Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Azwan Hamdan

26 Robot Technology Impact on Dyslexic Students’ English Learning

Authors: Khaled Hamdan, Abid Amorri, Fatima Hamdan

Abstract:

Involving students in English language learning process and achieving an adequate English language proficiency in the target language can be a great challenge for both teachers and students. This can prove even a far greater challenge to engage students with special needs (Dyslexia) if they have physical impairment and inadequate mastery of basic communicative language competence/proficiency in the target language. From this perspective, technology like robots can probably be used to enhance learning process for the special needs students who have extensive communication needs, who face continuous struggle to interact with their peers and teachers and meet academic requirements. Robots, precisely NAO, can probably provide them with the perfect opportunity to practice social and communication skills, and meet their English academic requirements. This research paper aims to identify to what extent robots can be used to improve students’ social interaction and communication skills and to understand the potential for robotics-based education in motivating and engaging UAEU dyslexic students to meet university requirements. To reach this end, the paper will explore several factors that come into play – Motion Level-involving cognitive activities, Interaction Level-involving language processing, Behavior Level -establishing a close relationship with the robot and Appraisal Level- focusing on dyslexia students’ achievement in the target language.

Keywords: dyslexia, robot technology, motion, interaction, behavior and appraisal levels, social and communication skills

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25 The Study of Mirror Self-Recognition in Wildlife

Authors: Azwan Hamdan, Mohd Qayyum Ab Latip, Hasliza Abu Hassim, Tengku Rinalfi Putra Tengku Azizan, Hafandi Ahmad

Abstract:

Animal cognition provides some evidence for self-recognition, which is described as the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. The mirror self-recognition (MSR) or mark test is a behavioral technique to determine whether an animal have the ability of self-recognition or self-awareness in front of the mirror. It also describes the capability for an animal to be aware of and make judgments about its new environment. Thus, the objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the ability of wild and captive wildlife in mirror self-recognition. Wild animals from the Royal Belum Rainforest Malaysia were identified based on the animal trails and salt lick grounds. Acrylic mirrors with wood frame (200 x 250cm) were located near to animal trails. Camera traps (Bushnell, UK) with motion-detection infrared sensor are placed near the animal trails or hiding spot. For captive wildlife, animals such as Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) were selected from Zoo Negara Malaysia. The captive animals were also marked using odorless and non-toxic white paint on its forehead. An acrylic mirror with wood frame (200 x 250cm) and a video camera were placed near the cage. The behavioral data were analyzed using ethogram and classified through four stages of MSR; social responses, physical inspection, repetitive mirror-testing behavior and realization of seeing themselves. Results showed that wild animals such as barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) increased their physical inspection (e.g inspecting the reflected image) and repetitive mirror-testing behavior (e.g rhythmic head and leg movement). This would suggest that the ability to use a mirror is most likely related to learning process and cognitive evolution in wild animals. However, the sun bear’s behaviors were inconsistent and did not clearly undergo four stages of MSR. This result suggests that when keeping Malayan sun bear in captivity, it may promote communication and familiarity between conspecific. Interestingly, chimp has positive social response (e.g manipulating lips) and physical inspection (e.g using hand to inspect part of the face) when they facing a mirror. However, both animals did not show any sign towards the mark due to lost of interest in the mark and realization that the mark is inconsequential. Overall, the results suggest that the capacity for MSR is the beginning of a developmental process of self-awareness and mental state attribution. In addition, our findings show that self-recognition may be based on different complex neurological and level of encephalization in animals. Thus, research on self-recognition in animals will have profound implications in understanding the cognitive ability of an animal as an effort to help animals, such as enhanced management, design of captive individuals’ enclosures and exhibits, and in programs to re-establish populations of endangered or threatened species.

