Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 86

Search results for: exams

86 Can Exams Be Shortened? Using a New Empirical Approach to Test in Finance Courses

Authors: Eric S. Lee, Connie Bygrave, Jordan Mahar, Naina Garg, Suzanne Cottreau


Marking exams is universally detested by lecturers. Final exams in many higher education courses often last 3.0 hrs. Do exams really need to be so long? Can we justifiably reduce the number of questions on them? Surprisingly few have researched these questions, arguably because of the complexity and difficulty of using traditional methods. To answer these questions empirically, we used a new approach based on three key elements: Use of an unusual variation of a true experimental design, equivalence hypothesis testing, and an expanded set of six psychometric criteria to be met by any shortened exam if it is to replace a current 3.0-hr exam (reliability, validity, justifiability, number of exam questions, correspondence, and equivalence). We compared student performance on each official 3.0-hr exam with that on five shortened exams having proportionately fewer questions (2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5 hours) in a series of four experiments conducted in two classes in each of two finance courses (224 students in total). We found strong evidence that, in these courses, shortening of final exams to 2.0 hrs was warranted on all six psychometric criteria. Shortening these exams by one hour should result in a substantial one-third reduction in lecturer time and effort spent marking, lower student stress, and more time for students to prepare for other exams. Our approach provides a relatively simple, easy-to-use methodology that lecturers can use to examine the effect of shortening their own exams.

Keywords: exam length, psychometric criteria, synthetic experimental designs, test length

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85 Algorithmic Skills Transferred from Secondary CSI Studies into Tertiary Education

Authors: Piroska Biró, Mária Csernoch, János Máth, Kálmán Abari


Testing the first year students of Informatics at the University of Debrecen revealed that students start their tertiary studies in programming with a low level of programming knowledge and algorithmic skills. The possible reasons which lead the students to this very unfortunate result were examined. The results of the test were compared to the students’ results in the school leaving exams and to their self-assessment values. It was found that there is only a slight connection between the students’ results in the test and in the school leaving exams, especially at intermediate level. Beyond this, the school leaving exams do not seem to enable students to evaluate their own abilities.

Keywords: deep and surface approaches, metacognitive abilities, programming and algorithmic skills, school leaving exams, tracking code

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84 Developing a Test Specifications for an Internationalization Course: Environment for Health in Thai Context

Authors: Rungrawee Samawathdana, Aim-Utcha Wattanaburanon


Test specifications for open book or notes exams provide the essential information to identify the types of the test items with validity of the evaluations process. This article explains the purpose of test specifications and illustrates how to use it to help construct the approach of open book or notes exams. The complication of the course objectives is challenging for the test designing.

Keywords: course curriculum, environment for health, internationalization, test specifications

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
83 The Use of Gender-Fair Language in CS National Exams

Authors: Moshe Leiba, Doron Zohar


Computer Science (CS) and programming is still considered a boy’s club and is a male-dominated profession. This is also the case in high schools and higher education. In Israel, not different from the rest of the world, there are less than 35% of female students in CS studies that take the matriculation exams. The Israeli matriculation exams are written in a masculine form language. Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. There are several strategies that can be employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically (especially in languages with grammatical gender, among them neutralization and using the plural form. This research aims at exploring computer science teachers’ beliefs regarding the use of gender-fair language in exams. An exploratory quantitative research methodology was employed to collect the data. A questionnaire was administered to 353 computer science teachers. 58% female and 42% male. 86% are teaching for at least 3 years, with 59% of them have a teaching experience of 7 years. 71% of the teachers teach in high school, and 82% of them are preparing students for the matriculation exam in computer science. The questionnaire contained 2 matriculation exam questions from previous years and open-ended questions. Teachers were asked which form they think is more suited: (a) the existing form (mescaline), (b) using both gender full forms (e.g., he/she), (c) using both gender short forms, (d) plural form, (e) natural form, and (f) female form. 84% of the teachers recognized the need to change the existing mescaline form in the matriculation exams. About 50% of them thought that using the plural form was the best-suited option. When examining the teachers who are pro-change and those who are against, no gender differences or teaching experience were found. The teachers who are pro gender-fair language justified it as making it more personal and motivating for the female students. Those who thought that the mescaline form should remain argued that the female students do not complain and the change in form will not influence or affect the female students to choose to study computer science. Some even argued that the change will not affect the students but can only improve their sense of identity or feeling toward the profession (which seems like a misconception). This research suggests that the teachers are pro-change and believe that re-formulating the matriculation exams is the right step towards encouraging more female students to choose to study computer science as their major study track and to bridge the gap for gender equality. This should indicate a bottom-up approach, as not long after this research was conducted, the Israeli ministry of education decided to change the matriculation exams to gender-fair language using the plural form. In the coming years, with the transition to web-based examination, it is suggested to use personalization and adjust the language form in accordance with the student's gender.

Keywords: compter science, gender-fair language, teachers, national exams

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82 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar


In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: OMR, image processing, hough circle trans-form, interpolation, detection, binary thresholding

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
81 18 F-FDG PET/CT: Utility in Breast Cancer Surgery

Authors: R. Sonda, F. Pellini, A. Invento, S. Mirandola, F. Riolfatti, D. Grigolato, G. P. Pollini


The purpose of study is to assess utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with breast heteroplasia and possibility of changing the surgery/therapeutic treatment. Among these "under fourty-five" candidated for NAC, the prevalence of change in therapeutic approach in comparison with first and second level exams has been: 43.75%, while by 22% among the "over forty-five". The surgical timing according to first-level exams have been deferred in 31.46% cases; PET/CT has led to a change in therapeutic treatment of 48.31% on the previous given; then the addition of MRI has led to a similar variation. For all the total patients, the prevalent choice was found to the debulking approach by increasing from a prevalence of 12.92% to 15.17%, resulting in a reduction of conservative one.The present study set itself the objective to demonstrate how the FDG PET/CT could improve on breast imaging according to a more appropriate surgery.

