Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1161

Search results for: behaviors

1161 The Study of the Awareness of Sexual Risk Bahaviors and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Students

Authors: Sumitta Sawangtook, Parichart Thano

Abstract:

The purposes of research were to study the relationship between the awareness of sexual risk behaviors and sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students, and to compare the sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students by gender, education level, sweetheart’s number, achievement, sexual value, and the influence of the friendship group. The research sample of 344 sevenths through twelfth grade students in secondary school for the academic year 2014, Dindang district Bangkok was selected by simple random sampling. The research instruments are: 1) demographic questionnaire 2) evaluation form of the awareness of sexual risk behaviors 3) questionnaire about sexual value 4) questionnaire about the influence of the friendship group and 5) evaluation form of sexual risk behaviors. They were used for data collections which are subsequently analyzed by percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, One-way Analysis of Variances. The results of this study were presented as follow: 1) The awareness of sexual risk behaviors was negatively correlated with sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students (r=-.27, p=.000). 2) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had gender difference (t=5.90, p=.000). 3) There was no significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of education (t=1.41, p=.16). 4) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of sweetheart’s number (F=13.03, p=.000). 5) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of achievement (F=4.77, p=.009). 6) There were significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had different level of sexual value (F=50.91, p=.000) 7) There were significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had different level of the influence of the friendship group (F=98.41, p=.000).

Keywords: the awareness of sexual risk behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, adolescent students

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1160 Level up Entrepreneurial Behaviors: A Case Study on the Use of Gamification to Encourage Entrepreneurial Acting and Thinking

Authors: Lena Murawski

Abstract:

Currently, researchers and experts from the business world recognize entrepreneurial behaviors as a decisive factor for economic success, allowing firms to adapt to changing internal and external needs. The purpose of this study is to explore how gamification can enhance entrepreneurial behaviors, reporting on a gamification project in a new venture operating in the IT sector in Germany. This article is based on data gathered from observations of pre‐ and post‐implementation in the case company. Results have indicated that the use of gamification encourages entrepreneurial behaviors, especially relating to seeking ways on how to integrate new employees, improve teamwork and communication, and to adapt existing processes to increase productivity. The interdisciplinary dialogue furthers our understanding of factors that foster entrepreneurial behaviors. The matter is of practical relevance, guiding practitioners on how to exploit the potentials of gamification to exhibit an entrepreneurial orientation in organizations.

Keywords: case study, entrepreneurial behaviors, gamification, new venture

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1159 Colony Size and Behaviors Characteristics of Monkeys in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Karimullah Karim, Shahrul Anuar, T. Dauda

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Swarm of research on monkey behavior exists, but were concerned with an aspect of molecular study in support of human primate and non-human primates. Many researchers take an interest in the study of Primates and their environment for the reason that they are intimately connected to humans in terms of human social behaviors. In this context, a study of the activity budget of monkeys was conducted in three states of Peninsular Malaysia. The chi-square test was served to analysis the behaviors and their variances in different study areas, effects of seasonal variation on behaviors, time differences in behaviors and habituated and non-habituated behaviors of monkeys. In consequent the behavior of moving (17%) was found higher followed by climbing (15%), eating (13%), and other social behaviors. All the behavior categories were found significant at p<0.05. The most common behavior of the monkeys in conclusion has been found associated with the restiveness of the animal and that their colony size is not rigid as it depends also on some other factors. This study can therefore serve as a starting point for the understanding of comparative behaviors of monkey in general and the study of the monkey behavior is thus recommended to be expanded to cover more study areas as well as species than in the present work.

Keywords: activity budget, Peninsular Malaysia, monkeys colony, behaviour

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1158 The Role of Online Videos in Undergraduate Casual-Leisure Information Behaviors

Authors: Nei-Ching Yeh

Abstract:

This study describes undergraduate casual-leisure information behaviors relevant to online videos. Diaries and in-depth interviews were used to collect data. Twenty-four undergraduates participated in this study (9 men, 15 women; all were aged 18–22 years). This study presents a model of casual-leisure information behaviors and contributes new insights into user experience in casual-leisure settings, such as online video programs, with implications for other information domains.