Keywords: mirror self-recognition (MSR), self-recognition, self-awareness, wildlife

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24 Arbutin-loaded Butylglyceryl Dextran Nanoparticles for Topical Delivery

Authors: Mohammad F. Bostanudin, Tan S. Fei, Azwan M. Lazim

Abstract:

Toward the development of colloidal systems that are able to enhance permeation across the skin, a material combining the non-toxic and non-immunogenic of dextran with alkylglycerols permeation enhancing property has been designed. To this purpose, a range of butylglyceryl dextrans (DEX-OX4) were synthesized via functionalization with n-butylglycidyl ether and the successful functionalization was confirmed by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies, along with GPC with a degree of modification in the range 6.3–35.7 %. A reduced viscosity and an increased molecular weight of DEX-OX4 were also recorded when compared to that of the native dextran. DEX-OX4 was further formulated into nanocarriers and loaded with α-arbutin prior to be investigated for their particle size, morphology, stability, loading ability, and release profiles. The resulting nanoparticles were found to be close-to-spherical and relatively stable at pH 5 and 7, with size 180–220 nm (ζ-potential -22 to -25 mV), and a loading degree of 11.7 %. Lack of toxicity at application-relevant concentrations and increased permeation across skin biological membrane model were demonstrated by nanoparticles in-vitro results against immortalized skin human keratinocytes cells (HaCaT).

Keywords: butylglycerols, dextran, nanoparticles, transdermal

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
23 Hierarchical Clustering Algorithms in Data Mining

Authors: Z. Abdullah, A. R. Hamdan

Abstract:

Clustering is a process of grouping objects and data into groups of clusters to ensure that data objects from the same cluster are identical to each other. Clustering algorithms in one of the areas in data mining and it can be classified into partition, hierarchical, density based, and grid-based. Therefore, in this paper, we do a survey and review for four major hierarchical clustering algorithms called CURE, ROCK, CHAMELEON, and BIRCH. The obtained state of the art of these algorithms will help in eliminating the current problems, as well as deriving more robust and scalable algorithms for clustering.

Keywords: clustering, unsupervised learning, algorithms, hierarchical

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22 Representation Data without Lost Compression Properties in Time Series: A Review

Authors: Nabilah Filzah Mohd Radzuan, Zalinda Othman, Azuraliza Abu Bakar, Abdul Razak Hamdan

Abstract:

Uncertain data is believed to be an important issue in building up a prediction model. The main objective in the time series uncertainty analysis is to formulate uncertain data in order to gain knowledge and fit low dimensional model prior to a prediction task. This paper discusses the performance of a number of techniques in dealing with uncertain data specifically those which solve uncertain data condition by minimizing the loss of compression properties.

Keywords: compression properties, uncertainty, uncertain time series, mining technique, weather prediction

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21 Comparative Study of Universities’ Web Structure Mining

Authors: Z. Abdullah, A. R. Hamdan

Abstract:

This paper is meant to analyze the ranking of University of Malaysia Terengganu, UMT’s website in the World Wide Web. There are only few researches have been done on comparing the ranking of universities’ websites so this research will be able to determine whether the existing UMT’s website is serving its purpose which is to introduce UMT to the world. The ranking is based on hub and authority values which are accordance to the structure of the website. These values are computed using two web-searching algorithms, HITS and SALSA. Three other universities’ websites are used as the benchmarks which are UM, Harvard and Stanford. The result is clearly showing that more work has to be done on the existing UMT’s website where important pages according to the benchmarks, do not exist in UMT’s pages. The ranking of UMT’s website will act as a guideline for the web-developer to develop a more efficient website.

Keywords: algorithm, ranking, website, web structure mining

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20 Numerical Study on the Hazards of Gravitational Forces on Cerebral Aneurysms

Authors: Hashem M. Alargha, Mohammad O. Hamdan, Waseem H. Aziz

Abstract:

Aerobatic and military pilots are subjected to high gravitational forces that could cause blackout, physical injuries or death. A CFD simulation using fluid-solid interactions scheme has been conducted to investigate the gravitational effects and hazards inside cerebral aneurysms. Medical data have been used to derive the size and geometry of a simple aneurysm on a T-shaped bifurcation. The results show that gravitational force has no effect on maximum Wall Shear Stress (WSS); hence, it will not cause aneurysm initiation/formation. However, gravitational force cause causes hypertension which could contribute to aneurysm rupture.