Keywords: breast cancer, FGD PET/CT, preoperative staging, surgical approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
80 The Attitude of Second Year Pharmacy Students towards Lectures, Exams and E-Learning

Authors: Ahmed T. Alahmar


There is an increasing trend toward student-centred interactive e-learning methods and students’ feedback is a valuable tool for improving learning methods. The aim of this study was to explore the attitude of second year pharmacy students at the University of Babylon, Iraq, towards lectures, exams and e-learning. Materials and methods: Ninety pharmacy students were surveyed by paper questionnaire about their preference for lecture format, use of e-files, theoretical lectures versus practical experiments, lecture and lab time. Students were also asked about their predilection for Moodle-based online exams, different types of exam questions, exam time and other extra academic activities. Results: Students prefer to read lectures on paper (73.3%), use of PowerPoint file (76.7%), short lectures of less than 10 pages (94.5%), practical experiments (66.7%), lectures and lab time of less than two hours (89.9% and 96.6 respectively) and intra-lecture discussions (68.9%). Students also like to have paper-based exam (73.3%), short essay (40%) or MCQ (34.4%) questions and also prefer to do extra activities like reports (22.2%), seminars (18.6%) and posters (10.8%). Conclusion: Second year pharmacy students have different attitudes toward traditional and electronic leaning and assessment methods. Using multimedia, e-learning and Moodle are increasingly preferred methods among some students.

Keywords: pharmacy, students, lecture, exam, e-learning, Moodle

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
79 The Impact of Temperamental Traits of Candidates for Aviation School on Their Strategies for Coping with Stress during Selection Exams in Physical Education

Authors: Robert Jedrys, Zdzislaw Kobos, Justyna Skrzynska, Zbigniew Wochynski


Professions connected to aviation require an assessment of the suitability of health, psychological and psychomotor skills and overall physical fitness of the organism, who applies. Assessment of the physical condition is conducted by the committees consisting of aero-medical specialists in clinical medicine and aviation. In addition, psychological predispositions should be evaluated by specialized psychologists familiar with the specifics of the tasks and requirements for the various positions in aviation. Both, physical abilities and general physical fitness of candidates for aviation shall be assessed during the selection exams, which also test the ability to deal with stress what is very important in aviation. Hence, the mentioned exams in physical education not only help to judge on the ranking in candidates in terms of their efficiency and performance, but also allows to evaluate the functioning under stress measured using psychological tests. Moreover, before-test stress is a predictors of successfulness in the next stages of education and practical training in the aviation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of temperamental traits on strategies used for coping with stress during selection exams in physical education, deciding on admission to aviation school. The study involved 30 candidates for fighter pilot training in aviation school . To evaluate the temperament 'The Formal Characteristics of Behavior-Temperament Inventory' (FCB-TI) by B. Zawadzki and J.Strelau was used. To determine the pattern of coping with stress 'The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations' (CISS) to N. S. Endler and J. D. A. Parker were engaged. Study of temperament and styles of coping with stress was conducted directly before the exam selection of physical education. The results were analyzed with 'Statistica 9' program. The studies showed that:-There is a negative correlation between such a temperament feature as 'perseverance' and preferred style of coping with stress concentrated on the task (r = -0.590; p < 0.004); -There is a positive correlation between such a feature of temperament as 'emotional reactivity,' and preference to deal with a stressful situation with ‘style centered on emotions’ (r = 0.520; p <0.011); -There is a negative correlation between such a feature of temperament as ‘strength’ and ‘style of coping with stress concentrated on emotions’ (r = -0.580; p < 0.004). Studies indicate that temperament traits determine the perception of stress and preferred coping styles used during the selection, as during the exams in physical education.

Keywords: aviation, physical education, stress, temperamental traits

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78 Big Classes, Bigger Ambitions: A Participatory Approach to the Multiple-Choice Exam

Authors: Melanie Adrian, Elspeth McCulloch, Emily-Jean Gallant


Resources -financial, physical, and human- are increasingly constrained in higher education. University classes are getting bigger, and the concomitant grading burden on faculty is growing rapidly. Multiple-choice exams are seen by some as one solution to these changes. How much students retain, however, and what their testing experience is, continues to be debated. Are multiple-choice exams serving students well, or are they bearing the burden of these developments? Is there a way to address both the resource constraints and make these types of exams more meaningful? In short, how do we engender evaluation methods for large-scale classes that provide opportunities for heightened student learning and enrichment? The following article lays out a testing approach we have employed in four iterations of the same third-year law class. We base our comments in this paper on our initial observations as well as data gathered from an ethics-approved study looking at student experiences. This testing approach provides students with multiple opportunities for revision (thus increasing chances for long term retention), is both individually and collaboratively driven (thus reflecting the individual effort and group effort) and is automatically graded (thus draining limited institutional resources). We found that overall students appreciated the approach and found it more ‘humane’, that it notably reduced pre-exam and intra-exam stress levels, increased ease, and lowered nervousness.

Keywords: exam, higher education, multiple-choice, law

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77 Clinical Implication of Hyper-Intense Signal Thyroid Incidentaloma on Time of Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography

Authors: Inseon Ryoo, Soo Chin Kim, Hyena Jung, Sangil Suh


Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of hyper-intense signal thyroid incidentalomas on the time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) using correlation study with ultrasound (US). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 3,505 non-contrast TOF-MRA performed at an institution between September 2014 and May 2017. Two radiologists correlated the thyroid incidentalomas detected on TOF-MRA with US features which was obtained within three months interval between MRA and US examinations in consensus method. Results: The prevalence of hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules incidentally detected on TOF-MRA was 1.2% (43/3505). Among them, 35 people (81.4%) underwent US examinations, and total 45 hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules were detected on US exams. Of these 45 nodules, 35 nodules (72.9%) were categorized as benign (K-TIRADS category 2) on US exams. Fine needle aspiration was performed on 9 nodules according to the indications recommended by Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology. All except one high-suspicious thyroid nodule were confirmed as benign (Bethesda 2) on cytologic exams. One high-suspicious nodule on US showed a non-diagnostic result (Bethesda 1) on cytologic exam. However, this nodule collapsed after aspiration of thick colloid material. Conclusions: Our study showed that the most hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules detected on TOF-MRA were benign. Therefore, if a hyper-intense signal incidentaloma is found on TOF-MRA, further evaluation, especially invasive biopsy of the nodules could be suspended unless the patient had other symptoms or clinical factors suggesting the need for further evaluation.

