Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: marking

63 Particle Swarm Optimization Based Method for Minimum Initial Marking in Labeled Petri Nets

Authors: Hichem Kmimech, Achref Jabeur Telmoudi, Lotfi Nabli


The estimation of the initial marking minimum (MIM) is a crucial problem in labeled Petri nets. In the case of multiple choices, the search for the initial marking leads to a problem of optimization of the minimum allocation of resources with two constraints. The first concerns the firing sequence that could be legal on the initial marking with respect to the firing vector. The second deals with the total number of tokens that can be minimal. In this article, the MIM problem is solved by the meta-heuristic particle swarm optimization (PSO). The proposed approach presents the advantages of PSO to satisfy the two previous constraints and find all possible combinations of minimum initial marking with the best computing time. This method, more efficient than conventional ones, has an excellent impact on the resolution of the MIM problem. We prove through a set of definitions, lemmas, and examples, the effectiveness of our approach.

Keywords: marking, production system, labeled Petri nets, particle swarm optimization

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62 Retro-Reflectivity and Diffuse Reflectivity Degradation of Thermoplastic Pavement Marking: A Case Study on Asphaltic Road in Thailand

Authors: Kittichai Thanasupsin, Satis Sukniam


Pavement marking is an essential task of road construction and maintenance. One of several benefits of pavement markings has been used to provide information about road alignment and road conditions ahead. In some cases, retro-reflectivity of road marking at night may not meet the standard. This degradation may be caused by internal factors such as the size of glass beads and the number of glass beads or external factors such as traffic volume, lane width, vehicle weight, and so on. This research aims to investigate the reflective efficiency of thermoplastic road marking with the glass beads. Ratios of glass beads, ranging from 359 to 553 grams per square meter on an asphaltic concrete, have been tested. The reflective efficiency data was collected at the beginning and at a specific time interval for a total of 8 months. It was found that the difference in glass beads quantity affects the rate of retro-reflectivity but does not affect the diffuse reflectivity. It was also found that other factors affect retro-reflectivity, such as duration, the position of road marking, traffic density, the quantity of glass beads, and dirt coating on top. The dirt coating on top is the most crucial factor that deteriorating retro-reflectivity.

Keywords: thermoplastic pavement marking, retro-reflectivity, diffuse reflectivity, asphalt concrete

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61 The Use of Mobile Phone as Enhancement to Mark Multiple Choice Objectives English Grammar and Literature Examination: An Exploratory Case Study of Preliminary National Diploma Students, Abdu Gusau Polytechnic, Talata Mafara, Zamfara State, Nigeria

Authors: T. Abdulkadir


Most often, marking and assessment of multiple choice kinds of examinations have been opined by many as a cumbersome and herculean task to accomplished manually in Nigeria. Usually this may be in obvious nexus to the fact that mass numbers of candidates were known to take the same examination simultaneously. Eventually, marking such a mammoth number of booklets dared and dread even the fastest paid examiners who often undertake the job with the resulting consequences of stress and boredom. This paper explores the evolution, as well as the set aim to envision and transcend marking the Multiple Choice Objectives- type examination into a thing of creative recreation, or perhaps a more relaxing activity via the use of the mobile phone. A more “pragmatic” dimension method was employed to achieve this work, rather than the formal “in-depth research” based approach due to the “novelty” of the mobile-smartphone e-Marking Scheme discovery. Moreover, being an evolutionary scheme, no recent academic work shares a direct same topic concept with the ‘use of cell phone as an e-marking technique’ was found online; thus, the dearth of even miscellaneous citations in this work. Additional future advancements are what steered the anticipatory motive of this paper which laid the fundamental proposition. However, the paper introduces for the first time the concept of mobile-smart phone e-marking, the steps to achieve it, as well as the merits and demerits of the technique all spelt out in the subsequent pages.

Keywords: cell phone, e-marking scheme (eMS), mobile phone, mobile-smart phone, multiple choice objectives (MCO), smartphone

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60 Real-Time Lane Marking Detection Using Weighted Filter

Authors: Ayhan Kucukmanisa, Orhan Akbulut, Oguzhan Urhan


Nowadays, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have become popular, since they enable safe driving. Lane detection is a vital step for ADAS. The performance of the lane detection process is critical to obtain a high accuracy lane departure warning system (LDWS). Challenging factors such as road cracks, erosion of lane markings, weather conditions might affect the performance of a lane detection system. In this paper, 1-D weighted filter based on row filtering to detect lane marking is proposed. 2-D input image is filtered by 1-D weighted filter considering four-pixel values located symmetrically around the center of candidate pixel. Performance evaluation is carried out by two metrics which are true positive rate (TPR) and false positive rate (FPR). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach provides better lane marking detection accuracy compared to the previous methods while providing real-time processing performance.

Keywords: lane marking filter, lane detection, ADAS, LDWS

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59 The Impact of Initiators on Fast Drying Traffic Marking Paint

Authors: Maryam Taheri, Mehdi Jahanfar, Kenji Ogino


Fast drying traffic marking paint comprising a solvent-borne resin, a filler, a pigment and a solvent that is especially suitable for colder ambient (temperatures near freezing) applications, where waterborne traffic paint cannot be used. Acrylic resins based on methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, acrylic acid, and styrene were synthesized in different solvents using organic peroxide initiators such as peroxyester, peroxyketal, dialkylperoxide and azo. After polymerization, the molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index= PDI (Mw/Mn), viscosity, total residual monomer and APHA color were evaluated and results of organic peroxide initiators (t- butyl and t-amyl derivatives) were also compared with the azo initiator. The Mw, PDI, viscosity, mass conversation and APHA color of resins with t-amyl derivatives of organic peroxide initiators are very proper. The results of the traffic marking paints test such as non-volatile matter, no- pick- up time, hiding power, resistance to wear and water resistance study that produced with these resins also confirm this.