Keywords: casual-leisure information behaviors, information behavior, online videos, role

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1157 The Role of Lifetime Stress in the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Health-Risk Behaviors

Authors: Teresa Smith, Farrah Jacquez

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Health-risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, poor diet) directly increase the risk for chronic disease and morbidity. There is substantial evidence of a negative association between socioeconomic status (SES) and engagement in health-risk behaviors. However, due to the complexity of SES, researchers have suggested looking beyond this factor to fully understand the mechanisms that underlie engagement in health-risk behaviors. Stress is one plausible mechanism through which SES impacts health-risk behaviors. Currently, it remains unclear how stress occurring across the life course might impact health behaviors and explain the association between SES and these behaviors. To address the gaps in the literature, 172 adults between the ages of 18-49 were surveyed about their lifetime stress exposure, sociodemographic variables, and health-risk behaviors via an online recruitment portal, Prolific. Five major findings emerged from the current study. First, SES was negatively associated with engagement in health-risk behaviors and lifetime stress above and beyond current stress and other relevant demographics. Second, lifetime stress was significantly associated with health-risk behaviors above and beyond current stress and relevant demographic variables. Third, lifetime stress fully mediated the association between SES and health-risk behaviors above and beyond current stress and other demographics. Fourth, the severity of stress experienced emerged as the most significant lifetime stress variable that explains the relation between SES and health-risk behaviors. Fifth and finally, lower SES and experiencing financial and legal/crime stressors increased the likelihood of engaging in health-risk behaviors. The current study results align with previous research and suggest that stress occurring over the lifespan impacts the relation between SES and health-risk behaviors, which are in turn known to impact health outcomes. However, our findings move the current literature forward by providing a more nuanced understanding of the specific aspects of stress that influence this association. Specifically, the severity of stress experienced across the entire lifespan was the most important aspect of stress when examining the association between SES and health-risk behaviors. Further, individuals most at risk for engaging in health-risk behaviors are those of the lowest SES and experience financial and legal/crime stressors. These findings have the potential to inform interventions and policies aimed at addressing health-risk behaviors by providing a more sophisticated understanding of the impact of stress.

Keywords: stress, health behaviors, socioeconomic status, health

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1156 Attitudes and Behaviors of Pediatric Residents towards Care for Underserved Children in a Tertiary Government Hospital

Authors: Paul Lawrence Filomeno, John Robert Medina, Anna Lisa Ong-Lim, Leonila Dans

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Introduction: In most hospitals, pediatric residents are part of the frontline team who interacts with medically underserved patients. Despite of these daily encounters, little is known regarding their attitudes and behaviors towards caring for these underserved patients. Objectives: This study measured the pediatric resident physicians’ attitudes and behaviors towards underserved patients and determine its association. Methodology: The study utilized a cross-sectional mixed methodology, combining the use of a self-administered questionnaire survey using the Learner’s Needs Assessment tool, measuring both attitudes and behaviors towards the underserved. This is followed by a focus group discussion (FGD) involving a sample of residents at the Philippine General Hospital. Results: The response rate was 100% among 62 residents. Overall, 78% of pediatric residents acknowledged the issues of medically underserved to be very important. Volunteerism (behaviors) was only 27% during residency, and was projected to be 90% in future practice. No significant association was noted between their attitudes and behaviors. The FGD revealed that factors (i.e. burnout) causes strains in residents towards the underserved. Frustration from genuine concern for the underserved children was apparent. Conclusion: Among PGH pediatric residents, their attitudes and behaviors are noted to be positive towards the underserved. There was no significant correlation noted between having positive attitudes and volunteerism (behaviors) of the residents towards the underserved. Despite this, residents pointed out certain factors (i.e. burnout) that affect their attitudes and behaviors. The study results may serve as the basis for curriculum enhancements tailored to promote resident well-being, molding them to become the ‘5-star pediatricians’ who will genuinely be ready to serve the underserved.

Keywords: pediatric residents, attitudes, behaviors, underserved children

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1155 Condom Attitudes and Self-Efficacy: Unwrapping Safer Sex Practices among Heterosexual Bahamian Men

Authors: Theresa Adderley

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Background: Aside from abstinence, correct and consistent use of latex condoms is the best known effective method to reduce HIV transmission among sexually active heterosexual individuals. When condoms are correctly used, the risk of HIV transmission is reduced by approximately 85%, relative to risk when not protected during sexual intercourse. The literature provides evidence that heterosexual young adults continue to be the group among whom STI rates are highest and the group that engages in more sexual risk-taking behaviors such as inconsistent or no condom usage. This study examines condom attitudes, condom use self-efficacy and their contributions to safer sex behaviors among heterosexual men living in The Bahamas. Methods: Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, and a convenience sample of 185 heterosexual males (Mage= 31.95, SD = 11.35), three standardized instruments were used to assess behaviors that may not only place heterosexual males at risk for HIV infection but also their female partners. Results: The results of this study suggest that condom attitudes, and condom use self-efficacy are important in explaining 24% variance in safer sex behaviors among Bahamian men. Income (β= -.15, p < .01; condom attitudes, (β= .36, p < .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β= .1, p < .01) were significantly associated with safer sex behaviors. Conclusion: Rather than focusing only on the use of safer sex behaviors, an effective HIV prevention strategy must consider condom attitudes and condom use self-efficacy as specific variables that may contribute to perpetuating the transmission of HIV.