Keywords: incidentaloma, thyroid nodule, TOF MR angiography, ultrasound

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76 Designing Presentational Writing Assessments for the Advanced Placement World Language and Culture Exams

Authors: Mette Pedersen


This paper outlines the criteria that assessment specialists use when they design the 'Persuasive Essay' task for the four Advanced Placement World Language and Culture Exams (AP French, German, Italian, and Spanish). The 'Persuasive Essay' is a free-response, source-based, standardized measure of presentational writing. Each 'Persuasive Essay' item consists of three sources (an article, a chart, and an audio) and a prompt, which is a statement of the topic phrased as an interrogative sentence. Due to its richness of source materials and due to the amount of time that test takers are given to prepare for and write their responses (a total of 55 minutes), the 'Persuasive Essay' is the free-response task on the AP World Language and Culture Exams that goes to the greatest lengths to unleash the test takers' proficiency potential. The author focuses on the work that goes into designing the 'Persuasive Essay' task, outlining best practices for the selection of topics and sources, the interplay that needs to be present among the sources and the thinking behind the articulation of prompts for the 'Persuasive Essay' task. Using released 'Persuasive Essay' items from the AP World Language and Culture Exams and accompanying data on test taker performance, the author shows how different passages, and features of passages, have succeeded (and sometimes not succeeded) in eliciting writing proficiency among test takers over time. Data from approximately 215.000 test takers per year from 2014 to 2017 and approximately 35.000 test takers per year from 2012 to 2013 form the basis of this analysis. The conclusion of the study is that test taker performance improves significantly when the sources that test takers are presented with express directly opposing viewpoints. Test taker performance also improves when the interrogative prompt that the test takers respond to is phrased as a yes/no question. Finally, an analysis of linguistic difficulty and complexity levels of the printed sources reveals that test taker performance does not decrease when the complexity level of the article of the 'Persuasive Essay' increases. This last text complexity analysis is performed with the help of the 'ETS TextEvaluator' tool and the 'Complexity Scale for Information Texts (Scale)', two tools, which, in combination, provide a rubric and a fully-automated technology for evaluating nonfiction and informational texts in English translation.

Keywords: advanced placement world language and culture exams, designing presentational writing assessments, large-scale standardized assessments of written language proficiency, source-based language testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
75 Calculation of Organ Dose for Adult and Pediatric Patients Undergoing Computed Tomography Examinations: A Software Comparison

Authors: Aya Al Masri, Naima Oubenali, Safoin Aktaou, Thibault Julien, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul


Introduction: The increased number of performed 'Computed Tomography (CT)' examinations raise public concerns regarding associated stochastic risk to patients. In its Publication 102, the ‘International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)’ emphasized the importance of managing patient dose, particularly from repeated or multiple examinations. We developed a Dose Archiving and Communication System that gives multiple dose indexes (organ dose, effective dose, and skin-dose mapping) for patients undergoing radiological imaging exams. The aim of this study is to compare the organ dose values given by our software for patients undergoing CT exams with those of another software named "VirtualDose". Materials and methods: Our software uses Monte Carlo simulations to calculate organ doses for patients undergoing computed tomography examinations. The general calculation principle consists to simulate: (1) the scanner machine with all its technical specifications and associated irradiation cases (kVp, field collimation, mAs, pitch ...) (2) detailed geometric and compositional information of dozens of well identified organs of computational hybrid phantoms that contain the necessary anatomical data. The mass as well as the elemental composition of the tissues and organs that constitute our phantoms correspond to the recommendations of the international organizations (namely the ICRP and the ICRU). Their body dimensions correspond to reference data developed in the United States. Simulated data was verified by clinical measurement. To perform the comparison, 270 adult patients and 150 pediatric patients were used, whose data corresponds to exams carried out in France hospital centers. The comparison dataset of adult patients includes adult males and females for three different scanner machines and three different acquisition protocols (Head, Chest, and Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis). The comparison sample of pediatric patients includes the exams of thirty patients for each of the following age groups: new born, 1-2 years, 3-7 years, 8-12 years, and 13-16 years. The comparison for pediatric patients were performed on the “Head” protocol. The percentage of the dose difference were calculated for organs receiving a significant dose according to the acquisition protocol (80% of the maximal dose). Results: Adult patients: for organs that are completely covered by the scan range, the maximum percentage of dose difference between the two software is 27 %. However, there are three organs situated at the edges of the scan range that show a slightly higher dose difference. Pediatric patients: the percentage of dose difference between the two software does not exceed 30%. These dose differences may be due to the use of two different generations of hybrid phantoms by the two software. Conclusion: This study shows that our software provides a reliable dosimetric information for patients undergoing Computed Tomography exams.

Keywords: adult and pediatric patients, computed tomography, organ dose calculation, software comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
74 The Impact of Inconclusive Results of Thin Layer Chromatography for Marijuana Analysis and It’s Implication on Forensic Laboratory Backlog

Authors: Ana Flavia Belchior De Andrade


Forensic laboratories all over the world face a great challenge to overcame waiting time and backlog in many different areas. Many aspects contribute to this situation, such as an increase in drug complexity, increment in the number of exams requested and cuts in funding limiting laboratories hiring capacity. Altogether, those facts pose an essential challenge for forensic chemistry laboratories to keep both quality and time of response within an acceptable period. In this paper we will analyze how the backlog affects test results and, in the end, the whole judicial system. In this study data from marijuana samples seized by the Federal District Civil Police in Brazil between the years 2013 and 2017 were tabulated and the results analyzed and discussed. In the last five years, the number of petitioned exams increased from 822 in February 2013 to 1358 in March 2018, representing an increase of 32% in 5 years, a rise of more than 6% per year. Meanwhile, our data shows that the number of performed exams did not grow at the same rate. Product numbers are stationed as using the actual technology scenario and analyses routine the laboratory is running in full capacity. Marijuana detection is the most prevalence exam required, representing almost 70% of all exams. In this study, data from 7,110 (seven thousand one hundred and ten) marijuana samples were analyzed. Regarding waiting time, most of the exams were performed not later than 60 days after receipt (77%). Although some samples waited up to 30 months before being examined (0,65%). When marijuana´s exam is delayed we notice the enlargement of inconclusive results using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Our data shows that if a marijuana sample is stored for more than 18 months, inconclusive results rise from 2% to 7% and when if storage exceeds 30 months, inconclusive rates increase to 13%. This is probably because Cannabis plants and preparations undergo oxidation under storage resulting in a decrease in the content of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Δ9-THC). An inconclusive result triggers other procedures that require at least two more working hours of our analysts (e.g., GC/MS analysis) and the report would be delayed at least one day. Those new procedures increase considerably the running cost of a forensic drug laboratory especially when the backlog is significant as inconclusive results tend to increase with waiting time. Financial aspects are not the only ones to be observed regarding backlog cases; there are also social issues as legal procedures can be delayed and prosecution of serious crimes can be unsuccessful. Delays may slow investigations and endanger public safety by giving criminals more time on the street to re-offend. This situation also implies a considerable cost to society as at some point, if the exam takes a long time to be performed, an inconclusive can turn into a negative result and a criminal can be absolved by flawed expert evidence.

