated plants, a chlorosis and necrosis. However, these symptoms were more pronounced in non-inoculated plants. The beneficial effect of inoculation of M. sativa with R. meliloti, on plant growth was confirmed by the measurement of biomass production which showed that the symbiotic association between host plant and rhizobacteria alleviates significantly Cd effect on biomass production, so inoculated plants produced more dry weight as compared to non-inoculated ones in the presence of all Cd tretments. On the other hand, under symbiosis conditions, Cd was more accumulated in different plant organs. Hence, in these plants, shoot Cd concentration reached 425 and it was 280 µg/gDW in non-inoculated ones in the presence of 100 ppm Cd. This result suggests that symbiosis enhances the absorption and translocation of Cd in this plant. In nodules and roots, we detected the highest Cd concentrations, demonstrating that these organs are able to concentrate Cd in their tissues. These data confirm that M. sataiva, cultivated in symbiosis with Rhizobium mililoti could be used in phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils.

Keywords: Cd, phytoremediation, Medicago sativa, Arbuscular mycorrhizal

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2536 Corresponding Effect of Mycorhizal fungi and Pistachio on Absorption of Nutrition and Resistance on Salinity in Pistacia vera, L.

Authors: Hamid Mohammadi, S. H. Eftekhar Afzali

Abstract:

The irregular usage of chemical fertilizer cause different types of water and soil pollution and problems in health of human in past decades and organic fertilizer has been considered more and more. Mycorrhizal fungi have symbiosis with plant families and significantly effect on plant growth. Proper management of these symbiosis causes to reduce the usage of chemical fertilizers and absorb nutrition especially phosphor. Pistacia vera is endemic in Iran and is one of the most important products for this country. Considering special circumstances of pistachio orchards according to increasing salinity of water and soil and mismanagement of fertilizer reveals the necessity of the usage of Mycorrhizal fungi in these orchards.

Keywords: pistachio, mycorhiza, nutrition, salinity

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2535 Infrastructure Sharing Synergies: Optimal Capacity Oversizing and Pricing

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) deals with both substitution synergies (exchange of waste materials, fatal energy and utilities as resources for production) and infrastructure/service sharing synergies. The latter is based on the intensification of use of an asset and thus requires to balance capital costs increments with snowball effects (network externalities) for its implementation. Initial investors must specify ex-ante arrangements (cost sharing and pricing schedule) to commit toward investments in capacities and transactions. Our model investigate the decision of 2 actors trying to choose cooperatively a level of infrastructure capacity oversizing to set a plug-and-play offer to a potential entrant whose capacity requirement is randomly distributed while satisficing their own requirements. Capacity cost exhibits sub-additive property so that there is room for profitable overcapacity setting in the first period. The entrant’s willingness-to-pay for the access to the infrastructure is dependent upon its standalone cost and the capacity gap that it must complete in case the available capacity is insufficient ex-post (the complement cost). Since initial capacity choices are driven by ex-ante (expected) yield extractible from the entrant we derive the expected complement cost function which helps us defining the investors’ objective function. We first show that this curve is decreasing and convex in the capacity increments and that it is shaped by the distribution function of the potential entrant’s requirements. We then derive the general form of solutions and solve the model for uniform and triangular distributions. Depending on requirements volumes and cost assumptions different equilibria occurs. We finally analyze the effect of a per-unit subsidy a public actor would apply to foster such sharing synergies.

Keywords: capacity, cooperation, industrial symbiosis, pricing

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2534 Chemotrophic Signal Exchange between the Host Plant Helianthemum sessiliflorum and Terfezia boudieri

Authors: S. Ben-Shabat, T. Turgeman, O. Leubinski, N. Roth-Bejerano, V. Kagan-Zur, Y. Sitrit

Abstract:

The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) desert truffle Terfezia boudieri produces edible fruit bodies and forms symbiosis with its host plant Helianthemum sessiliflorum (Cistaceae) in the Negev desert of Israel. The symbiosis is vital for both partners' survival under desert conditions. Under desert habitat conditions, ECMs must form symbiosis before entering the dry season. To secure a successful encounter, in the course of evolution, both partners have responded by evolving special signals exchange that facilitates recognition. Members of the Cistaceae family serve as host plants for many important truffles. Conceivably, during evolution a common molecule present in Cistaceae plants was recruited to facilitate successful encounter with ectomycorrhizas. Arbuscular vesicular fungi (AM) are promiscuous in host preferences, in contrast, ECM fungi show specificity to host plants. Accordingly, we hypothesize that H. sessiliflorum secretes a chemotrophic-signaling, which is common to plants hosting ECM fungi belonging to the Pezizales. However, thus far no signaling molecules have been identified in ECM fungi. We developed a bioassay for chemotrophic activity. Fractionation of root exudates revealed a substance with chemotrophic activity and molecular mass of 534. Following the above concept, screening the transcriptome of Terfezia, grown under chemoattraction, discovered genes showing high homology to G proteins-coupled receptors of plant pathogens involved in positive chemotaxis and chemotaxis suppression. This study aimed to identify the active molecule using analytical methods (LC-MS, NMR etc.). This should contribute to our understanding of how ECM fungi communicate with their hosts in the rhizosphere. In line with the ability of Terfezia to form also endomycorrhizal symbiosis like AM fungi, analysis of the mechanisms may likewise be applicable to AM fungi. Developing methods to manipulate fungal growth by the chemoattractant can open new ways to improve inoculation of plants.

Keywords: chemotrophic signal, Helianthemum sessiliflorum, Terfezia boudieri, ECM

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2533 Capacity Oversizing for Infrastructure Sharing Synergies: A Game Theoretic Analysis

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) rely on two basic modes of cooperation between organizations that are infrastructure/service sharing and resource substitution (the use of waste materials, fatal energy and recirculated utilities for production). The former consists in the intensification of use of an asset and thus requires to compare the incremental investment cost to be incurred and the stand-alone cost faced by each potential participant to satisfy its own requirements. In order to investigate the way such a cooperation mode can be implemented we formulate a game theoretic model integrating the grassroot investment decision and the ex-post access pricing problem. In the first period two actors set cooperatively (resp. non-cooperatively) a level of common (resp. individual) infrastructure capacity oversizing to attract ex-post a potential entrant with a plug-and-play offer (available capacity, tariff). The entrant’s requirement is randomly distributed and known only after investments took place. Capacity cost exhibits sub-additive property so that there is room for profitable overcapacity setting in the first period under some conditions that we derive. The entrant willingness-to-pay for the access to the infrastructure is driven by both her standalone cost and the complement cost to be incurred in case she chooses to access an infrastructure whose the available capacity is lower than her requirement level. The expected complement cost function is thus derived, and we show that it is decreasing, convex and shaped by the entrant’s requirements distribution function. For both uniform and triangular distributions optimal capacity level is obtained in the cooperative setting and equilibrium levels are determined in the non-cooperative case. Regarding the latter, we show that competition is deterred by the first period investor with the highest requirement level. Using the non-cooperative game outcomes which gives lower bounds for the profit sharing problem in the cooperative one we solve the whole game and describe situations supporting sharing agreements.

Keywords: capacity, cooperation, industrial symbiosis, pricing

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2532 How Does Vicia faba-rhizobia Symbiosis Improve Its Performance under Low Phosphorus Availability?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, M. Mouradi, A. Kabbadj, M. Farissi, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam

Abstract:

This work focuses on the responses of Vicia fabarhizobia symbiosis to phosphorus deficiency and their contribution to tolerate this constraint. The study was carried out on four faba bean varieties, Aguadulce, Alfia, Luz Otono, and Reina Mora submitted to two phosphorus treatments, deficient and sufficient and cultivated under field and greenhouse hydroaeroponic culture. Plants were harvested at flowering stage for growth, nodulation and phosphorus content assessment. Phosphatases in nodules and rhizospheric soil were analyzed. The impact of phosphorus deficiency on yield component was assessed at maturity stage. Under field conditions, phosphorus deficiency affected negatively nodule biomass and nodule phosphorus content with Alfia and Reina Mora showing the highest biomass reduction. The phosphatase activities in nodules and rhizospheric soil were increased under phosphorus deficiency. At maturity stage, under soil low available phosphorus, the pods number and 100 seeds weight were reduced. The genotypic variation was evident for almost all tested parameters.

