Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: Muneeba Butt

53 Impact of Butt Joints on Flexural Properties of Nail Laminated Timber

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Bagheri, Tianying Ma, Meng Gong

Abstract:

Nail laminated timber (NLT) is widely used for constructing timber bridge decks in North America. Butt joints usually exist due to the length limits of lumber, leading to concerns about the decrease of structural performance of NLT. This study aimed at investigating the provisions incorporated in Canadian highway bridge design code on the use of but joints in wooden bridge decks. Three and five layers NLT specimens with various configurations were tested under 3-point bending test. It was found that the standard equation is capable of predicting the bending stiffness reduction due to butt joints and 1-m band limit in which, one but joint in every three adjacent lamination is allowed, sounds reasonable. The strength reduction also followed a pattern similar to stiffness reduction. Also reinforcement of the butt joint through nails and steel side plates was attempted. It was found that nail reinforcement recovers the stiffness slightly. In contrast, reinforcing the butt joint through steel side plate improved the flexural performance significantly when compared to the nail reinforcement.

Keywords: nail laminated timber, butt joint, bending stiffness, reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
52 Investigation of Distortion and Impact Strength of 304L Butt Joint Using Different Weld Groove

Authors: A. Sharma, S. S. Sandhu, A. Shahi, A. Kumar

Abstract:

The aim of present investigation was to carry out Finite element modeling of distortion in the case of butt weld. 12mm thick AISI 304L plates were butt welded using three different combinations of groove design namely Double U, Double V and Composite. A full simulation of shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) of nonlinear heat transfer is carried out. Aspects like, temperature-dependent thermal properties of AISI stainless steel above liquid phase, the effect of thermal boundary conditions, were included in the model. Since welding heat dissipation characteristics changed due to variable groove design significant changes in the microhardness tensile strength and impact toughness of the joints were observed. The cumulative distortion was found to be least in double V joint followed by the Composite and Double U-joints. All the joints have joint efficiency more than 100%. CVN value of the Double V-groove weld metal was highest. The experimental results and the FEM results were compared and reveal a very good correlation for distortion and weld groove design for a multipass joint with a standard analogy of 83%.

Keywords: AISI 304 L, Butt joint, distortion, FEM, groove design, SMAW

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
51 Investigation of Distortion and Impact Strength of 304 L Butt Joint Using Different Weld Groove

Authors: A. Sharma, S. S. Sandhu, A.Shahi, A. Kumar

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of geometric configurations of butt joints i.e. double V groove, double U groove and UV groove of AISI 304L of thickness 12 mm by using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) are investigated. The magnitude of transverse shrinkage stress and distortion generated during welding under the unrestrained conditions of butt joints is the main objective of the study. The effect of groove design on impact strength and metallurgical properties are also studied. The Finite element analysis for the groove design is done and compared the actual experimentation. The experimental results and the FEM results were compared and reveal a very good correlation for distortion and weld groove design for multipass joint with a standard analogy of 80%. In the case of VV groove design it was found that the transverse stress and cumulative deflection have the lowest value. It was found that the UV groove design had the maximum ultimate and yield tensile strength, VV groove had the highest impact strength. Vicker’s hardness value of all the groove design was measured. Micro structural studies were carried out using conventional microscopic tools which revealed a lot of useful information for correlating the microstructure with mechanical properties.

Keywords: weld groove design, distortion, AISI 304 L, butt joint, FEM, GTAW

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
50 Forensic Study on Personal Identification of Pakistani Population by Individualizing Characteristics of Footprints

Authors: Muneeba Butt

Abstract:

One of the most important physical evidence which leaves suspects at the crime scene is footprints. Analysis of footprints, which can provide useful information for personal identification, is helpful in crime scene investigation. For the current study, 200 samples collected (144 male and 56 female) from Pakistani population with a consent form. The footprints were collected by using black ink with an ink pad. The entire samples were photographed, and then the magnifying glass was used for visualization of individual characteristics including detail of toes, humps, phalange mark, and flat foot cracks in footprint patterns. The descriptive results of individualizing characteristics features were presented in tabular form with respective frequency and percentage. In the result in the male population, the prevalence of tibialis type (T-type) is highest. In the female population, the prevalence of midularis type (M-type) is highest. Humps on the first toe are more found in the male population rather than other humps. In the female population, humps on the third toe are more found rather than other humps. In the male population, the prevalence of phalange mark by toe 1 is highest followed by toe 3, toe 5, toe 2, toe 4 and in female population the prevalence of phalange mark by toe 1 is highest followed by toe 5, 4, 3 and 2. Creases marks are found highest in male population as compared to the female population.