Keywords: backlog, forensic laboratory, quality management, accreditation

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73 Factors Affecting Students' Performance in the Examination

Authors: Amylyn F. Labasano


A significant number of empirical studies are carried out to investigate factors affecting college students’ performance in the academic examination. With a wide-array of literature-and studies-supported findings, this study is limited only on the students’ probability of passing periodical exams which is associated with students’ gender, absences in the class, use of reference book, and hours of study. Binary logistic regression was the technique used in the analysis. The research is based on the students’ record and data collected through survey. The result reveals that gender, use of reference book and hours of study are significant predictors of passing an examination while students’ absenteeism is an insignificant predictor. Females have 45% likelihood of passing the exam than their male classmates. Students who use and read their reference book are 38 times more likely pass the exam than those who do not use and read their reference book. Those who spent more than 3 hours in studying are four (4) times more likely pass the exam than those who spent only 3 hours or less in studying.

Keywords: absences, binary logistic regression, gender, hours of study prediction-causation method, periodical exams, random sampling, reference book

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
72 Visualizing Imaging Pathways after Anatomy-Specific Follow-Up Imaging Recommendations

Authors: Thusitha Mabotuwana, Christopher S. Hall


Radiologists routinely make follow-up imaging recommendations, usually based on established clinical practice guidelines, such as the Fleischner Society guidelines for managing lung nodules. In order to ensure optimal care, it is important to make guideline-compliant recommendations, and also for patients to follow-up on these imaging recommendations in a timely manner. However, determining such compliance rates after a specific finding has been observed usually requires many time-consuming manual steps. To address some of these limitations with current approaches, in this paper we discuss a methodology to automatically detect finding-specific follow-up recommendations from radiology reports and create a visualization for relevant subsequent exams showing the modality transitions. Nearly 5% of patients who had a lung related follow-up recommendation continued to have at least eight subsequent outpatient CT exams during a seven year period following the recommendation. Radiologist and section chiefs can use the proposed tool to better understand how a specific patient population is being managed, identify possible deviations from established guideline recommendations and have a patient-specific graphical representation of the imaging pathways for an abstract view of the overall treatment path thus far.

Keywords: follow-up recommendations, follow-up tracking, care pathways, imaging pathway visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
71 Complementing Assessment Processes with Standardized Tests: A Work in Progress

Authors: Amparo Camacho


ABET accredited programs must assess the development of student learning outcomes (SOs) in engineering programs. Different institutions implement different strategies for this assessment, and they are usually designed “in house.” This paper presents a proposal for including standardized tests to complement the ABET assessment model in an engineering college made up of six distinct engineering programs. The engineering college formulated a model of quality assurance in education to be implemented throughout the six engineering programs to regularly assess and evaluate the achievement of SOs in each program offered. The model uses diverse techniques and sources of data to assess student performance and to implement actions of improvement based on the results of this assessment. The model is called “Assessment Process Model” and it includes SOs A through K, as defined by ABET. SOs can be divided into two categories: “hard skills” and “professional skills” (soft skills). The first includes abilities, such as: applying knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering and designing and conducting experiments, as well as analyzing and interpreting data. The second category, “professional skills”, includes communicating effectively, and understanding professional and ethnical responsibility. Within the Assessment Process Model, various tools were used to assess SOs, related to both “hard” as well as “soft” skills. The assessment tools designed included: rubrics, surveys, questionnaires, and portfolios. In addition to these instruments, the Engineering College decided to use tools that systematically gather consistent quantitative data. For this reason, an in-house exam was designed and implemented, based on the curriculum of each program. Even though this exam was administered during various academic periods, it is not currently considered standardized. In 2017, the Engineering College included three standardized tests: one to assess mathematical and scientific reasoning and two more to assess reading and writing abilities. With these exams, the college hopes to obtain complementary information that can help better measure the development of both hard and soft skills of students in the different engineering programs. In the first semester of 2017, the three exams were given to three sample groups of students from the six different engineering programs. Students in the sample groups were either from the first, fifth, and tenth semester cohorts. At the time of submission of this paper, the engineering college has descriptive statistical data and is working with various statisticians to have a more in-depth and detailed analysis of the sample group of students’ achievement on the three exams. The overall objective of including standardized exams in the assessment model is to identify more precisely the least developed SOs in order to define and implement educational strategies necessary for students to achieve them in each engineering program.

Keywords: assessment, hard skills, soft skills, standardized tests

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70 Adequacy of Antenatal Care and Its Relationship with Low Birth Weight in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

Authors: Cátia Regina Branco da Fonseca, Maria Wany Louzada Strufaldi, Lídia Raquel de Carvalho, Rosana Fiorini Puccini


Background: Birth weight reflects gestational conditions and development during the fetal period. Low birth weight (LBW) may be associated with antenatal care (ANC) adequacy and quality. The purpose of this study was to analyze ANC adequacy and its relationship with LBW in the Unified Health System in Brazil. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, 2004 to 2008. Data were collected from secondary sources (the Live Birth Certificate), and primary sources (the official medical records of pregnant women). The study population consisted of two groups, each with 860 newborns. The case group comprised newborns weighing less than 2,500 grams, while the control group comprised live newborns weighing greater than or equal to 2,500 grams. Adequacy of ANC was evaluated according to three measurements: 1. Adequacy of the number of ANC visits adjusted to gestational age; 2. Modified Kessner Index; and 3. Adequacy of ANC laboratory studies and exams summary measure according to parameters defined by the Ministry of Health in the Program for Prenatal and Birth Care Humanization. Results: Analyses revealed that LBW was associated with the number of ANC visits adjusted to gestational age (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.32-2.34) and the ANC laboratory studies and exams summary measure (OR = 4.13, 95% CI 1.36-12.51). According to the modified Kessner Index, 64.4% of antenatal visits in the LBW group were adequate, with no differences between groups. Conclusions: Our data corroborate the association between inadequate number of ANC visits, laboratory studies and exams, and increased risk of LBW newborns. No association was found between the modified Kessner Index as a measure of adequacy of ANC and LBW. This finding reveals the low indices of coverage for basic actions already well regulated in the Health System in Brazil. Despite the association found in the study, we cannot conclude that LBW would be prevented only by an adequate ANC, as LBW is associated with factors of complex and multifactorial etiology. The results could be used to plan monitoring measures and evaluate programs of health care assistance during pregnancy, at delivery and to newborns, focusing on reduced LBW rates.

