Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: neurosurgery

22 Utility of Thromboelastography to Reduce Coagulation-Related Mortality and Blood Component Rate in Neurosurgery ICU

Authors: Renu Saini, Deepak Agrawal

Abstract:

Background: Patients with head and spinal cord injury frequently have deranged coagulation profiles and require blood products transfusion perioperatively. Thromboelastography (TEG) is a ‘bedside’ global test of coagulation which may have role in deciding the need of transfusion in such patients. Aim: To assess the usefulness of TEG in department of neurosurgery in decreasing transfusion rates and coagulation-related mortality in traumatic head and spinal cord injury. Method and Methodology: A retrospective comparative study was carried out in the department of neurosurgery over a period of 1 year. There are two groups in this study. ‘Control’ group constitutes the patients in whom data was collected over 6 months (1/6/2009-31/12/2009) prior to installation of TEG machine. ‘Test’ group includes patients in whom data was collected over 6months (1/1/2013-30/6/2013) post TEG installation. Total no. of platelet, FFP, and cryoprecipitate transfusions were noted in both groups along with in hospital mortality and length of stay. Result: Both groups were matched in age and sex of patients, number of head and spinal cord injury cases, number of patients with thrombocytopenia and number of patients who underwent operation. Total 178 patients (135 head injury and 43 spinal cord injury patents) were admitted in neurosurgery department during time period June 2009 to December 2009 i.e. prior to TEG installation and after TEG installation a total of 243 patients(197 head injury and 46 spinal cord injury patents) were admitted. After TEG introduction platelet transfusion significantly reduced (p=0.000) compare to control group (67 units to 34 units). Mortality rate was found significantly reduced after installation (77 patients to 57 patients, P=0.000). Length of stay was reduced significantly (Prior installation 1-211days and after installation 1-115days, p=0.02). Conclusion: Bedside TEG can dramatically reduce platelet transfusion components requirement in department of neurosurgery. TEG also lead to a drastic decrease in mortality rate and length of stay in patients with traumatic head and spinal cord injuries. We recommend its use as a standard of care in the patients with traumatic head and spinal cord injuries.

Keywords: blood component transfusion, mortality, neurosurgery ICU, thromboelastography

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21 Augmentation of Conventional Medicine for Post-concussion Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Accelerates Symptomatic Relief in Affected Individuals

Authors: Waqas Mehdi, Muhammad Umar Hassan, Khadeeja Mustafa

Abstract:

Objective: Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is a medical term used to point out the complicated combination of physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioral signs and symptoms associated with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury(mTBI). This study was conducted to assess the improvement or debilitating effect of behavioral therapy in addition to the conventional treatment and to document these results for increasing the efficiency of treatment provided to such cases. Method: This was primarily an interventional prospective cohort study which was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Hospital Lahore. The sample size was 200 patients who were randomly distributed into two groups. The interventional group with Cognitive behavioral therapy was added in addition to the conventional treatment regimen and the Control group receiving only conventional treatment. Results were noted initially as well as after two weeks of the follow-up period. Data were subsequently analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and associations worked out. Result and conclusion: Among the patients that were given therapy sessions along with conventional medicine, there was a significant improvement in the symptoms and their overall quality of life. It is also important to notice that the time period taken for these effects to wane is cut down by psychiatric solutions too. So we can conclude that CBT sessions not only speed up recovery in patients with post-concussion syndrome they also aid in the efficiency improvement in functional capability and quality of life.

Keywords: neurosurgery, CBT, PCS, mTBI

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20 Accuracy/Precision Evaluation of Excalibur I: A Neurosurgery-Specific Haptic Hand Controller

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Benjamin Durante, Alex Irwin, Sanju Lama, Kourosh Zareinia, Garnette R. Sutherland

Abstract:

This study reports on a proposed method to evaluate the accuracy and precision of Excalibur I, a neurosurgery-specific haptic hand controller, designed and developed at Project neuroArm. Having an efficient and successful robot-assisted telesurgery is considerably contingent on how accurate and precise a haptic hand controller (master/local robot) would be able to interpret the kinematic indices of motion, i.e., position and orientation, from the surgeon’s upper limp to the slave/remote robot. A proposed test rig is designed and manufactured according to standard ASTM F2554-10 to determine the accuracy and precision range of Excalibur I at four different locations within its workspace: central workspace, extreme forward, far left and far right. The test rig is metrologically characterized by a coordinate measuring machine (accuracy and repeatability < ± 5 µm). Only the serial linkage of the haptic device is examined due to the use of the Structural Length Index (SLI). The results indicate that accuracy decreases by moving from the workspace central area towards the borders of the workspace. In a comparative study, Excalibur I performs on par with the PHANToM PremiumTM 3.0 and more accurate/precise than the PHANToM PremiumTM 1.5. The error in Cartesian coordinate system shows a dominant component in one direction (δx, δy or δz) for the movements on horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces. The average error magnitude of three attempts is recorded, considering all three error components. This research is the first promising step to quantify the kinematic performance of Excalibur I.