Keywords: fast drying traffic marking paint, acrylic resin, organic peroxide initiator, peroxyester, peroxyketal, dialkylperoxide and azo initiator

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58 Learning in the Virtual Laboratory via Design of Automation Process for Wooden Hammers Marking

Authors: A. Javorova, J. Oravcova, K. Velisek


The article summarizes the experience of technical subjects teaching methodologies using a number of software products to solve specific assigned tasks described in this paper. Task is about the problems of automation and mechanization in the industry. Specifically, it focuses on introducing automation in the wood industry. The article describes the design of the automation process for marking wooden hammers. Similar problems are solved by students in CA laboratory.

Keywords: CA system, education, simulation, subject

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57 Application of Scoring Rubrics by Lecturers towards Objective Assessment of Essay Questions in the Department of Social Science Education, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Authors: Donald B. Enu, Clement O. Ukpor, Abigail E. Okon


Unreliable scoring of students’ performance by lecturers short-chains students’ assessment in terms of underequipping the school authority with facts as intended by society through the curriculum hence, the learners, the school and the society are cheated because the usefulness of testing is defeated. This study, therefore, examined lecturers’ scoring objectivity of essay items in the Department of Social Science Education, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Specifically, it assessed lecturers’ perception of the relevance of scoring rubrics and its level of application. Data were collected from all the 36 lecturers in the Department (28 members and 8 non-members adjourned to the department), through a 20-item questionnaire and checklist instruments. A case-study design was adopted. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, weighted means, standard deviations, and percentages were used to analyze data gathered. A mean score of 2.5 and or 60 percent and above formed the acceptance or significant level in decision taking. It was found that lecturers perceived the use of scoring rubrics as a relevant practice to ensure fairness and reliable treatment of examiners scripts particularly in marking essay items and that there is a moderately high level of adherence to the application of scoring rubrics. It was also observed that some criteria necessary for the scoring objectivity of essay items were not fully put in place in the department. It was recommended strongly that students’ identities be hidden while marking and that pre-determined marking scheme should be prepared centrally and strictly adhered to during marking and recording of scores. Conference marking should be enforced in the department.

Keywords: essay items, objective scoring, scorers reliability, scoring rubrics

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56 Exposure Assessment for Worker Exposed to Heavy Metals during Road Marking Operations

Authors: Yin-Hsuan Wu, Perng-Jy Tsai, Ying-Fang Wang, Shun-Hui Chung


The present study was conducted to characterize exposure concentrations, concentrations deposited on the different respiratory regions, and resultant health risks associated with heavy metal exposures for road marking workers. Road marking workers of three similar exposure groups (SEGs) were selected, including the paint pouring worker, marking worker, and preparing worker. Personal exposure samples were collected using an inhalable dust sampler (IOM), and the involved particle size distribution samples were estimated using an eight-stage Marple personal cascade impactor during five working days. In total, 25 IOM samples and 20 Marple samples were collected. All collected samples were analyzed for their heavy metal contents using the ICP/MS. The resultant heavy metal particle size distributions were also used to estimate the fractions of particle deposited on the head airways (Chead), tracheobronchial (Cthorac) and alveolar regions (Cresp) of the exposed workers. In addition, Pb and Cr were selected to estimate the incremental cancer risk, and Zn, Ti, and Mo were selected to estimate the corresponding non-cancer risk in the present study. Results show that three heavy metals, including Pb, Cr, and Ti, were found with the highest concentrations for the SEG of the paint pouring worker (=0.585±2.98, 0.307±1.71, 0.902±2.99 μg/m³, respectively). For the fraction of heavy metal particle deposited on the respiratory tract, both alveolar and head regions were found with the highest values (=23-43% and 39-61%, respectively). For both SEGs of the paint pouring and marking, 51% of Cr, 59-61% of Zn, and 48-51% of Ti were found to be deposited on the alveolar region, and 41-43% of Pb was deposited on the head region. Finally, the incremental cancer risk for the SEGs of the paint pouring, marking, and preparing were found as 1.08×10⁻⁵, 2.78×10⁻⁶, and 2.20×10⁻⁶, respectively. In addition, the estimated non-cancer risk for the above three SEGs was found to be consistently less than unity. In conclusion, though the estimated non-cancer risk was less than unity, all resultant incremental cancer risk was greater than 10⁻⁶ indicating the abatement of workers’ exposure is necessary. It is suggested that strategies, including placing on the molten kettle, substitution the currently used paints for less heavy metal containing paints, and wearing fume protecting personal protective equipment can be considered in the future from reducing the worker’s exposure aspect.