Keywords: low birth weight, antenatal care, prenatal care, adequacy of health care, health evaluation, public health system

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
69 E-Learning Platform for School Kids

Authors: Gihan Thilakarathna, Fernando Ishara, Rathnayake Yasith, Bandara A. M. R. Y.


E-learning is a crucial component of intelligent education. Even in the midst of a pandemic, E-learning is becoming increasingly important in the educational system. Several e-learning programs are accessible for students. Here, we decided to create an e-learning framework for children. We've found a few issues that teachers are having with their online classes. When there are numerous students in an online classroom, how does a teacher recognize a student's focus on academics and below-the-surface behaviors? Some kids are not paying attention in class, and others are napping. The teacher is unable to keep track of each and every student. Key challenge in e-learning is online exams. Because students can cheat easily during online exams. Hence there is need of exam proctoring is occurred. In here we propose an automated online exam cheating detection method using a web camera. The purpose of this project is to present an E-learning platform for math education and include games for kids as an alternative teaching method for math students. The game will be accessible via a web browser. The imagery in the game is drawn in a cartoonish style. This will help students learn math through games. Everything in this day and age is moving towards automation. However, automatic answer evaluation is only available for MCQ-based questions. As a result, the checker has a difficult time evaluating the theory solution. The current system requires more manpower and takes a long time to evaluate responses. It's also possible to mark two identical responses differently and receive two different grades. As a result, this application employs machine learning techniques to provide an automatic evaluation of subjective responses based on the keyword provided to the computer as student input, resulting in a fair distribution of marks. In addition, it will save time and manpower. We used deep learning, machine learning, image processing and natural language technologies to develop these research components.

Keywords: math, education games, e-learning platform, artificial intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
68 Communication through Technology: SMS Taking Most of the Time Impacting the Standard English

Authors: Nazia Sulemna, Sadia Gul


With the invade of mobile phones text messaging has become a popular medium of communication. Its users are multiplying with every passing day. Its use is not only limites to informal but to formal communication as well. Students are the advent users of mobile phones and of SMS as well. The present study manifests the fact that students are practicing SMS for a number of reasons and a good amount of time is spent upon it which is resulting in typographical features, graphones and rebus writing. Data was collected through questionnaires and came to the conclusion that its effect is obvious in the L2 users and in exam as well.

Keywords: text messaging, technology, exams, formal writing

Procedia PDF Downloads 628
67 Emergency Physician Performance for Hydronephrosis Diagnosis and Grading Compared with Radiologist Assessment in Renal Colic: The EPHyDRA Study

Authors: Sameer A. Pathan, Biswadev Mitra, Salman Mirza, Umais Momin, Zahoor Ahmed, Lubna G. Andraous, Dharmesh Shukla, Mohammed Y. Shariff, Magid M. Makki, Tinsy T. George, Saad S. Khan, Stephen H. Thomas, Peter A. Cameron


Study objective: Emergency physician’s (EP) ability to identify hydronephrosis on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been assessed in the past using CT scan as the reference standard. We aimed to assess EP interpretation of POCUS to identify and grade the hydronephrosis in a direct comparison with the consensus-interpretation of POCUS by radiologists, and also to compare the EP and radiologist performance using CT scan as the criterion standard. Methods: Using data from a POCUS databank, a prospective interpretation study was conducted at an urban academic emergency department. All POCUS exams were performed on patients presenting with renal colic to the ED. Institutional approval was obtained for conducting this study. All the analyses were performed using Stata MP 14.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, Texas). Results: A total of 651 patients were included, with paired sets of renal POCUS video clips and the CT scan performed at the same ED visit. Hydronephrosis was reported in 69.6% of POCUS exams by radiologists and 72.7% of CT scans (p=0.22). The κ for consensus interpretation of POCUS between the radiologists to detect hydronephrosis was 0.77 (0.72 to 0.82) and weighted κ for grading the hydronephrosis was 0.82 (0.72 to 0.90), interpreted as good to very good. Using CT scan findings as the criterion standard, Eps had an overall sensitivity of 81.1% (95% CI: 79.6% to 82.5%), specificity of 59.4% (95% CI: 56.4% to 62.5%), PPV of 84.3% (95% CI: 82.9% to 85.7%), and NPV of 53.8% (95% CI: 50.8% to 56.7%); compared to radiologist sensitivity of 85.0% (95% CI: 82.5% to 87.2%), specificity of 79.7% (95% CI: 75.1% to 83.7%), PPV of 91.8% (95% CI: 89.8% to 93.5%), and NPV of 66.5% (95% CI: 61.8% to 71.0%). Testing for a report of moderate or high degree of hydronephrosis, specificity of EP was 94.6% (95% CI: 93.7% to 95.4%) and to 99.2% (95% CI: 98.9% to 99.5%) for identifying severe hydronephrosis alone. Conclusion: EP POCUS interpretations were comparable to the radiologists for identifying moderate to severe hydronephrosis using CT scan results as the criterion standard. Among patients with moderate or high pre-test probability of ureteric calculi, as calculated by the STONE-score, the presence of moderate to severe (+LR 6.3 and –LR 0.69) or severe hydronephrosis (+LR 54.4 and –LR 0.57) was highly diagnostic of the stone disease. Low dose CT is indicated in such patients for evaluation of stone size and location.

Keywords: renal colic, point-of-care, ultrasound, bedside, emergency physician

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66 Assessment of the State of Hygiene in a Tunisian Hospital Kitchen: Interest of Mycological and Parasitological Samples from Food Handlers and Environment

Authors: Bouchekoua Myriam, Aloui Dorsaf, Trabelsi Sonia


Introduction Food hygiene in hospitals is important, particularly among patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. The consumption of contaminated food may be responsible for foodborne diseases, which can be severe among hospitalized patients, especially those immunocompromised. The aim of our study was to assess the state of hygiene in the internal catering department of a Tunisian hospital. Methodology and major results: A prospective study was conducted for one year in the Parasitology-Mycology laboratory of Charles Nicolle Hospital. Samples were taken from the kitchen staff, worktops, and cooking utensils used in the internal catering department. Thirty one employees have benefited from stool exams and scotch tape in order to evaluate the degree of infestation of parasites. 35% of stool exams were positive. Protozoa were the only parasites detected. Blastocystis sp was the species mostly found in nine food handlers. Its role as a human pathogen is still controversial. Pathogenic protozoa were detected in two food handlers (Giardia intestinalis in one person and Dientamoeba fragilis in the other one. Non-pathogenic protozoa were found in two cases; among them, only one had digestive symptoms without a statistically significant association with the carriage of intestinal parasites. Moreover, samples were performed from the hands of the staff in order to search for a fungal carriage. Thus, 25 employees (81%) were colonized by fungi, including molds. Besides, mycological examination among food handlers with a suspected dermatomycosis for diagnostic confirmation concluded foot onychomycosis in 32% of cases and interdigital intertrigo in 26%. Only one person had hand onychomycosis. Among the 17 samples taken from worktops and kitchen utensils, fungal contamination was detected in 13 sites. Hot and cold equipment were the most contaminated. Molds were mainly identified as belonging to five different genera. Cladosporium sp was predominant. Conclusion: In the view of the importance of intestinal parasites among food handlers, the intensity of fungi hand carriage among these employees, and the high level of fungal contamination in worktops and kitchen utensils, a reinforcement of hygiene measures is more than essential in order to minimize the alimentary contamination-risk.