Keywords: accuracy, advanced metrology, hand controller, precision, robot-assisted surgery, tele-operation, workspace

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19 Applying the Global Trigger Tool in German Hospitals: A Retrospective Study in Surgery and Neurosurgery

Authors: Mareen Brosterhaus, Antje Hammer, Steffen Kalina, Stefan Grau, Anjali A. Roeth, Hany Ashmawy, Thomas Gross, Marcel Binnebosel, Wolfram T. Knoefel, Tanja Manser

Abstract:

Background: The identification of critical incidents in hospitals is an essential component of improving patient safety. To date, various methods have been used to measure and characterize such critical incidents. These methods are often viewed by physicians and nurses as external quality assurance, and this creates obstacles to the reporting events and the implementation of recommendations in practice. One way to overcome this problem is to use tools that directly involve staff in measuring indicators of quality and safety of care in the department. One such instrument is the global trigger tool (GTT), which helps physicians and nurses identify adverse events by systematically reviewing randomly selected patient records. Based on so-called ‘triggers’ (warning signals), indications of adverse events can be given. While the tool is already used internationally, its implementation in German hospitals has been very limited. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the feasibility and potential of the global trigger tool for identifying adverse events in German hospitals. Methods: A total of 120 patient records were randomly selected from two surgical, and one neurosurgery, departments of three university hospitals in Germany over a period of two months per department between January and July, 2017. The records were reviewed using an adaptation of the German version of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Global Trigger Tool to identify triggers and adverse event rates per 1000 patient days and per 100 admissions. The severity of adverse events was classified using the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. Results: A total of 53 adverse events were detected in the three departments. This corresponded to adverse event rates of 25.5-72.1 per 1000 patient-days and from 25.0 to 60.0 per 100 admissions across the three departments. 98.1% of identified adverse events were associated with non-permanent harm without (Category E–71.7%) or with (Category F–26.4%) the need for prolonged hospitalization. One adverse event (1.9%) was associated with potentially permanent harm to the patient. We also identified practical challenges in the implementation of the tool, such as the need for adaptation of the global trigger tool to the respective department. Conclusions: The global trigger tool is feasible and an effective instrument for quality measurement when adapted to the departmental specifics. Based on our experience, we recommend a continuous use of the tool thereby directly involving clinicians in quality improvement.

Keywords: adverse events, global trigger tool, patient safety, record review

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18 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Development of Demand-Controlled Deep Brain Stimulation with Methods from Stochastic Phase Resetting

Authors: Mahdi Akhbardeh

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Synchronization of neuronal firing is a hallmark of several neurological diseases. Recently, stimulation techniques have been developed which make it possible to desynchronize oscillatory neuronal activity in a mild and effective way, without suppressing the neurons' firing. As yet, these techniques are being used to establish demand-controlled deep brain stimulation (DBS) techniques for the therapy of movement disorders like severe Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. We here present a first conceptualization suggesting that the nucleus accumbens is a promising target for the standard, that is, permanent high-frequency, DBS in patients with severe and chronic obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we explain how demand-controlled DBS techniques may be applied to the therapy of OCD in those cases that are refractory to behavioral therapies and pharmacological treatment.

Keywords: stereotactic neurosurgery, deep brain stimulation, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phase resetting

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17 The Relationship of the Dentate Nucleus with the Pyramid of Vermis: A Microneurosurgical Anatomical Study

Authors: Santhosh K. S. Annayappa, Nupur Pruthi

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The region of dentate nucleus is a common site for various pathologies like hematomas, tumours, etc. We aimed to study in detail the relationship of this region with the vermis, especially the pyramid using microscopic fibre dissection technique. To achieve this aim, 20 cerebellar hemispheres were studied from the 11 cerebellums. Dissection was performed using wooden spatulas and micro dissectors under a microscope following Klingler’s preservation technique. The relationship between the pyramid of vermis and the dentate nucleus was studied in detail. A similar relationship was studied on the MRI of randomly selected trigeminal neuralgia patients and correlated with anatomical findings. Results show the mean distance of the lateral margin of the dentate nucleus from the midline on anatomic specimens was 21.4 ± 1.8 mm (19-25 mm) and 23.4 ± 3.4 mm (15-29 mm) on right and left side, respectively. Similar measurements made on the MRI were 22.97 ± 2.0 mm (20.03-26.15 mm) on the right side and 23.98 ± 2.1 mm (21.47-27.67 mm) on the left side. The amount of white matter dissection required to reach the dentate nucleus at the pyramidal attachment area was 7.3 ± 1.0 mm (6-9 mm) on the right side and 6.8 ± 1.4 mm (5-10 mm) on the left side. It was concluded that the pyramid of vermis has a constant relationship with the dentate nucleus and can be used as an excellent landmark during surgery to localise the dentate nucleus on the suboccipital surface.

Keywords: fiber dissection, micro neurosurgery, the dentate nucleus of cerebellum, the pyramid of vermis

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16 Rathke’s Cleft Cyst Presenting as Unilateral Visual Field Defect

Authors: Ritesh Verma, Manisha Rathi, Chand Singh Dhull, Sumit Sachdeva, Jitender Phogat

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A Rathke's cleft cyst is a benign growth found on the pituitary gland in the brain, specifically a fluid-filled cyst in the posterior portion of the anterior pituitary gland. It occurs when the Rathke's pouch does not develop properly and ranges in size from 2 to 40mm in diameter. A 38-year-old male presented to the outpatient department with loss of vision in the inferior quadrant of the left eye since 15 days. Visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/9 in the left eye. Visual field analysis by HFA-24-2 revealed an inferior field defect extending to the supero-temporal quadrant in the left eye. MRI brain and orbit was advised to the patient and it revealed a well defined cystic pituitary adenoma indenting left optic nerve near optic chiasm consistent with the diagnosis of Rathke’s cleft cyst (RCC). The patient was referred to neurosurgery department for further management. Symptoms vary greatly between individuals having RCCs. RCCs can be non-functioning, functioning, or both. Besides headaches, neurocognitive deficits are almost always present but have a high rate of immediate reversal if the cyst is properly treated or drained.