Keywords: aneurysm, cfd, wall shear stress, gravity, fluid dynamics, bifurcation artery

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19 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Jordanian Juglans regia L.

Authors: Hamoud Alshammari, Adnan Almezani, Hamdan Alshammari, Faris Alharbi

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In this study we have examined of antimicrobial activity for unripe Juglan Regia phenolic extracts against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a member of Juglandaceae family used as a remedy in folk medicine. Leaves, barks, fruits and husk (peel) reported to harbor distinctive medical effect. In our study, we examined the anti-microbial effect against a set of gram positive and negative bacteria and even we have tested them against eukaryotic candida strains in a concentration gradual manner. Ethyl acetate extract of J. regia had the best antibacterial activity when compared with ciprofloxacin. The Minimum inhibition concentration for S. aureus, P. aerogenosa and S. epidermidis MIC was 0.85 mg/mL.

Keywords: antimicrobial, J. regia, S. aureus, phytochemistry

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18 Comparative Study od Three Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Rain Domain in Precipitation Forecast

Authors: Nabilah Filzah Mohd Radzuan, Andi Putra, Zalinda Othman, Azuraliza Abu Bakar, Abdul Razak Hamdan

Abstract:

Precipitation forecast is important to avoid natural disaster incident which can cause losses in the involved area. This paper reviews three techniques logistic regression, decision tree, and random forest which are used in making precipitation forecast. These combination techniques through the vector auto-regression (VAR) model help in finding the advantages and strengths of each technique in the forecast process. The data-set contains variables of the rain’s domain. Adaptation of artificial intelligence techniques involved in rain domain enables the forecast process to be easier and systematic for precipitation forecast.

Keywords: logistic regression, decisions tree, random forest, VAR model

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17 Modeling and Simulations of Surface Plasmon Waveguide Structures

Authors: Moussa Hamdan, Abdulati Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation of the fabrication of the optical devices in terms of their characteristics based on the use of the electromagnetic waves. Planar waveguides are used to examine the field modes (bound modes) and the parameters required for this structure. The modifications are conducted on surface plasmons based waveguides. Simple symmetric dielectric slab structure is used and analyzed in terms of transverse electric mode (TE-Mode) and transverse magnetic mode (TM-Mode. The paper presents mathematical and numerical solutions for solving simple symmetric plasmons and provides simulations of surface plasmons for field confinement. Asymmetric TM-mode calculations for dielectric surface plasmons are also provided.

Keywords: surface plasmons, optical waveguides, semiconductor lasers, refractive index, slab dialectical

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16 A New Method for Fault Detection

Authors: Mehmet Hakan Karaata, Ali Hamdan, Omer Yusuf Adam Mohamed

Abstract:

Consider a distributed system that delivers messages from a process to another. Such a system is often required to deliver each message to its destination regardless of whether or not the system components experience arbitrary forms of faults. In addition, each message received by the destination must be a message sent by a system process. In this paper, we first identify the necessary and sufficient conditions to detect some restricted form of Byzantine faults referred to as modifying Byzantine faults. An observable form of a Byzantine fault whose effect is limited to the modification of a message metadata or content, timing and omission faults, and message replay is referred to as a modifying Byzantine fault. We then present a distributed protocol to detect modifying Byzantine faults using optimal number of messages over node-disjoint paths.