Keywords: condom attitudes, safer sex behaviors, HIV, condom self-efficacy

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1154 A Literature Review of Ergonomics Sitting Studies to Characterize Safe and Unsafe Sitting Behaviors

Authors: Yoonjin Lee, Dongwook Hwang, Juhee Park, Woojin Park

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As undesirable sitting posture is known to be a major cause of musculoskeletal disorder of office workers, sitting has attracted attention on occupational health. However, there seems to be no consensus on what are safe and unsafe sitting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safe and unsafe behaviors based on scientific findings of sitting behavior. Three objectives were as follows; to identify different sitting behaviors measure used in ergonomics studies on safe sitting, for each measure identified, to find available findings or recommendations on safe and unsafe sitting behaviors along with relevant empirical grounds, and to synthesize the findings or recommendations to provide characterizations of safe and unsafe behaviors. A systematic review of electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science) was conducted for extensive search of sitting behavior. Key terms included awkward sitting position, sedentary sitting, dynamic sitting, sitting posture, sitting posture, and sitting biomechanics, etc. Each article was systemically abstracted to extract a list of studied sitting behaviors, measures used to study the sitting behavior, and presence of empirical evidence of safety of the sitting behaviors. Finally, characterization of safe and unsafe sitting behavior was conducted based on knowledge with empirical evidence. This characterization is expected to provide useful knowledge for evaluation of sitting behavior and about postures to be measured in development of sensing chair.

Keywords: sitting position, sitting biomechanics, sitting behavior, unsafe sitting

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1153 The Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students from Only-Child Families: A National Survey in China

Authors: Jiashu Shen

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This study aims at exploring the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Chinese college students from the 'one-child' families compared with those with siblings. This study utilized the data from the 'National College Student Survey on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2019'. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between the 'only-child' and their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, sexual behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors (RSB) stratified by sex and home regions, respectively. Compared with students with siblings, the 'only-child' students scored higher in sex-related knowledge (only-child students: 4.49 ± 2.28, students with siblings: 3.60 ± 2.27). Stronger associations between only-child and more liberal sexual attitudes were found in urban areas, including the approval of premarital sexual intercourse (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.50-1.65) and multiple sexual partners (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.72-1.99). For risky sexual behaviors, being only-child is more likely to use condoms in first sexual intercourse, especially among male students (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80). Only-child students are more likely to have more sexual knowledge, more liberal sexual attitude, and less risky sexual behavior. Further health policy and sex education should focus more on students with siblings.

Keywords: attitudes and behaviors, only-child students, sexual knowledge, students with siblings

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1152 Review on Moral Disengagement in Sports

Authors: Min Pan, Che-Yi Yang

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Behaviors in sports have been one of the research focuses for long. The possible causes of these deviant behaviors should be deterred to diminish such behaviors. The studies on moral disengagement in sports gained great attention internationally since then however studies regarding such issue are rather scarce in Taiwan. Hence, the study adopted literature review approach to retrospect researches on moral disengagement in sport so forth, introduced current instruments available – moral disengagement in sports (six factors, 32 items), moral disengagement in sports –short (1 factor, 8 items), and two Chinese version scales. It has been proved that moral disengagement in sport would render antisocial behaviors in sport context. It is also found players in team contact sports (e.g. basketball, football, and hockey) have higher moral disengagement at play. Male athletes tend to have higher moral disengagement than their female counterparts. Athletes competing in higher level also show higher moral disengagement. The study also summarized that factors such as coaching styles, emotion, self-orientation, motivation, and personality traits may deter the severity of moral disengagement of athletes hence further spur the antisocial behaviors in sports. It is suggested that a measurement of moral disengagement adequate for Taiwanese athletes and effective strategies for improving the antisocial behaviors should be developed based on the knowledge of moral disengagement in sports.

Keywords: antisocial behavior, attribution of blame, moral disengagement in sports measurement, nonresponsibility

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1151 Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Sorority Women

Authors: Andrea J. Kirk-Jenkins

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Women in late adolescence and young adulthood are particularly vulnerable to disordered eating, and prior research indicates that those within the college and sorority communities may be especially susceptible. Research has primarily involved comparing eating disorder symptoms between sorority women and non-sorority members using formal eating disorder assessments. This phenomenological study examined sorority members’ (N = 10) perceptions of and lived experiences with various disordered eating behaviors within the sorority culture. Data from individual interviews and photographs indicated two structural themes and 11 textural themes related to factors associated with disordered eating behaviors. These findings point to the existence of both positive and negative aspects of sorority culture, normalization of disordered eating behaviors, and pressure to attain or maintain an ideal body image. Implications for university stakeholders, including college counselors, health center staff, and extracurricular program leaders, are discussed. Further research on the identified textural themes as well as a longitudinal study exploring how perceptions change from rush to alumnae status is suggested.