Keywords: foot prints, toes, humps, cracks

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
49 Investigating the Morphological Patterns of Lip Prints and Their Effectiveness in Individualization and Gender Determination in Pakistani Population

Authors: Makhdoom Saad Wasim Ghouri, Muneeba Butt, Mohammad Ashraf Tahir, Rashid Bhatti, Akbar Ali, Abdul Rehman, Abdul Basit, Muzzamel Rehman, Shahbaz Aslam, Farakh Mansoor, Ahmad Fayyaz, Hadia Siddiqui

Abstract:

Lip print analysis (Cheiloscopy) is the new emerging technique that might be the guardian angel in establishing the personal identity. Cheiloscopy is basically the study of elevations and depressions present on the external surface of the lips. In our study, 600 lip prints samples were taken (300 males and 300 females). Lip prints of each individual were divided into four quadrants and the upper middle portion. For general classification, middle part of the lower lip almost 10 mm wide would be taken into consideration. After analysis of lip-prints, our results show that lip prints are the unique and permanent character of every individual. No two lip print was matched with each other even of the identical twins. Our study reveals that there is equal distribution of lip print patterns among all the four quadrants of lips and the upper middle portion; these distributions were statistically analyzed by applying chi-square test which shows the significant results. In general classification, 5 lip print types/patterns were studied, Type 1 (Vertical lines), Type 2 (Branched pattern), Type 3 (Intersected pattern), Type 4 (Reticular pattern) and Type 5 (Undetermined). Type 1 and Type 2 were found to be the most frequent patterns in female population, while Type 3 and Type 4 most commonly found in male population. These results were also analyzed by applying Chi-square test, and the results show significance statistically. Thus, establishing sex determination on the basis of lip print types among the gender. Type 5 was the least common pattern among genders.

Keywords: cheiloscopy, distribution, quadrants, sex determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
48 Gluteal Augmentation: A Historical Perspective on Society's Fascination with Buttock Size

Authors: Shane R. Jackson

Abstract:

Gluteal augmentation with fat grafting, commonly referred to as the Brazilian Butt Lift, is the fastest-growing cosmetic surgical procedure, despite the risks and controversy that surrounds it. While many commentators attribute this rise in popularity with current societal trends towards public sharing of private life, the fascination with buttock size is in fact a much older human trait. By searching beyond medical literature and delving into historical sources, from ancient civilisations, through the Renaissance and Victorian eras to the ‘Instagram generation’ of the present day, this paper examines the differences – and similarities – in society’s ideal buttock shape and size. Furthermore, the ways in which these various cultures have altered their appearance to achieve this ideal are also examined, looking at the influence of the broader historical context. A deeper understanding of the historical, cultural and psychosocial factors that influence a patient’s desire for buttock augmentation allows the clinician to formulate a well-rounded surgical plan.

Keywords: augmentation, Brazilian butt lift, buttock, fat graft, gluteal

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
47 Design and Analysis of a Clustered Nozzle Configuration and Comparison of Its Thrust

Authors: Abdul Hadi Butt, Asfandyar Arshad

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study the thrust variation in different configurations of clustered nozzles. It involves the design and analysis of clustered configuration of nozzles using Ansys fluent. Clustered nozzles with different configurations are simulated and compared on basis of effective exhaust thrust. Mixing length for the flow interaction is also calculated. Further clustered configurations are analyzed over different altitudes. An optimum value of the thrust among different configurations is proposed at the end of comparisons.

Keywords: CD nozzle, cluster, thrust, fluent, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
46 Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Mohammadi

Abstract:

Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bi-metal-wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding occurs only between similar materials. FEM-simulations of the process were chosen to determine the ideal dimensions with respect to the formability of the bi-metal-wire. A prototype demonstrated the feasibility of the process.