Keywords: hospital kitchen, environment, intestinal parasitosis, fungal carriage, fungal contamination

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65 Applying Proof Frameworks Is Harder for Students Than We Think

Authors: Iris Gaber, Amir Kirsh, Romina Zigdon


Students in mathematics and computer science have difficulty with rigorous proofs. In some higher education institutes, the students take a ”Mathematical Reasoning” or ”Transition-to-Proof” course that aims to help them assimilate the principles of a rigorous proof without the need to deal with the complex concepts and material taught in the other courses. In this paper, we analyzed data from the exams of 310 students, focusing on the way they approach a proof regarding set inclusion, and whether they use a particular “proof framework” that we taught them when doing so. We found that the students are able to use the proof framework, and that using it is beneficial to them, but that a surprisingly large percentage of them fail to use it consistently.

Keywords: transition-to-proof courses, proof-based mathematics courses, proof frameworks, pedagogical content knowledge, computer science education

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64 Preventing the Septic Shock in an Oncological Patient with Febrile Neutropenia Submitted to Chemotherapy: The Nurse's Responsibility

Authors: Hugo Reis, Isabel Rabiais


The main purpose of the present study is to understand the nurse’s responsibility in preventing the septic shock in an oncological patient with febrile neutropenia submitted to chemotherapy. In order to do it, an integrative review of literature has been conducted. In the research done in many databases, it was concluded that only 7 out of 5202 articles compiled the entire inclusion standard present in the strict protocol of research, being this made up by all different methodologies. On the research done in the 7 articles it has resulted 8 text macro-units associated to different nursing interventions: ‘Health Education’; ‘Prophylactic Therapy Administration’; ‘Scales Utilization’; ‘Patient Evaluation’; ‘Environment Control’; ‘Performance of Diagnostic Auxiliary Exams’; ‘Protocol Enforcement/Procedure Guidelines’; ‘Antibiotic Therapy Administration’. Concerning the prevalence/result’s division there can be identified many conclusions: the macro-units ‘Patient Evaluation’, ‘Performance of Diagnostic Auxiliary Exams’, and ‘Antibiotic Therapy Administration’ present themselves to be the most prevalent in the research – 6 in 7 occurrences (approximately 85.7%). Next, the macro-unit ‘Protocol Enforcement/Procedure Guidelines’ presents itself as an important expression unit – being part of 5 out of the 7 analyzed studies (approximately 71.4%). The macro-unit ‘Health Education’, seems to be in the same way, an important expression unit – 4 out of the 7 (or approximately 57%). The macro-unit ‘Scales Utilization’, represents a minor part in the research done – it’s in only 2 out of the 7 cases (approximately 28.6%). On the other hand, the macro-units ‘Prophylactic Therapy Administration’ and ‘Environment Control’ are the two categories with fewer results in the research - 1 out of the 7 cases, the same as approximately 14.3% of the research results. Every research done to the macro-unit ‘Antibiotic Therapy Administration’ agreed to refer that the intervention should be strictly done, in a period of time less than one hour after diagnosing the fever, with the purpose of controlling the quick spread of infection – minimizing its seriousness. Identifying these interventions contributes, concluding that, to adopt strategies in order to prevent the phenomenon that represents a daily scenario responsible for the cost´s increase in health institutions, being at the same time responsible for the high morbidity rates and mortality increase associated with this specific group of patients.

Keywords: febrile neutropenia, oncology nursing, patient, septic shock

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63 Automatic Segmentation of 3D Tomographic Images Contours at Radiotherapy Planning in Low Cost Solution

Authors: D. F. Carvalho, A. O. Uscamayta, J. C. Guerrero, H. F. Oliveira, P. M. Azevedo-Marques


The creation of vector contours slices (ROIs) on body silhouettes in oncologic patients is an important step during the radiotherapy planning in clinic and hospitals to ensure the accuracy of oncologic treatment. The radiotherapy planning of patients is performed by complex softwares focused on analysis of tumor regions, protection of organs at risk (OARs) and calculation of radiation doses for anomalies (tumors). These softwares are supplied for a few manufacturers and run over sophisticated workstations with vector processing presenting a cost of approximately twenty thousand dollars. The Brazilian project SIPRAD (Radiotherapy Planning System) presents a proposal adapted to the emerging countries reality that generally does not have the monetary conditions to acquire some radiotherapy planning workstations, resulting in waiting queues for new patients treatment. The SIPRAD project is composed by a set of integrated and interoperabilities softwares that are able to execute all stages of radiotherapy planning on simple personal computers (PCs) in replace to the workstations. The goal of this work is to present an image processing technique, computationally feasible, that is able to perform an automatic contour delineation in patient body silhouettes (SIPRAD-Body). The SIPRAD-Body technique is performed in tomography slices under grayscale images, extending their use with a greedy algorithm in three dimensions. SIPRAD-Body creates an irregular polyhedron with the Canny Edge adapted algorithm without the use of preprocessing filters, as contrast and brightness. In addition, comparing the technique SIPRAD-Body with existing current solutions is reached a contours similarity at least 78%. For this comparison is used four criteria: contour area, contour length, difference between the mass centers and Jaccard index technique. SIPRAD-Body was tested in a set of oncologic exams provided by the Clinical Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo (HCRP-USP). The exams were applied in patients with different conditions of ethnology, ages, tumor severities and body regions. Even in case of services that have already workstations, it is possible to have SIPRAD working together PCs because of the interoperability of communication between both systems through the DICOM protocol that provides an increase of workflow. Therefore, the conclusion is that SIPRAD-Body technique is feasible because of its degree of similarity in both new radiotherapy planning services and existing services.