Keywords: Byzantine faults, distributed systems, fault detection, network protocols, node-disjoint paths

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15 Modifying Byzantine Fault Detection Using Disjoint Paths

Authors: Mehmet Hakan Karaata, Ali Hamdan, Omer Yusuf Adam Mohamed

Abstract:

Consider a distributed system that delivers messages from a process to another. Such a system is often required to deliver each message to its destination regardless of whether or not the system components experience arbitrary forms of faults. In addition, each message received by the destination must be a message sent by a system process. In this paper, we first identify the necessary and sufficient conditions to detect some restricted form of Byzantine faults referred to as modifying Byzantine faults. An observable form of a Byzantine fault whose effect is limited to the modification of a message metadata or content, timing and omission faults, and message replay is referred to as a modifying Byzantine fault. We then present a distributed protocol to detect modifying Byzantine faults using optimal number of messages over node-disjoint paths.

Keywords: Byzantine faults, distributed systems, fault detection, network pro- tocols, node-disjoint paths

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14 An Analysis of the Influence of Employee Readiness for Change on TQM Implementation

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Khalil Al-Hyari, Mohammed Khair Abu Zaid, Ramadane Djbarni, Mohammed Hamdan

Abstract:

While employee readiness for change (ERFC) is recognised as critical for total quality management (TQM) implementation, there is a lack of systematic and empirical studies regarding the relationship between ERFC dimensions and TQM. Therefore, this study proposes to fill this gap by providing empirical evidence leading to advancement in the understanding of the influences of ERFC components on TQM implementation. The empirical data for this study was drawn from a survey of 400 middle and senior managers of Jordanian firms. The analysis of the collected data, which was conducted using Structural Equation Modeling technique, revealed that three of the ERFC components, namely personally beneficial, change self-efficacy and management support are the most supportive ERFC dimensions for TQM implementation. Therefore, this paper makes a novel contribution by providing a refined and deeper comprehension of the relationships between ERFCs and TQM implementation.

Keywords: total quality management, employee readiness for change, manufacturing organisations, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
13 Cell Surface Display of Xylanase on Escherichia coli by TibA Autotransporter

Authors: Yeng Min Yi, Rosli Md Illias, Salehhuddin Hamdan

Abstract:

Industrial biocatalysis is mainly based on the use of cell free or intracellular enzyme systems. However, the expensive cost and relatively lower operational stability of free enzymes limit practical use in industries. Cell surface display system can be used as a cost-efficient alternative to overcome the laborious purification and substrate transport limitation. In this research, TibA autotransporter from E. coli was used to display Aspergillus fumigatus xylanase (xyn). The amplified xyn was fused in between N-terminal signal peptide and C-terminal β-barrel of TibA. The cloned was transformed and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Outer membrane localization of TibA-xyn fusion protein was confirmed by SDS PAGE and western blot with expected size of 62.5 kDa. Functional display of xyn was examined by activity assay. Cell surface displayed xyn exhibited the highest activity at 37 °c, 0.3 mM IPTG. As a summary, TibA displaying system has the potential for further industrial applications. Moreover, this is the first report of the display of xylanase using TibA on the surface of E. coli.

Keywords: biocatalysis, cell surface display, Escherichia coli, TibA autotransporter

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12 Higher Order Thinking Skills Workshop: Faculty Professional Development and Its Effect on Their Teaching Strategies

Authors: Amani Hamdan

Abstract:

A post-workshop of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), for faculty from diverse academic disciplines, was conducted and the researcher surveyed the participants’ intentions and plans to include HOTS as a goal, as learning and teaching task in their practices. Follow-up interviews with a random sample of participants were used to determine if they fulfilled their intentions three 3 months after the workshop. The degree of planned and enacted HOTS then was analyzed against the post-workshop HOT ability and knowledge. This is one topic that has not been adequately explored in faculty professional development literature where measuring the effect of learning on their ability to use what they learned. This qualitative method study explored a group of male and female faculty members (n=85) enrolled in HOTS 2 day workshop. The results showed that 89% of faculty members although were mostly enthused to apply what they learned after a 3 months period they were caught up with routine presentations and lecturing.