Keywords: car body, steel sheets, formability of bi-metal-wire, laser-assisted bi-metal-wire

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45 Investigation of Fusion Zone Microstructures in Plasma Arc Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS-304L) with Low Carbon Steel (A-36) with or without Filler Alloy

Authors: Shan-e-Fatima, Mushtaq Khan, Syed Imran Hussian

Abstract:

Plasma arc welding technology is used for welding SS-304L with A-36. Two different optimize butt welded joints were produced by using austenitic filler alloy E-309L and with direct fusion at 45 A, 2mm/sec by keeping plasma gas flow rate at 0.5LPM. Microstructure analysis of the weld bead was carried out. The results reveal complex heterogeneous microstructure in austenitic base filler alloy sample where as full martensite was found in directly fused sample.

Keywords: fusion zone microstructure, stainless steel, low carbon steel, plasma arc welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
44 In Vitro Evaluation of a Chitosan-Based Adhesive to Treat Bone Fractures

Authors: Francisco J. Cedano, Laura M. Pinzón, Camila I. Castro, Felipe Salcedo, Juan P. Casas, Juan C. Briceño

Abstract:

Complex fractures located in articular surfaces are challenging to treat and their reduction with conventional treatments could compromise the functionality of the affected limb. An adhesive material to treat those fractures is desirable for orthopedic surgeons. This adhesive must be biocompatible and have a high adhesion to bone surface in an aqueous environment. The proposed adhesive is based on chitosan, given its adhesive and biocompatibility properties. Chitosan is mixed with calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite, which contribute to structural support and a gel like behavior, and glutaraldehyde is used as a cross-linking agent to keep the adhesive mechanical performance in aqueous environment. This work aims to evaluate the rheological, adhesion strength and biocompatibility properties of the proposed adhesive using in vitro tests. The gelification process of the adhesive was monitored by oscillatory rheometry in an ARG-2 TA Instruments rheometer, using a parallel plate geometry of 22 mm and a gap of 1 mm. Time sweep experiments were conducted at 1 Hz frequency, 1% strain and 37°C from 0 to 2400 s. Adhesion strength is measured using a butt joint test with bovine cancellous bone fragments as substrates. The test is conducted at 5 min, 20min and 24 hours after curing the adhesive under water at 37°C. Biocompatibility is evaluated by a cytotoxicity test in a fibroblast cell culture using MTT assay and SEM. Rheological results concluded that the average gelification time of the adhesive is 820±107 s, also it reaches storage modulus magnitudes up to 106 Pa; The adhesive show solid-like behavior. Butt joint test showed 28.6 ± 9.2 kPa of tensile bond strength for the adhesive cured for 24 hours. Also there was no significant difference in adhesion strength between 20 minutes and 24 hours. MTT showed 70 ± 23 % of active cells at sixth day of culture, this percentage is estimated respect to a positive control (only cells with culture medium and bovine serum). High vacuum SEM observation permitted to localize and study the morphology of fibroblasts presented in the adhesive. All captured fibroblasts presented in SEM typical flatted structure with filopodia growth attached to adhesive surface. This project reports an adhesive based on chitosan that is biocompatible due to high active cells presented in MTT test and these results were correlated using SEM. Also, it has adhesion properties in conditions that model the clinical application, and the adhesion strength do not decrease between 5 minutes and 24 hours.

Keywords: bioadhesive, bone adhesive, calcium carbonate, chitosan, hydroxyapatite, glutaraldehyde

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
43 Measuring the Impact of Brand Satisfaction, Brand Trust and Brand Experience on Brand Loyalty: An Empirical Study on the Skincare Products in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Azeem Qureshi, Hammad Tahir, Fawwad Mahmood Butt

Abstract:

Purpose: This study examines empirically the effect of brand satisfaction, brand trust and brand experience on brand loyalty which can be helpful to retain and increase customer base and satisfying customer needs as well. Methodology: Data has been collected on convenient sampling method and cause and effect among variables has been measured by applying regression analysis technique. Findings: Finding of this study have supported the proposed hypotheses and results show that brand loyalty is significantly explained by brand satisfaction, brand trust and brand experience. Practical Implications: The outcome of this study provides a useful framework and importance of brand loyalty culture in Pakistan. Marketers can be benefited trough the findings of this study.

Keywords: brand experience, brand satisfaction, brand trust, brand loyalty, hair-care products

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
42 Cost-Effective Hybrid Cloud Framework for HEI’s

Authors: Shah Muhammad Butt, Ahmed Masaud Ansari

Abstract:

Present Financial crisis in Higher Educational Institutes (HEIs) facing lots of problems considerable budget cuts, make difficult to meet the ever growing IT-based research and learning needs, institutions are rapidly planning and promoting cloud-based approaches for their academic and research needs. A cost effective Hybrid Cloud framework for HEI’s will provide educational services for campus or intercampus communication. Hybrid Cloud Framework comprises Private and Public Cloud approaches. This paper will propose the framework based on the Open Source Cloud (OpenNebula for Virtualization, Eucalyptus for Infrastructure, and Aneka for programming development environment) combined with CSP’s services which are delivered to the end-user via the Internet from public clouds.