Keywords: faba bean, phosphorus, rhizobia, yield

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2531 Cultural Regeneration and Social Impacts of Industrial Heritage Transformation: The Case of Westergasfabriek Cultural Park, Netherland

Authors: Hsin Hua He

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to strengthen the social cohesion of the local community by injecting the cultural and creative concept into the industrial heritage transformation. The paradigms of industrial heritage research tend to explore from the perspective of space analysis, which concerned less about the cultural regeneration and the development of local culture. The paradigms of cultural quarter research use to from the perspective of creative economy and urban planning, concerned less about the social impacts and the interaction between residents and industrial sites. This research combines these two research areas of industrial heritage and cultural quarter, and focus on the social and cultural aspects. The transformation from the industrial heritage into a cultural park not only enhances the cultural capital and the quality of residents’ lives, but also preserves the unique local values. Internally it shapes the local identity, while externally establishes the image of the city. This paper uses Westergasfabriek Cultural Park in Amsterdam as the case study, through literature analysis, field work, and depth interview to explore how the cultural regeneration transforms industrial heritage. In terms of the planners’ and residents’ point of view adopt the theory of community participation, social capital, and sense of place to analyze the social impact of the industrial heritage transformation. The research finding is through cultural regeneration policies like holding cultural activities, building up public space, social network and public-private partnership, and adopting adaptive reuse to fulfil the people’s need and desire and reach the social cohesion. Finally, the study will examine the transformation of Taiwan's industrial heritage into cultural and creative quarters. The results are expected to use the operating experience of the Amsterdam cases and provide directions for Taiwan’s industrial heritage management to meet the cultural, social, economic symbiosis.

Keywords: cultural regeneration, community participation, social capital, sense of place, industrial heritage transformation

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2530 Efficacy of Pisum sativum and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metalloids from Soil

Authors: Ritu Chaturvedi, Manoj Paul

Abstract:

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) on metal(loid) uptake and accumulation efficiency of Pisum sativum along with physiological and biochemical response. Plants were grown in soil spiked with 50 and 100 mg kg-1 Pb, 25 and 50 mg kg-1 Cd, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 As and a combination of all three metal(loid)s. A parallel set was maintained and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for comparison. After 60 days, plants were harvested and analysed for metal(loid) content. A steady increase in metal(loid) accumulation was observed on increment of metal(loid) dose and also on AMF inoculation. Plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoid and carbohydrate content reduced upon metal(loid) exposure. Increase in enzymatic (CAT, SOD and APX) and nonenzymatic (Proline) defence proteins was observed on metal(loid) exposure. AMF inoculation leads to an increase in plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrate and enzymatic defence proteins (p≤0.001) under study; whereas proline content was reduced. Considering the accumulation efficiency and adaptive response of plants and alleviation of stress by AMF, this symbiosis can be applied for on-site remediation of Pb and Cd contaminated soil.

Keywords: heavy metal, mycorrhiza, pea, phyroremediation

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2529 Importance of E-Participation by U-Society in the Development of the U-City

Authors: Jalaluddin Abdul Malek, Mohd Asruladlyi Ibrahim, Zurinah Tahir

Abstract:

This paper is to reveal developments in the areas of urban technology in Malaysia. Developments occur intend to add value intelligent city development to the ubiquitous city (U-city) or smart city. The phenomenon of change is called the development of post intelligent cities. U-City development discourse is seen from the perspective of the philosophy of the virtuous city organized by al-Farabi. The prosperity and perfection of a city is mainly caused by human personality factors, as well as its relationship with material and technological aspects of the city. The question is, to what extent to which human factors are taken into account in the concept of U-City as an added value to the intelligent city concept to realize the prosperity and perfection of the city? Previously, the intelligent city concept was developed based on global change and ICT movement, while the U-city added value to the development of intelligent cities and focused more on the development of information and communications technology (ICT). Value added is defined as the use of fiber optic technology that is wired to the use of wireless technology, such as wireless broadband. In this discourse, the debate on the concept of U-City is to the symbiosis between the U-City and the importance of local human e-participation (U-Society) for prosperity. In the context of virtuous city philosophy, it supports the thought of symbiosis so the concept of U-City can achieve sustainability, prosperity and perfection of the city.