Keywords: health risk assessment, heavy metal, respiratory track deposition, road marking

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55 The Mashishing Marking Memories Project: A Culture-Centered Approach to Participation

Authors: Nongcebo Ngcobo


This research explores the importance of including a multitude of voices in the cultural heritage narrative, particularly in South Africa. The Mashishing project is an extension of and builds on the existing ‘Biesje Poort project’ which is a rock art project that was funded by the National Heritage Council in 2010 - 2013. Hence, the Mashishing marking memories project applies comparable Biesje Poort project objectives, though in a different geographical area. The wider project objectives are to transfer skills, promote social cohesion and empowerment, and lastly to add to the knowledge base of the Mashishing region and the repository of the local museum in the Lydenburg museum. This study is located in the Mashishing area, in Mpumalanga, South Africa. In this area, there were no present multi-vocal heritage projects. This research assesses the Mashishing marking memories project through the culture-centered approach for communication for social change, which examines the impact that the diverse participants have on the operations of the Mashishing project and also investigates whether the culturally diverse participants facilitates or hinders effective participation within the project. Key findings of this research uncovered the significance of participation and diverse voices in the cultural heritage field. Furthermore, this study highlights how unequal power relations affect effective participation. As a result, this study encourages the importance of bringing the researcher and the participant in a safe space to facilitate mutual learning. It also encourages an exchange of roles, where the researcher shifts from being an authoritarian figure to being in the role of a listener.

Keywords: culture, heritage, participation, social change

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54 A Focus Group Study of Student's Attitude towards University Teachers and Semester System

Authors: Sehrish Khan


The present study investigated the attitude of university students towards semester system and teachers with a specific objective of finding problems faced by students in semester system. 10 focus group discussions were conducted among students in five Universities of Hazara Division of KPK regarding their knowledge and attitudes about semester system and problems they faced due to this system and teacher’s attitude. The key findings were the problems like favoritism, gender biased ness, racial biased ness, biased ness in marking, relative marking, harassment, using students for personal tasks and authoritarian attitude from teachers’ side and the heavy tasks in less time which are causing stress among students. It was recommended that proper training and monitoring system should be maintained for evaluation of teachers to minimize the corruption in this sacred profession and maximize the optimal functioning. The information gathered in this research can be used to develop training modules for University teachers.

Keywords: university teachers, favoritism, biasedness, harassment

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53 Vision and Challenges of Developing VR-Based Digital Anatomy Learning Platforms and a Solution Set for 3D Model Marking

Authors: Gizem Kayar, Ramazan Bakir, M. Ilkay Koşar, Ceren U. Gencer, Alperen Ayyildiz


Anatomy classes are crucial for general education of medical students, whereas learning anatomy is quite challenging and requires memorization of thousands of structures. In traditional teaching methods, learning materials are still based on books, anatomy mannequins, or videos. This results in forgetting many important structures after several years. However, more interactive teaching methods like virtual reality, augmented reality, gamification, and motion sensors are becoming more popular since such methods ease the way we learn and keep the data in mind for longer terms. During our study, we designed a virtual reality based digital head anatomy platform to investigate whether a fully interactive anatomy platform is effective to learn anatomy and to understand the level of teaching and learning optimization. The Head is one of the most complicated human anatomy structures, with thousands of tiny, unique structures. This makes the head anatomy one of the most difficult parts to understand during class sessions. Therefore, we developed a fully interactive digital tool with 3D model marking, quiz structures, 2D/3D puzzle structures, and VR support so as to integrate the power of VR and gamification. The project has been developed in Unity game engine with HTC Vive Cosmos VR headset. The head anatomy 3D model has been selected with full skeletal, muscular, integumentary, head, teeth, lymph, and vein system. The biggest issue during the development was the complexity of our model and the marking of it in the 3D world system. 3D model marking requires to access to each unique structure in the counted subsystems which means hundreds of marking needs to be done. Some parts of our 3D head model were monolithic. This is why we worked on dividing such parts to subparts which is very time-consuming. In order to subdivide monolithic parts, one must use an external modeling tool. However, such tools generally come with high learning curves, and seamless division is not ensured. Second option was to integrate tiny colliders to all unique items for mouse interaction. However, outside colliders which cover inner trigger colliders cause overlapping, and these colliders repel each other. Third option is using raycasting. However, due to its own view-based nature, raycasting has some inherent problems. As the model rotate, view direction changes very frequently, and directional computations become even harder. This is why, finally, we studied on the local coordinate system. By taking the pivot point of the model into consideration (back of the nose), each sub-structure is marked with its own local coordinate with respect to the pivot. After converting the mouse position to the world position and checking its relation with the corresponding structure’s local coordinate, we were able to mark all points correctly. The advantage of this method is its applicability and accuracy for all types of monolithic anatomical structures.

Keywords: anatomy, e-learning, virtual reality, 3D model marking

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52 Empirical Study of Running Correlations in Exam Marks: Same Statistical Pattern as Chance

Authors: Weisi Guo


It is well established that there may be running correlations in sequential exam marks due to students sitting in the order of course registration patterns. As such, a random and non-sequential sampling of exam marks is a standard recommended practice. Here, the paper examines a large number of exam data stretching several years across different modules to see the degree to which it is true. Using the real mark distribution as a generative process, it was found that random simulated data had no more sequential randomness than the real data. That is to say, the running correlations that one often observes are statistically identical to chance. Digging deeper, it was found that some high running correlations have students that indeed share a common course history and make similar mistakes. However, at the statistical scale of a module question, the combined effect is statistically similar to the random shuffling of papers. As such, there may not be the need to take random samples for marks, but it still remains good practice to mark papers in a random sequence to reduce the repetitive marking bias and errors.