Keywords: educational services, hybrid campus cloud, open source, electrical and systems sciences

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41 Analysis of Drilling Parameters for Al-Mg2-Si Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: S. Jahangir, S. H. I. Jaffery, M. Khan, Z. Zareef, A. Yar, A. Mubashir, S. Butt, L. Ali

Abstract:

In this work, drilling responses and behavior of MMC was investigated in Al-Mg2Si composites. For the purpose Al-15% wt. Mg2Si, was selected from the hypereutectic region of Al- Mg2Si phase diagram. Based on hardness and tensile strength, drill bit of appropriate material and morphology was selected. The performance of different drill bits of different morphology and material was studied and analysed using experimental data. For theoretical calculations of axial thrust force and required power calculation, material factor “K” was obtained from different data charts and at the same time cutting forces (drilling forces) were practically obtained using a Peizo electric force dynamometer. These results show the role of reinforcement particles on the machinability of MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control and optimized drilling parameters for the drilling process. Furthermore, in this work, comparison of MMC with non -reinforced Aluminum Alloy regarding drilling operation was also studied.

Keywords: drilling, metal matrix composite (MMC), cutting forces, thrust force

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
40 Cost-Effective Hybrid Cloud Framework for Higher Educational Institutes

Authors: Shah Muhammad Butt, Ahmed Masaud Ansair

Abstract:

Present financial crisis in Higher Educational Institutes (HEIs) is causing lots of problems such as considerable budget cuts, which makes it difficult to meet the ever growing IT based research and learning needs. Institutions are rapidly planning and promoting cloud based approaches for their academic and research needs. A cost-effective hybrid cloud framework for HEIs will provide educational services for campus or intercampus communication. Hybrid cloud framework comprises private and public cloud approaches. This paper will propose the framework based on the Open Source Cloud (OpenNebula for Virtualization, Eucalyptus for Infrastructure and Aneka for programming development environment) combined with CSPs services which are delivered to the end-user via the internet from public clouds such as Google, Microsoft, Zoho, and Salesforce.

Keywords: educational services, hybrid campus cloud, open source, higher educational institutes

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
39 Experimental Investigation and Hardness Analysis of Chromoly Steel Multipass Welds Using GMAW

Authors: S. Ramesh, A. S. Sasiraaju, K. Sidhaarth, N. Sudhan Rajkumar, V. Manivel Muralidaran

Abstract:

This work presents the result of investigations aimed at determining the hardness of the welded Chromoly (A 4130) steel plate of 2” thickness. Multi pass welding for the thick sections was carried out and analyzed for the Chromoly alloy steel plates. The study of hardness at the weld metal reveals that there is the presence of different micro structure products which yields diverse properties. The welding carried out using GMAW with ER70s-2 electrode. Single V groove design was selected for the butt joint configuration. The presence of hydrogen has been suppressed by selecting low hydrogen electrode. Preheating of the plate prior to welding reduces the cooling rate which also affects the weld metal microstructure. The shielding gas composition used in this analysis is 80% Ar-20% CO2. The experimental analysis gives the detailed study of the hardness of the material.

Keywords: chromoly, gas metal arc weld (GMAW), hardness, multi pass weld, shielding gas composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
38 Variation in the Morphology of Soft Palate

Authors: Hema Lattupalli

Abstract:

Introduction: The palate forms a partition between the oral cavity and nasal cavity. The palate is made up of two parts hard palate and soft palate. The Hard palate forms the anterior part of the palate, the soft palate forms a movable muscular fold covered by mucous membrane that is suspended from the posterior border of a hard palate. Aim and Objectives: Soft palate morphological variations have a great paucity in the literature. It’s also believed that the soft palate has no such important anatomical variations. There is a variable presentation of the soft palate morphology in the lateral cephalograms. The aim of this study is to identify the velar morphology. Materials and Methods: 100 normal subjects between the age group of 20 – 35 were taken for the study. Method: Lateral Cephalogram (radiologic study). Results: Different shapes of the soft palate were observed in the lateral cephalograms. The morphology of soft palate was classified into six types 1.Leaf like (50 cases) most common type, 2.Straight line (20 cases), 3.S shaped (4 cases) very rare, 4.Butt like (10 cases), 5. Rat tail (6 cases), 6. Hook shaped (10 cases). Conclusion: This classification helps us to understand the better diversity of the velar morphology in mid-sagittal plane. These findings help us to understand the etiology of OSAS.