Keywords: pituitary tumors, rathke’s cleft cyst, visual field defects, vision loss

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15 Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children with Brain Tumors

Authors: J. R. Ashrapov, G. A. Alihodzhaeva, D. E. Abdullaev, N. R. Kadirbekov

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Diagnosis of brain tumors is one of the challenges, as several central nervous system diseases run the same symptoms. Modern diagnostic techniques such as CT, MRI helps to significantly improve the surgery in the operating period, after surgery, after allowing time to identify postoperative complications in neurosurgery. Purpose: To study the MRI characteristics and localization of brain tumors in children and to detect the postoperative complications in the postoperative period. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of treatment of 62 children with brain tumors in age from 2 to 5 years was performed. Results of the review: MRI scan of the brain of the 62 patients 52 (83.8%) case revealed a brain tumor. Distribution on MRI of brain tumors found in 15 (24.1%) - glioblastomas, 21 (33.8%) - astrocytomas, 7 (11.2%) - medulloblastomas, 9 (14.5%) - a tumor origin (craniopharyngiomas, chordoma of the skull base). MRI revealed the following characteristic features: an additional sign of the heterogeneous MRI signal of hyper and hypointensive T1 and T2 modes with a different perifocal swelling degree with involvement in the process of brain vessels. The main objectives of postoperative MRI study are the identification of early or late postoperative complications, evaluation of radical surgery, the identification of the extended-growing tumor that (in terms of 3-4 weeks). MRI performed in the following cases: 1. Suspicion of a hematoma (3 days or more) 2. Suspicion continued tumor growth (in terms of 3-4 weeks). Conclusions: Magnetic resonance tomography is a highly informative method of diagnostics of brain tumors in children. MRI also helps to determine the effectiveness and tactics of treatment and the follow up in the postoperative period.

Keywords: brain tumors, children, MRI, treatment

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14 Embolization of Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistulae: Clinical Outcomes and Long-Term Follow-Up: A Multicenter Study

Authors: Walid Abouzeid, Mohamed Shadad, Mostafa Farid, Magdy El Hawary

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The most frequent treatable vascular abnormality of the spinal canal is spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (SDAVFs), which cause progressive para- or quadriplegia mostly affecting elderly males. SDAVFs are present in the thoracolumbar region. The main goal of treatment must be to obliterate the shunting zone via superselective embolization with the usage of a liquid embolic agent. This study aims to evaluate endovascular technique as a safe and efficient approach for the treatment SDAVFs, especially with long-term follow-up clinical outcomes. Study Design: A retrospective clinical case study. From May 2010 to May 2017, 15 patients who had symptoms attributed to SDAVFs underwent the operation in the Departments of Neurosurgery in Suhag, Tanta, and Al-Azhar Universities and Interventional Radiology, Ain Shams University. All the patients had varying degrees of progressive spastic paraparesis with and without sphincteric disturbances. Endovascular embolization was used in all cases. Fourteen were males, with ages ranging from 45 to 74 years old. After the treatment, good outcome was found in five patients (33.3%), a moderate outcome was delineated in six patients (40 %), and four patients revealed a poor outcome (26.7%). Spinal AVF could be treated safely and effectively by the endovascular approach. Generally, there is no correlation between the disappearance of MRI abnormalities and significant clinical improvement. The preclinical state of the patient is directly proportional to the clinical outcome. Due to unexpected responses, embolization should be attempted even the patient is in a bad clinical condition.

Keywords: spine, arteriovenous, fistula, endovascular, embolization

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13 A Rare Presentation of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Small Bowel Stricture

Authors: Shivani Kuttuva, Bridget Fergie, Andrew Mishreki, Shovkat Mir, Fintan Bergin

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Diaphragm disease (DD) of the small bowel is a condition wherein the bowel lumen is divided into a series of short compartments by multiple circumferential membranes of mucosa and submucosa, leading to pinhole lumen and subsequent obstruction. It is a rare condition commonly attributed to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) usage. Herein we present a 31-yr-old-female with a history of NSAIDs usage for one year following neurosurgery, who presented with recurrent idiopathic small bowel obstruction, recalcitrant anemia, and impaction of capsule endoscope on investigating for anemia. The capsule endoscopy images had demonstrated multiple circumferential strictures with ulcers at its tip and villous atrophy in the proximal bowel, suggestive of NSAIDs related damage. However, due to the lack of awareness of the detrimental effects of NSAIDs on bowel mucosa distal to the duodenum, the underlying aetiology of this case remained a mystery for a significant duration. The patient had to undergo repeated laparotomies in order to relieve the symptoms of recurring acute small bowel obstruction. Upon examining the resected specimen under microscopy, the histopathological hallmark of expanded, fibrotic, and congested submucosa was picked up, leading to the confirmation of diaphragm disease. Thus, this case report aims to widen the awareness among clinicians and aid surgeons in devising a management plan for young individuals presenting with recurring episodes of obstruction due to diaphragm disease.

Keywords: capsule endoscopy, diaphragm disease, NSAIDs, recurrent small bowel obstruction

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12 Integration of an Augmented Reality System for the Visualization of the HRMAS NMR Analysis of Brain Biopsy Specimens Using the Brainlab Cranial Navigation System

Authors: Abdelkrim Belhaoua, Jean-Pierre Radoux, Mariana Kuras, Vincent Récamier, Martial Piotto, Karim Elbayed, François Proust, Izzie Namer

Abstract:

This paper proposes an augmented reality system dedicated to neurosurgery in order to assist the surgeon during an operation. This work is part of the ExtempoRMN project (Funded by Bpifrance) which aims at analyzing during a surgical operation the metabolic content of tumoral brain biopsy specimens by HRMAS NMR. Patients affected with a brain tumor (gliomas) frequently need to undergo an operation in order to remove the tumoral mass. During the operation, the neurosurgeon removes biopsy specimens using image-guided surgery. The biopsy specimens removed are then sent for HRMAS NMR analysis in order to obtain a better diagnosis and prognosis. Image-guided refers to the use of MRI images and a computer to precisely locate and target a lesion (abnormal tissue) within the brain. This is performed using preoperative MRI images and the BrainLab neuro-navigation system. With the patient MRI images loaded on the Brainlab Cranial neuro-navigation system in the operating theater, surgeons can better identify their approach before making an incision. The Brainlab neuro-navigation tool tracks in real time the position of the instruments and displays their position on the patient MRI data. The results of the biopsy analysis by 1H HRMAS NMR are then sent back to the operating theater and superimposed on the 3D localization system directly on the MRI images. The method we have developed to communicate between the HRMAS NMR analysis software and Brainlab makes use of a combination of C++, VTK and the Insight Toolkit using OpenIGTLink protocol.