Keywords: data analysis, empirical study, exams, marking

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51 Latest Generation Conducted Electrical Weapon Dart Design: Signature Marking and Removal for the Emergency Medicine Professional

Authors: J. D. Ho, D. M. Dawes, B. Driver


Introduction: TASER Conducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs) are the dominant CEWs in use and have been used in modern police and military operations since the late 1990s as a form of non-lethal weaponry. The 3rd generation of CEWs has been recently introduced and is known as The TASER 7. This new CEW will be replacing current CEW technology and has a new dart design that is important for emergency medical professionals to be familiar with because it requires a different method of removal and will leave a different marking pattern in human tissue than they may have been previously familiar with. features of this new dart design include: higher velocity impact, larger impact surface area, break away dart body segment, dual back-barb retention, newly designed removal process. As the TASER 7 begins to be deployed by the police and military personnel, these new features make it imperative that emergency medical professionals become familiar with the signature markings that this new dart design will make on human tissue and how to remove them. Methods: Multiple observational studies using high speed photography were used to record impact patterns of the new dart design on fresh tissue and also the newly recommended dart removal process. Both animal and human subjects were used to test this dart design prior to production release. Results: Data presented will include dart design overview, flight pattern accuracy, impact analysis, and dart removal example. Tissue photographs will be presented to demonstrate examples of signature TASER 7 dart markings that emergency medical professionals can expect to see. Conclusion: This work will provide the reader with an understanding of this newest generation CEW dart design, its key features, its signature marking pattern that can be expected and a recommendation of how to remove it from human tissue.

Keywords: TASER 7, conducted electrical weapon, dart mark, dart removal

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50 Evaluating the Influence of Road Markings Retroreflectivity on Road Safety in Low Visibility Conditions

Authors: Darko Babic, Maja Modric, Dario Babic, Mario Fiolic


For road markings as a part of traffic control plan, it is considered to have a positive impact on road safety. Their importance is particularly evident in low visibility conditions when the field of vision and the driver's visual acuity are significantly reduced. The aim of this article is to analyze how road marking retroreflectivity affects the frequency of traffic accidents in low visibility conditions. For this purpose, 10,417.4 km single carriageway roads were analysed across Croatia in the period from 2012 to 2016. The research included accidents that may be significantly affected by marking retroreflectivity: head-on collisions, running off the road, hitting a stationary object on the road and hitting a stationary roadside object. The results have shown that the retroreflectivity level is negatively correlated to the total number of accidents and the number of casualties and injuries, which ultimately means that the risk of traffic accidents and deaths and/or injuries of participants will be lower with the increase of road markings retroreflectivity. These results may assist in defining minimum values of retroreflectivity that the markings must meet at any time as well as the suitable technologies and materials for their implementation.

Keywords: retroreflectivity, road markings, traffic accidents, traffic safety

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49 The Acquisition of Temporality in Italian Child Language: Case Study of Child Frog Story Narratives

Authors: Gabriella Notarianni Burk


The present study investigates the Aspect Hypothesis (AH) in Italian child language in the production of frog story narratives from the CHILDES database. The AH is based on the assumption that children initially encode aspectual and lexical distinctions rather than temporal relations. Children from a variety of first languages have been shown to mark past initially with achievements and accomplishments (telic predicates) and in later stages with states and activities (atelic predicates). Aspectual distinctions in Romance languages are obligatorily and overtly encoded in the inflectional morphology. In Italian the perfective viewpoint is realized by the passato prossimo, which expresses a temporal and aspectual meaning of pastness and perfectivity, whereas the imperfective viewpoint in the past tense is realized by the imperfetto. The aim of this study is to assess the role of lexical aspect in the acquisition of tense and aspect morphology and to understand if Italian children’s mapping of aspectual and temporal distinctions follows consistent developmental patterns across languages. The research methodology aligns with the cross-linguistic designs, tasks and coding procedures previously developed in the frog story literature. Results from two-factor ANOVA show that Italian children (age range: 4-6) exhibited a statistically significant distinction between foregrounded perfective and backgrounded imperfective marking. However, a closer examination of the sixty narratives reveals an idiosyncratic production pattern for Italian children, whereby the marking of imperfetto deviates from the tenets of AH and emerges as deictic tense to entail completed and bounded events in foreground clauses. Instances of ‘perfective’ uses of imperfetto were predominantly found in the four-year old narratives (25%). Furthermore, the analysis of the perfective marking suggests that morphological articulation and diatopic variation may influence the child production of formal linguistic devices in discourse.

Keywords: actionality, aspect, grounding, temporal reference

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48 Can Exams Be Shortened? Using a New Empirical Approach to Test in Finance Courses

Authors: Eric S. Lee, Connie Bygrave, Jordan Mahar, Naina Garg, Suzanne Cottreau


Marking exams is universally detested by lecturers. Final exams in many higher education courses often last 3.0 hrs. Do exams really need to be so long? Can we justifiably reduce the number of questions on them? Surprisingly few have researched these questions, arguably because of the complexity and difficulty of using traditional methods. To answer these questions empirically, we used a new approach based on three key elements: Use of an unusual variation of a true experimental design, equivalence hypothesis testing, and an expanded set of six psychometric criteria to be met by any shortened exam if it is to replace a current 3.0-hr exam (reliability, validity, justifiability, number of exam questions, correspondence, and equivalence). We compared student performance on each official 3.0-hr exam with that on five shortened exams having proportionately fewer questions (2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5 hours) in a series of four experiments conducted in two classes in each of two finance courses (224 students in total). We found strong evidence that, in these courses, shortening of final exams to 2.0 hrs was warranted on all six psychometric criteria. Shortening these exams by one hour should result in a substantial one-third reduction in lecturer time and effort spent marking, lower student stress, and more time for students to prepare for other exams. Our approach provides a relatively simple, easy-to-use methodology that lecturers can use to examine the effect of shortening their own exams.