Keywords: higher education, faculty development, Saudi Arabia, higher order thinking skills

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11 A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor, Alexander Lau, Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 °C and 600 °C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 °C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, cassava wastes, corn cob, pyrolysis

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10 An Experimental Investigation on the Droplet Behavior Impacting a Hot Surface above the Leidenfrost Temperature

Authors: Khaleel Sami Hamdan, Dong-Eok Kim, Sang-Ki Moon

Abstract:

An appropriate model to predict the size of the droplets resulting from the break-up with the structures will help in a better understanding and modeling of the two-phase flow calculations in the simulation of a reactor core loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A droplet behavior impacting on a hot surface above the Leidenfrost temperature was investigated. Droplets of known size and velocity were impacted to an inclined plate of hot temperature, and the behavior of the droplets was observed by a high-speed camera. It was found that for droplets of Weber number higher than a certain value, the higher the Weber number of the droplet the smaller the secondary droplets. The COBRA-TF model over-predicted the measured secondary droplet sizes obtained by the present experiment. A simple model for the secondary droplet size was proposed using the mass conservation equation. The maximum spreading diameter of the droplets was also compared to previous correlations and a fairly good agreement was found. A better prediction of the heat transfer in the case of LOCA can be obtained with the presented model.

Keywords: break-up, droplet, impact, inclined hot plate, Leidenfrost temperature, LOCA

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9 The Influence of National Culture on Consumer Buying Behaviour: An Exploratory Study of Nigerian and British Consumers

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Lombe Ngome Enongene, Mohammed Hamdan, Gbolahan Gbadamosi

Abstract:

Despite the considerable body of literature investigating the influence of National Culture (NC) dimensions on consumer behaviour, there is a lack of studies comparing the influence of NC in Africa with Western European countries. This study is intended to fill the vacuum in knowledge by exploring how NC affects consumer buyer behavior in Nigeria and the United Kingdom. The primary data were collected through in depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with three groups of individuals: British students, Nigerian students in the United Kingdom, and Nigerian-based students. This approach and new frontier to analyze culture and consumer behaviour could help understand residual cultural threads of people (that are ingrained in their being) irrespective of exposure to other cultures. The findings of this study show that Nigerian and British consumers differ remarkably in cultural orientations such as symbols, values and psychological standpoints. This ultimately affects the choices made at every stage of the decision building process, and proves beneficial for international retail marketing.

Keywords: national culture, consumer behaviour, international business, Nigeria

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8 Various Factors Affecting Students Performances In A Saudi Medical School

Authors: Raneem O. Salem, Najwa Al-Mously, Nihal Mohamed Nabil, Abdulmohsen H. Al-Zalabani, Abeer F. Al-Dhawi, Nasser Al-Hamdan

Abstract:

Objective: There are various demographic and educational factors that affect the academic performance of undergraduate medical students. The objective of this study is to identify these factors and correlate them to the GPA of the students. Methods: A cross-sectional study design utilizing grade point averages (GPAs) of two cohorts of students in both levels of the pre-clinical phase. In addition, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with poor and good cumulative GPA. Results: Among the various factors studied, gender, marital status, and the transportation used to reach the faculty significantly affected academic performance of students. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed than those with a GPA of less than 3.0 being higher in female students, in married students, and type of transportation used to reach the college. Factors including age, educational factors, and type of transportation used have shown to create a significant difference in GPA between male and females. Conclusion: Factors such as age, gender, marital status, learning resources, study time, and the transportation used have been shown to significantly affect medical student GPA as a whole batch as well as when they are tested for gender.