Keywords: neuro-navigation, augmented reality, biopsy, BrainLab, HR-MAS NMR

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11 A Benchtop Experiment to Study Changes in Tracer Distribution in the Subarachnoid Space

Authors: Smruti Mahapatra, Dipankar Biswas, Richard Um, Michael Meggyesy, Riccardo Serra, Noah Gorelick, Steven Marra, Amir Manbachi, Mark G. Luciano

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Intracranial pressure (ICP) is profoundly regulated by the effects of cardiac pulsation and the volume of the incoming blood. Furthermore, these effects on ICP are incremented by the presence of a rigid skull that does not allow for changes in total volume during the cardiac cycle. These factors play a pivotal role in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and distribution, with consequences that are not well understood to this date and that may have a deep effect on the Central Nervous System (CNS) functioning. We designed this study with two specific aims: (a) To study how pulsatility influences local CSF flow, and (b) To study how modulating intracranial pressure affects drug distribution throughout the SAS globally. In order to achieve these aims, we built an elaborate in-vitro model of the SAS closely mimicking the dimensions and flow rates of physiological systems. To modulate intracranial pressure, we used an intracranially implanted, cardiac-gated, volume-oscillating balloon (CADENCE device). Commercially available dye was used to visualize changes in CSF flow. We first implemented two control cases, seeing how the tracer behaves in the presence of pulsations from the brain phantom and the balloon individually. After establishing the controls, we tested 2 cases, having the brain and the balloon pulsate together in sync and out of sync. We then analyzed the distribution area using image processing software. The in-sync case produced a significant increase, 5x times, in the tracer distribution area relative to the out-of-sync case. Assuming that the tracer fluid would mimic blood flow movement, a drug introduced in the SAS with such a system in place would enhance drug distribution and increase the bioavailability of therapeutic drugs to a wider spectrum of brain tissue.

Keywords: blood-brain barrier, cardiac-gated, cerebrospinal fluid, drug delivery, neurosurgery

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10 Pathogenic Candida Biofilms Producers Involved in Healthcare Associated Infections

Authors: Ouassila Bekkal Brikci Benhabib, Zahia Boucherit Otmani, Kebir Boucherit, A. Seghir

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The establishment of intravenous catheters in hospitalized patient is an act common in many clinical situations. These therapeutic tools, from their insertion in the body, represent gateways including fungal germs prone. The latter can generate the growth of biofilms, which can be the cause of fungal infection. Faced with this problem, we conducted a study at the University Hospital of Tlemcen in the neurosurgery unit and aims to isolate and identify Candida yeasts from intravenous catheters. Then test their ability to form biofilms. Materials and methods: 256 patient hospitalized in surgery of the hospital in west Algeria were submitted to this study. All samples were taken from peripheral venous catheters implanted for 72 hours or more days. A total of 31 isolates of Candida species were isolated. MIC and SMIC are determined at 80% inhibition by the test XTT tetrazolium measured at 490 nm. The final concentrations of antifungal agent being between 0.03 and 16 mg / ml for amphotericin B and from 0.015 to 8 mg / mL caspofungin. Results: 31 Candida species isolates from catheters including 14 Candida albicans and 17 Candida non albicans . 21 strains of all the isolates were able to form biofilms. In their form of Planktonic cells, all isolates are 100% susceptible to antifungal agents tested. However, in their state of biofilms, more isolates have become tolerant to the tested antifungals. Conclusion: Candida yeasts isolated from intravascular catheters are considered an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of infections. Their involvement in catheter-related infections can be disastrous for their potential to generate biofilms. They survive high concentrations of antifungal where treatment failure. Pending the development of a therapeutic approach antibiofilm related to catheters, their mastery is going through: -The risk of infection prevention based on the training and awareness of medical staff, -Strict hygiene and maximum asepsis, and -The choice of material limiting microbial colonization.

Keywords: candida, biofilm, hospital, infection, amphotericin B, caspofungin

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9 Effect of Rehabilitative Nursing Program on Pain Intensity and Functional Status among Patients with Discectomy

Authors: Amal Shehata

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Low back pain related to disc prolapse is localized in the lumbar area and it may be radiated to the lower extremities, starting from neurons near or around the spinal canal. Most of the population may be affected with disc prolapse within their lifetime and leads to lost productivity, disability and loss of function. The study purpose was to examine the effect of rehabilitative nursing program on pain intensity and functional status among patients with discectomy. Design: Aquasi experimental design was utilized. Setting: The study was carried out at neurosurgery department and out patient's clinic of Menoufia University and Teaching hospitals at Menoufia governorate, Egypt. Instrument of the study: Five Instruments were used for data collection: Structured interviewing questionnaire, Functional assessment instrument, Observational check list, Numeric rating Scale and Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire. Results: There was an improvement in mean total knowledge score about disease process, discectomy and rehabilitation program in study group (25.32%) than control group (7.32%). There was highly statistically significant improvement in lumbar flexibility among study group (80%) than control group (30%) after rehabilitation program than before. Also there was a decrease in pain score in study group (58% no pain) than control group (28% no pain) after rehabilitation program. There was an improvement in total disability score of study group (zero %) regarding effect of pain on the activity of daily living after rehabilitation program than control group (16%). Conclusion: Application of rehabilitative nursing program for patient with discectomy had proven a positive effect in relation to knowledge score, pain reduction, activity of daily living and functional abilities. Recommendation: A continuous rehabilitative nursing program should be carried out for all patients immediately after discectomy surgery on regular basis. Also A colored illustrated booklet about rehabilitation program should be available and distributed for all patients before surgery.