Keywords: exam length, psychometric criteria, synthetic experimental designs, test length

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47 Foregrounding Events in Modern Sundanese: The Pragmatics of Particle-to-Active Voice Marking Shift

Authors: Rama Munajat


Discourse information levels may be viewed from either a background-foreground distinction or a multi-level perspective, and cross-linguistic studies on this area suggest that each information level is marked by a specific linguistic device. In this sense, Sundanese, spoken in Indonesia’s West Javanese Province, further differentiates the background and foreground information into ordinary and significant types. This paper will report an ongoing shift from particle-to-active voice marking in the way Sundanese signals foregrounding events. The shift relates to decades of contact with Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesia’s official language) and linguistic compatibility between the two surface marking strategies. Representative data analyzed include three groups of short stories in both Sundanese and Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian) published in three periods: before 1945, 1965-2006, and 2016-2019. In the first group of Sundanese data, forward-moving events dominantly appear in particle KA (Kecap Anteuran, word-accompanying) constructions, where the KA represents different particles that co-occur with a special group of verbs. The second group, however, shows that the foregrounded events are more frequently described in active-voice forms with a subject-predicate (SP) order. Subsequently, the third offers stronger evidence for the use of the SP structure. As for the Indonesian data, the foregrounding events in the first group occur in verb-initial and passive-voice constructions, while in the second and third, the events more frequently appear in active-voice structures (subject-predicate sequence). The marking shift above suggests a structural influence from Indonesian, stemmed from generational differences among authors of the Sundanese short stories, particularly related to their education and language backgrounds. The first group of short stories – published before 1945 or before Indonesia's independence from Dutch – were written by native speakers of Sundanese who spoke Indonesian as a foreign language and went through the Dutch education system. The second group of authors, on the other hand, represents a generation of Sundanese native speakers who spoke Indonesian as a second language. Finally, the third group consists of authors who are bilingual speakers of both Sundanese and Indonesian. The data suggest that the last two groups of authors completed the Indonesian education system. With these, the use of subject-predicate sequences to denote foregrounding events began to appear more frequently in the second group and then became more dominant in those of the third. The coded data also signify that cohesion, coherence, and pragmatic purposes in Particle KA constructions are intact in their respective active-voice structure counterparts. For instance, the foregrounding events in Particle KA constructions occur in Sentence-initial KA and Pre-verbal KA forms, whereas those in the active-voice are described in Subject-Predicate (SP) and Zero-Subject active-voice patterns. Cross-language data further demonstrate that the Sentence-initial KA and the SP active-voice structures each contain an overt noun phrase (NP) co-referential with one of the entities introduced in a preceding context. Similarly, the pre-verbal KA and Zero-Subject active-voice patterns have a deleted noun phrase unambiguously referable to the only one entity previously mentioned. The presence and absence of an NP inform a pragmatic strategy to place prominence on topic/given and comment/new information, respectively.

Keywords: discourse analysis, foregrounding marking, pragmatics, language contact

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46 Balanced Score Card a Tool to Improve Naac Accreditation – a Case Study in Indian Higher Education

Authors: CA Kishore S. Peshori


Introduction: India, a country with vast diversity and huge population is going to have largest young population by 2020. Higher education has and will always be the basic requirement for making a developing nation to a developed nation. To improve any system it needs to be bench-marked. There have been various tools for bench-marking the systems. Education is delivered in India by universities which are mainly funded by government. This universities for delivering the education sets up colleges which are again funded mainly by government. Recently however there has also been autonomy given to universities and colleges. Moreover foreign universities are waiting to enter Indian boundaries. With a large number of universities and colleges it has become more and more necessary to measure this institutes for bench-marking. There have been various tools for measuring the institute. In India college assessments have been made compulsory by UGC. Naac has been offically recognised as the accrediation criteria. The Naac criteria has been based on seven criterias namely: 1. Curricular assessments, 2. Teaching learning and evaluation, 3. Research Consultancy and Extension, 4. Infrastructure and learning resources, 5. Student support and progression, 6. Governance leadership and management, 7. Innovation and best practices. The Naac tries to bench mark the institution for identification, sustainability, dissemination and adaption of best practices. It grades the institution according to this seven criteria and the funding of institution is based on these grades. Many of the colleges are struggling to get best of grades but they have not come across a systematic tool to achieve the results. Balanced Scorecard developed by Kaplan has been a successful tool for corporates to develop best of practices so as to increase their financial performance and also retain and increase their customers so as to grow the organization to next level.It is time to test this tool for an educational institute. Methodology: The paper tries to develop a prototype for college based on the secondary data. Once a prototype is developed the researcher based on questionnaire will try to test this tool for successful implementation. The success of this research will depend on its implementation of BSC on an institute and its grading improved due to this successful implementation. Limitation of time is a major constraint in this research as Naac cycle takes minimum 4 years for accreditation and reaccreditation the methodology will limit itself to secondary data and questionnaire to be circulated to colleges along with the prototype model of BSC. Conclusion: BSC is a successful tool for enhancing growth of an organization. Educational institutes are no exception to these. BSC will only have to be realigned to suit the Naac criteria. Once this prototype is developed the success will be tested only on its implementation but this research paper will be the first step towards developing this tool and will also initiate the success by developing a questionnaire and getting and evaluating the responses for moving to the next level of actual implementation