Keywords: radiotherapy, image processing, DICOM RT, Treatment Planning System (TPS)

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62 The Impact of Insomnia on the Academic Performance of Mexican Medical Students: Gender Perspective

Authors: Paulina Ojeda, Damaris Estrella, Hector Rubio


Insomnia is a disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep or both. It negatively affects the life quality of people, it hinders the concentration, attention, memory, motor skills, among other abilities that complicate work or learning. Some studies show that women are more susceptible to insomnia. Medicine curricula usually involve a great deal of theoretical and memory content, especially in the early years of the course. The way to accredit a university course is to demonstrate the level of competence or acquired knowledge. In Mexico the most widely used form of measurement is written exams, with numerical scales results. The prevalence of sleep disorders in university students is usually high, so it is important to know if insomnia has an effect on school performance in men and women. A cross-sectional study was designed that included a probabilistic sample of 118 regular students from the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Mexico. All on legally age. The project was authorized by the School of Medicine and all the ethical implications of the case were monitored. Participants completed anonymously the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, AUDIT test, epidemiological and clinical data. Academic performance was assessed by the average number of official grades earned on written exams, as well as the number of approved or non-approved courses. These data were obtained officially through the corresponding school authorities. Students with at least one unapproved course or average less than 70 were considered to be poor performers. With all courses approved and average between 70-79 as regular performance and with an average of 80 or higher as a good performance. Statistical analysis: t-Student, difference of proportions and ANOVA. 65 men with a mean age of 19.15 ± 1.60 years and 53 women of 18.98 ± 1.23 years, were included. 96% of the women and 78.46% of the men sleep in the family home. 16.98% of women and 18.46% of men consume tobacco. Most students consume caffeinated beverages. 3.7% of the women and 10.76% of the men complete criteria of harmful consumption of alcohol. 98.11% of the women and 90.76% of the men are perceived with poor sleep quality. Insomnia was present in 73% of women and 66% of men. Women had higher levels of moderate insomnia (p=0.02) compared to men and only one woman had severe insomnia. 50.94% of the women and 44.61% of the men had poor academic performance. 18.86% of women and 27% of men performed well. Only in the group of women we found a significant association between poor performance with mild (p= 0.0035) and moderate (p=0.031) insomnia. The medical students reported poor sleep quality and insomnia. In women, levels of insomnia were associated with poor academic performance.

Keywords: scholar-average, sex, sleep, university

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
61 Application of Quality Function Deployment Approach to Industrial Engineering Department of Gaziantep University

Authors: Eren Özceylan, Cihan Çetinkaya


Quality function deployment (QFD) is a technique to assist transform the voice of the customer into engineering characteristics for a product/service. With the difference of existing studies, QFD is applied to an educational area that is a service sector which is not a manufacturing firm. The objective of the study is to design the undergraduate program according to students’ desire and expectations. To do so, third and fourth year students of industrial engineering department of Gaziantep University are considered as customers. Some suggestions about lecturers, courses, exams and facility for how to satisfy students’ demands are presented and as a result, sharing the materials of courses is the most important requirement among others.

Keywords: higher education, quality function deployment, quality house, voice of customer

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
60 Differences in Assessing Hand-Written and Typed Student Exams: A Corpus-Linguistic Study

Authors: Jutta Ransmayr


The digital age has long arrived at Austrian schools, so both society and educationalists demand that digital means should be integrated accordingly to day-to-day school routines. Therefore, the Austrian school-leaving exam (A-levels) can now be written either by hand or by using a computer. However, the choice of writing medium (pen and paper or computer) for written examination papers, which are considered 'high-stakes' exams, raises a number of questions that have not yet been adequately investigated and answered until recently, such as: What effects do the different conditions of text production in the written German A-levels have on the component of normative linguistic accuracy? How do the spelling skills of German A-level papers written with a pen differ from those that the students wrote on the computer? And how is the teacher's assessment related to this? Which practical desiderata for German didactics can be derived from this? In a trilateral pilot project of the Austrian Center for Digital Humanities (ACDH) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna in cooperation with the Austrian Ministry of Education and the Council for German Orthography, these questions were investigated. A representative Austrian learner corpus, consisting of around 530 German A-level papers from all over Austria (pen and computer written), was set up in order to subject it to a quantitative (corpus-linguistic and statistical) and qualitative investigation with regard to the spelling and punctuation performance of the high school graduates and the differences between pen- and computer-written papers and their assessments. Relevant studies are currently available mainly from the Anglophone world. These have shown that writing on the computer increases the motivation to write, has positive effects on the length of the text, and, in some cases, also on the quality of the text. Depending on the writing situation and other technical aids, better results in terms of spelling and punctuation could also be found in the computer-written texts as compared to the handwritten ones. Studies also point towards a tendency among teachers to rate handwritten texts better than computer-written texts. In this paper, the first comparable results from the German-speaking area are to be presented. Research results have shown that, on the one hand, there are significant differences between handwritten and computer-written work with regard to performance in orthography and punctuation. On the other hand, the corpus linguistic investigation and the subsequent statistical analysis made it clear that not only the teachers' assessments of the students’ spelling performance vary enormously but also the overall assessments of the exam papers – the factor of the production medium (pen and paper or computer) also seems to play a decisive role.

Keywords: exam paper assessment, pen and paper or computer, learner corpora, linguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
59 Using Repetition of Instructions in Course Design to Improve Instructor Efficiency and Increase Enrollment in a Large Online Course

Authors: David M. Gilstrap


Designing effective instructions is a critical dimension of effective teaching systems. Due to a void in interpersonal contact, online courses present new challenges in this regard, especially with large class sizes. This presentation is a case study in how the repetition of instructions within the course design was utilized to increase instructor efficiency in managing a rapid rise in enrollment. World of Turf is a two-credit, semester-long elective course for non-turfgrass majors at Michigan State University. It is taught entirely online and solely by the instructor without any graduate teaching assistants. Discussion forums about subject matter are designated for each lecture, and those forums are moderated by a few undergraduate turfgrass majors. The instructions as to the course structure, navigation, and grading are conveyed in the syllabus and course-introduction lecture. Regardless, students email questions about such matters, and the number of emails increased as course enrollment grew steadily during the first three years of its existence, almost to a point that the course was becoming unmanageable. Many of these emails occurred because the instructor was failing to update and operate the course in a timely and proper fashion because he was too busy answering emails. Some of the emails did help the instructor ferret out poorly composed instructions, which he corrected. Beginning in the summer semester of 2015, the instructor overhauled the course by segregating content into weekly modules. The philosophy envisioned and embraced was that there can never be too much repetition of instructions in an online course. Instructions were duplicated within each of these modules as well as associated modules for syllabus and schedules, getting started, frequently asked questions, practice tests, surveys, and exams. In addition, informational forums were created and set aside for questions about the course workings and each of the three exams, thus creating even more repetition. Within these informational forums, students typically answer each other’s questions, which demonstrated to the students that that information is available in the course. When needed, the instructor interjects with corrects answers or clarifies any misinformation which students might be putting forth. Increasing the amount of repetition of instructions and strategic enhancements to the course design have resulted in a dramatic decrease in the number of email replies necessitated by the instructor. The resulting improvement in efficiency allowed the instructor to raise enrollment limits thus effecting a ten-fold increase in enrollment over a five-year period with 1050 students registered during the most recent academic year, thus becoming easily the largest online course at the university. Because of the improvement in course-delivery efficiency, sufficient time was created that allowed the instructor to development and launch an additional online course, hence further enhancing his productivity and value in terms of the number of the student-credit hours for which he is responsible.