Keywords: discectomy, rehabilitative nursing program, pain intensity, functional status

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8 Transorbital Craniectomy for Treatment of Frontal Lobe and Olfactory Bulb Neoplasia in Two Canids

Authors: Kathryn L. Duncan, Charles A. Kuntz, James O. Simcock

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A surgical approach to the cranium for treatment of frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia in dogs is described in this report, which provided excellent access for visualisation and removal of gross neoplastic tissue. An 8-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu crossbreed dog (dog 1) and a 13-year-old neutered male Miniature Fox Terrier (dog 2) were evaluated for removal of neoplasms involving both the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb. Both dogs presented with abnormal neurological clinical signs, decreased menace responses, and behavioural changes. Additionally, dog 2 presented with compulsive circling and generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity. Computed tomography was performed in both dogs, and MRI was also performed in dog 1. Imaging was consistent with frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia. A transorbital frontal bone craniectomy, with orbital ligament desmotomy and ventrolateral retraction of the globe, was performed in both cases without complication. Dog 1 had a focal area of lysis in the frontal bone adjacent to the neoplasm in the frontal lobe. The presence of the bone defect provided part of the impetus for this approach, as it would permit resection of the lytic bone. In addition, the neoplasms would be surgically accessible without encountering interposed brain parenchyma, reducing the risk of iatrogenic injury. Both dogs were discharged from the hospital within 72 hours post-operatively, both with normal mentation. Case 1 had a histopathologic diagnosis of malignant anaplastic neoplasm. The tumour recurred 101d postoperatively, and the patient was euthanized. Case 2 was diagnosed with a meningioma and was neurologically normal at 294d postoperatively. This transorbital surgical approach allowed successful removal of the intracranial frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms in 2 dogs. This approach should be considered for dogs with lateralized frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms that are closely associated with the suborbital region of the frontal bone.

Keywords: neurosurgery, small animal surgery, surgical oncology, veterinary neurology

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7 Rare Diagnosis in Emergency Room: Moyamoya Disease

Authors: Ecem Deniz Kırkpantur, Ozge Ecmel Onur, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu

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Moyamoya disease is a unique chronic progressive cerebrovascular disease characterized by bilateral stenosis or occlusion of the arteries around the circle of Willis with prominent arterial collateral circulation. The occurrence of Moyamoya disease is related to immune, genetic and other factors. There is no curative treatment for Moyamoya disease. Secondary prevention for patients with symptomatic Moyamoya disease is largely centered on surgical revascularization techniques. We present here a 62-year old male presented with headache and vision loss for 2 days. He was previously diagnosed with hypertension and glaucoma. On physical examination, left eye movements were restricted medially, both eyes were hyperemic and their movements were painful. Other neurological and physical examination were normal. His vital signs and laboratory results were within normal limits. Computed tomography (CT) showed dilated vascular structures around both lateral ventricles and atherosclerotic changes inside the walls of internal carotid artery (ICA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) revealed dilated venous vascular structures around lateral ventricles and hyper-intense gliosis in periventricular white matter. Ischemic gliosis around the lateral ventricles were present in the Digital Subtracted Angiography (DSA). After the neurology, ophthalmology and neurosurgery consultation, the patient was diagnosed with Moyamoya disease, pulse steroid therapy was started for vision loss, and super-selective DSA was planned for further investigation. Moyamoya disease is a rare condition, but it can be an important cause of stroke in both children and adults. It generally affects anterior circulation, but posterior cerebral circulation may also be affected, as well. In the differential diagnosis of acute vision loss, occipital stroke related to Moyamoya disease should be considered. Direct and indirect surgical revascularization surgeries may be used to effectively revascularize affected brain areas, and have been shown to reduce risk of stroke.

Keywords: headache, Moyamoya disease, stroke, visual loss

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6 The Effect of a Multidisciplinary Spine Clinic on Treatment Rates and Lead Times to Care