Keywords: balanced scorecard, bench marking, Naac, UGC

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45 European Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive Applied to Astronomical Observatories

Authors: Oibar Martinez, Clara Oliver


The Cherenkov Telescope Array Project (CTA) aims to build two different observatories of Cherenkov Telescopes, located in Cerro del Paranal, Chile, and La Palma, Spain. These facilities are used in this paper as a case study to investigate how to apply standard Directives on Electromagnetic Compatibility to astronomical observatories. Cherenkov Telescopes are able to provide valuable information from both Galactic and Extragalactic sources by measuring Cherenkov radiation, which is produced by particles which travel faster than light in the atmosphere. The construction requirements demand compliance with the European Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive. The largest telescopes of these observatories, called Large Scale Telescopes (LSTs), are high precision instruments with advanced photomultipliers able to detect the faint sub-nanosecond blue light pulses produced by Cherenkov Radiation. They have a 23-meter parabolic reflective surface. This surface focuses the radiation on a camera composed of an array of high-speed photosensors which are highly sensitive to the radio spectrum pollution. The camera has a field of view of about 4.5 degrees and has been designed for maximum compactness and lowest weight, cost and power consumption. Each pixel incorporates a photo-sensor able to discriminate single photons and the corresponding readout electronics. The first LST is already commissioned and intends to be operated as a service to Scientific Community. Because of this, it must comply with a series of reliability and functional requirements and must have a Conformité Européen (CE) marking. This demands compliance with Directive 2014/30/EU on electromagnetic compatibility. The main difficulty of accomplishing this goal resides on the fact that Conformité Européen marking setups and procedures were implemented for industrial products, whereas no clear protocols have been defined for scientific installations. In this paper, we aim to give an answer to the question on how the directive should be applied to our installation to guarantee the fulfillment of all the requirements and the proper functioning of the telescope itself. Experts in Optics and Electromagnetism were both needed to make these kinds of decisions and match tests which were designed to be made over the equipment of limited dimensions on large scientific plants. An analysis of the elements and configurations most likely to be affected by external interferences and those that are most likely to cause the maximum disturbances was also performed. Obtaining the Conformité Européen mark requires knowing what the harmonized standards are and how the elaboration of the specific requirement is defined. For this type of large installations, one needs to adapt and develop the tests to be carried out. In addition, throughout this process, certification entities and notified bodies play a key role in preparing and agreeing the required technical documentation. We have focused our attention mostly on the technical aspects of each point. We believe that this contribution will be of interest for other scientists involved in applying industrial quality assurance standards to large scientific plant.

Keywords: CE marking, electromagnetic compatibility, european directive, scientific installations

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44 Using AI Based Software as an Assessment Aid for University Engineering Assignments

Authors: Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Luke Anastassiou, Manjinder Kainth


As the process of teaching has evolved with the advent of new technologies over the ages, so has the process of learning. Educators have perpetually found themselves on the lookout for new technology-enhanced methods of teaching in order to increase learning efficiency and decrease ever expanding workloads. Shortly after the invention of the internet, web-based learning started to pick up in the late 1990s and educators quickly found that the process of providing learning material and marking assignments could change thanks to the connectivity offered by the internet. With the creation of early web-based virtual learning environments (VLEs) such as SPIDER and Blackboard, it soon became apparent that VLEs resulted in higher reported computer self-efficacy among students, but at the cost of students being less satisfied with the learning process . It may be argued that the impersonal nature of VLEs, and their limited functionality may have been the leading factors contributing to this reported dissatisfaction. To this day, often faced with the prospects of assigning colossal engineering cohorts their homework and assessments, educators may frequently choose optimally curated assessment formats, such as multiple-choice quizzes and numerical answer input boxes, so that automated grading software embedded in the VLEs can save time and mark student submissions instantaneously. A crucial skill that is meant to be learnt during most science and engineering undergraduate degrees is gaining the confidence in using, solving and deriving mathematical equations. Equations underpin a significant portion of the topics taught in many STEM subjects, and it is in homework assignments and assessments that this understanding is tested. It is not hard to see that this can become challenging if the majority of assignment formats students are engaging with are multiple-choice questions, and educators end up with a reduced perspective of their students’ ability to manipulate equations. Artificial intelligence (AI) has in recent times been shown to be an important consideration for many technologies. In our paper, we explore the use of new AI based software designed to work in conjunction with current VLEs. Using our experience with the software, we discuss its potential to solve a selection of problems ranging from impersonality to the reduction of educator workloads by speeding up the marking process. We examine the software’s potential to increase learning efficiency through its features which claim to allow more customized and higher-quality feedback. We investigate the usability of features allowing students to input equation derivations in a range of different forms, and discuss relevant observations associated with these input methods. Furthermore, we make ethical considerations and discuss potential drawbacks to the software, including the extent to which optical character recognition (OCR) could play a part in the perpetuation of errors and create disagreements between student intent and their submitted assignment answers. It is the intention of the authors that this study will be useful as an example of the implementation of AI in a practical assessment scenario insofar as serving as a springboard for further considerations and studies that utilise AI in the setting and marking of science and engineering assignments.