Keywords: soft palate, cephalometric radiographs, morphology, cleft palate, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
37 Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Urban Growth and Land Use Change in Islamabad Using Object-Based Classification Method

Authors: Rabia Shabbir, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad, Amna Butt

Abstract:

Rapid land use changes have taken place in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, over the past decades due to accelerated urbanization and industrialization. In this study, land use changes in the metropolitan area of Islamabad was observed by the combined use of GIS and satellite remote sensing for a time period of 15 years. High-resolution Google Earth images were downloaded from 2000-2015, and object-based classification method was used for accurate classification using eCognition software. The information regarding urban settlements, industrial area, barren land, agricultural area, vegetation, water, and transportation infrastructure was extracted. The results showed that the city experienced a spatial expansion, rapid urban growth, land use change and expanding transportation infrastructure. The study concluded the integration of GIS and remote sensing as an effective approach for analyzing the spatial pattern of urban growth and land use change.

Keywords: land use change, urban growth, Islamabad, object-based classification, Google Earth, remote sensing, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
36 Spatio- Temporal Gender Based Patterns of Lung Cancer in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, 2008-2012

Authors: Rubab Z. Kahlon, Ibtisam Butt, Isma Younis, Aamer G. Mufti

Abstract:

Worldwide lung cancer 1.61 million cases were seen in both genders. Lung carcinoma is the major cause of both morbidity and mortality in the world. Purpose of the present study was to describe the spatio- temporal trends of lung cancer in both genders. A retrospective study was conducted. Total 1498 patients of lung carcinoma were examined. Only lung cancer patients from all over the Punjab were included in the present study. MS Excel 2010 was used for data tabulation and calculation while the Arc GIS version 9.3 was used for geographical representation of the data. 1498 cases of Lung cancer were found from 2008-2012. The number of male patients was 1236 and female was 262. Majority of the patients were from Lahore districts with 807 patients. Lung cancer was more prevalent in male as compared to female in our region. Increase in the prevalence of lung cancer was prominently seen in the most populated and industrial areas of the Punjab province. Time trend of five years showed fluctuation in the lung cancer incidence during the study period.

Keywords: districts, gender, lung cancer trends, Punjab province of Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
35 The Effect of Different Surface Cleaning Methods on Porosity Formation and Mechanical Property of AA6xxx Aluminum Gas Metal Arc Welds

Authors: Fatemeh Mirakhorli

Abstract:

Porosity is the main issue during welding of aluminum alloys, and surface cleaning has a critical influence to reduce the porosity level by removing the oxidized surface layer before fusion welding. Developing an optimum and economical surface cleaning method has an enormous benefit for aluminum welding industries to reduce costs related to repairing and repeating welds as well as increasing the mechanical properties of the joints. In this study, several mechanical and chemical surface cleaning methods were examined for butt joint welding of 2 mm thick AA6xxx alloys using ER5556 filler metal. The effects of each method on porosity formation and tensile properties are evaluated. It has been found that, compared to the conventional mechanical cleaning method, the use of chemical cleaning leads to an important reduction in porosity level even after a significant delay between cleaning and welding. The effect of the higher porosity level in the fusion zone to reduce the tensile strength of the welds is shown.

Keywords: gas metal arc welding (GMAW), aluminum alloy, surface cleaning, porosity formation, mechanical property

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
34 The Effect of the Weld Current Types on Microstructure and Hardness in Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

Authors: Bilge Demir, Ahmet Durgutlu, Mustafa Acarer

Abstract:

In this study, the butt welding of the commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets have been carried out by using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process with alternative and pulsed current. Welded samples were examined with regards to hardness and microstructure. Despite some recent developments in welding of magnesium alloys, they have some problems such as porosity, hot cracking, oxide formation and so on. Samples of the welded parts have undergone metallographic and mechanical examination. Porosities and homogeneous micron grain oxides were rarely observed. Orientations of the weld microstructure in terms of heat transfer also were rarely observed and equiaxed grain morphology was dominant grain structure as in the base metal. As results, fusion zone and few locations of the HAZ of the welded samples have shown twin’s grains. Hot cracking was not observed for any samples. Weld bead geometry of the welded samples were evaluated as normal according to welding parameters. In the results, conditions of alternative and pulsed current and the samples were compared to each other with regards to microstructure and hardness.