Keywords: smart city, ubiquitous city, u-society, e-participation, prosperity

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2528 Contrasting Infrastructure Sharing and Resource Substitution Synergies Business Models

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) rely on two modes of cooperation that are infrastructure sharing and resource substitution to obtain economic and environmental benefits. The former consists in the intensification of use of an asset while the latter is based on the use of waste, fatal energy (and utilities) as alternatives to standard inputs. Both modes, in fact, rely on the shift from a business-as-usual functioning towards an alternative production system structure so that in a business point of view the distinction is not clear. In order to investigate the way those cooperation modes can be distinguished, we consider the stakeholders' interplay in the business model structure regarding their resources and requirements. For infrastructure sharing (following economic engineering literature) the cost function of capacity induces economies of scale so that demand pooling reduces global expanses. Grassroot investment sizing decision and the ex-post pricing strongly depends on the design optimization phase for capacity sizing whereas ex-post operational cost sharing minimizing budgets are less dependent upon production rates. Value is then mainly design driven. For resource substitution, synergies value stems from availability and is at risk regarding both supplier and user load profiles and market prices of the standard input. Baseline input purchasing cost reduction is thus more driven by the operational phase of the symbiosis and must be analyzed within the whole sourcing policy (including diversification strategies and expensive back-up replacement). Moreover, while resource substitution involves a chain of intermediate processors to match quality requirements, the infrastructure model relies on a single operator whose competencies allow to produce non-rival goods. Transaction costs appear higher in resource substitution synergies due to the high level of customization which induces asset specificity, and non-homogeneity following transaction costs economics arguments.

Keywords: business model, capacity, sourcing, synergies

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2527 The Effect of Salinity on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa and Faba Bean

Authors: Mouffok Ahlem, Belhamra Mohamed, Mouffok Sihem

Abstract:

The use of nitrogen fertilizers inevitable consequence, the increase in the nitrate content of water, which may contribute to the production of nitrite and the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. The nitrogen fertilizer may also affect the structure and function of the microbial community. And the fight against eutrophication of aquatic environments represents a cost to the student statements. The agronomic, ecological and economic legumes such as faba beans and alfalfa are not demonstrated, especially in the case of semi-arid and arid areas. Osmotic stress due to drought and / or salinity deficit, nutritional deficiencies is the major factors limiting symbiotic nitrogen fixation and productivity of pulses. To study the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the region of Biskra, we used soil samples collected from 30 locations. This work has identified several issues of ecological and agronomic interest. Evaluation of symbiotic potential of soils in the region of Biskra; by trapping technique, show different levels of susceptibility to rhizobial microflora. The effectiveness of the rhizobial symbiosis in both legumes indicates that air dry biomass and the amount of nitrogen accumulated in the aerial part, depends mainly on the rate of nodulation and regardless of the species and locality. The correlation between symbiotic nitrogen fixation and some physico-chemical properties of soils shows that symbiotic nitrogen fixation in both legumes is strongly related to soil conditions of the soil. Salinity disrupts the physiological process of growth, development and more particularly that of the symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Against by phosphorus promotes rhizobial symbiosis.

Keywords: rhizobia, faba bean, alfalfa, salinity

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2526 Effects of Microbial Biofertilization on Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation, and Yield of Lablab purpureus

Authors: Benselama Amel, Ounane S. Mohamed, Bekki Abdelkader

Abstract:

A collection of 20 isolates from fresh Nodules of the legume plant Lablab purpureus was isolated. These isolates have been authenticated by seedling inoculation grown in jars containing sand. The results obtained after two months of culture have revealed that the 20 isolates (100% of the isolates) are able to nodulate their host plants. The results obtained were analyzed statistically by ANOVA using the software statistica and had shown that the effect of the inoculation has significantly improved all the growth parameters (the height of the plant and the dry weight of the aerial parts and roots, and the number of nodules). We have evaluated the tolerance of all strains of the collection to the major stress factors as the salinity, pH and extreme temperature. The osmotolerance reached a concentration up to 1710mm of NaCl. The strains were also able to grow on a wide range of pH, ranging from 4.5 to 9.5, and temperature, between 4°C and 40°C. Also, we tested the effect of the acidity, aluminum and ferric deficit on the Lablab-rhizobia symbiosis. Lablab purpureus has not been affected by the presence of high concentrations of aluminum. On the other hand, iron deficiency has caused a net decrease in the dry biomass of the aerial part. The results of all the phenotypic characters have been treated by the statistical Minitab software, the numerical analysis had shown that these bacterial strains are divided into two distinct groups at a level of similarity of 86 %. The SDS-PAGE was carried out to determine the profile of the total protein of the strains. The coefficients of similarity of polypeptide bands between the isolates and strains reference (Bradyrhizobium, Mesorizobium sp.) confirm that our strain belongs to the groups of rhizobia.