Keywords: engineering education, assessment, artificial intelligence, optical character recognition (OCR)

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43 Prosodic Realisation of Focus in the Public Speeches Delivered by Spanish Learners of English and English Native Speakers

Authors: Raúl Jiménez Vilches


Native (L1) speakers can mark prosodically one part of an utterance and make it more relevant as opposed to the rest of the constituents. Conversely, non-native (L2) speakers encounter problems when it comes to marking prosodically information structure in English. In fact, the L2 speaker’s choice for the prosodic realization of focus is not so clear and often obscures the intended pragmatic meaning and the communicative value in general. This paper reports some of the findings obtained in an L2 prosodic training course for Spanish learners of English within the context of public speaking. More specifically, it analyses the effects of the course experiment in relation to the non-native production of the tonic syllable to mark focus and compares it with the public speeches delivered by native English speakers. The whole experimental training was executed throughout eighteen input sessions (1,440 minutes total time) and all the sessions took place in the classroom. In particular, the first part of the course provided explicit instruction on the recognition and production of the tonic syllable and how the tonic syllable is used to express focus. The non-native and native oral presentations were acoustically analyzed using Praat software for speech analysis (7,356 words in total). The investigation adopted mixed and embedded methodologies. Quantitative information is needed when measuring acoustically the phonetic realization of focus. Qualitative data such as questionnaires, interviews, and observations were also used to interpret the quantitative data. The embedded experiment design was implemented through the analysis of the public speeches before and after the intervention. Results indicate that, even after the L2 prosodic training course, Spanish learners of English still show some major inconsistencies in marking focus effectively. Although there was occasional improvement regarding the choice for location and word classes, Spanish learners were, in general, far from achieving similar results to the ones obtained by the English native speakers in the two types of focus. The prosodic realization of focus seems to be one of the hardest areas of the English prosodic system to be mastered by Spanish learners. A funded research project is in the process of moving the present classroom-based experiment to an online environment (mobile app) and determining whether there is a more effective focus usage through CAPT (Computer-Assisted Pronunciation) tools.

Keywords: focus, prosody, public speaking, Spanish learners of English

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42 Coherence and Cohesion in IELTS Academic Writing: Helping Students to Improve

Authors: Rory Patrick O'Kane


More universities and third level institutions now require at least an IELTS Band 6 for entry into courses of study for non-native speakers of English. This presentation focuses on IELTS Academic Writing Tasks 1 and 2 and in particular on the marking criterion of Coherence and Cohesion. A requirement for candidates aiming at Band 6 and above is that they produce answers which show a clear, overall progression of information and ideas and which use cohesive devices effectively. With this in mind, the presenter will examine what exactly is meant by coherence and cohesion and various strategies which can be used to assist students in improving their scores in this area. A number of classroom teaching ideas will be introduced, and participants will have the opportunity to compare and discuss sample answers written by candidates for this examination with a specific focus on coherence and cohesion. Intended audience: Teachers of IELTS Academic Writing.

Keywords: coherence, cohesion, IELTS, strategies

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41 Fabricating Anti-Counterfeiting Films by Grafting Cationic Dye on Cellulose Nanofiber

Authors: Mohammadreza Biabani, Mohammad Azadfallah


A facile and robust strategy is required to fabricate films with high special optical properties for application in the field of anti-counterfeit marking. Nanocellulose, derived from bioresources, is a renewable material with broad application prospects. In this paper, a method for grafting the eco-friendly Berberine cationic dye on cellulose nanofiber is proposed. A functional modification was carried out by in-situ polymerization along with a grafting approach with acrylic acid(AA) in order to develop cationic dyeability of the cellulose nanofiber (CNF). The Berberine grafting on nanocellulose was significantly influenced by the reaction time and temperature during the dyeing process. The dyed CNF-films exhibited appropriate characteristics like appearance, color strength, and fastness for anti-counterfeiting application.

Keywords: Cellulose nanofiber, Berberine, Grafting, anti-counterfeiting, film

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40 Application of Mathematical Sciences to Farm Management

Authors: Fahad Suleiman


Agriculture has been the mainstay of the nation’s economy in Nigeria. It provides food for the ever rapidly increasing population and raw materials for the industries. People especially the rural dwellers are gainfully employed on their crop farms and small-scale livestock farms for income earning. In farming, availability of funds and time management are one of the major factors that influence the system of farming in Nigeria in which mathematical science knowledge was highly required in order for farms to be managed effectively. Farmers often applied mathematics, almost every day for a variety of tasks, ranging from measuring and weighing, to land marking. This paper, therefore, explores some of the ways math is used in farming. For instance, farmers use arithmetic variety of farm activities such as seed planting, harvesting crop, cultivation and mulching. It is also important in helping farmers to know how much their livestock weighs, how much milk their cows produce and crop yield per acres, among others.

Keywords: agriculture, application, economic, farming, mathematics

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39 The Criteria of the Aesthetic Quality of Art: Contemporary Photography

Authors: Artem Surkov


This work is devoted to a problem of aesthetic quality determinism in the context of contemporary art. The object of study is photography regarding as a kind of art which demands specific system of quality marking. Objective: To define aesthetic criteria in photography art. For current searching different kind of texts by such powerful authors like Clement Greenberg and Rosalind Krauss, Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse, Charlott Cotton and Boris Groys, Viktor Miziano and Ekaterina Degot' were analyzed. Before all, there are two different kinds of photography: the classic art photography (by Ansel Adams) and the photography as kind of art (by Andreas Gursky). In this text we are talking about the photography as kind of art. The main principle of current searching is synthesis of two different approaches: modernism and postmodernism. This method helps us to define uniform criteria of aesthetic quality in photography as kind of art. The criteria mentioned in conclusion paragraph are: aesthetic rationality, aesthetic economy, awareness (using photographic technics or references), and intention to go beyond form, practice and method.