Keywords: academic performance, educational factors, learning resources, study time, gender, socio-demographic factors

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7 Compilation of Islamic Law as Law Applied Religious Courts in Indonesia (Responding to Changes in Religious Courts Authority)

Authors: Hamdan Arief Hanif, Rahmat Sidiq

Abstract:

Indonesia is a country of law, the legal system adopted by Indonesia is a civil law system. A major feature of the civil law is the codified legislation. Meanwhile the majority of society Indonesia are Muslims, whilst Islamic law itself having the sources written in Qur'an, Sunnah and the opinion of Muslim scholars, generally not codified in book form of legislation that is easy on the set as a reference. in Indonesia, many scholars have different opinions in decisions so that there is no legal certainty in Muslim civil cases, so the need for legal codification, which, as the source of the judges in deciding a case, especially a case in religious courts. This paper raised the topic of discussion which offers a solution to the application of the codification of the Islamic Law which became the core resources in delivering a verdict against Islamic civil related issue; codification usually called a compilation of Islamic Law. Compilation of Islamic Law is highly recommended as a core reference for the judges in religious courts in Indonesia. This compilation which includes a collection of large number of opinions scholars (book of fiqh) that existed previously and are ripened in deduce in order to unify the existing differences. This paper also discusses how the early formation of the compilation and as the right solution in order to create legal certainty and justice especially for the muslim community in Indonesia.

Keywords: Islamic law, compilation, law applied core, religious court

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6 BIM-Based Tool for Sustainability Assessment and Certification Documents Provision

Authors: Taki Eddine Seghier, Mohd Hamdan Ahmad, Yaik-Wah Lim, Samuel Opeyemi Williams

Abstract:

The assessment of building sustainability to achieve a specific green benchmark and the preparation of the required documents in order to receive a green building certification, both are considered as major challenging tasks for green building design team. However, this labor and time-consuming process can take advantage of the available Building Information Modeling (BIM) features such as material take-off and scheduling. Furthermore, the workflow can be automated in order to track potentially achievable credit points and provide rating feedback for several design options by using integrated Visual Programing (VP) to handle the stored parameters within the BIM model. Hence, this study proposes a BIM-based tool that uses Green Building Index (GBI) rating system requirements as a unique input case to evaluate the building sustainability in the design stage of the building project life cycle. The tool covers two key models for data extraction, firstly, a model for data extraction, calculation and the classification of achievable credit points in a green template, secondly, a model for the generation of the required documents for green building certification. The tool was validated on a BIM model of residential building and it serves as proof of concept that building sustainability assessment of GBI certification can be automatically evaluated and documented through BIM.

Keywords: green building rating system, GBRS, building information modeling, BIM, visual programming, VP, sustainability assessment

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5 Biopsy Proven Polyoma (BK) Virus in Saudi Kidney Recipients – Prevalence, Clinicopathological Features and Clinico-Pathological Correlations

Authors: Sarah Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Khaled Alsaad, Abdullah Al-Sayyari

Abstract:

Objectives: To study the prevalence, clinicopathological features, risk factors and outcome of biopsy proven polyoma (BK) virus infection among Saudi kidney transplant recipients and compare them to negative BK virus group. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all the patients with biopsy-proven polyoma (BK) virus infection in King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh between 2005 and 2011. The details of clinical presentation, the indication for kidney biopsy, the laboratory findings at presentation, the natural history of the disease, thepathological findings, the prognosis as well as the response to therapy were all recorded. Results: Kidney biopsy was performed in 37 cases of unexplained graft dysfunction. BK virus was found in 10 (27%). Out of those 10, 3 (30%) ended with graft failure. BK virus occurred in all patients who received ATG induction therapy 100% versus 59.3% in the non BK virus patients (p=0.06). Furthermore, the risk of BK virus was much less in those who received acyclovir as an anti-viral prophylaxis as compared to those who did not receive it (p=0.01). Also, patients with BK virus weighed much less (mean 46.7±20.6 Kgs) than those without BK virus at time of transplantation (mean 64.3±12.1). Graft survival was better among deceased donor kidneys compared to living ones (P=0.016) and with older age (P=0.005). Conclusion: Our findings suggest the involvement of ATG induction therapy, the lack of antiviral prophylaxis therapy and lower weight at transplant as significant risk factors for the development of BK virus infection.