Keywords: design, efficiency, instructions, online, repetition

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
58 Tool for Maxillary Sinus Quantification in Computed Tomography Exams

Authors: Guilherme Giacomini, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Marcela de Oliveira, Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, José Ricardo de Arruda Miranda, Seizo Yamashita, Diana Rodrigues de Pina


The maxillary sinus (MS), part of the paranasal sinus complex, is one of the most enigmatic structures in modern humans. The literature has suggested that MSs function as olfaction accessories, to heat or humidify inspired air, for thermoregulation, to impart resonance to the voice and others. Thus, the real function of the MS is still uncertain. Furthermore, the MS anatomy is complex and varies from person to person. Many diseases may affect the development process of sinuses. The incidence of rhinosinusitis and other pathoses in the MS is comparatively high, so, volume analysis has clinical value. Providing volume values for MS could be helpful in evaluating the presence of any abnormality and could be used for treatment planning and evaluation of the outcome. The computed tomography (CT) has allowed a more exact assessment of this structure, which enables a quantitative analysis. However, this is not always possible in the clinical routine, and if possible, it involves much effort and/or time. Therefore, it is necessary to have a convenient, robust, and practical tool correlated with the MS volume, allowing clinical applicability. Nowadays, the available methods for MS segmentation are manual or semi-automatic. Additionally, manual methods present inter and intraindividual variability. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an automatic tool to quantity the MS volume in CT scans of paranasal sinuses. This study was developed with ethical approval from the authors’ institutions and national review panels. The research involved 30 retrospective exams of University Hospital, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, Brazil. The tool for automatic MS quantification, developed in Matlab®, uses a hybrid method, combining different image processing techniques. For MS detection, the algorithm uses a Support Vector Machine (SVM), by features such as pixel value, spatial distribution, shape and others. The detected pixels are used as seed point for a region growing (RG) segmentation. Then, morphological operators are applied to reduce false-positive pixels, improving the segmentation accuracy. These steps are applied in all slices of CT exam, obtaining the MS volume. To evaluate the accuracy of the developed tool, the automatic method was compared with manual segmentation realized by an experienced radiologist. For comparison, we used Bland-Altman statistics, linear regression, and Jaccard similarity coefficient. From the statistical analyses for the comparison between both methods, the linear regression showed a strong association and low dispersion between variables. The Bland–Altman analyses showed no significant differences between the analyzed methods. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was > 0.90 in all exams. In conclusion, the developed tool to quantify MS volume proved to be robust, fast, and efficient, when compared with manual segmentation. Furthermore, it avoids the intra and inter-observer variations caused by manual and semi-automatic methods. As future work, the tool will be applied in clinical practice. Thus, it may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment determination of MS diseases. Providing volume values for MS could be helpful in evaluating the presence of any abnormality and could be used for treatment planning and evaluation of the outcome. The computed tomography (CT) has allowed a more exact assessment of this structure which enables a quantitative analysis. However, this is not always possible in the clinical routine, and if possible, it involves much effort and/or time. Therefore, it is necessary to have a convenient, robust and practical tool correlated with the MS volume, allowing clinical applicability. Nowadays, the available methods for MS segmentation are manual or semi-automatic. Additionally, manual methods present inter and intraindividual variability. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an automatic tool to quantity the MS volume in CT scans of paranasal sinuses. This study was developed with ethical approval from the authors’ institutions and national review panels. The research involved 30 retrospective exams of University Hospital, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, Brazil. The tool for automatic MS quantification, developed in Matlab®, uses a hybrid method, combining different image processing techniques. For MS detection, the algorithm uses a Support Vector Machine (SVM), by features such as pixel value, spatial distribution, shape and others. The detected pixels are used as seed point for a region growing (RG) segmentation. Then, morphological operators are applied to reduce false-positive pixels, improving the segmentation accuracy. These steps are applied in all slices of CT exam, obtaining the MS volume. To evaluate the accuracy of the developed tool, the automatic method was compared with manual segmentation realized by an experienced radiologist. For comparison, we used Bland-Altman statistics, linear regression and Jaccard similarity coefficient. From the statistical analyses for the comparison between both methods, the linear regression showed a strong association and low dispersion between variables. The Bland–Altman analyses showed no significant differences between the analyzed methods. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was > 0.90 in all exams. In conclusion, the developed tool to automatically quantify MS volume proved to be robust, fast and efficient, when compared with manual segmentation. Furthermore, it avoids the intra and inter-observer variations caused by manual and semi-automatic methods. As future work, the tool will be applied in clinical practice. Thus, it may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment determination of MS diseases.

Keywords: maxillary sinus, support vector machine, region growing, volume quantification

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
57 Examination Scheduling System with Proposed Algorithm

Authors: Tabrej Khan


Examination Scheduling System (ESS) is a scheduling system that targets as an exam committee in any academic institute to help them in managing the exams automatically. We present an algorithm for Examination Scheduling System. Nowadays, many universities have challenges with creating examination schedule fast with less confliction compared to hand works. Our aims are to develop a computerized system that can be used in examination scheduling in an academic institute versus available resources (Time, Hall, Invigilator and instructor) with no contradiction and achieve fairness among students. ESS was developed using HTML, C# language, Crystal Report and ASP.NET through Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 as developing tools with integrated SQL server database. This application can produce some benefits such as reducing the time spent in creating an exam schedule and achieving fairness among students

Keywords: examination scheduling system (ESS), algorithm, ASP.NET, crystal report

Procedia PDF Downloads 287