Keywords: eating disorders, disorder eating behaviors, sorority women, sorority culture, college women

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1150 Emotions and Message Sharing on the Chinese Microblog

Authors: Yungeng Xie, Cong Liu, Yi Liu, Xuanao Wan

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The study aims to explore microblog users’ emotion expression and sharing behaviors on the Chinese microblog (Weibo). The first theme of study analyzed whether microblog emotions impact readers’ message sharing behaviors, specifically, how the strength of emotion (positive and negative) in microblog messages facilitate/inhibit readers’ sharing behaviors. The second theme compared the differences among the three types of microblog users (i.e., verified enterprise users, verified individual users and unverified users) in terms of their profiles and microblog behaviors. A total of 7114 microblog messages about 24 hot public events in China were sampled from Sina Weibo. The first study results show that strength of negative emotions that microblog messages carry significantly increase the possibility of the message being shared. The second study results indicate that there are significant differences across the three types of users in terms of their emotion expression and its influence on microblog behaviors.

Keywords: emotion expression, information diffusion, microblog, sharing

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1149 A Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Adaptation in Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Harm in Older Adults

Authors: Valerie Alexander, Amanda Gutierrez, Veronica Campbell, Dara Schwartz, B. Charles Tatum

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It has long been assumed that personality disorders (PD) originate in adolescence or early adulthood and that the maladaptive behaviors significantly attenuate over time. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 supports early onset of PD and views the pattern of behaviors as enduring and stable. The premise of this study is that PD may not always begin early in life, that behaviors may change over the lifespan, and that current treatment modalities may be beneficial in seniors. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) exhibited earlier in life may, in older adults, be manifested in less overt high-risk behaviors but by refusal to take medication and get necessary medical treatment. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is a well-known treatment modality for teaching emotional regulation and distress tolerance and thus reducing self-injurious behaviors yet very little has been studied about SIB and treatment in older adults. The population for this study was older adults, with a history of SIB, a PD, and depression and/or anxiety. Participants learned an adapted version of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) as developed by DBT trained therapists. The results provided clinical potentials for the efficacy of DBT to reduce SIB, decrease depression and anxiety in the older adult population.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, dialectical behavioral therapy, personality disorders, self-harm behavior, treatment in older adults

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1148 Effect of Family-Based DOTS Support Program on Adherence to Health Behaviors among Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Bandung, Indonesia

Authors: D. I. Yani, S. Isaramalai, C. Kritpracha

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Adherence to health behaviors is essential to achieve successful TB treatment. This study aimed to examine the effect of a family-based DOTS support program on adherence to health behaviors in patients with pulmonary TB. Sixty TB patients and their families were selected using cluster randomization of community health centers. The subjects were assigned into a control group, who received the routine care, and an experimental group, who received both routine care and care from the family-based DOTS support program. Paired t-test and the independent t-test were applied. The total score of adherence to health behaviors in the experimental group was significantly higher after receiving care from the family-based DOTS support program than the pretest score (t = -10.34, p < .001). Suggestions were made to expand the application of this program in various contexts and to extend knowledge for nursing practices and research.

Keywords: self-care deficit nursing theory, family-based DOTS program, pulmonary tuberculosis, adherence, health behaviors

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1147 Health Promoting Behaviors among Thai Older Adults: Trend and Association with Health Status

Authors: Alongkorn Pekalee, Rossarin Gray

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Various determinants associated with older health include socio-demographic factors and health-promoting behaviors but lack in scholars recommended what factors associated with health status in specific sub-groups of older adults. The current study aims to explore the health-promoting behaviors and to examine and compare the associations of these factors with self-rated health status among three older age cohorts in Thai traditional context. Methods: This study is based on the Survey of Older Persons in Thailand (SOPT), in 2017, conducted by the National Statistical Office (NSO) of Thailand. Participants were classified into three groups by using the Thai contextual recommendation: youngest-old cohort (60-69), old-old cohort (70-79) and oldest old cohort (80 or older). Health promoting behaviors are the behaviors which associated with the health status of older adults include alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, and physical activity. Health status was defined as a subjective measurement by using self-rated health, a simple measure of general health. The socio-demographic factors, health-promoting behaviors, and health status were explained and summarized by descriptive statistics. The binary logistic regression was performed to analyze the data and evaluate the associations between independent and dependent variables. Results: Increase of age contributes to a higher proportion of health-promoting behaviors. All variables were associated with self-reported health status as good health among three older age cohorts statistically significant (p-value = 0.000). However, the influence of income sufficiency on health status is more notable, especially in older adults who aged 60-69 and 70-79. The influence of dietary and physical activity on health status became greater as age increased. Conclusion: the results suggest that income sufficiency should be noted in a plan to promote healthy aging, and co-residence should be more concerned especially in the oldest old cohort. Moreover, the interventions or policies to promote older health behaviors like diet and physical activity should be emphasized in the oldest old cohort more than others.