Keywords: SDS-PAGE, rhizobia, symbiosis, phenotypic characterization, Lablab purpureus

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2525 Spinochromes: Kairomones Involved in the Symbiosis between the Shrimp Tuleariocaris holthuisi and Echinometra mathaei

Authors: Lola Brasseur, Guillaume Caulier, Marie Demeyer, Pascal Gerbaux, Igor Eeckhaut

Abstract:

Seawater being an ideal dispersing agent, chemical communication stays predominant in marine ecosystems. However, if many molecules acting in chemical heterospecific communication have already been well described in terrestrial ecosystems, only three of these molecules were identified in marine ecosystems. Echinoderms and their symbiotic organisms constitute very good models to study heterospecific chemical communication because each class synthesizes a specific type of molecules and symbioses with echinoderms as hosts are very usual. In this study, the chemical communication that allows the commensal shrimps Tuleariocaris holthuisi Hipeau-Jacquotte, 1965 to live with their host Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) was investigated. The chemoreception of the shrimp was characterized using olfactometers and it was demonstrated that hosts and synthetic hydroxynaphthoquinones are attractive to the symbiotic shrimps. Hydroxynaphthoquinonic pigments also known as spinochromes are by the way synthesized by sea urchin and involved in all probability in a lot of mechanisms. To our knowledge, this study is the first highlighting the ecological function of naphthoquinones as kairomones. Chemical extractions were also performed on sea urchins in order to analyze and identify their specific hydroxynaphthoquinones using HPLC-ESI-MS. Accurate mass identification and elemental composition have been performed on various organs (gonads, coelomic liquid, digestive system and test) in different morphotypes of Echinometra mathaei for a better understanding of the molecular diversity of these semiochemicals. Moreover, some experiments were performed to investigate the dependence of T. holthuisi for their host. First, the analyses showed that the molecules involved in shrimp pigmentation are the same that the ones involved in E. mathaei, suggesting a potential feeding on the host. Secondly, a substantial shrimp depigmentation and an increase of the mortality rate were demonstrated after the symbionts-host separation which could mean a potential implication of spinochromes in the shrimp metabolism.

Keywords: crustacean, sea urchin, spinochrome, symbiosis

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2524 A Review Investigating the Potential Of Zooxanthellae to Be Genetically Engineered to Combat Coral Bleaching

Authors: Anuschka Curran, Sandra Barnard

Abstract:

Coral reefs are of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but due to the impact of climate change, these infrastructures are dying off primarily through coral bleaching. Coral bleaching can be described as the process by which zooxanthellae (algal endosymbionts) are expelled from the gastrodermal cavity of the respective coral host, causing increased coral whitening. The general consensus is that mass coral bleaching is due to the dysfunction of photosynthetic processes in the zooxanthellae as a result of the combined action of elevated temperature and light-stress. The question then is, do zooxanthellae have the potential to play a key role in the future of coral reef restoration through genetic engineering? The aim of this study is firstly to review the different zooxanthellae taxa and their traits with respect to environmental stress, and secondly, to review the information available on the protective mechanisms present in zooxanthellae cells when experiencing temperature fluctuations, specifically concentrating on heat shock proteins and the antioxidant stress response of zooxanthellae. The eight clades (A-H) previously recognized were redefined into seven genera. Different zooxanthellae taxa exhibit different traits, such as their photosynthetic stress responses to light and temperature. Zooxanthellae have the ability to determine the amount and type of heat shock proteins (hsps) present during a heat response. The zooxanthellae can regulate both the host’s respective hsps as well as their own. Hsps, generally found in genotype C3 zooxanthellae, such as Hsp70 and Hsp90, contribute to the thermal stress response of the respective coral host. Antioxidant activity found both within exposed coral tissue, and the zooxanthellae cells can prevent coral hosts from expelling their endosymbionts. The up-regulation of gene expression, which may mitigate thermal stress induction of any of the physiological aspects discussed, can ensure stable coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis in the future. It presents a viable alternative strategy to preserve reefs amidst climate change. In conclusion, despite their unusual molecular design, genetic engineering poses as a useful tool in understanding and manipulating variables and systems within zooxanthellae and therefore presents a solution that can ensure stable coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis in the future.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, genetic engineering, heat-shock proteins, Symbiodinium