Keywords: BKVAN, BKV, kidney transpant, Saudi Arabia

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4 User-Perceived Quality Factors for Certification Model of Web-Based System

Authors: Jamaiah H. Yahaya, Aziz Deraman, Abdul Razak Hamdan, Yusmadi Yah Jusoh

Abstract:

One of the most essential issues in software products is to maintain it relevancy to the dynamics of the user’s requirements and expectation. Many studies have been carried out in quality aspect of software products to overcome these problems. Previous software quality assessment models and metrics have been introduced with strengths and limitations. In order to enhance the assurance and buoyancy of the software products, certification models have been introduced and developed. From our previous experiences in certification exercises and case studies collaborating with several agencies in Malaysia, the requirements for user based software certification approach is identified and demanded. The emergence of social network applications, the new development approach such as agile method and other varieties of software in the market have led to the domination of users over the software. As software become more accessible to the public through internet applications, users are becoming more critical in the quality of the services provided by the software. There are several categories of users in web-based systems with different interests and perspectives. The classifications and metrics are identified through brain storming approach with includes researchers, users and experts in this area. The new paradigm in software quality assessment is the main focus in our research. This paper discusses the classifications of users in web-based software system assessment and their associated factors and metrics for quality measurement. The quality model is derived based on IEEE structure and FCM model. The developments are beneficial and valuable to overcome the constraints and improve the application of software certification model in future.

Keywords: software certification model, user centric approach, software quality factors, metrics and measurements, web-based system

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3 Use of Simulation in Medical Education: Role and Challenges

Authors: Raneem Osama Salem, Ayesha Nuzhat, Fatimah Nasser Al Shehri, Nasser Al Hamdan

Abstract:

Background: Recently, most medical schools around the globe are using simulation for teaching and assessing students’ clinical skills and competence. There are many obstacles that could face students and faculty when simulation sessions are introduced into undergraduate curriculum. Objective: The aim of this study is to obtain the opinion of undergraduate medical students and our faculty regarding the role of simulation in undergraduate curriculum, the simulation modalities used, and perceived barriers in implementing stimulation sessions. Methods: To address the role of simulation, modalities used, and perceived challenges to implementation of simulation sessions, a self-administered pilot tested questionnaire with 18 items using a 5 point Likert scale was distributed. Participants included undergraduate male medical students (n=125) and female students (n=70) as well as the faculty members (n=14). Result: Various learning outcomes are achieved and improved through the technology enhanced simulation sessions such as communication skills, diagnostic skills, procedural skills, self-confidence, and integration of basic and clinical sciences. The use of high fidelity simulators, simulated patients and task trainers was more desirable by our students and faculty for teaching and learning as well as an evaluation tool. According to most of the students,' institutional support in terms of resources, staff and duration of sessions was adequate. However, motivation to participate in the sessions and provision of adequate feedback by the staff was a constraint. Conclusion: The use of simulation laboratory is of great benefit to the students and a great teaching tool for the staff to ensure students learning of the various skills.

Keywords: simulators, medical students, skills, simulated patients, performance, challenges, skill laboratory

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2 Executive Functions Directly Associated with Severity of Perceived Pain above and beyond Depression in the Context of Medical Rehabilitation