Keywords: health-promoting behaviors, older adults, self- rated health, Thailand

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1146 The Effect of Gender on the Three Types of Aggression among Kuwaiti Children

Authors: Hend Almaseb

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Child aggression is a serious social problem that affects children’s lives. This study examines the relationship between three types of aggressive behaviors–physical, verbal, and indirect aggression–from sociocultural and social work perspectives. Also, it investigates the effect of gender on the three types of aggressive behaviors and the most frequently used aggressive behaviors among a sample of 329 Kuwaiti children. The results show that there is a positive correlation between the three types of aggression and gender.

Keywords: child aggression, indirect aggression, physical aggression, verbal aggression

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1145 The Association between Self-Efficacy and Hypertension Self-Care Behavior among Patients with Hypertension

Authors: Fazel Zinat Motlagh, Reza Chaman, Rashid Ghafari, Zahra Behzad, Ahmad Ali Eslami

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Background: Chronic disease management requires the individual to perform several self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy, a widely used psychosocial concept, is associated with the ability to manage chronic disease. In this study, we examine the association between self-efficacy and self-care behaviors related to hypertension. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer Ahmad province, the south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients, were randomly selected and participated in the study. Self-care behavior was measured with using H-SCALE (Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects). Logistic regression conducted to detect correlation between self-efficacy and adherence to hypertension self-care behaviors. Results: Less than half (40.8%) of the participants reported that they have good self-efficacy to manage hypertension. Good self-efficacy was significantly associated with improve in adherence to medication (95% CI: 1.68, 1.83), eating a low-salt diet (95% CI: 1.44–1.73), physical activity (95% CI: 1.39–1.55), quit smoking (95% CI: 0.38–0.47), and weight management techniques (95% CI: 0.66–0.82). Conclusion: Hypertension self-efficacy was associated with adherence to self-care behaviors among adult with hypertension. According to our finding hypertension is a manageable condition. Self-efficacy is important factor in adherence with self-care behaviors related with hypertension.

Keywords: self-efficacy, hypertension, self-care, Iran

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1144 Chinese Tourists's Behaviors towards Travel and Shopping in Bangkok

Authors: Sasitorn Chetanont

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The objectives of this study are to study Chinese tourist’s Behaviors towards travel and shopping in Bangkok. The research methodology was a quantitative research. The sample of this research was 400 Chinese tourists in Bangkok chosen by the accidental sampling and the purposive sampling. Inferential Statistics Analysis by using the Chi-square statistics. As for the results of this study the researcher found that differences between personal, social and cultural information, i.e., gender, age, place of residence, educational level, occupation, income, family, and main objectives of tourism with behaviors of Chinese tourists in Bangkok towards travel and shopping in Bangkok.

Keywords: tourists’ behavior, Chinese tourists, travelling, expenses in travels

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1143 A Resource-Based Perspective on Job Crafting Consequences: An Empirical Study from China

Authors: Eko Liao, Cheryl Zhang

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Employee job crafting refers to employee’s proactive behaviors of making customized changes to their jobs on cognitive, relationship, and task levels. Previous studies have investigated different situations triggering employee’s job crafting. However, much less is known about what would be the consequences for both employee themselves and their work groups. Guided by conservation of resources theory (COR), this study investigates how employees job crafting increases their objective task performance and promotive voice behaviors at work. It is argued that employee would gain more resources when they actively craft their job tasks, which in turn increase their job performance and encourage them to have more constructive speak-up behaviors. Specifically, employee’s psychological resources (i.e., job engagement) and relational resources (i.e., leader-member relationships) would be enhanced from effective crafting behaviors, because employees are more likely to regard their job tasks as meaningful, and their leaders would be more likely to notice and recognize their dedication at work when employees craft their job frequently. To test this research model, around 400 employees from various Chinese organizations from mainland China joins the two-wave data collection stage. Employee’s job crafting behaviors in three aspects are measured at time 1. Perception of resource gain (job engagement and leader-member exchange), voice, and job performance are measured at time 2. The research model is generally supported. This study contributes to the job crafting literature by broadening the theoretical lens to a resource-based perspective. It also has practical implications that organizations should pay more attention to employee crafting behaviors because they are closely related to employees in-role performance and constructive voice behaviors.