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2523 A Scientific Umbrella for Industrial Design Disciplines

Authors: Hassan S. Naeini, Hashem Mosaddad

Abstract:

Industrial design as a multidisciplinary science has a vast field in which some different aspects are involved. In this regard, aspects of art, technology and engineering, social and economics are known as the main related fields. Also, state of the art scientific areas and also art based files have been making the new conditions for industrial design discipline. Furthermore, there are some new approaches and branches of industrial design. However, there is not any categorized style for these industrial design sub-groups. Undoubtedly, if there is an appropriate chart for the main industrial design approaches and branches, the related groups such as industrial designers, manufacturers, and industrial design students will have practical ideas to categorize their activities. In this case study, we developed a scientific umbrella for industrial design in which most of current approaches and branches and related association are introduced. For data gathering, some interviews were done among volunteer industrial design lecturers who are teaching at some well-known universities in Iran. Also, according to the inventory of industrial design, theses which are in university libraries, thesis approaches, and titles were assessed. Based on gathered data, we introduced a scientific umbrella for industrial design in which most of related branches and approaches are categorized. In this umbrella, the hierarchy of related branches is highlighted as well.

Keywords: industrial design, art, industrial design approaches, scientific umbrella

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2522 Factors for Success in Eco-Industrial Town Development in Thailand

Authors: Jirarat Teeravaraprug, Tarathorn Podcharathitikull

Abstract:

Nowadays, Ministry of Industry has given an attention to develop Eco-industrial towns in Thailand. Eco-industrial towns are a way of demonstrating the application of industrial ecology and are subjects of increased interest as government, business and society. This concept of Eco-industrial town is quite new in Thailand. It is used as a way of achieving more sustainable industrial development. However, many firms or organizations have misunderstood the concept and treated with suspicion. The planning and development of Eco-industrial towns is a significant challenge for the developers and public agencies. This research then gives an attempt to determine current problems of being Eco-Industrial towns and determine success factors for developing Eco-Industrial towns in Thailand. The research starts with giving knowledge about Eco-industrial towns to stakeholders and conducting public hearing in order to acquire the problems of being Eco-industrial towns. Then, factors effecting the development of Eco-Industrial town are collected. The obtained factors are analyzed by using the concept of IOC. Then, the remained factors are categorized and structured based on the concept of AHP. A questionnaire is constructed and distributed to the experts who are involved in the Eco-industrial town project. The result shows that the most significant success criterion is management teams of industrial parks or groups and the second most significant goes to governmental policies.

Keywords: AHP, Eco-Industrial town, success factors, Thailand

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2521 The Research of Industrial Space Characteristics, Layout, and Strategy in Metropolitan Area in China: In Case of Wuhan

Authors: Min Zhou, Kaixuan Lin, Yaping Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, the industrial space of metropolitan area in Wuhan is taken as a sample. First of all, it puts forward that the structure of service economy, circle gradient relocation and high degree of regional collaboration are the rules of industrial spatial development in the modern world cities. Secondly, using the economic statistics and land use vector data (1993, 2004, 2010, and 2013) of Wuhan, it analyzes the present situation of industry development and the characteristics of industrial space layout from three aspects of the industrial economic structure, industrial layout, and industrial regional synergy. Then, based on the industrial development regularity of world cities, it puts forward to construct the industrial spatial level of ‘complex industrial concentration area + modular industry unit’ and the industrial spatial structure of ‘13525’. Finally, it comes up with the optimization tactics of the industrial space’s transformation in the future under the background of new economic era.

Keywords: big city of metropolitan area, industrial space, characteristics, layout, strategy

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