Authors: O. Elkana, O Heyman, S. Hamdan, M. Franko, J. Vatine

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate whether a direct link exists between perceived pain (PP) and executive functions (EF), above and beyond the influence of depression symptoms, in the context of medical rehabilitation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rehabilitation Hospital. Participants: 125 medical records of hospitalized patients were screened for matching to our inclusion criteria. Only 60 patients were found fit and were asked to participate. 19 decline to participate on personal basis. The 41 neurologically intact patients (mean age 46, SD 14.96) that participated in this study were in their sub-acute stage of recovery, with fluent Hebrew, with intact upper limb (to neutralize influence on psychomotor performances) and without an organic brain damage. Main Outcome Measures: EF were assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Stop-Signal Test (SST). PP was measured using 3 well-known pain questionnaires: Pain Disability Index (PDI), The Short-Form McGill Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Perceived pain index (PPI) was calculated by the mean score composite from the 3 pain questionnaires. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results: The results indicate that irrespective of the presence of depression symptoms, PP is directly correlated with response inhibition (SST partial correlation: r=0.5; p=0.001) and mental flexibility (WSCT partial correlation: r=-0.37; p=0.021), suggesting decreased performance in EF as PP severity increases. High correlations were found between the 3 pain measurements: SF-MPQ with PDI (r=0.62, p<0.001), SF-MPQ with PCS (r=0.58, p<0.001) and PDI with PCS (r=0.38, p=0.016) and each questionnaire alone was also significantly associated with EF; thus, no specific questionnaires ‘pulled’ the results obtained by the general index (PPI). Conclusion: Examining the direct association between PP and EF, beyond the contribution of depression symptoms, provides further clinical evidence suggesting that EF and PP share underlying mediating neuronal mechanisms. Clinically, the importance of assessing patients' EF abilities as well as PP severity during rehabilitation is underscored.

Keywords: depression, executive functions, mental-flexibility, neuropsychology, pain perception, perceived pain, response inhibition

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1 Clustering-Based Computational Workload Minimization in Ontology Matching

Authors: Mansir Abubakar, Hazlina Hamdan, Norwati Mustapha, Teh Noranis Mohd Aris

Abstract:

In order to build a matching pattern for each class correspondences of ontology, it is required to specify a set of attribute correspondences across two corresponding classes by clustering. Clustering reduces the size of potential attribute correspondences considered in the matching activity, which will significantly reduce the computation workload; otherwise, all attributes of a class should be compared with all attributes of the corresponding class. Most existing ontology matching approaches lack scalable attributes discovery methods, such as cluster-based attribute searching. This problem makes ontology matching activity computationally expensive. It is therefore vital in ontology matching to design a scalable element or attribute correspondence discovery method that would reduce the size of potential elements correspondences during mapping thereby reduce the computational workload in a matching process as a whole. The objective of this work is 1) to design a clustering method for discovering similar attributes correspondences and relationships between ontologies, 2) to discover element correspondences by classifying elements of each class based on element’s value features using K-medoids clustering technique. Discovering attribute correspondence is highly required for comparing instances when matching two ontologies. During the matching process, any two instances across two different data sets should be compared to their attribute values, so that they can be regarded to be the same or not. Intuitively, any two instances that come from classes across which there is a class correspondence are likely to be identical to each other. Besides, any two instances that hold more similar attribute values are more likely to be matched than the ones with less similar attribute values. Most of the time, similar attribute values exist in the two instances across which there is an attribute correspondence. This work will present how to classify attributes of each class with K-medoids clustering, then, clustered groups to be mapped by their statistical value features. We will also show how to map attributes of a clustered group to attributes of the mapped clustered group, generating a set of potential attribute correspondences that would be applied to generate a matching pattern. The K-medoids clustering phase would largely reduce the number of attribute pairs that are not corresponding for comparing instances as only the coverage probability of attributes pairs that reaches 100% and attributes above the specified threshold can be considered as potential attributes for a matching. Using clustering will reduce the size of potential elements correspondences to be considered during mapping activity, which will in turn reduce the computational workload significantly. Otherwise, all element of the class in source ontology have to be compared with all elements of the corresponding classes in target ontology. K-medoids can ably cluster attributes of each class, so that a proportion of attribute pairs that are not corresponding would not be considered when constructing the matching pattern.

Keywords: attribute correspondence, clustering, computational workload, k-medoids clustering, ontology matching

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