Keywords: job crafting, resource-based perspective, voice, job performance

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1142 Health Behaviours of Patients Qualified for Bariatric Surgery

Authors: A. Gazdzinska, P. Jagielski, E. Kaniewska, S. P. Gazdzinski, M. Wylezol

Abstract:

Background: In the multi-factor etiology of obesity, an increasing degree of importance is attributed to behavioral factors. Lifestyle and health-oriented behaviors heavily influence the treatment of multiple diseases, including obesity. However, only a few studies evaluated health-related behaviors exhibited by patients qualified for bariatric surgery. None of them was performed in Polish population. Aim: Assessment of health behaviors of obese patients according to the degree of mood disorders. Method: The study involved 93 patients (66 females) who were qualified for bariatric surgery in the Department of Surgery of the Military Institute of Aviation Medicine in Warsaw. Diagnostic instrument was the Juczynski’s Inventory of Health Behavior (HBI), which evaluates health behavior in four categories, i.e. proper nutrition habits (PNH), preventive behavior (PH), health practices (HP) and positive mental attitude (PMA). The average HBI falls in the range between 24 and 120 points, for each category of health behaviors fall between 1 and 5 (higher score means higher severity declared healthy behaviors). The depressive symptoms in patients were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). All analyses were conducted using STATISTICA 12. Results: The average age was 44.2 ± 11.5 years, mean BMI was 44.3 ± 10.5 kg/m2 and 46.8 ± 7.6 kg/m2, in females and males respectively. According to BDI, 32% patients had mild level of depression, 10% moderate and 14% severe depression. BDI scores were not different between females and males. Low results with regard to the health behaviors declared were obtained by 35.5 % of patients, medium by 44.0%, while high ones by only 20.5%. On average, patients gained 3.28 points in PNH, 3.37 points in PH, 3.29 points in HP, while 3.42 in the PMA category, showing average intensity of these behaviors. These health behaviors were practiced significantly more often by women (p = 0.04). The average HBI was 80.2; with average score of 81.5 for females and 76.6 for males, respectively (p = 0.03). Women were better in the PNH category (p = 0.02). A positive correlation was found between age and all categories of health behaviors, in particular PNH (R = 0.38; p = 0.001), PH (R = 0.26; p = 0.01), HP (R = 0.27; p = 0.01) and PMA (R = 0.24; p = 0.02), independent of gender. The severity of depression had a significant impact only on the behaviors associated with proper eating habits, which saw a negative correlation between BDI scores and the PNH (R = -0.21; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Majority of morbidly obese patients qualified for bariatric surgery obtained low to average scores in health behavior questionnaire. However, these results are similar in comparison with the Polish adult population. In accordance to these results, it seems that healthy behaviors, among them eating behaviors, do not appear to be a cause of obesity epidemic or they might be acquired when the disease is already underway. Female gender and age had a positive effect, and depression had a negative effect on the level of health behaviors among patients qualified for bariatric surgery.

Keywords: depression, habits, health behaviours, obesity

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1141 Connections among Personality, Teacher-Student Relationship, Belief in a Just World for Others and Teacher Bullying

Authors: Hui-Yu Peng, Hsiu-I Hsueh, Li-Ming Chen

Abstract:

Most studies focused on bullying behaviors among students, however few research concerns about teachers’ bullying behaviors against students. In order to have more understandings and reduce teacher bullying, it is important to examine what factors may affect teachers’ bullying behaviors. This study aimed to explore the connections between different psychological variables and teacher bullying. Four variables, neuroticism, extraversion, teacher-student relationship, and belief in a just world for others (BJW-others), were selected in this study. Four hundred and five elementary and secondary school teachers in Taiwan endorsed the self-reported surveys. Multiple regression method was used to analyze data. Results revealed that teachers’ BJW-others and extraversion did not have significant correlations with teacher bullying scores. However, closed teacher-student relationship and neuroticism can negatively and positively predict teachers’ bullying behaviors against students, respectively. Implications for preventing teacher bullying were discussed at the end of this study.

Keywords: belief in a just world for others, big five personality traits, teacher bullying, teacher-student relationship

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1140 Mimicking of Various ECM Tangible Cues for the Manipulation of Hepatocellular Behaviours

Authors: S. A. Abdellatef, A. Taniguchi, Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki

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The alterations in the physicochemical characteristics of bio-materials are renowned for their impact in cellular behaviors. Surface chemistry and substratum topography are separately considered as mutable characteristics with deep impact on the overall cell behaviors. In our recent work, we examined the manipulation of the physical cues on hepatic cellular behaviors. We have proven that the geometrical or dimensional characteristics of nano features are essential for the optimum hepatocellular functions. While here, the collective impact of both physical and chemical cues on hepatocellular behaviors was investigated. On which RGD peptide was immobilized on a TiO2 nano pattern that imitates the hierarchically extend collagen nano fibrillar structures. The hepatocytes morphological and functional changes induced by simultaneously combining the diversified cues were investigated. TiO2 substrates that integrate nano topography with the adhesive peptide motif (RGD) had showed an increase in the hepatocellular functionality to the maximum extent. While a significant enhancement in expression of these liver specific markers on RGD coated surfaces were observed compared to uncoated substrates regardless of topography. Consequently in depth understanding of the relationship between various kind of cues and hepatocytes behaviors would be a paving step in the application of tissue engineering and bio reactor technology.