Keywords: AZ31 magnesium alloy, microstructures, micro hardness TIG welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
33 Assessment for the Backfill Using the Run of the Mine Tailings and Portland Cement

Authors: Javad Someehneshin, Weizhou Quan, Abdelsalam Abugharara, Stephen Butt

Abstract:

Narrow vein mining (NVM) is exploiting very thin but valuable ore bodies that are uneconomical to extract by conventional mining methods. NVM applies the technique of Sustainable Mining by Drilling (SMD). The SMD method is used to mine stranded, steeply dipping ore veins, which are too small or isolated to mine economically using conventional methods since the dilution is minimized. This novel mining technique uses drilling rigs to extract the ore through directional drilling surgically. This paper is focusing on utilizing the run of the mine tailings and Portland cement as backfill material to support the hanging wall for providing safe mine operation. Cemented paste backfill (CPB) is designed by mixing waste tailings, water, and cement of the precise percentage for optimal outcomes. It is a non-homogenous material that contains 70-85% solids. Usually, a hydraulic binder is added to the mixture to increase the strength of the CPB. The binder fraction mostly accounts for 2–10% of the total weight. In the mining industry, CPB has been improved and expanded gradually because it provides safety and support for the mines. Furthermore, CPB helps manage the waste tailings in an economical method and plays a significant role in environmental protection.

Keywords: backfilling, cement backfill, tailings, Portland cement

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
32 Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Dissimilar Al/Cu Foil Single Lap Joints Made by Composite Metal Foil Manufacturing

Authors: Javaid Butt, Habtom Mebrahtu, Hassan Shirvani

Abstract:

The paper presents a new additive manufacturing process for the production of metal and composite parts. It is termed as composite metal foil manufacturing and is a combination of laminated object manufacturing and brazing techniques. The process has been described in detail and is being used to produce dissimilar aluminum to copper foil single lap joints. A three dimensional finite element model has been developed to study the thermo-mechanical characteristics of the dissimilar Al/Cu single lap joint. The effects of thermal stress and strain have been analyzed by carrying out transient thermal analysis on the heated plates used to join the two 0.1mm thin metal foils. Tensile test has been carried out on the foils before joining and after the single Al/Cu lap joints are made, they are subjected to tensile lap-shear test to analyze the effect of heat on the foils. The analyses are designed to assess the mechanical integrity of the foils after the brazing process and understand whether or not the heat treatment has an effect on the fracture modes of the produced specimens.

Keywords: brazing, laminated object manufacturing, tensile lap-shear test, thermo-mechanical analysis

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31 Quantification of Extent of Pollution from Total Lead in the Shooting Ranges Found in Southern and Central Botswana: A Pioneering Study

Authors: Nicholas Sehube, Rosemary Kelebemang, Pogisego Dinake

Abstract:

The extent of Pb contamination of shooting range soils has never been ascertained in Botswana, this was the first attempt in evaluating the deposition of Pb into the soils emanating from munitions. A total of 8 military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the 8 shooting ranges at the berm (stop butt), target line, 50 and 100 m from the berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest concentrations were found in the berm soils. The highest Pb concentrations of 38 406.87 mg/Kg were found in the berm soils of Thebephatshwa shooting range which is enclosed within a military camp with staff residential dwelling only a kilometre away. Most of the shooting ranges soils contained elevated levels of Pb in the ranges above 2000 mg/kg far exceeding the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) critical value of 400 mg/Kg. Mobilization of lead at high pH is attributed to low organic matter and such was the case with Thebephatshwa shooting range with a percept organic matter of 0.35±0.08. The predominant weathering products in these shooting ranges were cerussite (PbCO3), hydrocerussite (Pb(CO3)2(OH)2 and massicot (PbO). The detailed examination and characterization of the extent of pollution will help in the development and implementation of scientifically sound remediation and restoration of shooting ranges soils.