Authors: Ishan Naidu, Jessica Ryvlin, Devin Videlefsky

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Introduction: Back pain is a leading cause of years lived with disability and economic burden, exceeding over $20 billion in healthcare costs not including indirect costs such as absence from work and caregiving. The multifactorial nature of back pain leads to treatment modalities administered by a variety of specialists, which are often disjointed. Multiple studies have found that patients receiving delayed physical therapy for lower back pain had higher medical-related costs from increased health service utilization as well as a reduced improvement in pain severity compared to early management. Uncoordinated health care delivery can exacerbate the physical and economic toll of the chronic condition, thus improvements in interdisciplinary, shared decision-making may improve outcomes. Objective: To assess whether a multidisciplinary spine clinic (MSC), consisting of orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, pain medicine, and physiatry, alters interventional and non-interventional planning and treatment compared to a traditional unidisciplinary spine clinic (USC) including only orthopedic surgery. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with patients initially presenting for spine care to orthopedic surgeons between July 1, 2018 to June 30, 2019. Time to treatment recommendation, time to treatment and rates of treatment recommendations were assessed, including physical therapy, injections and surgery. Treatment rates were compared between MSC and USC using Pearson’s chi-square test logistic regression. Time to treatment recommendation and time to treatment were compared using log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard regression. All analyses were repeated for the propensity score (PS) matched subsample. Results: This study included 1,764 patients, with 692 at MSC and 1,072 at USC. Patients in MSC were more likely to be recommended injection when compared to USC (8.5% vs. 5.4%, p=0.01). When adjusted for confounders, the likelihood of injection recommendation remained greater in MSC than USC (Odds ratio [OR]=2.22, 95% CI: (1.39, 3.53), p=0.001). MSC was also associated with a shorter time to receiving injection recommendation versus USC (median: 21 vs. 32 days, log-rank: p<0.001; hazard ratio [HR]=1.90, 95% CI: (1.25, 2.90), p=0.003). MSC was associated with a higher likelihood of injection treatment (OR=2.27, 95% CI: (1.39, 3.73), p=0.001) and shorter lead time (HR=1.98, 95% CI: (1.27, 3.09), p=0.003). PS-matched analyses yielded similar conclusions. Conclusions: Care delivered at a multidisciplinary spine clinic was associated with a higher likelihood of recommending injection and a shorter lead time to injection administration when compared to a traditional unidisciplinary spine surgery clinic. Multidisciplinary clinics may facilitate coordinated care amongst different specialties resulting in increased utilization of less invasive treatment modalities while also improving care efficiency. The multidisciplinary clinic model is an important advancement in care delivery and communication, which can be used as a powerful method of improving patient outcomes as treatment guidelines evolve.

Keywords: coordinated care, epidural steroid injection, multi-disciplinary, non-invasive

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5 Temporal Delays along the Neurosurgical Care Continuum for Traumatic Brain Injury Patients in Mulago Hospital in Kampala Uganda

Authors: Silvia D. Vaca, Benjamin J. Kuo, Joao Ricardo N. Vissoci, Catherine A. Staton, Linda W. Xu, Michael Muhumuza, Hussein Ssenyonjo, John Mukasa, Joel Kiryabwire, Henry E. Rice, Gerald A. Grant, Michael M. Haglund

Abstract:

Background: While delays to care exist in resource rich settings, greater delays are seen along the care continuum in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) largely due to limited healthcare capacity to address the disproportional rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). While many LMICs have government subsidized systems to offset surgical costs, the burden of securing funds by the patients for medications, supplies, and CT diagnostics poses a significant challenge to timely surgical interventions. In Kampala Uganda, the challenge of obtaining timely CT scans is twofold. First, due to a lack of a functional CT scanner at the tertiary hospital, patients need to arrange their own transportation to the nearby private facility for CT scans. Second, self-financing for the private CT scans ranges from $80 - $130, which is near the average monthly income in Kampala. These bottlenecks contribute significantly to the care continuum delays and are associated with poor TBI outcomes. Objective: The objectives of this study are to 1) describe the temporal delays through a modified three delays model that fits the context of neurosurgical interventions for TBI patients in Kampala and 2) investigate the association between delays and mortality. Methods: Prospective data were collected for 563 TBI patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Kampala from 1 June – 30 November 2016. Four time intervals were constructed along five time points: injury, hospital arrival, neurosurgical evaluation, CT results, and definitive surgery. Time interval differences among mild, moderate and severe TBI and their association with mortality were analyzed. Results: The mortality rate of all TBI patients presenting to MNRH was 9.6%, which ranged from 4.7% for mild and moderate TBI patients receiving surgery to 81.8% for severe TBI patients who failed to receive surgery. The duration from injury to surgery varied considerably across TBI severity with the largest gap seen between mild TBI (174 hours) and severe TBI (69 hours) patients. Further analysis revealed care continuum differences for interval 3 (neurosurgical evaluation to CT result) and 4 (CT result to surgery) between severe TBI patients (7 hours for interval 3 and 24 hours for interval 4) and mild TBI patients (19 hours for interval 3, and 96 hours for interval 4). These post-arrival delays were associated with mortality for mild (p=0.05) and moderate TBI (p=0.03) patients. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first analysis using a modified ‘three delays’ framework to analyze the care continuum of TBI patients in Uganda from injury to surgery. We found significant associations between delays and mortality for mild and moderate TBI patients. As it currently stands, poorer outcomes were observed for these mild and moderate TBI patients who were managed non-operatively or failed to receive surgery while surgical services were shunted to more severely ill patients. While well intentioned, high mortality rates were still observed for the severe TBI patients managed surgically. These results suggest the need for future research to optimize triage practices, understand delay contributors, and improve pre-hospital logistical referral systems.

Keywords: care continuum, global neurosurgery, Kampala Uganda, LMIC, Mulago, prospective registry, traumatic brain injury

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4 Traumatic Brain Injury Neurosurgical Care Continuum Delays in Mulago Hospital in Kampala Uganda

Authors: Silvia D. Vaca, Benjamin J. Kuo, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Catherine A. Staton, Linda W. Xu, Michael Muhumuza, Hussein Ssenyonjo, John Mukasa, Joel Kiryabwire, Henry E. Rice, Gerald A. Grant, Michael M. Haglund

Abstract:

Background: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can develop rapid neurological deterioration from swelling and intracranial hematomas, which can result in focal tissue ischemia, brain compression, and herniation. Moreover, delays in management increase the risk of secondary brain injury from hypoxemia and hypotension. Therefore, in TBI patients with subdural hematomas (SDHs) and epidural hematomas (EDHs), surgical intervention is both necessary and time sensitive. Significant delays are seen along the care continuum in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) largely due to limited healthcare capacity to address the disproportional rates of TBI in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). While many LMICs have subsidized systems to offset surgical costs, the burden of securing funds by the patients for medications, supplies, and CT diagnostics poses a significant challenge to timely surgical interventions. In Kampala Uganda, the challenge of obtaining timely CT scans is twofold: logistical and financial barriers. These bottlenecks contribute significantly to the care continuum delays and are associated with poor TBI outcomes. Objective: The objectives of this study are to 1) describe the temporal delays through a modified three delays model that fits the context of neurosurgical interventions for TBI patients in Kampala and 2) investigate the association between delays and mortality. Methods: Prospective data were collected for 563 TBI patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Kampala from 1 June – 30 November 2016. Four time intervals were constructed along five time points: injury, hospital arrival, neurosurgical evaluation, CT results, and definitive surgery. Time interval differences among mild, moderate and severe TBI and their association with mortality were analyzed. Results: The mortality rate of all TBI patients presenting to MNRH was 9.6%, which ranged from 4.7% for mild and moderate TBI patients receiving surgery to 81.8% for severe TBI patients who failed to receive surgery. The duration from injury to surgery varied considerably across TBI severity with the largest gap seen between mild TBI (174 hours) and severe TBI (69 hours) patients. Further analysis revealed care continuum differences for interval 3 (neurosurgical evaluation to CT result) and 4 (CT result to surgery) between severe TBI patients (7 hours for interval 3 and 24 hours for interval 4) and mild TBI patients (19 hours for interval 3, and 96 hours for interval 4). These post-arrival delays were associated with mortality for mild (p=0.05) and moderate TBI (p=0.03) patients. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first analysis using a modified 'three delays' framework to analyze the care continuum of TBI patients in Uganda from injury to surgery. We found significant associations between delays and mortality for mild and moderate TBI patients. As it currently stands, poorer outcomes were observed for these mild and moderate TBI patients who were managed non-operatively or failed to receive surgery while surgical services were shunted to more severely ill patients. While well intentioned, high mortality rates were still observed for the severe TBI patients managed surgically. These results suggest the need for future research to optimize triage practices, understand delay contributors, and improve pre-hospital logistical referral systems.

Keywords: care continuum, global neurosurgery, Kampala Uganda, LMIC, Mulago, traumatic brain injury

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3 Impact of Lack of Testing on Patient Recovery in the Early Phase of COVID-19: Narratively Collected Perspectives from a Remote Monitoring Program

Authors: Nicki Mohammadi, Emma Reford, Natalia Romano Spica, Laura Tabacof, Jenna Tosto-Mancuso, David Putrino, Christopher P. Kellner

Abstract:

Introductory Statement: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic demanded an unprecedented need for the rapid development, dispersal, and application of infection testing. However, despite the impressive mobilization of resources, individuals were incredibly limited in their access to tests, particularly during the initial months of the pandemic (March-April 2020) in New York City (NYC). Access to COVID-19 testing is crucial in understanding patients’ illness experiences and integral to the development of COVID-19 standard-of-care protocols, especially in the context of overall access to healthcare resources. Succinct Description of basic methodologies: 18 Patients in a COVID-19 Remote Patient Monitoring Program (Precision Recovery within the Mount Sinai Health System) were interviewed regarding their experience with COVID-19 during the first wave (March-May 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. Patients were asked about their experiences navigating COVID-19 diagnoses, the health care system, and their recovery process. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for thematic codes, using grounded theory to guide the identification of emergent themes and codebook development through an iterative process. Data coding was performed using NVivo12. References for the domain “testing” were then extracted and analyzed for themes and statistical patterns. Clear Indication of Major Findings of the study: 100% of participants (18/18) referenced COVID-19 testing in their interviews, with a total of 79 references across the 18 transcripts (average: 4.4 references/interview; 2.7% interview coverage). 89% of participants (16/18) discussed the difficulty of access to testing, including denial of testing without high severity of symptoms, geographical distance to the testing site, and lack of testing resources at healthcare centers. Participants shared varying perspectives on how the lack of certainty regarding their COVID-19 status affected their course of recovery. One participant shared that because she never tested positive she was shielded from her anxiety and fear, given the death toll in NYC. Another group of participants shared that not having a concrete status to share with family, friends and professionals affected how seriously onlookers took their symptoms. Furthermore, the absence of a positive test barred some individuals from access to treatment programs and employment support. Concluding Statement: Lack of access to COVID-19 testing in the first wave of the pandemic in NYC was a prominent element of patients’ illness experience, particularly during their recovery phase. While for some the lack of concrete results was protective, most emphasized the invalidating effect this had on the perception of illness for both self and others. COVID-19 testing is now widely accessible; however, those who are unable to demonstrate a positive test result but who are still presumed to have had COVID-19 in the first wave must continue to adapt to and live with the effects of this gap in knowledge and care on their recovery. Future efforts are required to ensure that patients do not face barriers to care due to the lack of testing and are reassured regarding their access to healthcare. Affiliations- 1Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 2Abilities Research Center, Department of Rehabilitation and Human Performance, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY

Keywords: accessibility, COVID-19, recovery, testing

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2 A Prospective Neurosurgical Registry Evaluating the Clinical Care of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Presenting to Mulago National Referral Hospital in Uganda

Authors: Benjamin J. Kuo, Silvia D. Vaca, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Catherine A. Staton, Linda Xu, Michael Muhumuza, Hussein Ssenyonjo, John Mukasa, Joel Kiryabwire, Lydia Nanjula, Christine Muhumuza, Henry E. Rice, Gerald A. Grant, Michael M. Haglund

Abstract:

Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is disproportionally concentrated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with the odds of dying from TBI in Uganda more than 4 times higher than in high income countries (HICs). The disparities in the injury incidence and outcome between LMICs and resource-rich settings have led to increased health outcomes research for TBIs and their associated risk factors in LMICs. While there have been increasing TBI studies in LMICs over the last decade, there is still a need for more robust prospective registries. In Uganda, a trauma registry implemented in 2004 at the Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH) showed that RTI is the major contributor (60%) of overall mortality in the casualty department. While the prior registry provides information on injury incidence and burden, it’s limited in scope and doesn’t follow patients longitudinally throughout their hospital stay nor does it focus specifically on TBIs. And although these retrospective analyses are helpful for benchmarking TBI outcomes, they make it hard to identify specific quality improvement initiatives. The relationship among epidemiology, patient risk factors, clinical care, and TBI outcomes are still relatively unknown at MNRH. Objective: The objectives of this study are to describe the processes of care and determine risk factors predictive of poor outcomes for TBI patients presenting to a single tertiary hospital in Uganda. Methods: Prospective data were collected for 563 TBI patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Kampala from 1 June – 30 November 2016. Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) was used to systematically collect variables spanning 8 categories. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted to determine significant predictors of mortality. Results: 563 TBI patients were enrolled from 1 June – 30 November 2016. 102 patients (18%) received surgery, 29 patients (5.1%) intended for surgery failed to receive it, and 251 patients (45%) received non-operative management. Overall mortality was 9.6%, which ranged from 4.7% for mild and moderate TBI to 55% for severe TBI patients with GCS 3-5. Within each TBI severity category, mortality differed by management pathway. Variables predictive of mortality were TBI severity, more than one intracranial bleed, failure to receive surgery, high dependency unit admission, ventilator support outside of surgery, and hospital arrival delayed by more than 4 hours. Conclusions: The overall mortality rate of 9.6% in Uganda for TBI is high, and likely underestimates the true TBI mortality. Furthermore, the wide-ranging mortality (3-82%), high ICU fatality, and negative impact of care delays suggest shortcomings with the current triaging practices. Lack of surgical intervention when needed was highly predictive of mortality in TBI patients. Further research into the determinants of surgical interventions, quality of step-up care, and prolonged care delays are needed to better understand the complex interplay of variables that affect patient outcome. These insights guide the development of future interventions and resource allocation to improve patient outcomes.

Keywords: care continuum, global neurosurgery, Kampala Uganda, LMIC, Mulago, prospective registry, traumatic brain injury

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1 Clinically-Based Improvement Project Focused on Reducing Risks Associated with Diabetes Insipidus, Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH, and Cerebral Salt Wasting in Paediatric Post-Neurosurgical and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

Authors: Shreya Saxena, Felix Miller-Molloy, Phillipa Bowen, Greg Fellows, Elizabeth Bowen

Abstract:

Background: Complex fluid balance abnormalities are well-established post-neurosurgery and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The triple-phase response requires fluid management strategies reactive to urine output and sodium homeostasis as patients shift between Diabetes Insipidus (DI) and Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH). It was observed, at a tertiary paediatric center, a relatively high prevalence of the above complications within a cohort of paediatric post-neurosurgical and TBI patients. An audit of the clinical practice against set institutional guidelines was undertaken and analyzed to understand why this was occurring. Based on those results, new guidelines were developed with structured educational packages for the specialist teams involved. This was then reaudited, and the findings were compared. Methods: Two independent audits were conducted across two time periods, pre and post guideline change. Primary data was collected retrospectively, including both qualitative and quantitative data sets from the CQUIN neurosurgical database and electronic medical records. All paediatric patients post posterior fossa (PFT) or supratentorial surgery or with a TBI were included. A literature review of evidence-based practice, initial audit data, and stakeholder feedback was used to develop new clinical guidelines and nursing standard operation procedures. Compliance against these newly developed guidelines was re-assessed and a thematic, trend-based analysis of the two sets of results was conducted. Results: Audit-1 January2017-June2018, n=80; Audit-2 January2020-June2021, n=30 (reduced operative capacity due to COVID-19 pandemic). Overall, improvements in the monitoring of both fluid balance and electrolyte trends were demonstrated; 51% vs. 77% and 78% vs. 94%, respectively. The number of clear fluid management plans documented postoperatively also increased (odds ratio of 4), leading to earlier recognition and management of evolving fluid-balance abnormalities. The local paediatric endocrine team was involved in the care of all complex cases and notified sooner for those considered to be developing DI or SIADH (14% to 35%). However, significant Na fluctuations (>12mmol in 24 hours) remained similar – 5 vs six patients – found to be due to complex pituitary hypothalamic pathology – and the recommended adaptive fluid management strategy was still not always used. Qualitative data regarding useability and understanding of fluid-balance abnormalities and the revised guidelines were obtained from health professionals via surveys and discussion in the specialist teams providing care. The feedback highlighted the new guidelines provided a more consistent approach to the post-operative care of these patients and was a better platform for communication amongst the different specialist teams involved. The potential limitation to our study would be the small sample size on which to conduct formal analyses; however, this reflects the population that we were investigating, which we cannot control. Conclusion: The revised clinical guidelines, based on audited data, evidence-based literature review and stakeholder consultations, have demonstrated an improvement in understanding of the neuro-endocrine complications that are possible, as well as increased compliance to post-operative monitoring of fluid balance and electrolytes in this cohort of patients. Emphasis has been placed on preventative rather than treatment of DI and SIADH. Consequently, this has positively impacted patient safety for the center and highlighted the importance of educational awareness and multi-disciplinary team working.

Keywords: post-operative, fluid-balance management, neuro-endocrine complications, paediatric

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