Keywords: biomaterial, tiO2, hepG2, RGD

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1139 Eating Behaviours in Islam and Mental Health: A Preventative Approach

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

Abstract:

A growing number of research focuses on healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors and their impact on health. It was intended to study the Islamic point of view on eating behavior, its impact on mental health and preventative strategies in the light of the Quran and Sunnah. Different articles and Islamic sayings related to eating behaviors and mental health were reviewed in detail. It was also revealed scientifically and through Islamic point of view that appropriate quantity, quality and timings of food have positive effects on mental health. Therefore, a 3Rs model of eating behaviors has been proposed.

Keywords: food intake, mental health, quality of food, quantity of food

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1138 Understanding Consumer Behaviors by Using Neuromarketing Tools and Methods

Authors: Tabrej Khan

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Neuromarketing can refer to the commercial application of neuroscience technologies and insights to drive business further. On the other side, consumer neuroscience can be seen as the academic use of neuroscience to better understand marketing effects on consumer behavior. Consumer Neuroscience and Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary effort between economics, psychology, and neuroscience and information technology. Traditional methods are using survey, interviews, focus group people are overtly and consciously reporting on their experience and thoughts. The unconscious side of customer behavior is largely unmeasured in the traditional methods. Neuroscience has a potential to understand the unconscious part. Through this paper, we are going to present specific results of selected tools and methods that are used to understand consumer behaviors.

Keywords: neuromarketing, neuroscience, consumer behaviors, tools

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1137 Glycemic Control on Self-Efficacy and Self-Care Behaviors among Omani Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Melba Sheila D'Souza, Anandhi Amirtharaj, Shreedevi Balachandran

Abstract:

Background: Type 2 diabetes has a significant impact on individuals’ health and well-being. Glycemic control may influence self-efficacy and self-care behaviors, and reduce the risk of complications among adults with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has substantial morbidity and mortality and 60% of adults’ poor self-care. Glycemic control is associated with reported self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Adults with type 2 diabetes with less information were less likely to take diabetes self-care. Aim: To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic factors, clinical factors on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors among Omani adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A correlational, descriptive study was used. Omani adults with type 2 diabetes (n=140) were recruited from a public hospital in Oman. The data were collected during January-March 2015. Ethical approval was given by the college research and ethics committee, College of Nursing, and the Hospital, Sultan Qaboos University Data was collected on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors and glycemic control. The study was approved by the Institution Ethics and Research Committee. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Most adults had a fasting blood glucose >7.2mmol/L (90.7%), with the majority demonstrating ‘uncontrolled or poor HbA1c of > 8%’ (65%). Variance of self-care behavior (20.6%) and 31.3% of the variance of the self-efficacy was explained by the age, duration of diabetes, medication, HbA1c and prevention of activities of living. Adults with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control were more likely to have poor self-efficacy and poor self-care behaviors. Conclusion: This study confirms that self-efficacy model on outcome predicts self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Higher understanding of diabetes, prevention of normal daily activities, higher ability to fit diabetes life in a positive manner and high patient-physician communication were significant with self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Hence, glycemic control has a high effect on improving self-care behaviors like diet, exercise, medication, foot care and self-efficacy among type 2 diabetes. Implications: Using these findings to improve self-efficacy, individualized self-care management is recommended for better self-efficacy and self-care behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-care behaviors, self-care management, glycemic control, type 2 diabetes, nurse

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1136 First-Principles Modeling of Nanoparticle Magnetization, Chaining, and Motion

Authors: Pierce Radecki, Pulkit Malik, Bharath Ramaswamy, Ben Shapiro

Abstract:

The ability to effectively design and test magnetic nanoparticles for controlled movement has been an elusive goal in the design of these particles. Magnetic nanoparticles of various characteristics have been created for use towards therapeutic effects, however the challenge of designing for controlled movement remains unmet. A step towards design in this aspect is a first principles model that captures and predicts the behaviors of particles in a magnetic field. The model is governed by four forces acting on the particles, the magnetic gradient, the dipole-dipole forces, the steric forces, and the viscous drag force. The particles are multi-core or single core, and incorporate a preferred magnetization axis. Particles exhibit behaviors, such as chaining, in simulations that are similar to those witnessed through experimentation. Currently, experimental results are being compared to the modeling results for verification of the model, through the analysis of chaining behaviors. This modeling system will be used in designing magnetic nanoparticles for specific chaining and movement behaviors.