Keywords: ammunition, Botswana, Pb, pollution, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
30 A New Fuzzy Fractional Order Model of Transmission of Covid-19 With Quarantine Class

Authors: Asma Hanif, A. I. K. Butt, Shabir Ahmad, Rahim Ud Din, Mustafa Inc

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to a study of the fuzzy fractional mathematical model reviewing the transmission dynamics of the infectious disease Covid-19. The proposed dynamical model consists of susceptible, exposed, symptomatic, asymptomatic, quarantine, hospitalized and recovered compartments. In this study, we deal with the fuzzy fractional model defined in Caputo’s sense. We show the positivity of state variables that all the state variables that represent different compartments of the model are positive. Using Gronwall inequality, we show that the solution of the model is bounded. Using the notion of the next-generation matrix, we find the basic reproduction number of the model. We demonstrate the local and global stability of the equilibrium point by using the concept of Castillo-Chavez and Lyapunov theory with the Lasalle invariant principle, respectively. We present the results that reveal the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the considered model through the fixed point theorem of Schauder and Banach. Using the fuzzy hybrid Laplace method, we acquire the approximate solution of the proposed model. The results are graphically presented via MATLAB-17.

Keywords: Caputo fractional derivative, existence and uniqueness, gronwall inequality, Lyapunov theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
29 Comparison of Applicability of Time Series Forecasting Models VAR, ARCH and ARMA in Management Science: Study Based on Empirical Analysis of Time Series Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Hammad Tahir, Fawwad Mahmood Butt

Abstract:

Purpose: This study attempts to examine the best forecasting methodologies in the time series. The time series forecasting models such as VAR, ARCH and the ARMA are considered for the analysis. Methodology: The Bench Marks or the parameters such as Adjusted R square, F-stats, Durban Watson, and Direction of the roots have been critically and empirically analyzed. The empirical analysis consists of time series data of Consumer Price Index and Closing Stock Price. Findings: The results show that the VAR model performed better in comparison to other models. Both the reliability and significance of VAR model is highly appreciable. In contrary to it, the ARCH model showed very poor results for forecasting. However, the results of ARMA model appeared double standards i.e. the AR roots showed that model is stationary and that of MA roots showed that the model is invertible. Therefore, the forecasting would remain doubtful if it made on the bases of ARMA model. It has been concluded that VAR model provides best forecasting results. Practical Implications: This paper provides empirical evidences for the application of time series forecasting model. This paper therefore provides the base for the application of best time series forecasting model.

Keywords: forecasting, time series, auto regression, ARCH, ARMA

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28 Relationship between ICTs Application with Production and Protection Technology: Lesson from Rural Punjab-Pakistan

Authors: Tahir Munir Butt, Gao Qijie, Babar Shahbaz, Muhammad Zakaria Yousaf Hassan, Zhnag Chuanhong

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to identify the relationship between Information Communication Technology (ICTs) applications with Agricultural development in the process of communication at rural Punjab-Pakistan. The authors analyzed the relationship of ICTs applications with the most prominent factor for the Agricultural Information Services (AIS) in the Agricultural Extension Approaches (AEA). The data collection procedure was started from Jan. 2015 and completed in July 2015. It is the one of the part in PhD studies at China Agriculture, University Hadian-Beijng China. It was observed that on major constraint in the AIS disseminated was the limited number of farmers especially and unknown the farmers about new ICTs technology for Agriculture at rural areas. Majority of ICTs application e.g. Toll free number; Robo Calls; Text message was highly significances in the AIS approach. The recommendation is communication and capacity building one of the indispensable elements for sustainable and agricultural development and Agricultural extension should be provided training to farmer about new ICTs technologies to access and use of it for Sustainable Agriculture Development (SAD) and update the scenario of flow of information also with try to established ICTs hub at the village level.

Keywords: ICTs, AEA, AIS, SAD, rural farmers

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27 Characterization of Martensitic Stainless Steel Japanese Grade AISI 420A

Authors: T. Z. Butt, T. A. Tabish, K. Anjum, H. Hafeez

Abstract:

A study of martensitic stainless steel surgical grade AISI 420A produced in Japan was carried out in this research work. The sample was already annealed at about 898˚C. The sample were subjected to chemical analysis, hardness, tensile and metallographic tests. These tests were performed on as received annealed and heat treated samples. In the annealed condition the sample showed 0HRC. However, on tensile testing, in annealed condition the sample showed maximum elongation. The heat treatment is carried out in vacuum furnace within temperature range 980-1035°C. The quenching of samples was carried out using liquid nitrogen. After hardening, the samples were subjected to tempering, which was carried out in vacuum tempering furnace at a temperature of 220˚C. The hardened samples were subjected to hardness and tensile testing. In hardness testing, the samples showed maximum hardness values. In tensile testing the sample showed minimum elongation. The sample in annealed state showed coarse plates of martensite structure. Therefore, the studied steels can be used as biomaterials.