Keywords: aesthetic, art, criteria of quality, photography, visually

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38 Its about Cortana, Microsoft’s Virtual Assistant

Authors: Aya Idriss, Esraa Othman, Lujain Malak


Artificial intelligence is the emulation of human intelligence processes by machines, particularly computer systems that act logically. Some of the specific applications of AI include natural language processing, speech recognition, and machine vision. Cortana is a virtual assistant and she’s an example of an AI Application. Microsoft made it possible for this app to be accessed not only on laptops and PCs but can be downloaded on mobile phones and used as a virtual assistant which was a huge success. Cortana can offer a lot apart from the basic orders such as setting alarms and marking the calendar. Its capabilities spread past that, for example, it provides us with listening to music and podcasts on the go, managing my to-do list and emails, connecting with my contacts hands-free by simply just telling the virtual assistant to call somebody, gives me instant answers and so on. A questionnaire was sent online to numerous friends and family members to perform the study, which is critical in evaluating Cortana's recognition capacity and the majority of the answers were in favor of Cortana’s capabilities. The results of the questionnaire assisted us in determining the level of Cortana's skills.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, Cortana, AI, abstract

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37 A Case Study in Using Gamification in the Mobile Computing Course

Authors: Rula Al Azawi, Abobaker Shafi


The purpose of this paper is to use gamification technology in the mobile computing course to increase students motivation and engagement. The game applied to be designed by students focusing also to design educational game for children with age six years. This game will teach the students how to learn in a fun way. Our case study is implemented at Gulf College which is affiliated with Staffordshire University-UK. Our game design was applied to teach students Android Studio software by designing an educational game. Our goal with gamification is to improve student attendance, increase student engagement, problem solving and user stratification. Finally, we describe the findings and results of our case study. The data analysis and evaluation are based on students feedback, staff feedback and the final marking grades for the students.

Keywords: gamification, educational game, android studio software, students motivation and engagement

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36 Arc Flash Analysis: Technique to Mitigate Fire Incidents in Substations

Authors: M.H. Saeed, M. Rasool, M.A. Jawed


Arc Flash Analysis has been a subject of great interest since the electrical fire incidents have been reduced to a great extent after the implementation of arc flash study at different sites. An Arc flash in substations is caused by short circuits over the air or other melted conductors and small shrapnel. Arc flash incidents result in the majority of deaths in substations worldwide. Engro Fertilizers Limited (EFERT) site having a mix of vintage non-internal arc rated and modern arc rated switchgears, carried out an arc flash study of the whole site in accordance with NFPA70E standard. The results not only included optimizing site protection coordination settings but also included marking of Shock and Arc flash protection boundaries in all switchgear rooms. Work permit procedures upgradation is also done in accordance with this study to ensure proper arc rated PPEs and arc flash boundaries protocols are fully observed and followed. With the new safety, protocols working on electrical equipment will be much safer than ever before.

Keywords: Arc flash, non-internal arc rated, protection coordination, shock boundary

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35 Database Playlists: Croatia's Popular Music in the Mirror of Collective Memory

Authors: Diana Grguric, Robert Svetlacic, Vladimir Simovic


Scientific research analytically explores database playlists by studying the memory culture through Croatian popular radio music. The research is based on the scientific analysis of databases developed on the basis of the playlist of ten Croatian radio stations. The most recent Croatian song on Statehood Day 2008-2013 is analyzed in order to gain insight into their (memory) potential in terms of storing, interpreting and presenting a national identity. The research starts with the general assumption that popular music is an efficient identifier, transmitter, and promoter of national identity. The aim of the scientific research of the database was to analytically reveal specific titles of Croatian popular songs that participate in marking memories and analyzing their symbolic capital to gain insight into the popular music experience of the past and to develop a new method of scientifically based analysis of specific databases.

Keywords: specific databases, popular radio music, collective memory, national identity

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34 Geometry of the Bandaging Procedure and Its Application while Wrapping Bandages for Treatment of Leg Ulcers

Authors: Monica Puri Sikka, Subrato Ghosh Arunangshu Mukhopadhyay


Appropriate compression bandaging is important for compression therapeutic medical diseases. The high compression approach employed for treating venous leg ulcers should be used correctly so that sufficient (but not excessive) pressure is applied. Bandages used to treat venous disease by compression should achieve and sustain effective levels and gradients of pressure and minimise the risk of pressure trauma. To maintain graduated compression on the limb the bandage needs to be applied at same tension for each layer from ankle to the knee. In this paper the geometry for various bandaging procedures is used to wrap each layer of bandage by marking the relaxed length of the bandage. The relaxed length is calculated depending on the stretch, average circumference of the limb on which it is to be applied and the bandaging technique to be used. This paper aims at developing a scientific approach while applying the bandage to reduce the inter operator variability in applying same tension on each successive layer of bandage.

Keywords: bandaging, compression, inter operator variability, graduated, relaxed length, stretch

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