Keywords: controlled movement, modeling, magnetic nanoparticles, nanoparticle design

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1135 Effects of Crisis-Induced Emotions on in-Crisis Protective Behavior and Post-Crisis Perception: An Analysis of Survey Data for the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in South Korea

Authors: Myoungsoon You, Heejung Son

Abstract:

Background: In the current study, we investigated the effects of emotions induced by an infectious disease outbreak on the various protective behaviors taken during the crisis and on the perception after the crisis. The investigation was based on two psychological theories of appraisal tendency and action tendency. Methods: A total of 900 participants in South Korea who experienced the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak were sampled by a professional survey agency. To assess the influence of the emotions fear and anger, a regression approach was used. The effect of emotions on various protective behaviors and perceptions was observed using a hierarchical regression method. Results: Fear and anger induced by the infectious disease outbreak were both associated with increased protective behaviors during the crisis. However, the differences between the emotions were observed. While protective behaviors with avoidance tendency (adherence to recommendations, self-mitigation), were raised by both fear and anger, protective behaviors with approach tendency (information-seeking) were increased by anger, but not fear. Regarding the effect of emotion on the risk perception after the crisis, only fear was associated with a higher level of risk perception. Conclusions: This study confirmed the role of emotions in crisis protective behaviors and post-crisis perceptions regarding an infectious disease outbreak. These findings could enhance understanding of the public’s protective behaviors during infectious disease outbreaks and afterward risk perception corresponding to emotions. The results also suggested strategies for communicating with the public that takes into account emotions that are prominently induced by crises associated with disease outbreaks.

Keywords: crisis communication, emotion, infectious disease outbreak, protective behavior, risk perception

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1134 Research Progress on the Correlation between Tinnitus and Sleep Behaviors

Authors: Jiajia Peng

Abstract:

Tinnitus is one of the common symptoms of ear diseases and is characterized by the abnormal perception of sound without external stimulation. Tinnitus is agony and seriously affects the life of the general population by approximately 1%. Sleep disturbance is a common problem in patients with tinnitus. Lack of sleep will lead to the accumulation of metabolites in the brain and cannot be cleared in time. These substances enhance sympathetic nerve reactivity in the auditory system, resulting in tinnitus occurrence or aggravation. Then, tinnitus may aggravate sleep disturbance, thus forming a vicious circle. Through a systematic review of the relevant literature, we summarize the research on tinnitus and sleep. Although the results suggest that tinnitus is often accompanied by sleep disturbance, the impact of unfavorable sleep habits on tinnitus is not clear. In particular, the relationships between sleep behaviors and other chronic diseases have been revealed. To reduce the incidence rate of tinnitus, clinicians should pay attention to the relevance between different sleep behaviors and tinnitus.

Keywords: Tinnitus, sleep, sleep factor, sleep behavior

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1133 Social Media Use and Exercise Behaviors

Authors: Justin M. Swanson, Anna Nelson, Daniel Handysides, Patti Herring, Christopher Hill

Abstract:

Not only may social media use have a psychological impact, but increased use may be tied to decreases in physical activity and influencing sedentary behaviors. Social media can be used to share physically active lifestyles and possibly influence others to participate. In contrast, social media use may have adverse effects by decreasing participation in exercise. This study used a qualitative design to examine the relationship between social media use and exercise patterns. Participants were asked questions about their social media habits and how it might impact their physical activity behaviors. Self-reported exercise seemed to increase after viewing others engage in relatable activities or viewing someone that has overcame challenges. To increase the likelihood of engaging in exercise, exercise related posts should be low in difficulty, require few materials, or displayed progress from the individual posting.

Keywords: social media, exercise, physical activity, adults

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1132 A Simulation for Behaviors of Preys to Avoid Pursuit of Predator

Authors: Jae Moon Lee

Abstract:

Generally the predator will continuously aim to attack the prey, while the prey will maintain a safe distance from the predator in order to avoid it . If the predator has enough energy to chase a certain amount of distance, it will begin to attack the prey. The prey needs to approach the predator for various reasons such as getting food. However, it will also try to keep a safe distance because of the threat of predators. The safe distance is dependent on the amount of the energy of predator, and the behaviors of prey is changed according to the size of the safe distance. This paper is to simulate the behaviors of preys to avoid the pursuit of predator based on the safe distance. The simulations will be executed experimentally under single predator and multiple preys. The results of the simulations show that the amount of energy of predator gives a great influence on the behavior of the prey.

Keywords: predator, prey, energy, safe distance, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 186