Keywords: biomaterials, martensitic steel, microsrtucture, tensile testing, hardening, tempering, bioinstrumentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
26 Curriculum Change and Innovation Viewed from Two Different Lenses

Authors: Muqaddas Butt, Allah Bakhsh Malik

Abstract:

The changing educational environment, the diverse educational needs of students, the high expectations from the public, and the policy reports demand a strong change & innovation in the curriculum. Effective change and innovation could not be possible without the involvement of two major tenants i.e. teachers and educational managers. Thus, the locus of this research was to explore the secondary school principals and teachers priorities regarding change and innovation in curriculum. The main research objectives were included to explore the secondary school teachers’ and principals’ views about existing Humanities group curriculum; to identify their priorities regarding change and innovation in curriculum and to make a comparison between the priorities of both (the teachers & principals). A total sample of 150 Secondary school teachers and 24 principals from Federal Government Secondary Schools was drawn. The data was obtained through a five point Likert scale questionnaire. The findings indicated a huge difference between principals and teachers priorities. Related to prevailed curriculum, teachers showed more satisfactory views than principals. It was also found that the principals in comparison with teachers showed more inclination towards change and innovation and emphasized on an interdisciplinary, practical and ICT Integrated curriculum. Inclusion of local environmental issues; creativity based and practical activities based curriculum; and orientation to citizenship education into curriculum were some of the aspects highly prioritized by both teachers and principals.

Keywords: curriculum change, curriculum innovation, humanities curriculum, curriculum priorities

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
25 Study of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Locally Developed Carbon Fibers-Silica Sand Nanoparticles Aluminium Based Hybrid Composites

Authors: Tahir Ahmad, M. Kamran, R. Ahmad, M. T. Z. Butt

Abstract:

Hybrid aluminum metal matrix composites with 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt. % of silica sand nanoparticles and electro-less nickel coated carbon fibers were successfully developed using sand casting technique. Epoxy coating of carbon fibers was removed and phosphorous-nickel coating was successfully applied via electro-less route. The developed hybrid composites were characterized using micro hardness tester, tensile testing, and optical microscopy. The gradual increase of reinforcing phases yielded improved mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength. The increase in hardness was attributed to the presence of silica sand nanoparticles whereas electro-less nickel coated carbon fibers enhanced the tensile properties of developed hybrid composites. The microstructure of the developed hybrid composites revealed the homogeneous distribution of both carbon fibers and silica sand nanoparticles in aluminum based hybrid composites. The formation of dendrite microstructure is the main cause of improving mechanical properties.

Keywords: aluminum based hybrid composites, mechanical properties, microstructure, microstructure and mechanical properties relationship

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24 Numerical Solution of Magneto-Hydrodynamic Flow of a Viscous Fluid in the Presence of Nanoparticles with Fractional Derivatives through a Cylindrical Tube

Authors: Muhammad Abdullah, Asma Rashid Butt, Nauman Raza

Abstract:

Biomagnetic fluids like blood play key role in different applications of medical science and bioengineering. In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic flow of a viscous fluid with magnetic particles through a cylindrical tube is investigated. The fluid is electrically charged in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field. The movement in the fluid is produced due to the cylindrical tube. Initially, the fluid and tube are at rest and at time t=0⁺, the tube starts to move along its axis. To obtain the mathematical model of flow with fractional derivatives fractional calculus approach is used. The solution of the flow model is obtained by using Laplace transformation. The Simon's numerical algorithm is employed to obtain inverse Laplace transform. The hybrid technique, we are employing has less computational effort as compared to other methods. The numerical calculations have been performed with Mathcad software. As the special cases of our problem, the solution of flow model with ordinary derivatives and flow without magnetic particles has been procured. Finally, the impact of non-integer fractional parameter alpha, Hartmann number Ha, and Reynolds number Re on flow and magnetic particles velocity is analyzed and depicted by graphs.

Keywords: viscous fluid, magnetic particles, fractional calculus, laplace transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 107